WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross-national systematic analysis

  1. The interpersonal theory of suicide: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a decade of cross-national research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Tucker, Raymond P; Hagan, Christopher R; Rogers, Megan L; Podlogar, Matthew C; Chiurliza, Bruno; Ringer, Fallon B; Michaels, Matthew S; Patros, Connor H G; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, the interpersonal theory of suicide has contributed to substantial advances in the scientific and clinical understanding of suicide and related conditions. The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that suicidal desire emerges when individuals experience intractable feelings of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness and near-lethal or lethal suicidal behavior occurs in the presence of suicidal desire and capability for suicide. A growing number of studies have tested these posited pathways in various samples; however, these findings have yet to be evaluated meta-analytically. This paper aimed to (a) conduct a systematic review of the unpublished and published, peer-reviewed literature examining the relationship between interpersonal theory constructs and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, (b) conduct meta-analyses testing the interpersonal theory hypotheses, and (c) evaluate the influence of various moderators on these relationships. Four electronic bibliographic databases were searched through the end of March, 2016: PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Hypothesis-driven meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted using 122 distinct unpublished and published samples. Findings supported the interpersonal theory: the interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was significantly associated with suicidal ideation; and the interaction between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide was significantly related to a greater number of prior suicide attempts. However, effect sizes for these interactions were modest. Alternative configurations of theory variables were similarly useful for predicting suicide risk as theory-consistent pathways. We conclude with limitations and recommendations for the interpersonal theory as a framework for understanding the suicidal spectrum. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Social Diversity, Institutions and Trust: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Laczko, Leslie; Bjornskov, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This cross-national investigation examines hypotheses derived from two major alternative perspectives on the determinants of trust in contemporary societies. Is a society's level of generalized trust a function of its ethnic composition, or of its type of governance and political system? The argument that social diversity (ethnic, linguistic, and…

  3. The "new" military and income inequality: A cross national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentor, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Andrew K; Kick, Edward

    2012-05-01

    Military expenditures have escalated over the last three decades in both developed and less developed countries, without a corresponding expansion of military personnel. Spending has instead been directed towards hi-tech weaponry, what we refer to as the "new" military. We hypothesize that this new, increasingly capital-intensive military is no longer a pathway of upward mobility or employer of last resort for many uneducated, unskilled, or unemployed people, with significant consequences for those individuals and society as a whole. One such consequence, we argue, is an increase in income inequality. We test this hypothesis with cross-national panel models, estimated for 82 developed and less developed countries from 1970 to 2000. Findings indicate that military capital-intensiveness, as measured by military expenditures per soldier, exacerbates income inequality net of control variables. Neither total military expenditures/GDP nor military participation has a significant effect. It appears from these findings that today's "new" military establishment is abrogating its historical role as an equalizing force in society, with important policy implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-national social work case analysis: learning from international experience within an electronic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kloppenburg; V. Gevorgianiene; V. Jakutiene; Peter Hendriks

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot of a cross-national learning process within the context of social work education. The pilot was carried out in the electronic environment by students from four European universities (Hogeschool Utrecht, Sheffield, Tartu and Vilnius). The analysis of the

  5. Cross-national diagnostic analysis of patient empowerment in England and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different NHS patient empowerment policies have been adopted in England and Greece; the voluntary sector development and its influence also differ. Although various aspects of patient empowerment have been explored in England, the patient empowerment systems’ application is under-researched. In Greece, the few relevant attempts looking at patients’ experiences focus on patient satisfaction, with only one study exploring the public hospitals managers’ perspectives on user involvement. However, patient empowerment questions may be similar in both countries.Aims and Objectives:The study aimed to explore and compare the general patient empowerment settings in the two countries, with main objectives to:a. identify and explore the relationships of national voluntary and governmental organisations,b. explore the cross-national challenges and facilitators, and make cross-national recommendations.Methodology: This is a cross-national comparative research study. A ‘diagnostic analysis’ approach, an assessment of potential and actual barriers and facilitators, including the context and potential change, was chosen. The methods used were:a. a network analysis of national voluntary and governmental organisations;b. semi-structured interviews with key representatives of these, andc. documentary analysis.Results: The network analysis revealed the potential of English organisations to influence more people, withextensive memberships and stronger interrelationship between them than the Greek organisations. Different levels of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of application of the national patient empowerment policies, systems and mechanisms were identified; being generally good in England, limited in Greece. Variable generalinformation provision, with good verbal information in England, and limited, written and verbal, information in Greece was also identified. Although the commonest cross-national perceived challenges were

  6. Non-governmental organizations, democracy, and HIV prevalence: a cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shircliff, Eric J; Shandra, John M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scale, reach, and global impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its study has remained largely at the purview of various micro-level analyses (e.g., Gutmann 2007; Levi and Vitória 2002). However, differences in prevalence rates at the national level suggest that other forces might be at work. Following the work of McIntosh and Thomas (2004), the only cross-national study of HIV/AIDS published to our knowledge, we conduct a cross-national analysis that examines world polity ideas that higher levels of health and women’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should be associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence. Initially, we find no support for these hypotheses. However, we respecify our models to test a political opportunity structure hypothesis that democracy enhances the ability of health and women’s NGOs to deal with HIV. We test this line of reasoning by including an interaction term between democracy and the health and women’s NGO variables. In doing so, we find that health and women’s NGOs are associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence in democratic rather than repressive nations.

  7. A cross-national analysis of measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was examined in probability samples of adults 50-79 years of age living in the United States, England, and Japan. Confirmatory factor analysis modeling was used to test for multigroup measurement invariance of a single-factor structure of the SWLS. Results support a single-factor structure of the SWLS across the 3 countries, with tests of measurement invariance of the SWLS supporting its configural invariance and metric invariance. These results suggest that the SWLS may be used as a single-factor measure of life satisfaction in the United States, England, and Japan, and that it is appropriate to compare correlates of the SWLS in middle-aged and older adults across these 3 countries. However, results provided evidence for only partial scalar invariance, with the intercept for SWLS Item 4 varying across countries. Cross-national comparisons of means revealed a lower mean at the latent variable level for the Japanese sample than for the other 2 samples. In addition, over and above the latent mean difference, the Japanese sample also manifested a significantly lower intercept on Item 4. Implications of the findings for research on cross-national comparisons of life satisfaction in European American and East Asian countries are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Strengthening systems for integrated early childhood development services: a cross-national analysis of governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; van Ravens, Jan; Ponguta, Liliana Angelica; Reyes, Maria; Oh, Soojin; Dimaya, Roland; Nieto, Ana María; Seder, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While there has been substantial growth in early childhood development (ECD) services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is considerable inequity in their distribution and quality. Evidence-based governance strategies are necessary, but currently they are insufficient for widespread, quality implementation. In particular, there is a limited understanding of the use of systems approaches for the analysis of ECD services as they go to scale. The aim of this paper is to present findings from four countries, using a cross-national case study approach to explore governance mechanisms required to strengthen national systems of ECD services. While different sets of governance strategies and challenges were identified in each country, overarching themes also emerged with implications for systems strengthening. Study results focus on local, mid-level and central governance, with recommendations for effective coordination and the integration of ECD services in LMICs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Cross-National Systematic Review of Neonatal Mortality and Postnatal Newborn Care: Special Focus on Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest nationwide survey of Pakistan showed that considerable progress has been made toward reducing all child mortality indicators except neonatal mortality. The aim of this study is to compare Pakistan’s under-five mortality, neonatal mortality, and postnatal newborn care rates with those of other countries. Neonatal mortality rates and postnatal newborn care rates from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs of nine low- and middle-income countries (LMIC from Asia and Africa were analyzed. Pakistan’s maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH policies and programs, which have been implemented in the country since 1990, were also analyzed. The results highlighted that postnatal newborn care in Pakistan was higher compared with the rest of countries, yet its neonatal mortality remained the worst. In Zimbabwe, both mortality rates have been increasing, whereas the neonatal mortality rates in Nepal and Afghanistan remained unchanged. An analysis of Pakistan’s MNCH programs showed that there is no nationwide policy on neonatal health. There were only a few programs concerning the health of newborns, and those were limited in scale. Pakistan’s example shows that increased coverage of neonatal care without ensuring quality is unlikely to improve neonatal survival rates. It is suggested that Pakistan needs a comprehensive policy on neonatal health similar to other countries, and its effective programs need to be scaled up, in order to obtain better neonatal health outcomes.

  10. Cross-National Systematic Review of Neonatal Mortality and Postnatal Newborn Care: Special Focus on Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Won, Youngjoon

    2017-11-23

    The latest nationwide survey of Pakistan showed that considerable progress has been made toward reducing all child mortality indicators except neonatal mortality. The aim of this study is to compare Pakistan's under-five mortality, neonatal mortality, and postnatal newborn care rates with those of other countries. Neonatal mortality rates and postnatal newborn care rates from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) of nine low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) from Asia and Africa were analyzed. Pakistan's maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) policies and programs, which have been implemented in the country since 1990, were also analyzed. The results highlighted that postnatal newborn care in Pakistan was higher compared with the rest of countries, yet its neonatal mortality remained the worst. In Zimbabwe, both mortality rates have been increasing, whereas the neonatal mortality rates in Nepal and Afghanistan remained unchanged. An analysis of Pakistan's MNCH programs showed that there is no nationwide policy on neonatal health. There were only a few programs concerning the health of newborns, and those were limited in scale. Pakistan's example shows that increased coverage of neonatal care without ensuring quality is unlikely to improve neonatal survival rates. It is suggested that Pakistan needs a comprehensive policy on neonatal health similar to other countries, and its effective programs need to be scaled up, in order to obtain better neonatal health outcomes.

  11. The Political Economy of the Water Footprint: A Cross-National Analysis of Ecologically Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fitzgerald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an important social and ecological issue that is becoming increasingly problematic with the onset of climate change. This study explores the extent to which water resources in developing countries are affected by the vertical flow of exports to high-income countries. In examining this question, the authors engage the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange, which argues that high-income countries are able to partially externalize the environmental costs of their consumption to lower-income countries. The authors use a relatively new and underutilized measure of water usage, the water footprint, which quantifies the amount of water used in the entire production process. Ordinary least squares (OLS and robust regression techniques are employed in the cross-national analysis of 138 countries. The results provide partial support of the propositions of ecologically unequal exchange theory. In particular, the results highlight the importance of structural position in the global economy for understanding the effects of trade on water resources.

  12. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-12-01

    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  13. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  14. A Multilevel Cross-National Analysis of Direct and Indirect Forms of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…

  15. Do legitimate polities have fewer homicides? A cross-national analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivette, Amy E.; Eisner, Manuel

    This research is concerned with developing and testing models of political legitimacy as a predictor of homicide on the cross-national level. Specifically, we used Bruce Gilley’s (2006) theoretically driven indicator of political legitimacy to examine its direct and moderating effects on homicide.

  16. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  17. Enabling Analysis of Big, Thick, Long, and Wide Data: Data Management for the Analysis of a Large Longitudinal and Cross-National Narrative Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Singleton, Robyn; Sabben, Gaelle

    2018-03-01

    Distinctive longitudinal narrative data, collected during a critical 18-year period in the history of the HIV epidemic, offer a unique opportunity to examine how young Africans are making sense of evolving developments in HIV prevention and treatment. More than 200,000 young people from across sub-Saharan Africa took part in HIV-themed scriptwriting contests held at eight discrete time points between 1997 and 2014, creating more than 75,000 narratives. This article describes the data reduction and management strategies developed for our cross-national and longitudinal study of these qualitative data. The study aims to inform HIV communication practice by identifying cultural meanings and contextual factors that inform sexual behaviors and social practices, and also to help increase understanding of processes of sociocultural change. We describe our sampling strategies and our triangulating methodologies, combining in-depth narrative analysis, thematic qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis, which are designed to enable systematic comparison without sacrificing ethnographic richness.

  18. The Institutional Foundations of Medicalization: A Cross-national Analysis of Mental Health and Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; Beckfield, Jason; Bracke, Piet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we question (1) whether the relationship between unemployment and mental healthcare use, controlling for mental health status, varies across European countries and (2) whether these differences are patterned by a combination of unemployment and healthcare generosity. We hypothesize that medicalization of unemployment is stronger in countries where a low level of unemployment generosity is combined with a high level of healthcare generosity. A subsample of 36,306 working-age respondents from rounds 64.4 (2005-2006) and 73.2 (2010) of the cross-national survey Eurobarometer was used. Country-specific logistic regression and multilevel analyses, controlling for public disability spending, changes in government spending, economic capacity, and unemployment rate, were performed. We find that unemployment is medicalized, at least to some degree, in the majority of the 24 nations surveyed. Moreover, the medicalization of unemployment varies substantially across countries, corresponding to the combination of the level of unemployment and of healthcare generosity.

  19. The International Finance Corporation and Forest Loss: A Cross-National Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Shandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We conduct the first cross-national study to consider the impact of the World Bank’s International Finance Corporation loans on forests. In doing so, we analyze data for a sample of sixty-one low and middle income nations for the period of 1990 to 2005. We find substantial support for dependency theory that low and middle income nations that receive an International Finance Corporation loan tend to have higher rates of deforestation than low and middle income nations that do not receive such a loan. We also find that other aspects of World Bank lending affect forest loss including structural adjustment and investment lending. We conclude with a discussion of the findings, theoretical implications, methodological implications, policy implications, and possible directions for future research.

  20. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  1. Do needs for security and certainty predict cultural and economic conservatism? A cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J; Inzlicht, Michael; Lelkes, Yphtach

    2014-06-01

    We examine whether individual differences in needs for security and certainty predict conservative (vs. liberal) position on both cultural and economic political issues and whether these effects are conditional on nation-level characteristics and individual-level political engagement. Analyses with cross-national data from 51 nations reveal that valuing conformity, security, and tradition over self-direction and stimulation (a) predicts ideological self-placement on the political right, but only among people high in political engagement and within relatively developed nations, ideologically constrained nations, and non-Eastern European nations, (b) reliably predicts right-wing cultural attitudes and does so more strongly within developed and ideologically constrained nations, and (c) on average predicts left-wing economic attitudes but does so more weakly among people high in political engagement, within ideologically constrained nations, and within non-Eastern European nations. These findings challenge the prevailing view that needs for security and certainty organically yield a broad right-wing ideology and that exposure to political discourse better equips people to select the broad ideology that is most need satisfying. Rather, these findings suggest that needs for security and certainty generally yield culturally conservative but economically left-wing preferences and that exposure to political discourse generally weakens the latter relation. We consider implications for the interactive influence of personality characteristics and social context on political attitudes and discuss the importance of assessing multiple attitude domains, assessing political engagement, and considering national characteristics when studying the psychological origins of political attitudes.

  2. Online politics: a cross-national explanatory analysis of political websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Aparaschivei, A.; Boomgaarden, H.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic investigation of party and candidate websites in five European countries: Germany, Romania, Hungary, The Netherlands and Great Britain. It examines three features of online political communication that are presented on political websites (interactivity,

  3. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  4. Welfare family policies and gender earnings inequality: A cross-national comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines whether and to what extent welfare-family policies are likely to affect earnings inequality between economically active men and women. Using hierarchical linear models, we combine individual-level variables (obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study) with country level data (obtained from secondary sources) to evaluate the net effects of welfare family policies on gender earnings inequality across 20 industrialized countries. The analysis reveals that net of individ...

  5. Criminal Justice Systems in Europe. A cross-national quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra-Muñoz, Jose; García-España, Elisa; Aguilar Conde, Araceli

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, the Crime Observatory of the University of Malaga has analysed police records on criminal activity, has also carried out several crime victims surveys in Spain and has worked on a detailed analysis of the prison system and its connection to the prison policy. This year´s report focuses on the Criminal Justice System, one of the big official data providers, to gather, organize and interpret a great deal of quantitative data from 2000 to 2011. Such longitudinal scrutiny of...

  6. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Lazarus, Anisha; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI). Keywords were “antenatal depression” or “postpartum depression”, and “India” or “Japan”. Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status), some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work–life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother’s friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother’s family of origin but also the working environment is essential. PMID:29207561

  7. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegata, Mizuki; Ohashi, Yukiko; Lazarus, Anisha; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2017-12-04

    Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI). Keywords were "antenatal depression" or "postpartum depression", and "India" or "Japan". Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status), some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work-life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother's friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother's family of origin but also the working environment is essential.

  8. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Takegata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI. Keywords were “antenatal depression” or “postpartum depression”, and “India” or “Japan”. Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status, some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work–life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother’s friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother’s family of origin but also the working environment is essential.

  9. International migration patterns of physicians to the United States: a cross-national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S

    2007-12-01

    To analyze the dynamics of physician international migration patterns and identify the countries deviating most from expected migration rates. A negative binomial log-linear model of physician migration to the United States from every other country was constructed using a panel of country-level data for years 1994-2000. The model was used to identify factors associated with physician migration and to identify countries with higher or lower rates of physician migration than expected. Physician migration varied with a country's GDP per capita in an inverse-U pattern, with highest migration rates from middle-income countries. The absence of medical schools, immigrant networks in the United States, medical instruction in English, proximity to the United States, and the lack of political and civil liberties were also associated with higher migration rates. Countries with higher-than-predicted migration rates included Iceland, Albania, Armenia, Dominica, Lebanon, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Bulgaria. Countries with lower-than-predicted migration rates included Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Portugal, Senegal, and France. This analysis shows that many of the most powerful factors associated with physician migration are difficult or impossible for countries to change through public policy. GDP per capita and proximity to the U.S. are two of the most powerful predictors of physician migration. Networks of immigrants in the U.S. and fewer political and civil liberties also put countries at higher risk for physician emigration. Several other factors that were associated with physician migration might be more easily amenable to policy intervention. These factors include the absence of a medical school and medical instruction in English. Policies addressing these factors would involve making several difficult tradeoffs, however. Other examples of policies that are effective in minimizing physician migration might be found by examining countries with lower

  10. Neo-liberal economic practices and population health: a cross-national analysis, 1980-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Melissa; Kruk, Margaret E; Harper, Christine; Galea, Sandro

    2010-04-01

    Although there has been substantial debate and research concerning the economic impact of neo-liberal practices, there is a paucity of research about the potential relation between neo-liberal economic practices and population health. We assessed the extent to which neo-liberal policies and practices are associated with population health at the national level. We collected data on 119 countries between 1980 and 2004. We measured neo-liberalism using the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) Index, which gives an overall score as well as a score for each of five different aspects of neo-liberal economic practices: (1) size of government, (2) legal structure and security of property rights, (3) access to sound money, (4) freedom to exchange with foreigners and (5) regulation of credit, labor and business. Our measure of population health was under-five mortality. We controlled for potential mediators (income distribution, social capital and openness of political institutions) and confounders (female literacy, total population, rural population, fertility, gross domestic product per capita and time period). In longitudinal multivariable analyses, we found that the EFW index did not have an effect on child mortality but that two of its components: improved security of property rights and access to sound money were associated with lower under-five mortality (p = 0.017 and p = 0.024, respectively). When stratifying the countries by level of income, less regulation of credit, labor and business was associated with lower under-five mortality in high-income countries (p = 0.001). None of the EFW components were significantly associated with under-five mortality in low-income countries. This analysis suggests that the concept of 'neo-liberalism' is not a monolithic entity in its relation to health and that some 'neo-liberal' policies are consistent with improved population health. Further work is needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  11. Does the consumption of fruits and vegetables differ between Eastern and Western European populations? Systematic review of cross-national studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, Denes; Bobak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Difference in fruit and vegetable consumption has been suggested as a possible reason for the large gap in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates between Eastern and Western European populations. However, individual-level dietary data which allow direct comparison across the two regions are rare. In this systematic review we aimed to answer the question whether cross-national studies with comparable individual-level dietary data reveal any systematic differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between populations in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) compared to Western Europe (WE). Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2014, and hand search. Studies which reported data on fruit, vegetable consumption or carotene and vitamin C intake or tissue concentrations of adult participants from both CEE/FSU and WE countries were considered for inclusion. Quality of the included studies was assessed by a modified STROBE statement. Power calculation was performed to determine the statistical significance of the comparison results. Twenty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fruit consumption was found to be consistently lower in CEE/FSU participants compared to Western Europeans. Results on vegetable intake were less unambiguous. Antioxidant studies indicated lower concentration of beta-carotene in CEE/FSU subjects, but the results for vitamin C were not consistent. This systematic review suggests that populations in CEE and FSU consume less fruit than Western Europeans. The difference in the consumption of fruit may contribute to the CVD gap between the two regions.

  12. The impact of IMF conditionality on government health expenditure: A cross-national analysis of 16 West African nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2017-02-01

    How do International Monetary Fund (IMF) policy reforms-so-called 'conditionalities'-affect government health expenditures? We collected archival documents on IMF programmes from 1995 to 2014 to identify the pathways and impact of conditionality on government health spending in 16 West African countries. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, we find that IMF policy reforms reduce fiscal space for investment in health, limit staff expansion of doctors and nurses, and lead to budget execution challenges in health systems. Further, we use cross-national fixed effects models to evaluate the relationship between IMF-mandated policy reforms and government health spending, adjusting for confounding economic and demographic factors and for selection bias. Each additional binding IMF policy reform reduces government health expenditure per capita by 0.248 percent (95% CI -0.435 to -0.060). Overall, our findings suggest that IMF conditionality impedes progress toward the attainment of universal health coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children: A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Wallien, Madeleine; Johnson, Laurel L; Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2006-07-01

    A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls. In the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.

  14. News media representations of a common EU foreign and security policy: a cross-national content analysis of CFSP coverage in national quality newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandyla, A.-A.; de Vreese, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a cross-national comparative content analysis of the broadsheet press coverage of EU Common Foreign and Security issues (n=1453) focusing on the presence of indicators of a European Public Sphere. Specifically, we investigated the visibility of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

  15. The battle for meaning: A cross-national film reception analysis of The Battle Cry of Peace in Switzerland and the Netherlands during World War I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwaan, K.; gerber, adrian

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a cross-national analysis of the historical reception of the American war film The Battle Cry of Peace (J. Stuart Blackton and Wilfred North/Vitagraph, 1915) in the neutral countries of the Netherlands and Switzerland during World War I. Treating propaganda as a mode de lecture,

  16. Adults Who Do Not Want to Participate in Learning: A Cross-National European Analysis of Their Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cross-national differences in the intensity of perceived barriers to adult learning in Europe focusing on the barriers recognised by those not participating and having no intention to do so. This relatively large subgroup has received scant scholarly attention, yet exploring their participation barriers is critical for…

  17. Living and Coping with Ongoing Violence: A Cross-National Analysis of Children's Drawings Using Structured Rating Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenberg, Stephanie Linda; Jansen, Patricia; Fridjohn, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of analyzing drawings of 8- to 12-year-old children as a method of understanding the effects of living and coping with ongoing civic unrest. Compared drawings by white and black South African children with those of children from Belfast, Ireland. Found cross-national differences in stress, emotion, adjustment, and…

  18. Islamist insurgency and the war against polio: a cross-national analysis of the political determinants of polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2015-09-30

    There is widespread agreement that civil war obstructs efforts to eradicate polio. It is suggested that Islamist insurgents have a particularly negative effect on vaccination programmes, but this claim is controversial. We analyse cross-national data for the period 2003-14 using negative binomial regressions to investigate the relationship between Islamist and non-Islamist insurgency and the global distribution of polio. The dependent variable is the annual number of polio cases in a country according to the WHO. Insurgency is operationalized as armed conflict between the state and an insurgent organization resulting in ≥25 battle deaths per year according to the Uppsala Conflict Data Programme. Insurgencies are divided into Islamist and non-Islamist insurgencies. We control for other possible explanatory variables. Islamist insurgency did not have a significant positive relationship with polio throughout the whole period. But in the past few years - since the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011- Islamist insurgency has had a strong effect on where polio cases occur. The evidence for a relationship between non-Islamist insurgency and polio is less compelling and where there is a relationship it is either spurious or driven by ecological fallacy. Only particular forms of internal armed conflict - those prosecuted by Islamist insurgents - explain the current global distribution of polio. The variation over time in the relationship between Islamist insurgency and polio suggests that Islamist insurgent's hostility to polio vaccinations programmes is not the result of their theology, as the core tenets of Islam have not changed over the period of the study. Rather, our analysis indicates that it is a plausibly a reaction to the counterinsurgency strategies used against Islamist insurgents. The assassination of Osama bin Laden and the use of drone strikes seemingly vindicated Islamist insurgents' suspicions that immunization drives are a cover for espionage

  19. [Attitudes towards age-related rationing of medical supply: results of a cross-national analysis in Germany and Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Adelheid Susanne; Meier, Florian; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina E; Heppner, Hans Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Expenditure on health-care is increasing over the last years and the demographic shift leads to more elderly patients in the health-care system. Debates about the financial situation and solution about this topic are common. Direct, as well as hidden, rationing is verified by experts. This article discusses the concept of age-dependent prioritization and rationing of health-care expenditures in a cross-national setting. With a standardised questionnaire geriatric physicians in Germany and Austria were asked about their attitude and experience with health-care expenditures in elderly patients. Dimension of medical staff, organising institution and financial resources were also evaluated. The sample was tested with t-test, Mann-Whitney-U-test and explorative factor analysis. All the data were calculated with PASW 17 Statistics(®). From 419 standardised questionnaires 288 forms (60%, Germany: 123, Austria: 165) were evaluated. Differences were shown in patient-age (Germany: 80.4 y, Austria: 71.8 y), carrying capacity (Germany: 74.8, Austria: 110.8) and in medical staff as physicians (Germany: 6.8, Austria: 12.7) and nursing (Germany: 32.2, Austria: 84.3). In infrastructural basic services and normative focusing there was only marginal discrepancy, the public/ecclesiastical organising institution was 71% in both countries. Related to the different financial systems, there was less cost pressure in taking care of elderly patients in Austria. Age-dependent rationing was approved, but there was also a clear endorsement for making resources available for elderly patients in future. The discussion about rationing of health-care expenditures will still go on and therefore the impact of ageism has to be evaluated in further studies.

  20. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Vahid Shahidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach. Keywords: Health inequalities, Cross-national, Temporary, Employment, Flexicurity, Multilevel

  1. Macro-environmental factors associated with leisure-time physical activity: a cross-national analysis of EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuyckom, Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Although there is a growing agreement among researchers that the modern environment contributes to the current trend of decreasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), there are very few studies addressing environmental and policy correlates of LTPA within a cross-national European context. This study describes LTPA patterns across the European Union and identifies some macro-environmental factors associated with LTPA rates at a national level. Data on LTPA and indicators of the economic, physical, and policy environment were assembled from international databases for the 27 European member states. To examine the association of each of the independent macro-environmental variables and LTPA as a continuous dependent variable, bivariate linear regression models were employed. Separate analyses were done for the overall, male, and female groups. With respect to LTPA, striking differences between European member states and genders were found, with higher rates in Western and Northern European countries, and among males. Statistical significant associations were observed between overall LTPA and variables from the economic (GDP, real GDP, and public expenditures on health), food (available fat, available fruit, and vegetables), urbanisation (urban population, total and new passenger cars), and policy (all governance indicators) domains. Associations for male and female LTPA were similar, except that for males available fruit and vegetables, and for females available fat and urban population were not significant. This exploratory study seeks to plead for the need for cross-nationally comparable LTPA data and more sophisticated research in order to understand the role of macro-economic environments, with a special focus on policy-related variables and gender-specific differences.

  2. More than just nickels and dimes: a cross-national analysis of working poverty in affluent democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; Fullerton, Andrew S; Cross, Jennifer Moren

    2010-01-01

    Despite its centrality to contemporary inequality, working poverty is often popularly discussed but rarely studied by sociologists. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (2009), we analyze whether an individual is working poor across 18 affluent democracies circa 2000. We demonstrate that working poverty does not simply mirror overall poverty and that there is greater cross-national variation in working than overall poverty. We then examine four explanations for working poverty: demographic characteristics, economic performance, unified theory, and welfare generosity. We utilize Heckman probit models to jointly model the likelihood of employment and poverty among the employed. Our analyses provide the least support for the economic performance explanation. There is modest support for unified theory as unionization reduces working poverty in some models. However, most of these effects appear to be mediated by welfare generosity. More substantial evidence exists for the demographic characteristics and welfare generosity explanations. An individual's likelihood of being working poor can be explained by (a) a lack of multiple earners or other adults in one's household, low education, single motherhood, having children and youth; and (b) the generosity of the welfare state in which he or she resides. Also, welfare generosity does not undermine employment and reduces working poverty even among demographically vulnerable groups. Ultimately, we encourage a greater role for the welfare state in debates about working poverty.

  3. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-12-01

    Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.

  4. Cross-National Differences in the Association Between Parental Work Hours and Time with Children in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses and by considering the possibility of selection effects. The presumption was that parents employ strategies to protect family life from work encroachments and that these strategies are enhanced by reconciliation policies, stronger parenthood ideologies, access to part-time work and higher income levels. Multilevel analyses were based on a subset of 5.183 parents in 23 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey that was complemented with country-level data. The negative association between parental work hours and parent-child time indeed varied significantly across countries and was weaker in countries where formal child care coverage was higher, part-time work was less prevalent, and earnings were lower. The effects of part-time work and earnings mainly applied to mothers. These findings suggest that child care coverage limits the availability of children and that differences in parent-child time between parents who work short and long hours are more pronounced when part-time work is more accessible and affordable.

  5. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.

  6. Critical determinants of the epilepsy treatment gap: a cross-national analysis in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ana-Claire L.; Dua, Tarun; Boscardin, John; Escarce, José J.; Saxena, Shekhar; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders worldwide. Our objective was to determine which economic, healthcare, neurology and epilepsy specific resources were associated with untreated epilepsy in resource-constrained settings. Methods A systematic review of the literature identified community-based studies in resource-constrained settings that calculated the epilepsy treatment gap, the proportion with untreated epilepsy, from prevalent active epilepsy cases. Economic, healthcare, neurology and epilepsy specific resources were taken from existing datasets. Poisson regression models with jackknifed standard errors were used to create bivariate and multivariate models comparing the association between treatment status and economic and health resource indicators. Relative risks were reported. Key Findings Forty-seven studies of 8285 individuals from 24 countries met inclusion criteria. Bivariate analysis demonstrated that individuals residing in rural locations had significantly higher risks of untreated epilepsy [Relative Risk(RR)=1.63; 95% confidence interval(CI):1.26,2.11]. Significantly lower risks of untreated epilepsy were observed for higher physician density [RR=0.65, 95% CI:0.55,0.78], presence of a lay [RR=0.74, 95%CI:0.60,0.91] or professional association for epilepsy [RR=0.73, 95%CI:0.59,0.91], or post-graduate neurology training program [RR=0.67, 95%CI:0.55, 0.82]. In multivariate models, higher physician density maintained significant effects [RR=0.67; 95%CI:0.52,0.88]. Significance Even among resource-limited regions, people with epilepsy in countries with fewer economic, healthcare, neurology and epilepsy specific resources are more likely to have untreated epilepsy. Community-based epilepsy care programs have improved access to treatment but in order to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap, poverty and inequalities of healthcare, neurological and epilepsy resources must be dealt with at the local, national, and global

  7. Beyond access to transformations: A cross-national analysis of women in science and engineering education, 1970--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotipka, Christine Min

    2001-12-01

    Over the years, attention to the issue of women in science has tended to focus on individual and organizational efforts to encourage women's greater participation in science and engineering fields of study and occupations. With more intense globalization processes that increasingly shape and are shaped by science, national- and global-level understandings of the situation of women in science and engineering as well as methods to boost their greater and more equal participation in these fields are necessary. This study is a cross-national and longitudinal study of women's participation in science and engineering fields of study at the higher education level. In order to explain the growth in women's participation in these fields of study between 1972--1992, I use a world society theoretical perspective to argue that national linkages to global models regarding women's educational equality and women in science may positively influence their participation in these fields. In multivariate statistical analyses, women's participation in higher education, measured as female enrollment in non-science and non-engineering fields of study, exerted a positive effect on women in science and engineering as did male enrollment in science and engineering higher education. The fact that linkage variables and those measuring women's status and other national-level factors were not found to be influential suggests that world-level factors may be contributing to women's greater participation in these fields. To better understand processes at this level, I use feminist critiques of science to examine the efforts made by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank to address women in science and engineering education over a thirty year time period. My examination of their publications as well as conference declarations and platforms of action from ten international conferences finds a

  8. Cross-National Yardstick Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Kasper; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Bech, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    performance comparisons—even when accounting for classic national sociotropic and egotropic items. Specifically, voters respond strongly to how the prospective wealth of Denmark evolves relative to the neighboring Sweden. Interestingly, voters are more negative in their response to cross-national losses......Comparing performance between countries is both a theoretically and intuitively useful yardstick for voters. Cross-national comparisons provide voters with heuristics that are less cognitively demanding, less ambiguous, and less uncertain than solely national, absolute performance measurements. We...... test this proposition using a unique, choice experiment embedded in the 2011 Danish National Election Study. This design allows to contrast cross-national comparisons with more traditional national sociotropic and egotropic concerns. The findings suggest that voters are strongly influenced by cross-national...

  9. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies: On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerabl inertia. This papers reports a series of studies...... aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by ho employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been developed especially...... have at least weak cross-cultural comparability. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were named the uninvolved, the careless, the rational, the conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. A comparison of the segment...

  10. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports...... a series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by how they employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been...... of cross-cultural comparability. 5. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward's method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were labelled the uninvolved food consumer, the careless food consumer, the rational food consumer, the conservative food consumer, the adventurous consumer...

  11. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859. Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  12. De-standardization of family-life trajectories of young adults: a cross-national comparison using sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, C.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a number of new methods based on sequence analysis to test hypotheses on the de-standardization of family-life trajectories in early adulthood, using Fertility and Family Survey data on 19 countries. Across cohorts, family-life trajectories of young adults have not become more

  13. Scripts of sexual desire and danger in US and Dutch teen girl magazines: a cross-national content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this comparative quantitative content analysis was to investigate how US and Dutch teen girl magazines cover sexual desire (i.e., sexual wanting, and pleasure) and sexual danger (i.e., sexual risk, and negative physical/health consequences of sex). Relying on the sexual scripts framework

  14. The Resilience of Dependency Effects in Explaining Income Inequality in the Global Economy: A Cross National Analysis, 1975-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is one of both accelerated economic globalization and rising inequality. There is an increasing awareness among both academic scholars and development professionals that globalization puts certain populations at risk. However, there has been inadequate theoretical analysis and a lack of up to date empirical studies that explain just how contemporary globalization a?ects inequality and the well being of individuals. This study explores the conditions under which TNC penetration and other globalization processes in?uence change in domestic income distribution. Its aim is to investigate whether theoretical models that have proven successful in explaining di?erences in income inequality cross-sectionally also allow for an understanding of the dynamics of income distribution during the 1980s and early 1990s, an era characterized by a dramatic acceleration of globalization. We present an analysis of change in national income distribution using linear regression models with a panel design. This study suggests that dependence on foreign investment as a development strategy, especially compared to domestic and human capital investment, may be misguided for nations concerned with equality. Net of other factors, foreign investment dependence bene?ts the elite segments of the income-earning population over the poorer eighty percent. Our analysis provides evidence of a shift in capital/labor relations brought about by globalization that has signi? cantly contributed to the rise in income inequality seen throughout the world.

  15. Cross-National Analysis of Beliefs and Attitude Toward Mental Illness Among Medical Professionals From Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries.

  16. The effect of survivalism--self-expressionism culture on black male suicide acceptability: a cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Kposowa, Augustine J

    2011-04-01

    Cultural explanations of black suicide have focused on the US and stressed religiosity as a protective factor. This paper adds to this literature by (1) expanding the analysis of the impact of religiosity on black suicide to 10 nations, and (2) assessing the extent to which a broader cultural construct (self expressionism) affects black suicide acceptability. Data are from Wave 4 of the World Values Surveys 1991-2001 and refer to 3580 black males nested in ten countries. A hierarchical linear regression model determined that religiosity predicted black suicide acceptability across ten nations. Self expressionism was positively associated with individual level suicide acceptability. Further, a cross-level interaction was found wherein individual level and societal level self expressionism combined to affect suicide acceptability. The variability in suicide acceptability among black males is predicted, in part, by both individual and group levels of adherence to values contained in a major cultural axis of nations: self expressionism. These new found associations compliment the impact of a standard predictor, religiosity, on suicide acceptability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Particularized trust, generalized trust, and immigrant self-rated health: cross-national analysis of World Values Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H H-S

    2018-05-01

    This research examined the associations between two types of trust, generalized and particularized, and self-rated health among immigrants. Data were drawn from the World Values Survey (WVS6), the latest wave of cross-sectional surveys based on face-to-face interviews. The immigrant subsample analyzed herein contains 3108 foreign-born individuals clustered from 51 countries. Given the hierarchically nested data, two-level logistic regressions models were estimated using HLM (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) 7.1. At the individual level, net of socio-economic and demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, education, income, neighborhood security, and subjective well-being), particularized trust was positively related to physical health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, P < .001). Generalized trust, however, was not a significant predictor. At the country level, based on alternative models, the aggregate measure of particularized trust was negatively associated with subjective health. The odds of being healthy were on average about 30% lower. The interdisciplinary literature on social determinants of health has largely focused on the salubrious impact of trust and other forms of social capital on physical well-being. Many previous studies based on general, not immigrant, populations also did not differentiate between generalized and particularized types of trust. Results from this study suggest that this conceptual distinction is critical in understanding how and to what extent the two are differentially related to immigrant well-being across multiple levels of analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-national and multilevel correlates of partner violence: an analysis of data from population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Lori L; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    On average, intimate partner violence affects nearly one in three women worldwide within their lifetime. But the distribution of partner violence is highly uneven, with a prevalence of less than 4% in the past 12 months in many high-income countries compared with at least 40% in some low-income settings. Little is known about the factors that drive the geographical distribution of partner violence or how macro-level factors might combine with individual-level factors to affect individual women's risk of intimate partner violence. We aimed to assess the role that women's status and other gender-related factors might have in defining levels of partner violence among settings. We compiled data for the 12 month prevalence of partner violence from 66 surveys (88 survey years) from 44 countries, representing 481 205 women between Jan 1, 2000, and Apr 17, 2013. Only surveys with comparable questions and state-of-the-art methods to ensure safety and encourage violence disclosure were used. With linear and quantile regression, we examined associations between macro-level measures of socioeconomic development, women's status, gender inequality, and gender-related norms and the prevalence of current partner violence at a population level. Multilevel modelling and tests for interaction were used to explore whether and how macro-level factors affect individual-level risk. The outcome for this analysis was the population prevalence of current partner violence, defined as the percentage of ever-partnered women (excluding widows without a current partner), aged from 15 years to 49 years who were victims of at least one act of physical or sexual violence within the past 12 months. Gender-related factors at the national and subnational level help to predict the population prevalence of physical and sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Especially predictive of the geographical distribution of partner violence are norms related to male authority over female behaviour

  19. Parental Education and Family Dissolution: A Cross-National and Cohort Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.D.; Härkönen, Juho

    This is the first study to systematically analyze whether the association between parental education and family dissolution varies cross-nationally and over time. The authors use meta-analytic tools to study cross-national variation between 17 countries with data from the Generations and Gender

  20. Does immigration have a Matthew Effect? A cross-national analysis of international migration and international income inequality, 1960-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R

    2013-05-01

    This paper empirically assesses how immigration affects international inequality by testing the relationship between immigration and national economic development across countries in different world income groups. A series of cross-national, longitudinal analyses demonstrate that, on average, immigration has a rather small, but positive long-term effect on development levels. However, the findings also indicate that immigration has a Matthew Effect (Merton, 1968) in the world-economy: immigration disproportionately benefits higher-income countries. Moreover, the wealthiest countries reap the largest gains from immigration. Thus, from the perspective of destination countries, immigration does not appear to be a panacea for international inequality. Instead, the results indicate that immigration actually reproduces, and even exacerbates, international inequality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cooperation without culture? The null effect of generalized trust on intentional homicide: a cross-national panel analysis, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine

    2013-01-01

    Sociologists, political scientists, and economists all suggest that culture plays a pivotal role in the development of large-scale cooperation. In this study, I used generalized trust as a measure of culture to explore if and how culture impacts intentional homicide, my operationalization of cooperation. I compiled multiple cross-national data sets and used pooled time-series linear regression, single-equation instrumental-variables linear regression, and fixed- and random-effects estimation techniques on an unbalanced panel of 118 countries and 232 observations spread over a 15-year time period. Results suggest that culture and large-scale cooperation form a tenuous relationship, while economic factors such as development, inequality, and geopolitics appear to drive large-scale cooperation.

  2. Behavioral and emotional problems on the Teacher's Report Form: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of gender dysphoric children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Zucker, Kenneth J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Vanderlaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2014-05-01

    For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental report, peer sociometric methods, and social interactions in laboratory play groups. The present study was the first cross-national investigation that assessed behavior and emotional problems and the quality of peer relations, both measured by the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), in a sample of 728 gender dysphoric patients (554 children, 174 adolescents), who were referred to specialized gender identity clinics in the Netherlands and Canada. The gender dysphoric adolescents had significantly more teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems than the gender dysphoric children. In both countries, gender dysphoric natal boys had poorer peer relations and more internalizing than externalizing problems compared to the gender dysphoric natal girls. Furthermore, there were significant between-clinic differences: both the children and the adolescents from Canada had more emotional and behavioral problems and a poorer quality of peer relations than the children and adolescents from the Netherlands. In conclusion, gender dysphoric children and adolescents showed the same pattern of emotional and behavioral problems in both countries. The extent of behavior and emotional problems was, however, higher in Canada than in the Netherlands, which appeared, in part, an effect of a poorer quality of peer relations. Per Bronfenbrenner's (American Psychologist, 32, 513-531, 1977) ecological model of human development and well-being, we consider various interpretations of the cross-national, cross-clinic differences on TRF behavior problems at the level of the family, the peer group, and the culture at large.

  3. Does the association between different dimension of social capital and adolescent smoking vary by socioeconomic status? a pooled cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; De Clercq, Bart; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Hublet, Anne; Molcho, Michal; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    To analyze how dimensions of social capital at the individual level are associated with adolescent smoking and whether associations differ by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study 2005/2006 including 6511 15-year-old adolescents from Flemish Belgium, Canada, Romania and England. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Social capital was indicated by friend-related social capital, participation in school and voluntary organizations, trust and reciprocity in family, neighborhood and school. We conducted pooled logistic regression models with interaction terms and tested for cross-national differences. Almost all dimensions of social capital were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking, except for friend-related social capital and school participation. The association of family-related social capital with smoking was significantly stronger for low FAS adolescents, whereas the association of vertical trust and reciprocity in school with smoking was significantly stronger for high FAS adolescents. Social capital may act both as a protective and a risk factor for adolescent smoking. Achieving higher levels of family-related social capital might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking.

  4. The political economy of austerity and healthcare: cross-national analysis of expenditure changes in 27 European nations 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2014-03-01

    Why have patterns of healthcare spending varied during the Great Recession? Using cross-national, harmonised data for 27 EU countries from 1995 to 2011, we evaluated political, economic, and health system determinants of recent changes to healthcare expenditure. Data from EuroStat, the IMF, and World Bank (2013 editions) were evaluated using multivariate random- and fixed-effects models, correcting for pre-existing time-trends. Reductions in government health expenditure were not significantly associated with magnitude of economic recessions (annual change in GDP, p=0.31, or cumulative decline, p=0.40 or debt crises (measured by public debt as a percentage of GDP, p=0.38 or per capita, p=0.83)). Nor did ideology of governing parties have an effect. In contrast, each $100 reduction in tax revenue was associated with a $2.72 drop in health spending (95% CI: $1.03-4.41). IMF borrowers were significantly more likely to reduce healthcare budgets than non-IMF borrowers (OR=3.88, 95% CI: 1.95 -7.74), even after correcting for potential confounding by indication. Exposure to lending from international financial institutions, tax revenue falls, and decisions to implement cuts correlate more closely than underlying economic conditions or orientation of political parties with healthcare expenditure change in EU member states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  6. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.

  7. The association between childhood adversities and subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences: a cross-national analysis of 23,998 respondents from 17 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J. J.; McLaughlin, K. A.; Saha, S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Alonso, J.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Jonge, P.; Esan, O.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Hu, C.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S.; Lepine, J.; Lim, C. C. W.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Mneimneh, Z.; Pennell, B.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Bromet, E. J.; Kendler, K. S.; Kessler, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations. Methods We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorders in 23,998 adults in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations between CAs and PEs, and the influence of mental disorders on these associations using multivariate logistic models. Results Exposure to CAs was common, and those who experienced any CAs had increased odds of later PEs (OR =2.3, 95%CI=1.9–2.6). CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF), including abuse, neglect, and parent maladjustment, exhibited the strongest associations with PE onset in all life-course stages. Sexual abuse exhibited a strong association with PE onset during childhood (OR= 8.5, 95%CI=3.6–20.2), whereas other CA types were associated with PE onset in adolescence. Associations of Other CAs with PEs disappeared in adolescence after adjustment for prior-onset mental disorders. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for PEs associated with all CAs was 31% (24% for MFF). Conclusions Exposure to CAs is associated with PE onset throughout the life-course, although sexual abuse is most strongly associated with childhood onset PEs. The presence of mental disorders prior to the onset of PEs does not fully explain these associations. The large PARPs suggest that preventing CAs could lead to a meaningful reduction in PEs in the population. PMID:28065209

  8. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  9. The association between childhood adversities and subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences: a cross-national analysis of 23 998 respondents from 17 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J J; McLaughlin, K A; Saha, S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Jonge, P; Esan, O; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; Lepine, J P; Lim, C C W; Medina-Mora, M E; Mneimneh, Z; Pennell, B E; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Sampson, N; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Bromet, E J; Kendler, K S; Kessler, R C

    2017-05-01

    Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations. We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorders in 23 998 adults in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations between CAs and PEs, and the influence of mental disorders on these associations using multivariate logistic models. Exposure to CAs was common, and those who experienced any CAs had increased odds of later PEs [odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.6]. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF), including abuse, neglect, and parent maladjustment, exhibited the strongest associations with PE onset in all life-course stages. Sexual abuse exhibited a strong association with PE onset during childhood (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.6-20.2), whereas Other CA types were associated with PE onset in adolescence. Associations of other CAs with PEs disappeared in adolescence after adjustment for prior-onset mental disorders. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for PEs associated with all CAs was 31% (24% for MFF). Exposure to CAs is associated with PE onset throughout the life-course, although sexual abuse is most strongly associated with childhood-onset PEs. The presence of mental disorders prior to the onset of PEs does not fully explain these associations. The large PARPs suggest that preventing CAs could lead to a meaningful reduction in PEs in the population.

  10. Association Between Psychotic Experiences and Subsequent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: A Cross-National Analysis From the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Nock, Matthew K; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mneimneh, Zeina; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Ojagbemi, Akin; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy A; Scott, Kate M; Stagnaro, Juan C; Viana, Maria C; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C; McGrath, John J

    2017-11-01

    Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. To examine the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs across the life span as well as the influence of mental disorders (antecedent to the STBs) on these associations. A total of 33 370 adult respondents across 19 countries from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, STBs (ie, ideation, plans, and attempts), and 21 DSM-IV mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations of PEs with subsequent onset of STBs. Prevalence and frequency of STBs with PEs, and odds ratios and 95% CIs. Of 33 370 included participants, among those with PEs (n = 2488), the lifetime prevalence (SE) of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts was 28.5% (1.3), 10.8% (0.7), and 10.2% (0.7), respectively. Respondents with 1 or more PEs had 2-fold increased odds of subsequent STBs after adjusting for antecedent or intervening mental disorders (suicidal ideation: odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.6; suicide plans: odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.6; and suicide attempts: odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.5). There were significant dose-response relationships of number of PE types with subsequent STBs that persisted after adjustment for mental disorders. Although PEs were significant predictors of subsequent STB onset across all life stages, associations were strongest in individuals 12 years and younger. After adjustment for antecedent mental disorders, the overall population attributable risk proportions for lifetime suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts associated with temporally prior PEs were 5.3%, 5.7%, and 4.8%, respectively. Psychotic experiences are associated with elevated odds of subsequent STBs across the life course that cannot be

  11. Cross-National Analysis of Islamic Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-20

    attitudes , and was fully involved in activities concerning questionnaire design including a new experimental design in the survey, pilot testing, and...DeMarco; (4) a working paper on "Effects of interviewer gender, religious style of dress, and attitudes on responses to a nationally-representative...research team studied Howard Schuman’s survey work on memory and drafted survey items for use in Tunisia to ask respondents about knowledge of political

  12. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validating a Spanish Version of the PIMRS: Application in National and Cross-National Research on Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Germán; Hallinger, Philip; Volante, Paulo; Wang, Wen Chung

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to report on a systematic approach to validating a Spanish version of the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale and then to apply the scale in a cross-national comparison of principal instructional leadership. The study yielded a validated Spanish language version of the PIMRS Teacher Form and offers a…

  14. Billionaire Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2013-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of self-employed individuals are not entrepreneurial in the Schumpeterian sense. In order to unmistakably identify Schumpeterian entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in USD) on Forbes Magazine’s list who became wealthy by founding new firms. In this way we identify 996 billionaire entrepreneurs in over fifty countries in the 1996–2010 period. To our knowledge this is the first systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs, an economically i...

  15. Resolving the double tension: Toward a new approach to measurement modeling in cross-national research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Tait Runnfeldt

    The increasing global reach of survey research provides sociologists with new opportunities to pursue theory building and refinement through comparative analysis. However, comparison across a broad array of diverse contexts introduces methodological complexities related to the development of constructs (i.e., measurement modeling) that if not adequately recognized and properly addressed undermine the quality of research findings and cast doubt on the validity of substantive conclusions. The motivation for this dissertation arises from a concern that the availability of cross-national survey data has outpaced sociologists' ability to appropriately analyze and draw meaningful conclusions from such data. I examine the implicit assumptions and detail the limitations of three commonly used measurement models in cross-national analysis---summative scale, pooled factor model, and multiple-group factor model with measurement invariance. Using the orienting lens of the double tension I argue that a new approach to measurement modeling that incorporates important cross-national differences into the measurement process is needed. Two such measurement models---multiple-group factor model with partial measurement invariance (Byrne, Shavelson and Muthen 1989) and the alignment method (Asparouhov and Muthen 2014; Muthen and Asparouhov 2014)---are discussed in detail and illustrated using a sociologically relevant substantive example. I demonstrate that the former approach is vulnerable to an identification problem that arbitrarily impacts substantive conclusions. I conclude that the alignment method is built on model assumptions that are consistent with theoretical understandings of cross-national comparability and provides an approach to measurement modeling and construct development that is uniquely suited for cross-national research. The dissertation makes three major contributions: First, it provides theoretical justification for a new cross-national measurement model and

  16. Cross-national comparison of nuclear reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deLeon, P.

    1976-10-01

    This paper discusses most of the variables or factors that have been advanced to explain the success or failure of the various national nuclear reactor programs. From the comparative analysis of these experiences, it is apparent that the inclusion of the relevant factors in the ''technology delivery systems'' (TDS) and multiple research approaches offer the most convincing evidence explaining the ultimate acceptance/rejection of the national RD and D programs. It is equally apparent that these two variables are closely related. The policy implications which might thus be drawn from this cross-national survey suggest the inclusion of all the relevant actions in the RD and D process (i.e., ex cathedra policies are likely to fail) and the preservation of multiple research approaches until the major technical uncertainties are resolved. Many might consider these as obvious, but a brief review of the U.S. development of the FBR gives one reason to wonder if the ''obvious'' lessons of the LWR development have, in fact, been recognized, let alone appreciated

  17. Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

  18. Fashion reporting in cross-national perspective 1955-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis article aims to portray long-term developments and cross-national differences in the editorial prominence, artistic focus and international orientation of the coverage given to designer fashion by a central, intermediary agency within national, cultural fields: the journalism of art

  19. Burglar Target Selection: A Cross-National Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, M.; Birks, D.; Bernasco, W.; Johnson, S.D.; Ruiter, S.; White, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both

  20. Burglar Target Selection : A Cross-national Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both

  1. Sport clubs in Europe: A cross-national comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der

    2015-01-01

    ​This book presents an up-to-date portrait of the characteristics of sport clubs in various European countries and their role in society and the national sport system. Furthermore, it offers a cross-national comparative perspective of sport clubs in twenty European countries. Containing both

  2. Understanding Catalan University Dropout from a Cross-National Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, David; Feixas, Mònica; Gairín, Joaquín; Muñoz, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The dropout rate is an indicator of complex analysis and there is no consensus on its significance. Universities lack systematized, univocal methods for collecting student dropout data, making measurement problematic. In consequence, the formulas applied to analyze this phenomenon differ between countries and it is therefore an immense challenge…

  3. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R

    2017-01-01

    and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies reporting on extension of ulcerative colitis to determine frequency of disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on disease extension of ulcerative colitis...... (UC) and predictors of disease progression. RESULTS: Overall, 41 studies were eligible for systematic review but only 30 for meta-analysis. The overall pooled frequency of UC extension was 22.8% with colonic extension being 17.8% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years. Extension was 17.8% (95% CI 11...... in patients from North America (37.8%) than from Europe (19.6%) (Pmeta-analysis, approximately one quarter of patients with limited UC extend over time with most extension occurring during the first 10 years. Rate of extension depends on age at diagnosis and geographic origin...

  4. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be reduced using Trial Sequential Analysis. Several empirical studies have demonstrated...

  5. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  6. The male marriage wage premium in cross-national perspective

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoon, Sean; Keizer, Renske; Dykstra, Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 29 countries from the Luxemburg Income Study, we demonstrate that married men earn on average 7% more than unmarried men. Unmarried men would have to work 43 hours per week in order to earn the same as married men working 40 hours. We find substantial cross-national variation: in some countries married men make 25% more than unmarried men, while in others no difference in earnings exists. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing intra-household specia...

  7. A Cross-National Validation of the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory with Chinese and Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhou; Tze, Virginia M. C.; Buhr, Erin; Klassen, Robert M.; Daniels, Lia M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provided evidence for the factor structure of the Academic Expectation Stress Inventory (AESI) in a sample of 213 Mainland Chinese and 184 South Korean high school students. We examined cross-national invariance of the AESI using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across two Asian cultural samples. Results suggested a…

  8. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...... and manual searches, gathered information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, and obtained unpublished information on trial design and outcome measures from authors and pharmaceutical companies. Meta-analyses were performed and results presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...

  9. Religion and suicide acceptability: a cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Kposowa, Augustine J

    2011-01-01

    Four perspectives (moral community thesis, religious integration, religious commitment, and social networks) guide the selection of variables in this study. Data are from the combined World Values/European Values Surveys for 2000 (50,547 individuals nested in 56 nations). The results of a multivariate hierarchical linear model support all four perspectives. Persons residing in nations with relatively high levels of religiosity, who are affiliated with one of four major faiths, are religiously committed, and are engaged with a religious network are found to be lower in suicide acceptability. The religious integration perspective, in particular, is empirically supported; affiliation with Islam is associated with low suicide acceptability. The findings provide strong support for an integrated model and demonstrate the usefulness of the moral community thesis in understanding suicide acceptability.

  10. Transport and agricultural productivity: A cross-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sike Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure plays a significant role in the development of agriculture. In this study we examine the relationship between transport and agricultural performance by employing the World Bank’s roads infrastructure indicators. Based on a cross-country sample, a classic method is employed to test the hypothesis that better transport fosters agricultural productivity. The empirical results of the method support the hypothesis. As for this method, the estimation results of the widely-used inter-country aggregate agricultural production function describe that a country with better transport can produce more agricultural outputs given the same amounts of agricultural inputs and the same education level. Our empirical work lends support to the claim of Gollin and Rogerson (2010 [19] that transport is a basic factor explaining the poor economic performance of many developing countries, apart from physical and education investments, more emphasis should be placed on improving the transport infrastructure of these countries.

  11. Cross-National Logo Evaluation Analysis: An Individual Level Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. van der Lans (Ralf); J.A. Cote (Joseph); C.A. Cole (Catherine); S.M. Leong (Siew Meng); A. Smidts (Ale); P.W. Henderson (Pamela); C. Bluemelhuber (Christian); P.A. Bottomley (Paul); J.R. Doyle (John); A.S. Fedorikhin (Alexander); M. Janakiraman (M.); B. Ramaseshan (Balasubramanian); B.H. Schmitt (Bernd)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe universality of design perception and response is tested using data collected from ten countries: Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Netherlands, Russia, Singapore, and the United States. A Bayesian, finite-mixture, structural-equation model is developed

  12. Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsche Emmanuel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children – World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC. It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. Methods The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine were surveyed in the 2001–2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1 watching TV or a video, (2 playing indoor games, (3 eating meals, (4 going for a walk, (5 going places, (6 visiting friends or relatives, (7 playing sports, (8 sitting and talking about things (chatting. Results Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family and family wealth. Conclusion Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings

  13. Family joint activities in a cross-national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Zemaitiene, Nida; Borup, Ina; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Moreno, Carmen

    2007-05-30

    Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children--World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC). It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective. The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls) aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine) were surveyed in the 2001-2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1) watching TV or a video, (2) playing indoor games, (3) eating meals, (4) going for a walk, (5) going places, (6) visiting friends or relatives, (7) playing sports, (8) sitting and talking about things (chatting). Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth. Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings underline the role of family structure (intact

  14. How minorities fare under referendums: A cross-national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Hug, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Referendums are often viewed as a threat to the rights of minorities. Empirical studies, so far, have tried to deal with the impact of referendums on minorities and civil rights at the subnational level by comparing either referendum or policy outcomes across subnational units. These units are......' preferences, either by protecting minority rights or reducing them. We test this proposition with national-level information on preferences and institutions as well as minority policies from countries spanning the whole globe......., however, often constrained by the national level of government. Hence, to understand the full effect of referendums on minority policies, cross-national comparisons are required. Based on existing game-theoretical models, we argue that referendums and initiatives push policies towards the voters...

  15. Systematic text condensation: a strategy for qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-12-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies. Giorgi's psychological phenomenological analysis is the point of departure and inspiration for systematic text condensation. The basic elements of Giorgi's method and the elaboration of these in systematic text condensation are presented, followed by a detailed description of procedures for analysis according to systematic text condensation. Finally, similarities and differences compared with other frequently applied methods for qualitative analysis are identified, as the foundation of a discussion of strengths and limitations of systematic text condensation. Systematic text condensation is a descriptive and explorative method for thematic cross-case analysis of different types of qualitative data, such as interview studies, observational studies, and analysis of written texts. The method represents a pragmatic approach, although inspired by phenomenological ideas, and various theoretical frameworks can be applied. The procedure consists of the following steps: 1) total impression - from chaos to themes; 2) identifying and sorting meaning units - from themes to codes; 3) condensation - from code to meaning; 4) synthesizing - from condensation to descriptions and concepts. Similarities and differences comparing systematic text condensation with other frequently applied qualitative methods regarding thematic analysis, theoretical methodological framework, analysis procedures, and taxonomy are discussed. Systematic text condensation is a strategy for analysis developed from traditions shared by most of the methods for analysis of qualitative data. The method offers the novice researcher a process of intersubjectivity, reflexivity, and feasibility, while maintaining a responsible level of methodological rigour.

  16. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis: Why, when, and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this

  17. Global identification, xenophobia and globalisation: A cross-national exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Gal

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the ways in which globalisation influences social identity. Combining a psychological social-identity framework with sociological considerations regarding the contextual impact of globalisation, it tests whether global identification-that is, people's identification as global citizens-constitutes an inclusive category, negatively linked to xenophobic attitudes towards immigrants across countries and whether the actual country level of globalisation moderates the relationship between global identification and xenophobia. Unlike most psychological studies of globalisation, it draws its data from 124 national samples across 86 countries, with 154,760 respondents overall, using three different cross-national surveys. Study 1 (International Social Survey Program National Identity Module III 2013; N = 39,426, countries = 32) evinces that while global identification is in fact negatively linked to xenophobia, the correlation is moderated by the country level of globalisation, countries marked by higher levels of globalisation exhibiting a stronger negative relation between global identification and xenophobia than those characterised by a lower level of globalisation. Study 2 (European Values Study 2008; N = 53,083, countries = 44) and Study 3 (World Values Survey 6; N = 65,251, countries = 48) replicated these results across other countries employing dissimilar scales for global identification and xenophobia. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Wetterslev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in

  19. A cross-national study on the antecedents of work–life balance from the fit and balance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haar, Jarrod M.; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Russo, Marcello; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on the perceived work–family fit and balance perspective, this study investigates demands and resources as antecedents of work–life balance (WLB) across four countries (New Zealand, France, Italy and Spain), so as to provide empirical cross-national evidence. Using structural equation modelling analysis on a sample of 870 full time employees, we found that work demands, hours worked and family demands were negatively related to WLB, while job autonomy and supervisor support were posit...

  20. Why home hemodialysis? A systematic "marketing" analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Ferraresi, Martina; Consiglio, Valentina; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Randone, Olga; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Calderale, Pasquale Mario

    2012-01-01

    Home hemodialysis (HHD) has met with alternating fortunes. The present revival of interest is due to lower costs and more frequent/efficient treatments. HHD is underdeveloped, and a marketing approach may help in defining development strategies. The aim of this study was to systematically review the recent literature (2000-2010) according to a marketing approach, defining the potential of HHD according to the classical marketing items: market size, growth rate, profitability, trends, keys for success, needs for structures and distribution channels. A Medline search was conducted for 2000-2010. The analysis took into account the recent trends in publication as a measure of interest, size and trends, while survival and costs were analyzed as keys for success. The issues of structures and distribution channels were arbitrarily considered as equivalent to the overall hemodialysis market. Interest in HHD is growing, as shown by the increasing number of published papers (9 in 2000, 52 in 2010); yet, clinical studies accounted for less than half of the papers. In the 138 clinical studies, quality of life (33 papers) and metabolism (16 papers) were the most studied topics. Survival and cost analyses were highly heterogeneous (the broad inclusion of nocturnal or quotidian dialysis has to be mentioned). Overall, survival was equal to, or better than, that for other modalities, including transplantation and peritoneal dialysis; costs compared favorably with hospital dialysis and were equivalent to those of peritoneal dialysis. The small "market" of HHD is increasing, with potential for further growth, the keys for success being equivalence or superiority of survival at equivalent or lower costs.

  1. Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Results Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables “thoughts about dropping out of college,” “medication use because of studies,” “medication and supplements use for body change,” “body mass index,” “socioeconomic status,” “age,” and “performance in course” were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9–26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. Conclusion The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross-national

  2. Literacy Education for Nursery School Children of Cross-National Marriages in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-ching

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, more and more Taiwanese men have married women from Southeast Asian countries and China. Children of cross-national marriages now account for one-tenth of primary school pupils. Previous research on primary and secondary school pupils' performance in different subjects has indicated that the children of cross-national marriages…

  3. Social Capital, Economic Development, and Homicide: A Cross-National Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…

  4. Cross-national comparisons of college students' attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Quinlan, Margaret

    2017-10-01

    Based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), we explored the nationally-bounded roles of four predictors (subjective norms, entertainment, recordability, and networkability) in determining the TAM variables of perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and behavioral intention (BI) to use diet/fitness apps on smartphones. College students in the US and South Korea were invited to participate in a survey. We obtained 508 questionnaires (304 from the US and 204 from Korea). Data were analyzed mainly through path analysis. The four factors positively predicted the PU and PEOU of diet/fitness apps. While the effects of the predictors on the three TAM components were generally stronger among the US students than Korean students, the effect of subjective norms on the BI of diet/fitness apps was weaker among Korean students. Findings from the cross-national comparisons were helpful for thoroughly understanding the contextualized mechanisms involved in the adoption of diet/fitness apps.

  5. Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rachelle Lea

    2005-12-01

    Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from

  6. Systematic review and a meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We systematically reviewed the available literature and meta-analyzed the data which was specialized in Down syndrome (DS) diagnosis with proteomic techniques. Pubmed, EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect searches for relevant articles published from inception until July 2010 were obtained and ten articles were selected.

  7. Collaborative, cross-national studies on health and safety in seafaring for evidence-based Maritime policy and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf C

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, maritime health and safety policies and regulations were sparsely based on health and safety research, and only a small number of countries contributed to new research. To strengthen maritime health and safety research activities by presenting a study example and discussing the possibilities and needs for more national and cross-national research. In a cross-national epidemiological study example, the seafarers from eleven countries completed small, anonymous questionnaires concerning the working conditions on their latest tours at sea while waiting for their health examinations. Significant disparities were pointed out among the nationalities, e.g., the length of the tours at sea, the proportional distribution of officers and non-officers, the mean age structure, the injury incidence rates, and the differences of occupational safety standards. The analysis of all data together increased the statistical strength of the multivariate analyses and allowed for valid comparisons among the nationalities. The questionnaire data was used successfully in the collaborative study example, but other data sources and methods are useful for health and safety research in seafaring as well. More national and cross-national research on maritime health and safety is warranted.

  8. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwesen, Ludwien; van den Brink-Muinen, Atie; Hofstede, Geert

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with national wealth. A total of 307 general practitioners (GPs) and 5820 patients from Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland participated in the study. Medical communication was videotaped and assessed using Roter's interaction analysis system (RIAS). Additional context information of physicians (gender, job satisfaction, risk-taking and belief of psychological influence on diseases) and patients (gender, health condition, diagnosis and medical encounter expectations) was gathered by using questionnaires. Countries differ considerably form each other in terms of culture dimensions. The larger a nation's power distance, the less room there is for unexpected information exchange and the shorter the consultations are. Roles are clearly described and fixed. The higher the level of uncertainty avoidance, the less attention is given to rapport building, e.g. less eye contact. In 'masculine' countries there is less instrumental communication in the medical interaction, which was contrary to expectations. In wealthy countries, more attention is given to psychosocial communication. The four culture dimensions, together with countries' wealth, contribute importantly to the understanding of differences in European countries' styles of medical communication. Their predictive power reaches much further than explanations along the north/south or east/west division of Europe. The understanding of these cross-national differences is a precondition for the prevention of intercultural miscommunication. Improved understanding may occur at microlevel in the medical encounter, as well as on macrolevel in pursuing more effective cooperation and

  9. Is more neonatal intensive care always better? Insights from a cross-national comparison of reproductive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Goodman, David C; Little, George A

    2002-06-01

    Despite high per capita health care expenditure, the United States has crude infant survival rates that are lower than similarly developed nations. Although differences in vital recording and socioeconomic risk have been studied, a systematic, cross-national comparison of perinatal health care systems is lacking. To characterize systems of reproductive care for the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, including a detailed analysis of neonatal intensive care and mortality. Comparison of selected indicators of reproductive care and mortality from 1993-2000 through a systematic review of journal and government publications and structured interviews of leaders in perinatal and neonatal care. Compared with the other 3 countries, the United States has more neonatal intensive care resources yet provides proportionately less support for preconception and prenatal care. Unlike the United States, the other countries provided free family planning services and prenatal and perinatal physician care, and the United Kingdom and Australia paid for all contraception. The United States has high neonatal intensive care capacity, with 6.1 neonatologists per 10 000 live births; Australia, 3.7; Canada, 3.3; and the United Kingdom, 2.7. For intensive care beds, the United States has 3.3 per 10 000 live births; Australia and Canada, 2.6; and the United Kingdom, 0.67. Greater neonatal intensive care resources were not consistently associated with lower birth weight-specific mortality. The relative risk (United States as reference) of neonatal mortality for infants birth weight rates were notably higher in the United States, partially explaining the high crude mortality rates. The United States has significantly greater neonatal intensive care resources per capita, compared with 3 other developed countries, without having consistently better birth weight-specific mortality. Despite low birth weight rates that exceed other countries, the United States has proportionately

  10. A practice-driven systematic review of dependency analysis solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; Spek, Pieter van der; Avgeriou, Paris

    2011-01-01

    When following architecture-driven strategies to develop large software-intensive systems, the analysis of the dependencies is not an easy task. In this paper, we report a systematic literature review on dependency analysis solutions. Dependency analysis concerns making dependencies due to

  11. IPAD: the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Drabier, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) generate millions of reads and hundreds of datasets, and there is an urgent need for a better way to accurately interpret and distill such large amounts of data. Extensive pathway and network analysis allow for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of disease vs. healthy samples in the NGS and GWAS. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to elucidation of the complex biological pathways affected by drug treatment, to patient stratification studies of new and existing drug treatments, and to understanding the underlying anti-cancer drug effects. There are approximately 141 biological human pathway resources as of Jan 2012 according to the Pathguide database. However, most currently available resources do not contain disease, drug or organ specificity information such as disease-pathway, drug-pathway, and organ-pathway associations. Systematically integrating pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity together becomes increasingly crucial for understanding the interrelationships between signaling, metabolic and regulatory pathway, drug action, disease susceptibility, and organ specificity from high-throughput omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). We designed the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis (IPAD, http://bioinfo.hsc.unt.edu/ipad), defining inter-association between pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity, based on six criteria: 1) comprehensive pathway coverage; 2) gene/protein to pathway/disease/drug/organ association; 3) inter-association between pathway, disease, drug, and organ; 4) multiple and quantitative measurement of enrichment and inter-association; 5) assessment of enrichment and inter-association analysis with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources; and 6) cross-linking of

  12. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.

  13. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  14. A cross-national investigation into the individual and national cultural antecedents of consumer innovativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, JBEM; ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M

    The authors examine antecedents of consumer innovativeness in a cross-national context. They propose a framework that distinguishes individual difference variables and national cultural variables. Two types of individual difference variables are considered: personal values and

  15. Fatherhood, intra-household employment dynamics, and men's earnings in a cross-national perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckmann, Irene; Budig, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies find fatherhood earnings premiums in several European countries and the United States. Yet little research investigates how intra-household dynamics shape the size of the fatherhood premium cross-nationally. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study we examine how the division of labor in two-parent households is associated with the fatherhood premium in fourteen countries. We find cross-national variation in the presence and size of the fatherhood premium. Our findings also show th...

  16. Solid-phase extraction procedures in systematic toxicological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1998-01-01

    In systematic toxicological analysis (STA) the substance(s) present is (are) not known at the start of the analysis. in such an undirected search the extraction procedure cannot be directed to a given substance but must be a general procedure where a compromise must be reached in that the substances

  17. Interaction of Reward Seeking and Self-Regulation in the Prediction of Risk Taking: A Cross-National Test of the Dual Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether…

  18. Assessing cross-national invariance of the three-component model of organizational commitment : a six-country study of European university employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.; Teelken, Ch.; Doorewaard, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined cross-national invariance of Meyer and Allen’s three-component model of organizational commitment using samples of university faculty from six European countries. The analysis revealed strict factorial measurement invariance of affective, continuance, and normative organizational

  19. Assessment of social psychological determinants of satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet

    2007-10-26

    The fulfilment of expectations, labour pain, personal control and self-efficacy determine the postpartum evaluation of birth. However, researchers have seldom considered the multiple determinants in one analysis. To explore to what extent the results can be generalised between countries, we analyse data of Belgian and Dutch women. Although Belgium and the Netherlands share the same language, geography and political system and have a common history, their health care systems diverge. The Belgian maternity care system corresponds to the ideal type of the medical model, whereas the Dutch system approaches the midwifery model. In this paper we examine multiple determinants, the fulfilment of expectations, labour pain, personal control and self-efficacy, for their association with satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective. Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first 2 weeks after childbirth either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 560 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004-2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept. Labour pain was rated retrospectively using Visual Analogue Scales. Personal control was assessed with the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire and Pearlin and Schooler's mastery scale. A hierarchical linear analysis was performed. Satisfaction with childbirth benefited most consistently from the fulfilment of expectations. In addition, the experience of personal control buffered the lowering impact of labour pain. Women with high self-efficacy showed more satisfaction with self-, midwife- and physician-related aspects of the birth experience. Our findings focus the attention toward personal control, self-efficacy and

  20. a systematic review and meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis. ... Journal Home > Vol 27, No 2 (2017) > ... selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies. ... maternal height, residential area and socio- economic status were significant risk factors ...

  1. Unemployment in Scandinavia during an economic crisis: cross-national differences in health selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    Are people with ill health more prone to unemployment during the ongoing economic crisis? Is this health selection more visible among people with low education, women, or the young? The current paper investigates these questions in the Scandinavian context using the longitudinal part of the EU-SILC data material. Generalized least squares analysis indicates that people with ill health are laid off to a higher degree than their healthy counterparts in Denmark, but not in Norway and Sweden. Additionally, young individuals (Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Neither women with ill health, nor individuals with low educational qualifications and ill health, are more likely to lose their jobs in Scandinavia. Individual level (and calendar year) fixed effects analysis confirms the existence of health selection out of employment in Denmark, whereas there is no suggestion of health selection in Sweden and Norway, except among young individuals. This finding could be related to the differing labor market demand the three Scandinavian countries have experienced during and preceding the study period (2007-2010). Another possible explanation for the cross-national differences is connected to the Danish "flexicurity" model, where the employment protection is rather weak. People with ill health, and hence more unstable labor market attachment, could be more vulnerable in such an arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic Analysis Of Ocean Colour Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Samantha

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews current research into the estimation of uncertainties as a pixel-based measure to aid non- specialist users of remote sensing products. An example MERIS image, captured on the 28 March 2012, was processed with above-water atmospheric correction code. This was initially based on both the Antoine & Morel Standard Atmospheric Correction, with Bright Pixel correction component, and Doerffer Neural Network coastal water's approach. It's showed that analysis of the atmospheric by-products yield important information about the separation of the atmospheric and in-water signals, helping to sign-post possible uncertainties in the atmospheric correction results. Further analysis has concentrated on implementing a ‘simplistic' atmospheric correction so that the impact of changing the input auxiliary data can be analysed; the influence of changing surface pressure is demonstrated. Future work will focus on automating the analysis, so that the methodology can be implemented within an operational system.

  3. Youth Reflect on Hitler: A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, James J.

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis of essays written by students from Great Britain and the United States on the topic "What I have heard about Adolf Hitler" showed that today's youth have only a very superficial knowledge about the events surrounding Hitler and Nazism. (RM)

  4. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Singers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R.; Ravi, Rohit; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Singers are vocal athletes having specific demands from their voice and require special consideration during voice evaluation. Presently, there is a lack of standards for acoustic evaluation in them. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available literature on the acoustic analysis of voice in singers. Method: A…

  5. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the internet: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-05-01

    Suicide rates generally increase with age. Internet websites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and to have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. The role of the internet in elderly suicides has not been studied. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the prevalence of internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations website. The prevalence of internet users was significantly and positively correlated with suicide rates in both genders in the age bands 65-74 years and 75+ years. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of internet users was independently associated with suicide rates in both genders in both age bands. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research.

  6. International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Cross-National Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Irion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. These countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union (EU and the standards of the Council of Europe, among others. This article explores the nexus between the democratic transformation of the media and international media assistance (IMA as constrained by the local political conditions in the five countries of the Western Balkans. It aims to enhance the understanding of conditions and factors that influence media institution building in the region and evaluates the role of international assistance programs and conditionality mechanisms herein. The cross-national analysis concludes that the effects of IMA are highly constrained by the local context. A decade of IMA of varying intensity is not sufficient to construct media institutions when, in order to function properly, they have to outperform their local context. From today’s vantage point it becomes obvious, that in the short-term scaling-up IMA does not necessarily improve outcomes. The experiences in the region suggest that imported solutions have not been sufficiently cognitive of all aspects of local conditions and international strategies have tended to be rather schematic and have lacked strategic approaches to promote media policy stability, credible media reform and implementation. To a certain extent, the loss of IMA effectiveness is also self-inflicted.

  7. Disgust and Contamination: A Cross-National Comparison of Ghana and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Alexander J.; Dzokoto, Vivian A.

    2012-01-01

    The emotion of disgust, with feelings of revulsion and behavioral withdrawal, make it a prime emotion to aid in the avoidance of sources of contamination, including sources of potential infectious disease. We tested the theory that living in a region with a historically high prevalence of infectious diseases would promote higher levels of disgust and contamination sensitivity as a protective measure. A sample of undergraduates from Ghana (n = 103, 57 women), a country with a historically high prevalence of infectious diseases, showed significantly higher scores on scales assessing disgust, contamination, and disease susceptibility than a sample of undergraduates from the United States (n = 96, 58 women), a country with lower levels of disease threat. Contamination sensitivity mediated the national differences in disgust. Disgust connoting contamination also produced larger cross-national effect sizes than other types of disgust. Finally, a factor analysis on the Ghanaian responses to one of the disgust scales did not resemble the usual three-factor solution found in West. Taken together, the results were consistent with the hypothesis that a region with a higher prevalence of infectious disease threats would produce greater sensitivity to disgust and contamination than seen in lower disease threat regions. This first study on disgust in Africa showed that disgust sensitivity could differ considerably from that in the West. PMID:23450744

  8. Servant leadership in organizations : a cross-national study.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, David Teckleong

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study is to gain a clearer understanding of the phenomenon of servant leadership through the analysis of historical and contemporary empirical data. The study was prompted by recent reports of leadership practices in progressive organizations from leading economies where the traditional way of leading by command and control i.e. the authoritarian type of leadership, is giving way to a more humane and inclusive form of leadership. "Servant leadership" describes leade...

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, B; Prosberg, M V; Gluud, L L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Disability Index (IBD-DI) has recently been developed for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To assess the severity of disability and associated factors using the IBD-DI, and review the validity of the IBD-DI as a tool. ...... review and meta-analysis found a significant association between disease activity, treatment received and disability; although significant heterogeneity was found. The IBD-DI is reliable and valid, but further studies are needed to measure its interpretability....

  10. [The concept of nursing. A systematic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaño, R; Piqué, J

    1999-01-01

    Nursing is a field which employs numerous people whose formation and professional roles are regulated by a wide set of rules and norms, and one which benefits innumerable patients. A paradox exists when, upon consulting various dictionaries, one of these the Royal Academy Dictionary (Diccionario de la Real Academia), the term nursing is defined as a physical space/set of nurses without any reference whatsoever to nurses' role in the health and educational systems. The definition we find in a dictionary should correspond to the concept the general public holds and reflect the true meaning of the profession. During a three year period, academic years 1994-96, on the first day of class, we asked each student to define or describe what he/she understood nursing to be. We consider that their responses, in a large sense, should correspond to the idea which the general public holds about nursing. An analysis of the content of these definitions allowed us to establish that there is a clear confrontation between what dictionaries state and what students, as a sample of society as a whole, think. Our results permit us to offer a definition for nursing which may be incorporated into new dictionary editions for the purpose of completing the already existing ones.

  11. Want Amid Plenty: Developing and Testing a Cross-National Measure of Anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Cochran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing researchers trying to empirically test structural or institutional anomie theories is the operationalization of the key concept of anomie. This challenge is heightened by the data constraints involved in cross-national research. As a result, researchers have been forced to rely on surrogate or proxy measures of anomie and indirect tests of the theories. The purpose of this study is to examine an innovative and more theoretically sound measure of anomie and to test its ability to make cross-national predictions of serious crime. Our results are supportive of the efficacy of this construct to explain cross-national variations in crime rates. Nations with the highest rates of structural anomie also have the highest predicted rates of homicide.

  12. Hospitality and Tourism Online Review Research: A Systematic Analysis and Heuristic-Systematic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hlee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With tremendous growth and potential of online consumer reviews, online reviews of hospitality and tourism are now playing a significant role in consumer attitude and buying behaviors. This study reviewed and analyzed hospitality and tourism related articles published in academic journals. The systematic approach was used to analyze 55 research articles between January 2008 and December 2017. This study presented a brief synthesis of research by investigating content-related characteristics of hospitality and tourism online reviews (HTORs in different market segments. Two research questions were addressed. Building upon our literature analysis, we used the heuristic-systematic model (HSM to summarize and classify the characteristics affecting consumer perception in previous HTOR studies. We believe that the framework helps researchers to identify the research topic in extended HTORs literature and to point out possible direction for future studies.

  13. Public Mass Shooters and Firearms: A Cross-National Study of 171 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Model the global distribution of public mass shooters around the world. Negative binomial regression is used to test the effects of homicide rates, suicide rates, firearm ownership rates, and several control variables on public mass shooters per country from 1966 to 2012. The global distribution of public mass shooters appears partially attributable to cross-national differences in firearms availability but not associated with cross-national homicide or suicide rates. The United States and other nations with high firearm ownership rates may be particularly susceptible to future public mass shootings, even if they are relatively peaceful or mentally healthy according to other national indicators.

  14. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...... of the world where epidemiologic data has not been previously available. Organizers will request in advance that the presenters include some data in formats that can be compared across studies. In a final session, the organizers will lead a discussion about the challenges of national surveys and cross national...

  15. CrossFit Overview: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, João Gustavo; Gabbett, Tim J; Bourgeois, Frank; Souza, Helton de Sá; Miranda, Rafael Chagas; Mezêncio, Bruno; Soncin, Rafael; Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bottaro, Martim; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jose; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2018-02-26

    CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. Thirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables. The current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.

  16. Which Are The Most Burdensome Functioning Areas In Depression? A Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aimed to identify the most burdensome functioning domains in depression and their differential impact on the quality of life (QoL of individuals from nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. Material and Methods: Data from two multi-country projects—the World Health Organization’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE and the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE—were analyzed. Eight functioning domains (pain, mobility, self-care, cognition, interpersonal activities, domestic life and work, sleep and energy, and affect and QoL were assessed in 4051 individuals with depression. Results: The analyses of the pooled sample showed that affect (ß=-0.21, p<0.001, domestic life and work (ß=-0.16, p<.001 and interpersonal activities (ß=-0.15, p<.001 were the most affected functioning domains. When the analysis was stratified by gender, women showed similar patterns to the total sample, whereas mobility, self-care, cognition and pain were not significant amongst men. The cross-national analysis revealed that difficulties in affect and interpersonal activities were common across countries, whereas the rest of the domains showed country variability. In addition, being a woman (ß=-0.05, being older (ß=0.07, being married (ß=0.05, not having a comorbid condition (ß=-0.03 and having a higher education (ß=0.04 were all factors associated with higher levels of QoL. Conclusions: There was a variation in the level of decrements in different functioning domains across countries. This is in line with the growing evidence that reporting functioning sum-scores obscures potential differences among people. Functioning tools should capture the distinctiveness among individuals in order to provide tailored responses.

  17. Analysis Preservation and Systematic Reinterpretation within the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC data analysis software used in order to derive and publish experimental results is an important asset that is necessary to preserve in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of a given measurement. Among others, important use cases of analysis preservation are the reproducibility of the original results and the reusability of the analysis procedure in the context of new scientific studies. A prominent use-case for the latter is the systematic reinterpretation of searches for new Physics in terms of signal models that not studied in the original publication (RECAST). This paper presents the usage of the graph-based workflow description language yadage to drive the reinterpretation of preserved HEP analyses. The analysis software for individual states in the analysis is preserved using Docker containers, while the workflow structure is preserved using plain JSON documents. This allows the re-execution of complex analysis workflows on industry standard container-based distributed computing clust...

  18. Cross-national comparability of burden of disease estimates: the European Disability Weights Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Pereira, Joaquin; Packer, Claire; Schwarzinger, Michael; Burstrom, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sources of cross-national variation in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in the European Disability Weights Project. METHODS: Disability weights for 15 disease stages were derived empirically in five countries by means of a standardized procedure and the

  19. Acceptance of Driverless Vehicles : Results from a Large Cross-National Questionnaire Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhoff, S.; de Winter, J.C.F.; Kyriakidis, M.; van Arem, B.; Happee, R.

    2018-01-01

    Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000

  20. Monitoring Human Development Goals: A Straightforward (Bayesian) Methodology for Cross-National Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, Kobi; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We offer a straightforward framework for measurement of progress, across many dimensions, using cross-national social indices, which we classify as linear combinations of multivariate country level data onto a univariate score. We suggest a Bayesian approach which yields probabilistic (confidence type) intervals for the point estimates of country…

  1. Cross-national differences in price–role orientation and their impact on retail markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Komor, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in price–role orientations between economically developed and emerging markets and how these differences influence store brand and store format preferences. It extends cross-national research on price–role orientations by (1) focusing on culturally similar...

  2. The cross-national pattern of happiness. Test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); J.J. Ehrhardt (Joop)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT. Predictions about level and dispersion of happiness in nations are derived from three theories of happiness: comparison-theory, folklore-theory and livability-theory. The predictions are tested on two cross national data-sets: a comparative survey among university students in

  3. Constructing a Successful Cross-National Virtual Learning Environment in Primary and Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; van Veen, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Virtual environments are more and more used in primary schools. One of the most interesting potentialities of these environments is to foster cross-national applications. Yet, this specific feature is not fully exploited. This paper presents a successful virtual learning environment for primary

  4. Ready for University? A Cross-National Study of Students' Perceived Preparedness for University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured "before" students commenced their study at a university in New Zealand or in the Netherlands. This…

  5. Studying the Quality of Democracy: Two Cross-National Measures of Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…

  6. Gender Ratio and Cognitive Profiles in Dyslexia: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; de la Cadena, Claudia Garcia; Siegel, Linda S.; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze possible gender-related differences in the prevalence of dyslexia. A cross-national comparison of Spain and Guatemala was conducted. Both countries speak the same language but have a different standard of living and educational level. A second purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive profile of…

  7. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  8. A Cross-National Study of Secondary Science Classroom Environments in Australia and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) cross validate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of…

  9. Ready for university? A cross national study on students' perceived preparedness for university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.P.W.A.; van der Meer, J.

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured before students commenced their study at a university in New

  10. Power Perceptions and Negotiations in a Cross-National Email Writing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates EFL students' perceptions of power differentials and their negotiation strategies when communicating with native English-speaking students via emails. The study involved 28 Taiwanese and American undergraduates who participated in a semester-long cross-national email writing activity. Findings show that students in…

  11. Cross-national differences in the labour force attachment of mothers in Western and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines cross-national differences in the labour force attachment of two specific subgroups of mothers: the stay-at-home mothers (homemakers) and those on maternity or parental leave. The justification for focusing on homemakers is that these women constitute an untapped source of labour

  12. The Institution of Advertising: Predictors of Cross-National Differences in Consumer Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkhan, George M.; Balazs, Anne L.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on advertising and cross-cultural studies by exploring cultural factors affecting customer confidence in advertising. Uses a sample of 16 European nations to test G. Hofstede's theory of cross-national values. Finds that Hofstede's dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism are important…

  13. Psychometrically and qualitatively validating a cross-national cumulative measure of fear-based xenophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Yakushko, O.; Higler, L.E.A.; Woelders, S.; Hagen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The article reports the results of a Mokken Scale Procedure (MSP) developing a hierarchical cross-national scale to measure xenophobia, and a qualitative validation of this scale. A pool of 30 xenophobic scale items were collected from several sources and edited according to established

  14. The Happy Homemaker? Married Women's Well-Being in Cross-National Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treas, Judith; van der Lippe, Tanja; Tai, Tsui-o Chloe

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing debate questions whether homemakers or working wives are happier. Drawing on cross-national data for 28 countries, this research uses multi-level models to provide fresh evidence on this controversy. All things considered, homemakers are slightly happier than wives who work fulltime, but they have no advantage over part-time…

  15. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…

  16. A vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Alisic, E.; Brewin, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determinants of cross-national differences in the prevalence of mental illness are poorly understood. Aims: To test whether national post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates can be explained by (a) rates of exposure to trauma and (b) countries’ overall cultural and socioeconomic

  17. Dimensions of national culture as predictors of cross-national differences in subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Hatzichristou, C; Wensink, J; Rosenberg, E; van Twillert, B; Stedema, J; Meijer, D

    The value of predicting cross-national variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) from Hofstede's dimensions of national culture (1980) was examined using data collected in 36 nations; The Hofstede dimensions were: Individualism-Collectivism (IDV), Power Distance (PDI), Masculinity-Femininity (MAS),

  18. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with

  19. School autonomy – a cross-national perspective. Can we compare the opinion of school principals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Węziak-Białowolska, Dorota; Isac, Maria Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Perception of school autonomy was measured by the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009, allowing potential cross-national comparison. The possibility of a common, general scale for all countries participating in the study was investigated. Using multi-group confirmatory

  20. Cross-National Perspectiveson Intergenerational Family Relations: The Influence of Public Policy Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFocusing mostly on Europe,this overview reveals how the research on cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations has movedfrombasic descriptions to a focus on understanding how support exchanges are shaped by macro-level processes.A key issue concerns generational

  1. Analysis Preservation and Systematic Reinterpretation within the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC data analysis software used in order to derive and publish experimental results is an important asset that is necessary to preserve in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of a given measurement. An important use-case is the re-usability of the analysis procedure in the context of new scientific studies such as the reinterpretation of searches for new Physics in terms of signal models that not studied in the original publication (RECAST). We present the usage of the graph-based workflow description language yadage to drive the reinterpretation of preserved HEP analyses. The analysis software is preserved using Docker containers, while the workflow structure is preserved using plain JSON documents. This allows the re-execution of complex analysis workflows on modern distributed container orchestration systems and enables a systematic reinterpretation service based on such preserved analysis.

  2. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of the students

  3. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P.

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of

  4. A Systematic Approach for Engagement Analysis Under Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Leddo, John; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    An overload condition can lead to high stress for an operator and further cause substantial drops in performance. On the other extreme, in automated systems, an operator may become underloaded; in which case, it is difficult for the operator to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, a disengaged operation may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss a systematic approach monitor for extremes of cognitive workload and engagement in multitasking environments. Inferences of cognitive workload ar engagement are based on subjective evaluations, objective performance measures, physiological signals, and task analysis results. The systematic approach developed In this paper aggregates these types of information collected under the multitasking environment and can provide a real-time assessment or engagement.

  5. Adult Craniopharyngioma: Case Series, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, Charlotte; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Akagami, Ryojo; Gooderham, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The optimal therapeutic approach for adult craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Some advocate for gross total resection (GTR), while others advocate for subtotal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (STR + XRT). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the rate of recurrence in the follow-up of 3 yr in adult craniopharyngioma stratified by extent of resection and presence of adjuvant radiotherapy. MEDLINE (1946-July 1, 2016) and EMBASE (1980-June 30, 2016) were systematically reviewed. From1975 to 2013, 33 patients were treated with initial surgical resection for adult onset craniopharyngioma at our center and were reviewed for inclusion in this study. Data from 22 patients were available for inclusion as a case series in the systematic review. Eligible studies (n = 21) were identified from the literature in addition to a case series of our institutional experience. Three groups were available for analysis: GTR, STR + XRT, and STR. The rates of recurrence were 17%, 27%, and 45%, respectively. The risk of developing recurrence was significant for GTR vs STR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.38) and STR + XRT vs STR (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Risk of recurrence after GTR vs STR + XRT did not reach significance (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-1.24, P = .18). This is the first and largest systematic review focusing on the rate of recurrence in adult craniopharyngioma. Although the rates of recurrence are favoring GTR, difference in risk of recurrence did not reach significance. This study provides guidance to clinicians and directions for future research with the need to stratify outcomes per treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  6. Systematic analysis of trimazolin hydrochloride as adrenergic vasoconstrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Goran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimazolin-hydrochloride, which is used as a pharmaceutically active component (adrenergic vasoconstrictor for the production of decongestive preparations, was investigated in this paper by performing systematic analysis. In domestic and foreign pharmacopoeias, as well as in scientific and patent literature, there are no data on trimazolin and the methods of its investigation. Systematic analysis involves two investigation phases. A complete physicochemical characterization of the synthesized substance was done by previous investigation. In the second phase, a chemical structure of the synthesized pharmacologically active substance was confirmed to a certain degree of certainty by using the absorption spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-VIS, 1H-NMR. The spectroscopic methods used proved to be successful at identifying and investigating the purity of trimazolin hydrochloride. Liquid (RP-HPLC chromatography was used for the analysis of trimazolin hydrochloride in the nasal preparation (Adrianol. The method of titrimetric analysis was developed with the aim of quantitative determination of trimazolin hydrochloride in decongestive preparations.

  7. Europeanization of National Public Spheres? Cross-National Media Debates about the EU's Socio-Economic Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la; van Dalen, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the Europeanization of media coverage of the European Union's (EU) socio-economic strategy, which is a crucial building block for developing a European Public Sphere. As the EU level increasingly influences public policy in member states, there should correspondingly be a more...... intense and visible media debate with attention for EU-level and cross-national policies and developments. On the basis of a content analysis (2000–2010) in Denmark, France, Poland and the UK, we find that media attention for the EU's growth and jobs strategy is limited, that it does not increase over...... in terms of benchmarking and reporting on criticism and advice to member states. This criticism is more often diffuse than aimed at specific member states. Therefore, we conclude that media coverage of the EU's socio-economic strategy is Europeanized, but that it remains a debate by and for EU...

  8. Cross-national comparisons of complex problem-solving strategies in two microworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güss, C Dominik; Tuason, Ma Teresa; Gerhard, Christiane

    2010-04-01

    Research in the fields of complex problem solving (CPS) and dynamic decision making using microworlds has been mainly conducted in Western industrialized countries. This study analyzes the CPS process by investigating thinking-aloud protocols in five countries. Participants were 511 students from Brazil, Germany, India, the Philippines, and the United States who worked on two microworlds. On the basis of cultural-psychological theories, specific cross-national differences in CPS strategies were hypothesized. Following theories of situatedness of cognition, hypotheses about the specific frequency of problem-solving strategies in the two microworlds were developed. Results of the verbal protocols showed (a) modification of the theoretical CPS model, (b) task dependence of CPS strategies, and (c) cross-national differences in CPS strategies. Participants' CPS processes were particularly influenced by country-specific problem-solving strategies. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Cross-national Epidemiology of Panic Disorder and Panic Attacks in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Florescu, Silvia E.; Bromet, Evelyn; Stein, Dan; Harris, Meredith; Nakov, Vladimir; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Levinson, Daphna; Al-Hamzawi, Ali O.; Haro, Josep Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Borges, Gui; O’Neill, Siobhan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gureje, Oye; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Browne, Mark Oakley; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; ten Have, Margreet L.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Context The scarcity of cross-national reports and the changes in DSM-5 regarding panic disorder (PD) and panic attacks (PAs) call for new epidemiological data on PD and PAs and its subtypes in the general population. Objective To present representative data about the cross-national epidemiology of PD and PAs in accordance with DSM-5 definitions. Design and Setting Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Participants Respondents (n=142,949) from 25 high, middle and lower-middle income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Main Outcome Measures PD and presence of single and recurrent PAs. Results Lifetime prevalence of PAs was 13.2% (s.e. 0.1%). Among persons that ever had a PA, the majority had recurrent PAs (66.5%; s.e. 0.5%), while only 12.8% fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for PD. Recurrent PAs were associated with a subsequent onset of a variety of mental disorders (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8–2.2) and their course (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2–2.4) whereas single PAs were not (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9–1.3 and OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6–0.8). Cross-national lifetime prevalence estimates were 1.7% (s.e. 0.0%) for PD with a median age of onset of 32 (IQR 20–47). Some 80.4% of persons with lifetime PD had a lifetime comorbid mental disorder. Conclusions We extended previous epidemiological data to a cross-national context. The presence of recurrent PAs in particular is associated with subsequent onset and course of mental disorders beyond agoraphobia and PD, and might serve as a generic risk marker for psychopathology. PMID:27775828

  10. Acceptance of Driverless Vehicles: Results from a Large Cross-National Questionnaire Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhoff, Sina; de Winter, Joost; Kyriakidis, Miltos; van Arem, Bart; Happee, Riender

    2018-01-01

    Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000 respondents on the acceptance of driverless vehicles and sociodemographic characteristics, using a 94-item online questionnaire. After data filtering, data of 7,755 respondents from 116 countries were reta...

  11. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with national wealth. METHODS: A total of 307 general practitioners (GPs) and 5820 patients from Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland par...

  12. How Do the Elderly Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Saunders; Timothy M. Smeeding

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project Peter Saunders and Timothy M. Smeeding Social Policy Research Centre, Discussion Paper, No.81 Abstract This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, German...

  13. A Cross-National Examination of Workplace Bullying: Prevalence, Impact and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SAIMA AHMAD

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative study of workplace bullying in Australia and Pakistan to advance knowledge on sources of cross-cultural convergence and divergence for managing this issue in international contexts. To achieve this goal, views of 636 cross-national participants from equivalent work settings were analysed, and a culturally nuanced account of workplace bullying extracted. This thesis shows that, despite workplace bullying’s constant meaning across cultures, there are stark dif...

  14. Psoriasis and suicidality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanminder; Taylor, Catherine; Kornmehl, Heather; Armstrong, April W

    2017-09-01

    Psoriasis is associated with psychiatric comorbidities; however, the relationship between psoriasis and suicidality is not well understood. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that elucidates the relationship between psoriasis and suicidality. Applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. We searched literature published between 1946 and 2017. We identified 18 studies with a total of 1,767,583 participants, of whom 330,207 had psoriasis. On the basis of random effects modeling, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for suicidal ideation among patients with psoriasis was 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-2.74). Patients with psoriasis were more likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors (combined attempted and completed suicides) with a pooled OR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.40). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with psoriasis were more likely to attempt suicides (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54) and complete suicide (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39) than those without psoriasis. More severe psoriasis and younger age were associated with greater likelihood of suicidality. There are few studies examining suicidality in conjunction with psoriasis severity. Patients with psoriasis have a significantly higher likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicides. Among patients with psoriasis, those who are younger and whose psoriasis is more severe are at particular risk for suicidality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Reliability analysis - systematic approach based on limited data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, A.J.

    1975-11-01

    The initial approaches required for reliability analysis are outlined. These approaches highlight the system boundaries, examine the conditions under which the system is required to operate, and define the overall performance requirements. The discussion is illustrated by a simple example of an automatic protective system for a nuclear reactor. It is then shown how the initial approach leads to a method of defining the system, establishing performance parameters of interest and determining the general form of reliability models to be used. The overall system model and the availability of reliability data at the system level are next examined. An iterative process is then described whereby the reliability model and data requirements are systematically refined at progressively lower hierarchic levels of the system. At each stage, the approach is illustrated with examples from the protective system previously described. The main advantages of the approach put forward are the systematic process of analysis, the concentration of assessment effort in the critical areas and the maximum use of limited reliability data. (author)

  16. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke; Corbett, Joan; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-08-08

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and 'social network' and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use.Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social

  17. Glucocorticosteroids for sepsis : systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volbeda, M.; Wetterslev, J.; Gluud, C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Keus, F.

    Glucocorticosteroids (steroids) are widely used for sepsis patients. However, the potential benefits and harms of both high and low dose steroids remain unclear. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) might shed light on this

  18. Systematic Evaluation of Uncertainty in Material Flow Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a tool to investigate material flows and stocks in defined systems as a basis for resource management or environmental pollution control. Because of the diverse nature of sources and the varying quality and availability of data, MFA results are inherently uncertain....... Uncertainty analyses have received increasing attention in recent MFA studies, but systematic approaches for selection of appropriate uncertainty tools are missing. This article reviews existing literature related to handling of uncertainty in MFA studies and evaluates current practice of uncertainty analysis......) and exploratory MFA (identification of critical parameters and system behavior). Whereas mathematically simpler concepts focusing on data uncertainty characterization are appropriate for descriptive MFAs, statistical approaches enabling more-rigorous evaluation of uncertainty and model sensitivity are needed...

  19. Toxocariasis and epilepsy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Quattrocchi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of Toxocara canis (T. canis and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati. A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available data to evaluate the strength of association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity and to propose some guidelines for future surveys. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, the database from the Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology of the University of Limoges (http://www-ient.unilim.fr/ and the reference lists of all relevant papers and books were screened up to October 2011. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature on toxocariasis (the exposure and epilepsy (the outcome. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and study quality and extracted data. A common odds ratio (OR was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis model of aggregated published data. RESULTS: Seven case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1867 participants (850 cases and 1017 controls. The percentage of seropositivity (presence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies was higher among people with epilepsy (PWE in all the included studies even if the association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity was statistically significant in only 4 studies, with crude ORs ranging 2.04-2.85. Another study bordered statistical significance, while in 2 of the included studies no significant association was found. A significant (p < 0.001 common OR of 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.50-2.44] was estimated. Similar results were found when meta-analysis was restricted to the studies considering an exclusively juvenile population and to surveys using Western Blot as confirmatory or diagnostic serological assay. CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of a positive association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and

  20. Toxoplasmosis and epilepsy--systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoungou, Edgard B; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27-3.9), p = 0.005. Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy.

  1. Systematic approaches to data analysis from the Critical Decision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It

  2. Budget impact analysis of medicines: updated systematic review and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiros, Daniel Resende; Álvares, Juliana; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Godman, Brian B; Acurcio, Francisco A; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation determines whether published studies to date meet the key characteristics identified for budget impact analyses (BIA) for medicines, accomplished through a systematic review and assessment against identified key characteristics. Studies from 2001-2015 on 'budget impact analysis' with 'drug' interventions were assessed, selected based on their titles/abstracts and full texts, and their characteristics checked according to key criteria. Out of 1,984 studies, 92 were subsequently identified for review. Of these, 95% were published in Europe and the USA. 2012 saw the largest number of publications (16%) with a decline thereafter. 48% met up to 7 out of the 9 key characteristics. Only 22% stated no conflict of interest. The results indicate low adherence to the key characteristics that should be considered for BIAs and strong conflict of interest. This is an issue since BIAs can be of fundamental importance in managing the entry of new medicines including reimbursement decisions.

  3. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lizio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE in combination with single-molecule sequencing technology allows precision mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs and genome-wide capture of promoter activities in differentiated and steady state cell populations. Much less is known about whether TSS profiling can characterize diverse and non-steady state cell populations, such as the approximately 400 transitory and heterogeneous cell types that arise during ontogeny of vertebrate animals. To gain such insight, we used the chick model and performed CAGE-based TSS analysis on embryonic samples covering the full 3-week developmental period. In total, 31,863 robust TSS peaks (>1 tag per million [TPM] were mapped to the latest chicken genome assembly, of which 34% to 46% were active in any given developmental stage. ZENBU, a web-based, open-source platform, was used for interactive data exploration. TSSs of genes critical for lineage differentiation could be precisely mapped and their activities tracked throughout development, suggesting that non-steady state and heterogeneous cell populations are amenable to CAGE-based transcriptional analysis. Our study also uncovered a large set of extremely stable housekeeping TSSs and many novel stage-specific ones. We furthermore demonstrated that TSS mapping could expedite motif-based promoter analysis for regulatory modules associated with stage-specific and housekeeping genes. Finally, using Brachyury as an example, we provide evidence that precise TSS mapping in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR-on technology enables us, for the first time, to efficiently target endogenous avian genes for transcriptional activation. Taken together, our results represent the first report of genome-wide TSS mapping in birds and the first systematic developmental TSS analysis in any amniote species (birds and mammals. By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic

  4. The relationship between obesity and elderly suicide rates: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between obesity and suicide has been observed in younger adults, but this has not been examined in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-national ecological study examined the independent relationship between the prevalence of obesity and elderly suicide rates, by controlling for potentially confounding variables, using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. RESULTS: Elderly suicide rates in females were independently associated with the prevalence of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship from this cross-sectional ecological study due to ecological fallacy and requires confirmation in individual-level case-control or cohort studies.

  5. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist?: A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; John Landon-Lane; Myeong-Su Yun

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the...

  6. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Ira N.; Landon-Lane, John S.; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the...

  7. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  8. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  9. The intergenerational transmission of divorce in cross-national perspective: Results from the Fertility and Family Survey

    OpenAIRE

    DRONKERS, Jaap; HARKONEN, Juho

    2008-01-01

    Published online: 20 Oct 2008 We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six coun...

  10. Family migration in a cross-national perspective: The importance of institutional and cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Migration rates of dual-earner couples are lower than those of male-breadwinner couples. We revisit this issue using a cross-national comparative perspective and examine heterogeneity in the role of female employment in couple relocations. We propose a theoretical framework in which national levels of support for female employment and normative expectations about gender roles act as moderators of the relationship between couple type (i.e., dual-earner and male-breadwinner and family migration. Methods: We deploy discrete-time event history analyses of harmonised longitudinal data from four large-scale datasets from Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden, covering the 1992-2011 period. Results: Consistent with prior research, we find that male-breadwinner couples migrate more often than dual-earner couples in all countries, suggesting that traditional gender structures affecting family migration operate across very different contexts. We also find cross-country differences in the estimated effects of different sorts of absolute and relative partner resources on family migration. Conclusions: We take our results as preliminary evidence that national contexts can serve as moderators of the relationship between within-couple employment arrangements and family migration decisions. Contribution: Our study contributes to family migration literature by illustrating how cross-national comparisons are a valuable methodological approach to put prevailing micro-level explanations of the relationship between female employment and family migration in context.

  11. The relationship between suicide and Islam: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Chandia, Mahmood

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, suicide rates were low in Islamic countries. However, the process of modernization can erode the ties of the individual to society and lead to questioning of religion and weakening of faith. Therefore, a cross-national study with the null hypothesis that there will be no relationship between general population suicide rates and the percentage of adherents of Islam was undertaken. The correlation between general population suicide rates and the percentage of people in the general population adherent to Islam, whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality, was examined using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. There were significant negative correlations between general population suicide rate and the percentage of people adherent to Islam in males and females whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality. Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship and the direction of causality from this ecological study due to ecological fallacy. However, there is case to study further the impact of Islam on suicide by in-depth study of adherents Islam with and without suicidal ideation and behaviors. ‎

  12. Contextual influences on environmental concerns cross-nationally: A multilevel investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, as environmental conditions are recognized as some of the most important problems facing the world. Research examining this globalization of environmental concern shown in public opinion surveys emphasizes the importance of context yet is currently underspecified. To address this gap, this research uses a multi-level, cross-national study to examine individual-level and country-level influences on three measures of environmental concern: environmental threat awareness, environmental efficacy, and willingness to pay. At the individual level, education, age, and gender affect environmental concerns. At the national level, economic, political, and environmental factors affect environmental concerns. Importantly, contextual factors differ in their effects depending on the dimension of environmental concern measured. Results from cross-level interactions for education confirm these complexities across these measures, supporting a dimensionality argument. The importance of the measurement of environmental concern shown in this research is emphasized for future cross-national scholarship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The cross-national structure of mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Peter; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bunting, Brendan; Chatterji, Somnath; Ciutan, Marius; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate

    2017-12-19

    The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure. We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478-15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA). A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor. These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.

  14. A Cross-National Comparison of School Students' Perceptions Regarding High Performing Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerim Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-national scenario based study exam-ined fourth-grade students’ perceptions of high-performing classmates in terms of their ex-pected intellectual abilities, positive social qual-ities and popularity among their peers across seven countries. The overall results show that high academic achievements predominantly lead to positive expectations within the peer group. However, pronounced differences were found between the countries. The results indi-cated that students from Spanish-speaking countries viewed their potential high-perform-ing peers most favorably, followed by students from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ger-many. The least favorable expectations, but by no means negative attitude, were exhibited by students from the two East-Asian countries Ko-rea and Vietnam. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the hypothetical suc-cessful classmates had less influence on student perceptions of high-performers. These findings have implications for the educational provision of high performing students in different cross-national contexts.

  15. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values...

  16. Bibliometric analysis of systematics production in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michan Aguirre, Layla

    2011-01-01

    I compare six bibliographic databases with information on Latin American systematics: Biosis, CAB, periodica, SCI, scopus and Zoological record. the databases are characterized and compared considering their content, temporal, typological, geographical, thematical coverage, kind of access and new taxon description, to identify which and how many should be used to be more representative. Of the 1363 journals analyzed, 36.5% are found in more than one database and 63.46% are recorded in a single one. zoological record contains 63421 documents, Biosis 19079, CAB 14363, periodica 11185, SCI 3257 and scopus 916. CAB and ZR are the oldest databases, the average number of articles published per year was 6417 for Biosis, 433 for ZR, 361 for periodica, 145 for CAB, 91 for SCI and 30 for Scopus. According to the network analysis, there are stronger relations between SCI and Biosis, which share at least 16% of titles, CAB and Biosis share 15%, Biosis and ZR 14%, and CAB and ZR 11%. Based on the cladogram obtained from a parsimony analysis on the shared journals, the strongest relation is between Biosis and SCI; periodica has the largest number of exclusive journals with 285. ZR has 72.9% of published articles with descriptions of new taxa and an average of 322 a year, CAB 54.6% with 82, and periodica 24.6% with 90. None of databases meets the characteristics to be used as a single source of information, therefore it would be appropriate to use different combinations according to the aim of the analysis. biosis has the most comprehensive information on any current taxon, zoological record and CAB have a broader temporal coverage and include mainly animals or plants, respectively. SCI has the largest number of documents in mainstream journals, with references, citations and bibliometric indicators. periodica has the largest number of documents and temporal coverage published in the area. The cladogram proved to be an optimal visualization tool to represent the main features of

  17. Occurrence of Phlebitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen P; Peng, Yu X

    Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are commonly used in clinical practice. However, varying degrees of phlebitis often occur in patients receiving intravenous injections. The relevant literature suggests that phlebitis occurrence is highly associated with the catheter gauge, insertion site, and catheterization duration. Nevertheless, no meta-analysis has been performed on the influence of these three factors on the occurrence of phlebitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether any significant differences exist in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge, between catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs, or between catheters inserted for more than 96 hours and those inserted for 96 hours or less. Using a systematic approach, we searched for literature published between 2006 and 2017 in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library databases. We used Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2 to perform our meta-analysis. After the screening and review processes, we identified 17 studies that met our selection conditions. Among these studies, 14 contained complete data for meta-analysis. These studies involved 4,343 patients and 5,846 PVCs. Regarding the overall effect size in the meta-analysis, the results of the forest plot comparing catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge presented a risk ratio (RR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.67, 1.17], p = .380), indicating no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of the aforementioned gauges. The results of the forest plot comparing catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs presented an RR of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [0.82, 1.34], p = .696), indicating no statistically significant difference in

  18. A bibliometric analysis of systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Silke; Jit, Mark; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G; Burchett, Helen E D

    2018-04-19

    SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016. Searches were conducted in seven scientific databases according to a standardized search protocol, initially in 2014 with the most recent update in January 2017. Abstracts and titles were screened according to specific inclusion criteria. All included publications were coded into relevant categories based on a standardized protocol and subsequently analysed to look at trends in time, topic, area of focus, population and geographic location. After screening for inclusion criteria, 1285 systematic reviews were included in the database. While in 2008 there were only 34 systematic reviews on a vaccine-related topic, this increased to 322 in 2016. The most frequent pathogens/diseases studied were influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcus. There were several areas of duplication and overlap. As more systematic reviews are published it becomes increasingly time-consuming for decision-makers to identify relevant information among the ever-increasing volume available. The risk of duplication also increases, particularly given the current lack of coordination of systematic reviews on vaccine-related questions, both in terms of their commissioning and their execution. The SYSVAC database offers an accessible catalogue of vaccine-relevant systematic reviews with, where possible access or a link to the full-text. SYSVAC provides a freely searchable platform to identify existing vaccine-policy-relevant systematic

  19. Systematic analysis of research underfunding in maternal and perinatal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, N M; Atun, R

    2009-02-01

    Little published evidence supports the widely held contention that research in pregnancy is underfunded compared with other disease areas. To assess absolute and relative government and charitable funding for maternal and perinatal research in the UK and internationally. SEARCH STRATEGY, SELECTION CRITERIA, DATA COLLECTION, AND ANALYSIS: Major research funding bodies and alliances were identified from an Internet search and discussions with opinion leaders/senior investigators. Websites and annual reports were reviewed for details of strategy, research spend, grants awarded, and allocation to maternal and/or perinatal disease using generic and disease-specific search terms. Within the imprecision in the data sets, global philanthropy concentrated on service provision rather than research. Although research expenditure has been deemed as appropriate for 'reproductive health' disease burden in the UK, there are no data on the equity of maternal/perinatal research spend against disease burden, which globally may justify a manyfold increase. This systematic review of research expenditure and priorities from national and international funding bodies suggests relative underinvestment in maternal/perinatal health. Contributing factors include the low political priority given to women's health, the challenging nature of clinical research in pregnancy, and research capacity dearth as a consequence of chronic underinvestment.

  20. Systematic analysis of γ-ray families, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semba, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric nuclear interactions caused by cosmic rays are observed in the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. A systematic analysis is made on 106 events (γ-ray families) with visible energy in the range of 100 - 300 TeV. A new method called 'decascading' is introduced to pick up a cluster of γ-rays and electrons in a family, so that the cluster is an air cascade from one parent γ-ray. The application of 'decascading' method to the family data gives information on original γ-rays produced at the atmospheric interactions. The results are compared with data from the traget interactions at lower energy range ΣEsub(γ)=20 - 100 TeV). The conclusion is that the characteristics of nuclear interactions at the concerned family energy range (E deg approximately equal to 1,000 TeV) are in accordance with those at the target interaction range (E deg approximately equal to 100 TeV), with increased ratio of frequencies of a heavy fire-ball (SH-quantum) to a small and usual fire-ball (H-quantum). (author)

  1. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Greta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study

  2. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    2008-06-06

    Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity

  3. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    Full Text Available Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established.To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works.A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016 and IEEExplore (1984-2016 databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification.Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated.Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved.A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43% of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95% on crackle, 9 (11.69% on stridor, 9

  4. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serumselenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context. PMID:22073154

  5. Sequential analysis in neonatal research-systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Elie, Valéry; Ha, Phuong Thi Viet; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2018-05-01

    As more new drugs are discovered, traditional designs come at their limits. Ten years after the adoption of the European Paediatric Regulation, we performed a systematic review on the US National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica database of sequential trials involving newborns. Out of 326 identified scientific reports, 21 trials were included. They enrolled 2832 patients, of whom 2099 were analyzed: the median number of neonates included per trial was 48 (IQR 22-87), median gestational age was 28.7 (IQR 27.9-30.9) weeks. Eighteen trials used sequential techniques to determine sample size, while 3 used continual reassessment methods for dose-finding. In 16 studies reporting sufficient data, the sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674) with respect to a traditional trial. When the number of neonates finally included in the analysis was considered, the difference became significant: 35 (57%) patients (IQR 10 to 136.5, p = 0.0033). Sequential trial designs have not been frequently used in Neonatology. They might potentially be able to reduce the number of patients in drug trials, although this is not always the case. What is known: • In evaluating rare diseases in fragile populations, traditional designs come at their limits. About 20% of pediatric trials are discontinued, mainly because of recruitment problems. What is new: • Sequential trials involving newborns were infrequently used and only a few (n = 21) are available for analysis. • The sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674).

  6. A systematic analysis of the science of sandboxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandboxes are increasingly important building materials for secure software systems. In recognition of their potential to improve the security posture of many systems at various points in the development lifecycle, researchers have spent the last several decades developing, improving, and evaluating sandboxing techniques. What has been done in this space? Where are the barriers to advancement? What are the gaps in these efforts? We systematically analyze a decade of sandbox research from five top-tier security and systems conferences using qualitative content analysis, statistical clustering, and graph-based metrics to answer these questions and more. We find that the term “sandbox” currently has no widely accepted or acceptable definition. We use our broad scope to propose the first concise and comprehensive definition for “sandbox” that consistently encompasses research sandboxes. We learn that the sandboxing landscape covers a range of deployment options and policy enforcement techniques collectively capable of defending diverse sets of components while mitigating a wide range of vulnerabilities. Researchers consistently make security, performance, and applicability claims about their sandboxes and tend to narrowly define the claims to ensure they can be evaluated. Those claims are validated using multi-faceted strategies spanning proof, analytical analysis, benchmark suites, case studies, and argumentation. However, we find two cases for improvement: (1 the arguments researchers present are often ad hoc and (2 sandbox usability is mostly uncharted territory. We propose ways to structure arguments to ensure they fully support their corresponding claims and suggest lightweight means of evaluating sandbox usability.

  7. Analysis of Content Shared in Online Cancer Communities: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Krahmer, Emiel; Verberne, Suzan; Mols, Floortje

    2018-04-03

    The content that cancer patients and their relatives (ie, posters) share in online cancer communities has been researched in various ways. In the past decade, researchers have used automated analysis methods in addition to manual coding methods. Patients, providers, researchers, and health care professionals can learn from experienced patients, provided that their experience is findable. The aim of this study was to systematically review all relevant literature that analyzes user-generated content shared within online cancer communities. We reviewed the quality of available research and the kind of content that posters share with each other on the internet. A computerized literature search was performed via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect. The last search was conducted in July 2017. Papers were selected if they included the following terms: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or internet). We selected 27 papers and then subjected them to a 14-item quality checklist independently scored by 2 investigators. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 16 were of high quality and 11 were of adequate quality. Of those 27 studies, 15 were manually coded, 7 automated, and 5 used a combination of methods. The best results can be seen in the papers that combined both analytical methods. The number of analyzed posts ranged from 200 to 1,500,000; the number of analyzed posters ranged from 75 to 90,000. The studies analyzing large numbers of posts mainly related to breast cancer, whereas those analyzing small numbers were related to other types of cancers. A total of 12 studies involved some or entirely automatic analysis of the user-generated content. All the authors referred to two main content categories: informational support and emotional support. In all, 15 studies reported only on the content, 6 studies explicitly reported on content and social

  8. Governance and Regional Variation of Homicide Rates: Evidence From Cross-National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Criminological theories of cross-national studies of homicide have underestimated the effects of quality governance of liberal democracy and region. Data sets from several sources are combined and a comprehensive model of homicide is proposed. Results of the spatial regression model, which controls for the effect of spatial autocorrelation, show that quality governance, human development, economic inequality, and ethnic heterogeneity are statistically significant in predicting homicide. In addition, regions of Latin America and non-Muslim Sub-Saharan Africa have significantly higher rates of homicides ceteris paribus while the effects of East Asian countries and Islamic societies are not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with the expectation of the new modernization and regional theories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  10. Cross-National Applicability of a Parsimonious Measure of Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin

    2016-04-01

    Durvasula and Lysonski's paper presented a shorter version of the Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture Scale (hereafter AGCC), which was developed by Cleveland and Laroche to address scarcity of measurements that determined how individuals acquired and became a part of the emerging global consumer culture. The following critique discusses a few concerns and three major shortcomings of the paper, including skewed sample frame and incorrect choice of countries for assessing cross-national applicability of the scale, not discussing the differences in the means of the seven distinct dimensions of AGCC across the four nations studied by the authors, and absence of any critical review of existing consumer acculturation scales vis-à-vis AGCC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  12. Ethics policies and ethics work in cross-national genetic research and data sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.

    2017-01-01

    of scientific work. This paper takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query, what makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open-access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines...

  13. The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali O.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura H.; Benjet, Corina; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Hisateru, Tachi; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie; Kiejna, Andrzej; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Browne, Mark Oakley; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, José; ten Have, Margreet L.; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high-income countries. Method Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (N=124,902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8% and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high and higher-middle income countries than in low/lower-middle income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3%–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6%–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime comorbidity was observed in 60.2% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment-use and comorbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes. Conclusion Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability. PMID:28222820

  14. Cross-national differences in women's repartnering behaviour in Europe: The role of individual demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gałęzewska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rising union instability across Europe, more individuals now re-enter the partner market and eventually repartner. The increase in cohabitation may also be influencing repartnering behaviour. While several studies examine individual-level characteristics related to repartnering, few take a broader view and compare repartnering levels or explore how demographic characteristics associated with repartnering differ across Europe. Objective: We describe levels of repartnering and the characteristics of those exposed to repartnering in 11 European countries. We then examine whether the relationship between women's demographic characteristics at union dissolution and repartnering are similar or different across countries. Given the recent increase in cohabitation, we pay particular attention to prior cohabitation and marriage, but we also compare age at first union dissolution, first union duration, and presence of children. Methods: Using the Harmonized Histories database, we apply discrete-time hazard models separately by country and to pooled cross-national data. Results: Despite large differences in levels of repartnering, in most countries we find similar associations between demographic characteristics and repartnering. First union type did not matter after controlling for age and children, except in France, where those who previously cohabited had significantly lower risks of repartnering. Age at union dissolution and presence of children are negatively associated with repartnering in almost all countries. Conclusions: Although cohabitation has increased everywhere, prior experience of a coresidential partnership outside of formal marriage makes little difference to repartnering behaviour after controls (except in France. However, regardless of country, older women and/or mothers are less likely to form second unions. Contribution: This study contributes to previous research by examining whether the effects of women

  15. Production and citation of cochrane systematic reviews: a bibliometrics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Clarke, Mike; Du, Liang; Wang, Li; Zhong, Dake

    2014-05-06

    To evaluate the production and utilization of Cochrane systematic reviews(CSRs) and to analyze its influential factors, so as to improve the capacity of translating CSRs into practice. All CSRs and protocols were retrieved from the Cochrane Library ISSUE 2, 2011 and citation data were retrieved from SCI database. Citation analysis was used to analyze the situation of CSRs production and utilization. CSR publication had grown from an annual average of 32 to 718 documents. Only one developing country was among the ten countries with the largest amount of publications. High income countries accounted for 83% of CSR publications and 90.8% of cited counts. 34.7% of CSRs had a cited count of 0, while only 0.9% had been cited more than 50 times. Highly cited CSRs were published in England, Australia, Canada, USA and other high income countries. The countries with a Cochrane center or a Cochrane methodology group had a greater capability of CSRs production and citing than others. The CSRs addressing the topics of diseases were more than those targeted at public health issues. There was a big gap in citations of different interventions even for the same topic. The capability of CSR production and translation grew rapidly, but varied among countries and institutions, which was affected by several factors such as the capability of research, the resourcesand the applicability of the evidence. It is important to improve evidence translation through educating, training and prioritizing the problems based on real demands of end user. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  17. Open Access Journal Policies: A Systematic Analysis of Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand; Lobner, Katie; Fritz, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The open access movement has pushed for greater access to scientific knowledge by expanding access to scientific journal articles. There is limited information about the extent to which open access policies have been adopted by radiology journals. We performed a systematic analysis to ascertain the proportion of radiology journals with open access options. A search was performed with the assistance of a clinical informationist. Full and mixed English-language diagnostic and interventional radiology Web of Science journals (impact factors > 1.0) were included. Nuclear medicine, radiation oncology, physics, and solicitation-only journals were excluded. Primary outcome was open access option (yes or no) with additional outcomes including presence or absence of embargo, complete or partial copyright transfer, publication fees, and self-archiving policies. Secondary outcomes included journal citations, journal impact factors, immediacy, Eigenfactor, and article influence scores. Independent double readings were performed with differences resolved by consensus, supplemented by contacting editorial staff at each journal. In all, 125 journals were identified; review yielded 49 journals (39%, mean impact factor of 2.61). Thirty-six of the journals had open access options (73.4%), and four journals were exclusively open access (8.2%). Twelve-month embargoes were most commonly cited (90.6%) with 28.6% of journals stating that they did not require a complete transfer of copyright. Prices for open access options ranged from $750 to $4,000 (median $3,000). No statistically significant differences were found in journal impact measures comparing journals with open access options to journals without open access options. Diagnostic and interventional radiology journals have widely adopted open access options with a few radiology journals being exclusively open access. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meditation for posttraumatic stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lara; Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Colaiaco, Benjamin; Apaydin, Eric; Sorbero, Melony E; Booth, Marika; Shanman, Roberta M; Hempel, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of meditation interventions to provide estimates of their efficacy and safety in treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review was based on an established protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42015025782) and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, functional status, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 10 trials on meditation interventions for PTSD with 643 participants met inclusion criteria. Across interventions, adjunctive meditation interventions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and the mantram repetition program improve PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups, but the findings are based on low and moderate quality of evidence. Effects were positive but not statistically significant for quality of life and anxiety, and no studies addressed functional status. The variety of meditation intervention types, the short follow-up times, and the quality of studies limited analyses. No adverse events were reported in the included studies; only half of the studies reported on safety. Meditation appears to be effective for PTSD and depression symptoms, but in order to increase confidence in findings, more high-quality studies are needed on meditation as adjunctive treatment with PTSD-diagnosed participant samples large enough to detect statistical differences in outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2017-01-01

    Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media—often referred to as altmetrics—are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually—we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics. PMID:28399145

  20. Treatment of unicameral bone cyst: systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Muayad; Thacker, Mihir; Kadhim, Amjed; Holmes, Laurens

    2014-03-01

    Different treatment modalities have been utilized to treat unicameral bone cyst (UBC), but evidence has not been fully described to support one treatment over another and the optimal treatment is controversial. The aim of this quantitative systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of different UBC treatment modalities. We utilized Pubmed to isolate retrospective studies on patients with UBC who received any kind of treatment. The included studies needed to have a minimum sample size of 15 patients, and have provided data on radiographic healing outcome. Sixty-two articles were selected for the meta-analysis from a total of 463 articles. The cumulative sample size was 3,211 patients with 3,217 UBC, and male to female ratio was 2.2:1. The summary or pool estimate of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injection resulted in a healing rate of (77.4 %) that was comparable to bone marrow injection (77.9 %). A higher healing rate was observed with MPA injection when inner wall disruption was performed. The pool estimate of bone marrow with demineralized bone matrix injection was high (98.7 %). UBC healing rate after surgical curettage was comparable whether autograft or allograft was utilized (90 %). UBC treatment with flexible intramedullary nails without curettage provided almost 100% healing rate, while continuous decompression with cannulated screws provided 89 % healing rate. Conservative treatment indicated a healing rate of 64.2, 95 % CI (26.7-101.8). Active treatment for UBC provided variable healing rates and the outcomes were favorable relative to conservative treatment. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies and reporting bias, the interpretation of these findings should be handled with caution.

  1. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ke

    Full Text Available Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media-often referred to as altmetrics-are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually-we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics.

  2. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  3. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Steenen (Serge A.); A.J. van Wijk (Arjen); G.J.M.G. Van Der Heijden (Geert J.M.G.); R. van Westrhenen (Roos); J. de Lange (Jan); A. de Jongh (Ad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication

  4. Citizenship rights for immigrants: national political processes and cross-national convergence in western Europe, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Ruud; Michalowski, Ines; Waibel, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Immigrant citizenship rights in the nation-state reference both theories of cross-national convergence and the resilience of national political processes. This article investigates European countries' attribution of rights to immigrants: Have these rights become more inclusive and more similar across countries? Are they affected by EU membership, the role of the judiciary, the party in power, the size of the immigrant electorate, or pressure exerted by anti-immigrant parties? Original data on 10 European countries, 1980-2008, reveal no evidence for cross-national convergence. Rights tended to become more inclusive until 2002, but stagnated afterward. Electoral changes drive these trends: growth of the immigrant electorate led to expansion, but countermobilization by right-wing parties slowed or reversed liberalizations. These electoral mechanisms are in turn shaped by long-standing policy traditions, leading to strong path dependence and the reproduction of preexisting cross-national differences.

  5. Teacher Salary and National Achievement: A Cross-National Analysis of 30 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Motoko; Chiu, Yu-Lun; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Liang, Guodong

    2012-01-01

    Using national teacher salary data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and student achievement data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study compared secondary school teacher salary in 30 countries and examined the relationship between average teacher salary and national…

  6. Survivalism and Public Opinion on Criminality: A Cross-National Analysis of Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Adamczyk, Amy; Cao, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    Explanations of variability in public opinion on crime have drawn disproportionately from the literature on specific symbolic orientations including religious fundamentalism and racial prejudice. In contrast, this article hypothesizes that public opinion is linked to the strength of a general cultural axis of nations: survivalism vs.…

  7. Work in the Family and in the Labor Market: A Cross-National, Reciprocal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Rosenfeld, Rachel A.

    1990-01-01

    Examined interrelationships by sex between domestic work and labor market work in the United States, Canada, Norway, and Sweden. Findings suggested that Scandinavian women used their greater opportunities for part-time employment to reconcile family and labor market responsibilities. No significant effects were observed for men in any of the…

  8. Searching for the Golden Model of Education: Cross-National Analysis of Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodovski, Katerina; Byun, Soo-yong; Chykina, Volha; Chung, Hee Jin

    2017-01-01

    We utilised four waves of TIMSS data in addition to the information we have collected on countries' educational systems to examine whether different degrees of standardisation, differentiation, proportion of students in private schools and governmental spending on education influence students' math achievement, its variation and socioeconomic…

  9. Cross-national logo evaluation analysis: An individual-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. van der Lans (Ralf); J.A. Cote (Joseph); C.A. Cole (Catherine); S.M. Leong (Siew Meng); A. Smidts (Ale); P.W. Henderson (Pamela); C. Bluemelhuber (Christian); P.A. Bottomley (Paul); J.R. Doyle (John); A.S. Fedorikhin (Alexander); J. Moorthy (Janakiraman); B. Ramaseshan (Balasubramanian); B.H. Schmitt (Bernd)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe universality of design perception and response is tested using data collected from 10 countries: Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, Great Britain, India, The Netherlands, Russia, Singapore, and the United States. A Bayesian, finite-mixture, structural equation model is developed

  10. Evaluating pharmaceutical policies using cross-national comparisons and time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santa Ana Tellez, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of different pharmaceutical policies on the use of medicines (e.g. antibiotics). These policies were evaluated using diverse data sources from the public and private sector in countries in Africa, Latin America, and Western Europe. In addition, the

  11. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.

  12. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test th...

  13. Cross-National Estimates of the Effects of Family Background on Student Achievement: A Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 to examine whether the influence of family background on educational achievement is sensitive to different measures of the family's socio-economic status (SES). The study finds that, when a multidimensional measure of SES is used, the family background has a stronger influence on achievement across countries than if the simpler measure of SES is used. The new measure, which incorporated aspects of parental occupation, education and cultural resources, was not biased towards more wealthy nations, Western nations, or urban population. However, when a proxy of wealth was included in the measure of SES, this reduced the other measured effects of family background on achievement in many countries.

  14. Do needs for security and certainty predict cultural and economic conservatism? A cross-national analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malka, A.; Soto, C.J.; Inzlicht, M.; Lelkes, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether individual differences in needs for security and certainty predict conservative (vs. liberal) position on both cultural and economic political issues and whether these effects are conditional on nation-level characteristics and individual-level political engagement. Analyses with

  15. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  16. A cross-national analysis of how economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Tim G; Peterson, Garry D; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    We used socioeconomic models that included economic inequality to predict biodiversity loss, measured as the proportion of threatened plant and vertebrate species, across 50 countries. Our main goal was to evaluate whether economic inequality, measured as the Gini index of income distribution, improved the explanatory power of our statistical models. We compared four models that included the following: only population density, economic footprint (i.e., the size of the economy relative to the country area), economic footprint and income inequality (Gini index), and an index of environmental governance. We also tested the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, but it was not supported by the data. Statistical comparisons of the models revealed that the model including both economic footprint and inequality was the best predictor of threatened species. It significantly outperformed population density alone and the environmental governance model according to the Akaike information criterion. Inequality was a significant predictor of biodiversity loss and significantly improved the fit of our models. These results confirm that socioeconomic inequality is an important factor to consider when predicting rates of anthropogenic biodiversity loss.

  17. Institutionalization of deinstitutionalization: a cross-national analysis of mental health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gordon C; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-01-01

    Policies generate accountability in that they offer a standard against which government performance can be assessed. A central question of this study is whether ideological imprint left by policy is realized in the time following its adoption. National mental health policy expressly promotes the notion of deinstitutionalization, which mandates that individuals be cared for in the community rather than in institutional environments. We investigate whether mental health policy adoption induced a transformation in the structure of mental health systems, namely psychiatric beds, using panel data on 193 countries between 2001 and 2011. Our striking regression results demonstrate that late-adopters of mental health policy are more likely to reduce psychiatric beds in mental hospitals and other biomedical settings than innovators, whereas they are less likely than non-adopters to reduce psychiatric beds in general hospitals. It can be inferred late adopters are motivated to implement deinstitutionalization for technical efficiency rather than social legitimacy reasons.

  18. Web campaigning in the 2009 European Parliament elections: A cross-national comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Cunha, C.

    2013-01-01

    Political communication has transformed drastically since the Internet made its way into the political arena. Political parties seem unable to do without a website or a social networking profile any longer, particularly in election campaigns. One of the many approaches to studying online political

  19. The skill-divide in job quality: a cross-national analysis of 28 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Haya

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the skill divide in job quality and the role of social institutions in structuring the relation of workers' qualifications to the attributes of their jobs. Four measures of job quality are examined: job security, job achievement, job content and work schedule flexibility. The study is based on the 2005 ISSP module on work orientations and encompasses 28 countries. Obtained through multilevel modeling, the findings show that low-skilled workers are disadvantaged in all aspects of job quality. However, skill inequality in the quality of employment depends on countries' characteristics, with declining inequality in countries at higher levels of technological development and to some extent also in times of technological growth. At times of high unemployment, skill disparities in job security widen while on other measures of job quality they decline. Under high market regulation, the low skilled enjoy better job security but on other measures, skill inequalities increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Through Deming's Eyes: A Cross-National Analysis of Quality Assurance Policies in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of academic programs in the United Kingdom, United States, and Netherlands have followed three general approaches: the logic of competitive markets; application of incentives; and professional self-regulation. Strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for improving academic quality are examined through the lens of…

  1. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  2. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  3. Acupuncture for ankle sprain: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is one of the most frequently encountered musculoskeletal injuries; however, the efficacy of acupuncture in treating ankle sprains remains uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence regarding acupuncture for ankle sprains. Methods We searched 15 data sources and two trial registries up to February 2012. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture were included if they involved patients with ankle sprains and reported outcomes of symptom improvement, including pain. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used. Risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed based on acupuncture type, grade of sprain, and control type. Sensitivity analyses were also performed with respect to risk of bias, sample size, and outcomes reported. Results Seventeen trials involving 1820 participants were included. Trial quality was generally poor, with just three reporting adequate methods of randomization and only one a method of allocation concealment. Significantly more participants in acupuncture groups reported global symptom improvement compared with no acupuncture groups (RR of symptoms persisting with acupuncture = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42–0.77). However, this is probably an overestimate due to the heterogeneity (I2 = 51%) and high risk of bias of the included studies. Acupuncture as an add-on treatment also improved global symptoms compared with other treatments only, without significant variability (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.51–0.73, I2 = 1%). The benefit of acupuncture remained significant when the analysis was limited to two studies with a low risk of bias. Acupuncture was more effective than various controls in relieving pain, facilitating return to normal activity, and promoting quality of life, but these analyses were based on only a small number of studies. Acupuncture did not appear to be associated with

  4. Acupuncture for ankle sprain: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jimin; Hahn, Seokyung; Park, Ji-Yeun; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyangsook

    2013-03-04

    Ankle sprain is one of the most frequently encountered musculoskeletal injuries; however, the efficacy of acupuncture in treating ankle sprains remains uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence regarding acupuncture for ankle sprains. We searched 15 data sources and two trial registries up to February 2012. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture were included if they involved patients with ankle sprains and reported outcomes of symptom improvement, including pain. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used. Risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed based on acupuncture type, grade of sprain, and control type. Sensitivity analyses were also performed with respect to risk of bias, sample size, and outcomes reported. Seventeen trials involving 1820 participants were included. Trial quality was generally poor, with just three reporting adequate methods of randomization and only one a method of allocation concealment. Significantly more participants in acupuncture groups reported global symptom improvement compared with no acupuncture groups (RR of symptoms persisting with acupuncture = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42-0.77). However, this is probably an overestimate due to the heterogeneity (I2 = 51%) and high risk of bias of the included studies. Acupuncture as an add-on treatment also improved global symptoms compared with other treatments only, without significant variability (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.51-0.73, I2 = 1%). The benefit of acupuncture remained significant when the analysis was limited to two studies with a low risk of bias. Acupuncture was more effective than various controls in relieving pain, facilitating return to normal activity, and promoting quality of life, but these analyses were based on only a small number of studies. Acupuncture did not appear to be associated with adverse events. Given

  5. Systematic mapping review on student's performance analysis using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper classify the various existing predicting models that are used for monitoring and improving students' performance at schools and higher learning institutions. It analyses all the areas within the educational data mining methodology. Two databases were chosen for this study and a systematic mapping study was ...

  6. Inflammatory mediators in human epilepsy : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Evelien E.; van den Munckhof, Bart; Braun, Kees P J; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E.

    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that investigated inflammatory mediators in human epilepsy. Studies reporting on inflammatory mediators in serum,

  7. Effectiveness and feasibility of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Chapelle, C.F.; Veersema, S.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether hysteroscopic sterilization is feasible and effective in preventing pregnancy. Secondarily, to identify risk factors for failure of hysteroscopic sterilization. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Women undergoing hysteroscopic

  8. Attitudes on marriage and new relationships: Cross-national evidence on the deinstitutionalization of marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treas, Judith; Lui, Jonathan; Gubernskaya, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. OBJECTIVE Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. METHODS Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. RESULTS Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex). For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. CONCLUSIONS Attitude changes on ‘new relationships’ and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention. PMID:26052248

  9. Social support, volunteering and health around the world: cross-national evidence from 139 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Calvo, Rocio; Avendano, Mauricio; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-03-01

    High levels of social capital and social integration are associated with self-rated health in many developed countries. However, it is not known whether this association extends to non-western and less economically advanced countries. We examine associations between social support, volunteering, and self-rated health in 139 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Data come from the Gallup World Poll, an internationally comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 and over. Volunteering was measured by self-reports of volunteering to an organization in the past month. Social support was based on self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends. We started by estimating random coefficient (multi-level) models and then used multivariate logistic regression to model health as a function of social support and volunteering, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and religiosity. We found statistically significant evidence of cross-national variation in the association between social capital variables and self-rated health. In the multivariate logistic model, self-rated health were significantly associated with having social support from friends and relatives and volunteering. Results from stratified analyses indicate that these associations are strikingly consistent across countries. Our results indicate that the link between social capital and health is not restricted to high-income countries but extends across many geographical regions regardless of their national-income level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived social stigma and attitudes towards seeking therapy in training: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiuni, Malena; Jones, Fergal W; Camic, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Given the potential value of undergoing psychological therapy when training as a therapist, it is important to understand what influences students' decisions regarding seeking therapy. The study examined the relationship between clinical psychology students' perception of the social stigma attached to receiving therapy and their attitudes toward seeking therapy. Students from Argentina (n = 121), England (n = 211), and the United States (n = 130) completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived social stigma, attitudes, and other variables associated with therapy-seeking. The results revealed significant cross-national differences, with Argentinean students showing the lowest levels of perceived social stigma for receiving therapy, followed by English and Americans. English students showed relatively less positive attitudes toward seeking therapy than their Argentinean and American counterparts. Social stigma predicted students' attitudes toward seeking therapy among English and American but not Argentinean students. The relationship between perceived social stigma and attitudes was moderated by nationality. Implications for training are discussed, including English and American clinical psychology courses encouraging their students to reflect on the effect of perceived social stigma on their decision-making.

  11. Searching for Logistics and Regulatory Determinants Affecting Overseas Direct Purchase: An Empirical Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo Cho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce has been very successful in the last decade. Merchants and consumers have been encouraged to participate in e-commerce, including B2C or B2B. B2C is not limited to a domestic market anymore. Consumers across countries are interested in overseas direct purchases. They are willing to purchase products from major online shopping sites such as Amazon and eBay. We aim at gaining a better understanding of overseas direct purchases. Determinants of overseas direct purchases based on cross-national data are identified. Accordingly, we investigate logistics and regulatory determinants. Furthermore, external environments such as regulatory institutions and globalization are discussed in terms of overseas direct purchases. This study incorporates theoretical foundations into empirical findings. Specifically, the institutional theory and the resource-based view are applied to explain the internal and external determinants to increase overseas direct purchases. We conduct an empirical test using panel data for each country to identify the various determinants associated with overseas direct purchases.

  12. What children think about their rights and their well-being: A cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's Well-Being. This unique survey explores children's own perspectives on their well-being (subjective well-being), their perceptions and knowledge of their rights, and their reports on their right to participation. It includes data from more than 54,000 children aged 8-12 from 16 countries around the world. Our results showed clear cross-national differences between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights and their reports on participation. Also, children's participation in different contexts in their lives showed an association with their subjective well-being; a weaker association was found between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights. These results indicate that children's right to participation and, to some degree, their knowledge and thinking about their rights is an indicator of their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Cross-national differences in the holistic use of traditional East Asian medicine in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Mahn; Kim, Jibum

    2016-12-23

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been one of the popular strategies for health promotion. Traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) is one of the most popular CAM practices in the world and there are suggestions that its holistic utilization is important for users to gain its effects for health promotion. In this context, this study investigates the extent to which TEAM users in East Asian countries utilize various modalities of TEAM holistically. It provides a model that explains cross-national differences in the extent of the holistic use of TEAM between China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Using the 2010 East Asian Social Survey, regression models specify the relationship between the holistic use of TEAM and the geographical location (country). The presence of TEAM doctors who hold the comprehensive and exclusive practice rights over TEAM is found to be conducive to the holistic utilization of various TEAM modalities. Thus, Taiwanese and Koreans use TEAM more holistically than Chinese and even more so than Japanese. The result suggests that the manner in which TEAM is institutionalized affect the extent to which TEAM users utilize various TEAM modalities together and potentially the health promotion effects of TEAM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cross-national perspectives about weight-based bullying in youth: nature, extent and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K; Luedicke, J; Forhan, M; Danielsdottir, S

    2016-08-01

    No cross-national studies have examined public perceptions about weight-based bullying in youth. To conduct a multinational examination of public views about (i) the prevalence/seriousness of weight-based bullying in youth; (ii) the role of parents, educators, health providers and government in addressing this problem and (iii) implementing policy actions to reduce weight-based bullying. A cross-sectional survey of adults in the United States, Canada, Iceland and Australia (N = 2866). Across all countries, weight-based bullying was identified as the most prevalent reason for youth bullying, by a substantial margin over other forms of bullying (race/ethnicity, sexual orientation and religion). Participants viewed parents and teachers as playing major roles in efforts to reduce weight-based bullying. Most participants across countries (77-94%) viewed healthcare providers to be important intervention agents. Participants (65-87%) supported government augmentation of anti-bullying laws to include prohibiting weight-based bullying. Women expressed higher agreement for policy actions than men, with no associations found for participants' race/ethnicity or weight. Causal beliefs about obesity were associated with policy support across countries. Across countries, strong recognition exists of weight-based bullying and the need to address it. These findings may inform policy-level actions and clinical practices concerning youth vulnerable to weight-based bullying. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Attitudes on marriage and new relationships: Cross-national evidence on the deinstitutionalization of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Treas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. Objective: Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. Methods: Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. Results: Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex. For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. Conclusions: Attitude changes on 'new relationships' and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention.

  16. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture : A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially

  17. Pain in European long-term care facilities: Cross-national study in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Liperoti, R.; Noro, A.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Cherubini, A.; Dell'Aquila, G.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    There have been very few and limited cross-national comparisons concerning pain among residents of long-term care facilities in Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study has been to document the prevalence of pain, its frequency and severity as well as its correlates in three European

  18. The Worldwide Growth of Private Higher Education: Cross-National Patterns of Higher Education Institution Foundings by Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates cross-national patterns of public and private higher education institution (HEI) foundings from 1960 to 2006. It argues that in addition to national demographic and economic factors, patterns of HEI foundings also reflect world-level models about how nations should structure their higher education systems. Findings…

  19. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J; Reichart, Catrien G; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C; Nolen, Willem A; Hillegers, Manon H J

    2016-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10-18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M.; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nolen, Willem A.; Hillegers, Manon H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. Methods We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10–18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Limitations Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. Conclusions We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. PMID:27423424

  1. Sense of community, identity statuses, and loneliness in adolescenve : A cross-national study on Italian and Belgian youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cicognani, E.; Klimstra, T.A.; Goossens, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-national study was to assess the relationships among sense of community (SoC) vis-à-vis the residential community (i.e., one's home town), identity formation processes, and feelings of loneliness toward parents and peers. The sample included 431 Italian adolescents (59.4%

  2. Age of initiation with different substances and relationships with resources and vulnerabilities : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Molinengo, Giorgia; Bonino, Silvia; Miceli, Renato; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    2009-01-01

    There is still limited knowledge about the interrelations among the age of initiation of different substances and the diverse aspects of adolescent functioning. The present cross-national study aimed at exploring the presence of a time-order pattern of age of initiation of different substances and

  3. Contextualizing Obesity and Diabetes Policy: Exploring a Nested Statistical and Constructivist Approach at the Cross-National and Subnational Government Level in the United States and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Gómez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background This article conducts a comparative national and subnational government analysis of the political, economic, and ideational constructivist contextual factors facilitating the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. Methods We adopt a nested analytical approach to policy analysis, which combines cross-national statistical analysis with subnational case study comparisons to examine theoretical prepositions and discover alternative contextual factors; this was combined with an ideational constructivist approach to policy-making. Results Contrary to the existing literature, we found that with the exception of cross-national statistical differences in access to healthcare infrastructural resources, the growing burden of obesity and diabetes, rising healthcare costs and increased citizens’ knowledge had no predictive affect on the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. We then turned to a subnational comparative analysis of the states of Mississippi in the United States and Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil to further assess the importance of infrastructural resources, at two units of analysis: the state governments versus rural municipal governments. Qualitative evidence suggests that differences in subnational healthcare infrastructural resources were insufficient for explaining policy reform processes, highlighting instead other potentially important factors, such as state-civil societal relationships and policy diffusion in Mississippi, federal policy intervention in Rio Grande do Norte, and politicians’ social construction of obesity and the resulting differences in policy roles assigned to the central government. Conclusion We conclude by underscoring the complexity of subnational policy responses to obesity and diabetes, the importance of combining resource and constructivist analysis for better understanding the context of policy reform, while underscoring the potential lessons that the United States can learn from Brazil.

  4. Correction of systematic behaviour in topographical surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Four specimens in the sub-micrometre range and with different polishing were topographically investigated in fiveareas over their respective surfaces. Uncertainties were evaluated with and without correction for systematicbehaviour and successively analysed by a design of experiment (DOE). Result...... showed that the correction forsystematic behaviour allowed for a lower value of the estimated uncertainty when the correction was adequate tocompletely recognise the systematic effects. If not, the correction can produce an overestimation of the uncertainty....

  5. Producing the 'problem of drugs': A cross national-comparison of 'recovery' discourse in two Australian and British reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Duke, Karen; Ritter, Alison

    2015-07-01

    The notion of 'recovery' as an overarching approach to drug policy remains controversial. This cross-national analysis considers how the problem of drugs was constructed and represented in two key reports on the place of 'recovery' in drug policy, critically examining how the problem of drugs (and the people who use them) are constituted in recovery discourse, and how these problematisations are shaped and disseminated. Bacchi's poststructuralist approach is applied to two documents (one in Britain and one in Australia) to analyse how the 'problem of drugs' and the people who use them are constituted: as problematic users, constraining alternative understandings of the shifting nature of drug use; as responsibilised individuals (in Britain) and as patients (in Australia); as worthy of citizenship in the context of treatment and recovery, silencing the assumption of unworthiness and the loss of rights for those who continue to use drugs in 'problematic' ways. The position of the organisations which produced the reports is considered, with the authority of both organisations resting on their status as independent, apolitical bodies providing 'evidence-based' advice. There is a need to carefully weigh up the desirable and undesirable political effects of these constructions. The meaning of 'recovery' and how it could be realised in policy and practice is still being negotiated. By comparatively analysing how the problem of drugs was produced in 'recovery' discourse in two jurisdictions, at two specific points in the policy debate, we are reminded that ways of thinking about 'problems' reflect specific contexts, and how we are invoked to think about policy responses will be dependent upon these conditions. As 'recovery' continues to evolve, opening up spaces to discuss its contested meanings and effects will be an ongoing endeavour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epinephrine in cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cané, Ignacio; Valverde-León, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2016-12-08

    evaluate the effectiveness of epinephrine used during cardiac arrest and its effect on the survival rates and neurological condition. systematic review of scientific literature with meta-analysis, using a random effects model. The following databases were used to research clinical trials and observational studies: Medline, Embase and Cochrane, from 2005 to 2015. when the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) with administration of epinephrine was compared with ROSC without administration, increased rates were found with administration (OR 2.02. 95% CI 1.49 to 2.75; I2 = 95%). Meta-analysis showed an increase in survival to discharge or 30 days after administration of epinephrine (OR 1.23; 95% IC 1.05-1.44; I2=83%). Stratification by shockable and non-shockable rhythms showed an increase in survival for non-shockable rhythm (OR 1.52; 95% IC 1.29-1.78; I2=42%). When compared with delayed administration, the administration of epinephrine within 10 minutes showed an increased survival rate (OR 2.03; 95% IC 1.77-2.32; I2=0%). administration of epinephrine appears to increase the rate of ROSC, but when compared with other therapies, no positive effect was found on survival rates of patients with favorable neurological status. avaliar a efetividade da adrenalina na parada cardíaca e seu efeito na sobrevivência e no estado neurológico. revisão sistemática da literatura científica com meta-análise utilizando um modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Revisão em Medline, Embase e Cochrane, desde 2005 até 2015 de ensaios clínicos e estudos observacionais. observou-se aumento nas taxas de retorno de circulação espontânea com a administração de adrenalina (OR 2,02; 95% IC 1,49-2,75; I2=95%) comparadas com a não administração de adrenalina. A meta-análise mostrou um aumento da sobrevivência na alta ou depois de 30 dias da administração de adrenalina (OR 1,23; 95% IC 1,05-1,44; I2=83%). Quando estratificados por ritmos desfibrilháveis e não desfibrilh

  7. ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF SYSTEMATIC HEIGHT MODEL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  8. Acceptance of Driverless Vehicles: Results from a Large Cross-National Questionnaire Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Nordhoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000 respondents on the acceptance of driverless vehicles and sociodemographic characteristics, using a 94-item online questionnaire. After data filtering, data of 7,755 respondents from 116 countries were retained. Respondents reported that they would enjoy taking a ride in a driverless vehicle (mean = 4.90 on a scale from 1 = disagree strongly to 6 = agree strongly. We further found that the scores on the questionnaire items were most appropriately explained through a general acceptance component, which had loadings of about 0.7 for items pertaining to the usefulness of driverless vehicles and loadings between 0.5 and 0.6 for items concerning the intention to use, ease of use, pleasure, and trust in driverless vehicles, as well as knowledge of mobility-related developments. Additional components were identified as thrill seeking, wanting to be in control manually, supporting a car-free environment, and being comfortable with technology. Correlations between sociodemographic characteristics and general acceptance scores were small (<0.20, yet interpretable (e.g., people who reported difficulty with finding a parking space were more accepting towards driverless vehicles. Finally, we found that the GDP per capita of the respondents’ country was predictive of countries’ mean general acceptance score (ρ=-0.48 across 43 countries with 25 or more respondents. In conclusion, self-reported acceptance of driverless vehicles is more strongly determined by domain-specific attitudes than by sociodemographic characteristics. We recommend further research, using objective measures, into the hypothesis that national characteristics are a predictor of the acceptance of

  9. Cross-national comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Brown, Rashida; Nguyen, Quynh C; Loopstra, Rachel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-10-31

    Prior cross-national studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have only compared summary indices of inequality but not specific, policy-relevant dimensions of inequality: (a) shape of the socioeconomic gradient in obesity, (b) magnitude of differentials in obesity across socioeconomic levels and, (c) level of obesity at any given socioeconomic level. We use unique data on two highly comparable societies - U.S. and Canada - to contrast each of these inequality dimensions. Data came from the 2002/2003 Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) for obesity (compared to normal weight) by income quintile and education group separately for both nations and, between Canadians and Americans in the same income or education group. In the U.S., every socioeconomic group except the college educated had significant excess prevalence of obesity. By contrast in Canada, only those with less than high school were worse off, suggesting that the shape of the socioeconomic gradient differs in the two countries. U.S. differentials between socioeconomic levels were also larger than in Canada (e.g., PR quintile 1 compared to quintile 5 was 1.82 in the U.S. [95 % CI: 1.52-2.19] but 1.45 in Canada [95 % CI: 1.10-1.91]). At the lower end of the socioeconomic gradient, obesity was more prevalent in the U.S. than in Canada. Our results suggest there is variation between U.S. and Canada in different dimensions of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. Future research should examine a broader set of nations and test whether specific policies or environmental exposures can explain these differences.

  10. Educational differences in early childbearing: A cross-national comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Raymo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research on fertility in industrialized countries focuses primarily on delayed childbearing, despite the facts that large numbers of women continue to enter parenthood at relatively young ages and that early childbearing has been linked to economic disadvantage. Objective: This cross-national comparative study describes relationships between women's educational attainment and young age at first birth and evaluates the extent to which these differences have changed over time for women born 1955-1981. Methods: Defining 'early' childbearing as the age by which 20Š of first births have occurred to women in a given birth cohort and country, we describe differences in early childbearing by educational attainment across three cohorts of women in 20 countries. Results: We find a strong negative educational gradient in early childbearing across all 20 countries and some evidence of an increase in the relative prevalence of early childbearing among the least-educated women. In 10 countries, the relative prevalence of early childbearing among women with low education is significantly higher for one or both of the more recent birth cohorts compared to the earliest cohort. However, many countries show no significant change, and in one country (Poland there is modest evidence of a decreasing educational gap. Conclusions: Evidence that educational differences in early childbearing have grown in some countries is generally consistent with the notion of family bifurcation and 'diverging destinies' by socioeconomic status. However, the pattern is not universal and future work should examine the various factors that shape these patterns, including the role of public policies.

  11. The cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K M; Lim, C C W; Hwang, I; Adamowski, T; Al-Hamzawi, A; Bromet, E; Bunting, B; Ferrand, M P; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Hinkov, H; Hu, C; Karam, E; Lee, S; Posada-Villa, J; Stein, D; Tachimori, H; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C

    2016-11-01

    This is the first cross-national study of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). A total of 17 face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of adults were conducted in 16 countries (n = 88 063) as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) assessed DSM-IV IED, using a conservative definition. Lifetime prevalence of IED ranged across countries from 0.1 to 2.7% with a weighted average of 0.8%; 0.4 and 0.3% met criteria for 12-month and 30-day prevalence, respectively. Sociodemographic correlates of lifetime risk of IED were being male, young, unemployed, divorced or separated, and having less education. The median age of onset of IED was 17 years with an interquartile range across countries of 13-23 years. The vast majority (81.7%) of those with lifetime IED met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder; co-morbidity was highest with alcohol abuse and depression. Of those with 12-month IED, 39% reported severe impairment in at least one domain, most commonly social or relationship functioning. Prior traumatic experiences involving physical (non-combat) or sexual violence were associated with increased risk of IED onset. Conservatively defined, IED is a low prevalence disorder but this belies the true societal costs of IED in terms of the effects of explosive anger attacks on families and relationships. IED is more common among males, the young, the socially disadvantaged and among those with prior exposure to violence, especially in childhood.

  12. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  13. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and different components of education: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two recent studies reported a curvilinear (U-shaped between elderly suicide rates and educational attainment measured by the United Nation’s Education Index. A study examining the curvilinear (U-shaped relationship between elderly suicide rates and the individual components of the Education Index (adult literacy rate, percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools and percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and one other measure of educational attainment (youth literacy rate was undertaken to partial out the effects of the individual components of Education Index on elderly suicides. METHODS: A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly suicide rates (Y-axis and different measures of educational attainment (X-axis was undertaken using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks using Curve estimation regression models. RESULTS: The relationship between elderly suicide rates with the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate was curvilinear (U-shaped curve. This relationship was absent with the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools. CONCLUSIONS: Given the cross-sectional study design, a causal relationship between elderly suicide rates and measures of educational attainment, including the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate, cannot be assumed. However, the findings suggest that future studies of elderly suicide rates and educational attainment should focus on the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate as measures of educational attainment.

  14. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynjälä Jorma

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.

  15. How can interventions increase motivation for physical activity? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crutzen, Rik; Nurmi, Johanna; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan; Knittle, Keegan; Hankonen, Nelli

    2018-01-01

    Motivation is a proximal determinant of behavior in many psychological theories, and increasing motivation is central to most behavior change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to fill a gap in the literature by identifying features of behavior change interventions associated with favorable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 88 intervention studies (N = ...

  16. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  17. Clinical recommendations of Cochrane reviews in pediatric gastroenterology: systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yvonne; Sauer, Harald; Schöndorf, Dominik; Hennes, Pia; Gortner, Ludwig; Gräber, Stefan; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Systematic and up-to-date Cochrane reviews in pediatrics in general and in pediatric gastroenterology in particular are important tools in disseminating the best available evidence to the medical community, thus providing the physician at the bedside with invaluable information and recommendations with regard to specific clinical questions. A systematic literature review was conducted, including all Cochrane reviews published by the Cochrane Review Group in the field of pediatric gastroenterology between 1993 and 2012, with regard to the percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention provided a benefit, percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention should not be performed, and percentage of studies that concluded that the current level of evidence was inconclusive. In total, 86 reviews in the field of pediatric gastroenterology were included. The majority of reviews assessed pharmacological interventions (46/86); other important fields included prevention (15/86) and nutrition (9/86). A total of 33/86 reviews issued definite recommendations (positive, 19/86; negative, 14/86). The remaining 53/86 reviews were either inconclusive (24/86) or only of limited conclusiveness (29/86). The percentage of inconclusive reviews increased from 9% (1998-2002) to 19% (2003-2007; P < 0.05) to finally 24% (2008-2012) (P < 0.05). The three most common reasons for the need for further research were heterogeneity of studies (26/86), small number of patients (18/86), and insufficient data (16/86). Further high-quality research is necessary to increase the proportion of reviews with clear recommendations. Funding and research agencies are key to selecting the most appropriate research programs. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fanti, Kostas A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-10-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A.

    2016-01-01

    of late effects related to hypogonadism. We performed a critical review of PubMed in January 2015 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Twelve publications were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Eleven studies evaluated the risk of TD...

  20. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    distribution unlimited Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis Matthew...vital importance for hydrocarbon -fueled propulsion systems: fuel thermal performance as indicated by physical and chemical effects of cooling passage... analysis . The selection and acquisition of a set of chemically diverse fuels is pivotal for a successful outcome since test method validation and

  1. Structures and expectations: A systematic analysis of Margaret Paston’s formulaic and expressive language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a model based on a critical discourse analysis approach, in conjunction with frame analysis, offers a systematic way to analyse 15th century letters. It is argued that in this framework all contexts are “local contexts”. Letters present particular difficulties because they are for...

  2. Structures and expectations: A systematic analysis of Margaret Paston’s formulaic and expressive language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a model based on a critical discourse analysis approach, in conjunction with frame analysis, offers a systematic way to analyse 15th century letters. It is argued that in this framework all contexts are “local contexts”. Letters present particular difficulties because...

  3. The intergenerational transmission of divorce in cross-national perspective: results from the Fertility and Family Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Harkonen, Juho

    2008-11-01

    We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six countries. This variation is negatively associated with the proportion of women in each cohort who experienced the divorce of their parents and with the national level of women's participation in the labour force during childhood. We conclude that differences in the contexts in which children of divorce learn marital and interpersonal behaviour affect the strength of the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

  4. The Rhetoric of Culture as an Act of Closure in a Cross-National Software Development Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Eskild; Nardi, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Global software teams work on interdependent tasks across geographies, time zones, and cultures. Studies of cross-national software teams report that the main challenges are sharing knowledge, creating trust, and establishing common ground. In this study we examine another challenge—the use...... of the word “culture” as an exclusionary act of closure. As theorized by Metiu, who builds on Weber, closure occurs when one group seeks to preserve the advantages of their situation relative to another group. We conducted an ethnographic study of a cross-national software department with members in Denmark...... and the Philippines. We found that “culture” was invoked by employees in the Danish office to explain failed collaborations, but not by employees in the Philippines. Filipino employees formulated other explanations for problems, and actively resisted cultural explanations. We argue that employees in the Danish office...

  5. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.

  6. Topic Modeling in Sentiment Analysis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqir Ahmad Rana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion and acceptance of Word Wide Web, sentiment analysis has become progressively popular research area in information retrieval and web data analysis. Due to the huge amount of user-generated contents over blogs, forums, social media, etc., sentiment analysis has attracted researchers both in academia and industry, since it deals with the extraction of opinions and sentiments. In this paper, we have presented a review of topic modeling, especially LDA-based techniques, in sentiment analysis. We have presented a detailed analysis of diverse approaches and techniques, and compared the accuracy of different systems among them. The results of different approaches have been summarized, analyzed and presented in a sophisticated fashion. This is the really effort to explore different topic modeling techniques in the capacity of sentiment analysis and imparting a comprehensive comparison among them.

  7. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture: A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Ute Stephan; Lorraine M Uhlaner

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially supportive culture (SSC) and performance-based culture (PBC) – and relate them to entrepreneurship rates and associated supply-side and demand-side variables available from the Global Entrepreneurship Mo...

  8. A cross-national comparison of the transition out of elite sport of Swiss, Danish and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Elanore; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2018-01-01

    athletes relocated mainly in jobs connected to the sport and thus rated their previous sport network as more important for finding an occupation compared to Swiss and Danish athletes. Based on our results and in line with findings of previous cross-national studies, we emphasize that it is important...... to consider the socio-cultural context when studying athletes’ retirement process. Some context-specific recommendations for career counseling and career assistance programs for athletes are provided....

  9. Governing Nanotechnology in a Globalized World: Cross-National Dimensions and Strategic Assessments of a Disruptive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2013-01-01

    FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Anne Clunan & Kirsten Rodine Hardy While those in the nanotechnology field emphasize the benefits for medicine, travel, and manufacturing, it is a dual-use technology that could lead to a disruptive and expensive arms race for technology dominance. Nanotechnology has significant implications for globalization, technological governance, and national sovereignty. Through a cross-national and strategic lens, the project will analyze the potential threats to nati...

  10. A cross-national comparison of violence among young men in China and the UK: psychiatric and cultural explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Hu, Junmei; Kallis, Constantinos; Ping, Yuan; Zhang, Juying; Hu, Yueying; Bui, Laura; Ullrich, Simone; Bebbington, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Public health psychiatry has a key role in violence prevention. Cross-national comparisons of violence and associated psychiatric morbidity can indicate targets for preventive interventions. Data on young adult men in households, 18-34 years, were drawn from the Second Men's Modern Lifestyles survey in Great Britain (n = 2046) and from a corresponding survey in Chengdu, China (n = 4132), using a translated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the cross-national differences for different types of violence and to identify explanatory variables. Chinese men were less likely to report violence in the past 5 years (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.72, P violence were lower among Chinese men except intimate partner violence (AOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.65-3.59, P violence persisting into adulthood, confidence in fighting ability, perception that violence is acceptable behaviour, and experience of violent victimization. More British men screened positive for antisocial personality disorder and substance misuse. Attitudes which condone violence and a serious problem of alcohol-related, male-on-male violence are key targets for preventive interventions among British men. The higher prevalence of life course-persistent antisocial behaviour among British men is of concern and requires further investigation. Higher prevalence of intimate partner violence among Chinese men reflects patriarchal approaches to conflict resolution and confirms an important public health problem in China which requires further cross-national investigation.

  11. A systematic analysis of the association studies between CASP8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    precision medicine or health. Keywords: Breast cancer; CASP8; rs1045485 polymorphism; meta-analysis. Introduction. CASP8 ... peptidase that can activate various cellular proteases or proteins, leading to apoptosis through the .... While meta-analysis shed light on the trend of association between SNP and disease risk,.

  12. The isoelectric region of proteins: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Widmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Binding of proteins in ion exchange chromatography is dominated by electrostatic interactions and can be tuned by adjusting pH and ionic strength of the solvent. Therefore, the isoelectric region (IER, the pH region of almost zero charge near the pI, has been used to predict the binding properties of proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Usually the IER is small and binding and elution is carried out at pH values near to the pI. However, some proteins with an extended IER have been shown to bind and elute far away from its pI. To analyze factors that mediate the size of the IER and to identify proteins with an extended IER, two protein families consisting of more than 7000 proteins were systematically investigated. Most proteins were found to have a small IER and thus are expected to bind or elute near to their pI, while only a small fraction of less than 2% had a large IER. CONCLUSIONS: Only four factors, the number of histidines, the pI, the number of titratable amino acids and the ratio of acidic to basic residues, are sufficient to reliably classify proteins by their IER based on their sequence only, and thus to predict their binding and elution behaviour in ion exchange chromatography.

  13. Systematic Analysis of Painful Total Knee Prosthesis, a Diagnostic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Djahani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Remaining pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common observation in about 20% of postoperative patients; where in about 60% of these knees require early revision surgery within five years. Obvious causes of this pain could be identified simply with clinical examinations and standard radiographs. However, unexplained painful TKA still remains a challenge for the surgeon. The management should include a multidisciplinary approach to the patient`s pain as well as addressing the underlying etiology. There are a number of extrinsic (tendinopathy, hip, ankle, spine, CRPS and so on and intrinsic (infection, instability, malalignment, wear and so on causes of painful knee replacement. On average, diagnosis takes more than 12 months and patients become very dissatisfied and some of them even acquire psychological problems. Hence, a systematic diagnostic algorithm might be helpful. This review article aims to act as a guide to the evaluation of patients with painful TKA described in 10 different steps. Furthermore, the preliminary results of a series of 100 consecutive cases will be discussed. Revision surgery was performed only in those cases with clear failure mechanism.

  14. Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Johanna M; Korevaar, Daniël A; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Mens, Pètra F

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high detection limit. With declining prevalence in many areas, there is an increasing need for more sensitive diagnostics. Molecular tools may be a suitable alternative, although costs and technical requirements currently hamper their implementation in resource limited settings. A range of (near) point-of-care diagnostics is therefore under development, including simplifications in sample preparation, amplification and/or read-out of the test. Accuracy data, in combination with technical characteristics, are essential in determining which molecular test, if any, would be the most promising to be deployed. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation, and systematically evaluates their published accuracy. No important difference in accuracy was found between the most commonly used PCR-based assays (conventional, nested and real-time PCR), with most of them having high sensitivity and specificity, implying that there are no reasons other than practical ones to choose one technique over the other. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification and other (novel) diagnostics appear to be highly accurate as well, with some offering potential to be used in resource-limited settings.

  15. Critical analysis and systematization of rat pancreatectomy terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulálio, José Marcus Raso; Bon-Habib, Assad Charbel Chequer; Soares, Daiane de Oliveira; Corrêa, Paulo Guilherme Antunes; Pineschi, Giovana Penna Firme; Diniz, Victor Senna; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Schanaider, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    To critically analyze and standardize the rat pancreatectomy nomenclature variants. It was performed a review of indexed manuscripts in PUBMED from 01/01/1945 to 31/12/2015 with the combined keywords "rat pancreatectomy" and "rat pancreas resection". The following parameters was considered: A. Frequency of publications; B. Purpose of the pancreatectomy in each article; C. Bibliographic references; D. Nomenclature of techniques according to the pancreatic parenchyma resection percentage. Among the 468, the main objectives were to surgically induce diabetes and to study the genes regulations and expressions. Five rat pancreatectomy technique references received 15 or more citations. Twenty different terminologies were identified for the pancreas resection: according to the resected parenchyma percentage (30 to 95%); to the procedure type (total, subtotal and partial); or based on the selected anatomical region (distal, longitudinal and segmental). A nomenclature systematization was gathered by cross-checking information between the main surgical techniques, the anatomic parameters descriptions and the resected parenchyma percentages. The subtotal pancreatectomy nomenclature for parenchymal resection between 80 and 95% establishes a surgical parameter that also defines the total and partial pancreatectomy limits and standardizes these surgical procedures in rats.

  16. Breastfeeding and intelligence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Bernardo L; Loret de Mola, Christian; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at systematically reviewing evidence of the association between breastfeeding and performance in intelligence tests. Two independent searches were carried out using Medline, LILACS, SCIELO and Web of Science. Studies restricted to infants and those where estimates were not adjusted for stimulation or interaction at home were excluded. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to pool the effect estimates, and a random-effects regression was used to assess potential sources of heterogeneity. We included 17 studies with 18 estimates of the relationship between breastfeeding and performance in intelligence tests. In a random-effects model, breastfed subjects achieved a higher IQ [mean difference: 3.44 points (95% confidence interval: 2.30; 4.58)]. We found no evidence of publication bias. Studies that controlled for maternal IQ showed a smaller benefit from breastfeeding [mean difference 2.62 points (95% confidence interval: 1.25; 3.98)]. In the meta-regression, none of the study characteristics explained the heterogeneity among the studies. Breastfeeding is related to improved performance in intelligence tests. A positive effect of breastfeeding on cognition was also observed in a randomised trial. This suggests that the association is causal. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Multimorbidity and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer R; Sharpe, Louise; Modini, Matthew; Dear, Blake F

    2017-10-15

    Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more chronic conditions, is increasingly common and complicates the assessment and management of depression. The aim was to investigate the relationship between multimorbidity and depression. A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases; PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Central. Results were meta-analysed to determine risk for a depressive disorder or depressive symptoms in people with multimorbidity. Forty articles were identified as eligible (n = 381527). The risk for depressive disorder was twice as great for people with multimorbidity compared to those without multimorbidity [RR: 2.13 (95% CI 1.62-2.80) pdepressive disorder with each additional chronic condition compared to the odds of having a depressive disorder with no chronic physical condition [OR: 1.45 (95% CI 1.28-1.64) pdepressive symptoms [r = 0.26 (95% CI 0.18-0.33) p depression were used in these studies, the majority assessed the presence or absence of multimorbidity by self-report measures. Depression is two to three times more likely in people with multimorbidity compared to people without multimorbidity or those who have no chronic physical condition. Greater knowledge of this risk supports identification and management of depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Dual-use tools and systematics-aware analysis workflows in the ATLAS Run-II analysis model

    CERN Document Server

    FARRELL, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS analysis model has been overhauled for the upcoming run of data collection in 2015 at 13 TeV. One key component of this upgrade was the Event Data Model (EDM), which now allows for greater flexibility in the choice of analysis software framework and provides powerful new features that can be exploited by analysis software tools. A second key component of the upgrade is the introduction of a dual-use tool technology, which provides abstract interfaces for analysis software tools to run in either the Athena framework or a ROOT-based framework. The tool interfaces, including a new interface for handling systematic uncertainties, have been standardized for the development of improved analysis workflows and consolidation of high-level analysis tools. This presentation will cover the details of the dual-use tool functionality, the systematics interface, and how these features fit into a centrally supported analysis environment.

  19. Dual-use tools and systematics-aware analysis workflows in the ATLAS Run-2 analysis model

    CERN Document Server

    FARRELL, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Elsing, Markus; Koeneke, Karsten; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krumnack, Nils; Lancon, Eric; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lei, Xiaowen; Strandberg, Sara Kristina; Verkerke, Wouter; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Woudstra, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS analysis model has been overhauled for the upcoming run of data collection in 2015 at 13 TeV. One key component of this upgrade was the Event Data Model (EDM), which now allows for greater flexibility in the choice of analysis software framework and provides powerful new features that can be exploited by analysis software tools. A second key component of the upgrade is the introduction of a dual-use tool technology, which provides abstract interfaces for analysis software tools to run in either the Athena framework or a ROOT-based framework. The tool interfaces, including a new interface for handling systematic uncertainties, have been standardized for the development of improved analysis workflows and consolidation of high-level analysis tools. This paper will cover the details of the dual-use tool functionality, the systematics interface, and how these features fit into a centrally supported analysis environment.

  20. The Role of the Management Fashion Arena in the Cross-National Diffusion of Management Concepts: The Case of the Balanced Scorecard in the Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre Slåtten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of fashionable management concepts is an important research topic in management and organization studies. Researchers have pointed out that various actors such as consultants, conference organizers and the business media comprise the so-called “management fashion arena” around a management concept. However, a weakness of extant conceptualizations of management fashion arenas is in the lack of an explicit consideration of the dynamics between local and international actors. Drawing on the notion of “institutional duality”, we argue that the concept’s trajectory at the national level is shaped by both country-specific actors and international actors. Furthermore, we recognize that the presence and involvement of different types of actors may vary across different countries. Empirically, we analyze the level of involvement of actors such as consultants, professional groups, software firms, and conference organizers in the cross-national diffusion of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC in the three Scandinavian countries. The comparative analysis of the data shows both similarities and differences between the three countries in terms of which actors have been the most influential players. Despite certain similarities and overlaps, the three markets can be considered largely national with key local players. Furthermore, country-specific actors appear to have played a particularly important role in the early phase in terms of establishing the concept in the local markets. These findings are used to elaborate on present conceptualizations of the management fashion arena, and to discuss the role of local and international actors in the cross-national diffusion of management concepts.

  1. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Schultsz, Constance; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is the most common cause of meningitis in pork consuming and pig rearing countries in South-East Asia. We performed a systematic review of studies on S. suis meningitis to define the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome. Methodology Studies published between January 1, 1980 and August 1, 2015 were identified from main literature databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they were written in West-European languages and described at least 5 adult patients with S. suis meningitis in whom at least one clinical characteristic was described. Findings We identified 913 patients with S. suis meningitis included in 24 studies between 1980 and 2015. The mean age was 49 years and 581 of 711 patients were male (82%). Exposure to pigs or pork was present in 395 of 648 patients (61%) while other predisposing factors were less common. 514 of 528 patients presented with fever (97%), 429 of 451 with headache (95%), 462 of 496 with neck stiffness (93%) and 78 of 384 patients (20%) had a skin injury in the presence of pig/pork contact. The case fatality rate was 2.9% and hearing loss was a common sequel occurring in 259 of 489 patients (53%). Treatment included dexamethasone in 157 of 300 (52%) of patients and was associated with reduced hearing loss in S. suis meningitis patients included in a randomized controlled trial. Conclusion S. suis meningitis has a clear association with pig and pork contact. Mortality is low, but hearing loss occurs frequently. Dexamethasone was shown to reduce hearing loss. PMID:26505485

  2. Geographical variation in dementia: systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Tom C; Batty, G David; Hearnshaw, Gena F; Fenton, Candida; Starr, John M

    2012-01-01

    Background Geographical variation in dementia prevalence and incidence may indicate important socio-environmental contributions to dementia aetiology. However, previous comparisons have been hampered by combining studies with different methodologies. This review systematically collates and synthesizes studies examining geographical variation in the prevalence and incidence of dementia based on comparisons of studies using identical methodologies. Methods Papers were identified by a comprehensive electronic search of relevant databases, scrutinising the reference sections of identified publications, contacting experts in the field and re-examining papers already known to us. Identified articles were independently reviewed against inclusion/exclusion criteria and considered according to geographical scale. Rural/urban comparisons were meta-analysed. Results Twelve thousand five hundred and eighty records were reviewed and 51 articles were included. Dementia prevalence and incidence varies at a number of scales from the national down to small areas, including some evidence of an effect of rural living [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–1.57; incidence OR = 1.20, 90% CI 0.84–1.71]. However, this association of rurality was stronger for Alzheimer disease, particularly when early life rural living was captured (prevalence OR = 2.22, 90% CI 1.19–4.16; incidence OR = 1.64, 90% CI 1.08–2.50). Conclusions There is evidence of geographical variation in rates of dementia in affluent countries at a variety of geographical scales. Rural living is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and there is a suggestion that early life rural living further increases this risk. However, the fact that few studies have been conducted in resource-poor countries limits conclusions. PMID:22798662

  3. Systematic reviews in Library and Information Science: analysis and evaluation of the search process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Salvador-Oliván

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An essential component of a systematic review is the development and execution of a literature search to identify all available and relevant published studies. The main objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate whether the systematic reviews in Library and Information Science (LIS provide complete information on all the elements that make up the search process. Methods: A search was launched in WOS, Scopus, LISTA, Library Science Database, Medline databases and a wiki published from 2000 to February 2017, in order to find and identify systematic reviews. The search was designed to find those records whose titles included the words “systematic review” and/or “meta-analysis”. A list was created with the twelve items recommended from of the main publication guides, to assess the information degree on each of them. Results and conclusions: Most of the reviews in LIS are created by information professionals. From the 94 systematic reviews selected for analysis, it was found that only a 4.3% provided the complete reporting on the search method. The most frequently included item is the name of the database (95.6% and the least one is the name of the host (35.8%. It is necessary to improve and complete the information about the search processes in the complete reports from LIS systematic reviews for reproducibility, updating and quality assessment improvement.

  4. Occupational and environmental scleroderma. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Moreno, Rafael; Corbella, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unknown; however, several occupational and environmental factors have been implicated. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of all studies published on SSc associated with occupational and environmental exposure. The review was undertaken by means of MEDLINE and SCOPUS from 1960 to 2014 and using the terms: "systemic," "scleroderma," or "systemic sclerosis/chemically induced" [MesH]. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the qualifying assessment. The inverse variance-weighted method was performed. The meta-analysis of silica exposure included 15 case-control studies [overall OR 2.81 (95%CI 1.86-4.23; p < 0.001)] and 4 cohort studies [overall RR 17.52 (95%CI 5.98-51.37; p < 0.001)]; the meta-analysis of solvents exposure included 13 case-control studies (overall OR 2.00 [95%CI 1.32-3.02; p = 0.001); the meta-analysis of breast implants exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 1.68 (95%CI 1.65-1.71; p < 0.001)) and 6 cohort studies (overall RR 2.13 (95%CI 0.86-5.27; p = 0.10)); the meta-analysis of epoxy resins exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 2.97 (95%CI 2.31-3.83; p < 0.001)), the meta-analysis of pesticides exposure included 3 case-control studies (overall OR 1.02 (95%CI 0.78-1.32; p = 0.90)) and, finally, the meta-analysis of welding fumes exposure included 4 studies (overall OR 1.29 (95%CI 0.44-3.74; p = 0.64)). Not enough studies citing risks related to hair dyes have been published to perform an accurate meta-analysis. Silica and solvents were the two most likely substances related to the pathogenesis of SSc. While silica is involved in particular jobs, solvents are widespread and more people are at risk of having incidental contact with them.

  5. SYSTEMATIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF PARTIALLY AND FULLY HOMOMORPHIC CRYPTOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Epishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article provides an overview of the known partially and fully homomorphic cryptosystem, such as: RSA, ElGamal, Paillier, Gentry and Halevi. Justified the homomorphic properties of the considered cryptosystems. The comparative analysis of the homomorphic encryption algorithms has been committed

  6. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  7. A Systematic Analysis of Audiological Services in EHDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.; Nelson, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For audiological evaluation and services, 299 items were listed by 49 coordinators, and themes were identified within each SWOT category.…

  8. Analysis of possible systematic errors in the Oslo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Buerger, A.; Goergen, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Krticka, M.; Betak, E.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have reviewed the Oslo method, which enables the simultaneous extraction of the level density and γ-ray transmission coefficient from a set of particle-γ coincidence data. Possible errors and uncertainties have been investigated. Typical data sets from various mass regions as well as simulated data have been tested against the assumptions behind the data analysis.

  9. Accident Analysis Methods and Models — a Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wienen, Hans Christian Augustijn; Bukhsh, Faiza Allah; Vriezekolk, E.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2017-01-01

    As part of our co-operation with the Telecommunication Agency of the Netherlands, we want to formulate an accident analysis method and model for use in incidents in telecommunications that cause service unavailability. In order to not re-invent the wheel, we wanted to first get an overview of all

  10. A Systematic Analysis of Quality of Teaching Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Davies; Joe Hirschberg; Jenny Lye; Carol Johnston

    2008-01-01

    All tertiary institutions in Australia use the same Course Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ) however for the internal evaluation of teaching they use their own surveys. This paper performs an analysis of the internal Quality of Teaching Surveys (QTS) used in Australian Universities. We classify the questions within the QTS surveys. This classification is used to explore how different universities’ surveys are similar to each other. We find that some universities use a QTS that is quite distinct ...

  11. Systematic analysis of the lysine acetylome in Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianyi; Ye, Zhicang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Peng, Xiaojun; Wen, Liangyou; Zhao, Fukun

    2014-07-03

    Lysine acetylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspect of cells, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Vibrio parahemolyticus, a model marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of bacterial seafood-borne illness. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in this bacterium through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Overall, we identified 1413 lysine acetylation sites in 656 proteins, which account for 13.6% of the total proteins in the cells; this is the highest ratio of acetyl proteins that has so far been identified in bacteria. The bioinformatics analysis of the acetylome showed that the acetylated proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular functions and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. More specifically, proteins related to protein biosynthesis and carbon metabolism are the preferential targets of lysine acetylation. Moreover, two types of acetylation motifs, a lysine or arginine at the +4/+5 positions and a tyrosine, histidine, or phenylalanine at the +1/+2 positions, were revealed from the analysis of the acetylome. Additionally, protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a wide range of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. This study provides a significant beginning for the in-depth exploration of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.

  12. Treatment for School Refusal among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Heyne, David; Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Bulanda, Jeffery J.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. Method: A comprehensive search process was used…

  13. Calcineurin inhibitor sparing with mycophenolate in kidney transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    Limiting the exposure of kidney transplant recipients to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has potential merit, but there is no clear consensus on the utility of current strategies. In an attempt to aid clarification, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials that assessed CNI sparing (minimization or elimination) with mycophenolate as sole adjunctive immunosuppression.

  14. Mode of delivery after successful external cephalic version: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Velzel, Joost; de Groot, Christianne J.; Mol, Ben W.; Kok, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    To assess the mode of delivery in women after a successful external cephalic version by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library for studies reporting on the

  15. Iron deficiency in children with HIV-associated anaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esan, Michael O.; Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Hensbroek, Michael Boele van; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency in HIV-infected children from high- and low-income settings and compared it with that of HIV-uninfected controls. We searched five major databases for primary studies reporting on anaemia and iron

  16. Effective Interventions in Overweight or Obese Young Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Bouwman, L.I.; Janse, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Treatment programs for overweight and obese young children are of variable effectiveness, and the characteristics of effective programs are unknown. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, the effectiveness of treatment programs for these children is summarized. Methods:

  17. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soosaraei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species, Allium sativum, Achilleamille folium, Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris. The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti-Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition in surgical and oncological patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, E. B.; Reijven, P. L. M.; Binnekade, J. M.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Earthman, C. P.; Gouma, D. J.; de Haan, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for the evaluation of body composition. However, BIA estimations are subject to uncertainties.The aim of this systematic review was to explore the variability of empirical prediction equations used in BIA estimations and to evaluate

  19. A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mivacurium for tracheal intubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlinthout, L.E.H.; Mesfin, S.H.; Hens, N.; Vanacker, B.F.; Robertson, E.N.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed factors associated with intubation conditions in randomised controlled trials of mivacurium, using random-effects meta-regression analysis. We included 29 studies of 1050 healthy participants. Four factors explained 72.9% of the variation in the probability of excellent

  20. Saline contrast hysterosonography in abnormal uterine bleeding : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, CD; de Bock, GH; Dieben, SWM; Jansen, FW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast hysterosonography in the evaluation of the uterine cavity in women complaining of abnormal uterine bleeding. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies that compared saline contrast hysterosonography to a gold

  1. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, Emelie C.; Hulscher, Marlies E. J. L.; Mouton, Johan W.; Verduin, Cees M.; Stuart, James W. T. Cohen; Overdiek, Hans W. P. M.; van der Linden, Paul D.; Natsch, Stephanie; Hertogh, Cees M. P. M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes: clinical outcomes,

  2. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, Emelie C.; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Mouton, Johan W.; Verduin, Cees M.; Stuart, James W T Cohen; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van der Linden, Paul D.; Natsch, Stephanie; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes:

  3. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, E.C.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Mouton, J.W.; Verduin, C.M.; Stuart, J.W.; Overdiek, H.W.; Linden, P.D. van der; Natsch, S.S.; Hertogh, C.M.; Wolfs, T.F.; Schouten, J.A.; Kullberg, B.J.; Prins, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes:

  4. Systematic In Vivo RNAi Analysis Identifies IAPs as NEDD8-E3 Ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broemer, Meike; Tenev, Tencho; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G

    2010-01-01

    -like proteins (UBLs), and deconjugating enzymes that remove the Ub or UBL adduct. Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis identified three NEDD8-specific isopeptidases that, when knocked down, suppress apoptosis. Consistent with the notion that attachment of NEDD8 prevents cell death, genetic ablation of deneddylase 1...

  5. Quasi-random Monte Carlo application in CGE systematic sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivasileiadis, T.

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty and robustness of Computable General Equilibrium models can be assessed by conducting a Systematic Sensitivity Analysis. Different methods have been used in the literature for SSA of CGE models such as Gaussian Quadrature and Monte Carlo methods. This paper explores the use of

  6. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk : a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Lau, R.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of the association between intake of dairy products and colorectal cancer risk have indicated an inverse association with milk, however, the evidence for cheese or other dairy products is inconsistent. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to

  7. Biochemical Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, W.; Ket, J.C.; Pampus, M.G. van; Franx, A.; Veenendaal, M.V.; Kolster, C.; Tamsma, J.T.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Ponjee, G.; van der Hout, E.; Ten Horn, H.; Loix, S.; Mol, B.W.; Groot, C.J. de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders and women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Data were collected from PubMed and EMBASE (from

  8. Biochemical Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Wietske; Ket, Johannes C. F.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Franx, Arie; Veenendaal, Marjolein V. E.; Kolster, Clara; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Ponjee, Gabrielle; van der Hout, Evelien; ten Horn, Hilde; Loix, Stephanie; Mol, Ben Willem; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders and women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Data were collected from PubMed and EMBASE (from

  9. Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Mesmer, Christina; Morley, Stephen; Dowzer, Clare; Hamilton, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This study conducted a systematic review to assess the quality of existing literature on psychological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome and to quantify the evidence for their efficacy. Three independent reviewers (2 from England, 1 from the United States) coded the quality of 32 studies, 17 of which provided data suitable for meta-analysis.…

  10. Suprapubic compared with transurethral bladder catheterization for gynecologic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, Eibhlín F

    2012-09-01

    Suprapubic catheterization is commonly used for postoperative bladder drainage after gynecologic procedures. However, recent studies have suggested an increased rate of complications compared with urethral catheterization. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing suprapubic catheterization and urethral catheterization in gynecologic populations.

  11. Systematic Analysis of Quantitative Logic Model Ensembles Predicts Drug Combination Effects on Cell Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-27

    bovine serum albumin (BSA) diluted to the amount corresponding to that in the media of the stimulated cells. Phospho-JNK comprises two isoforms whose...information accompanies this paper on the CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology website (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/psp4) Systematic Analysis of Quantitative Logic Model Morris et al. 553 www.wileyonlinelibrary/psp4

  12. Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas B.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Killingsworth, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed research on digital games and learning for K-16 students. We synthesized comparisons of game versus nongame conditions (i.e., media comparisons) and comparisons of augmented games versus standard game designs (i.e., value-added comparisons). We used random-effects meta-regression models with robust…

  13. Shift work, long working hours and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, M. J. G. J.; Van Beukering, M. D. M.; Mol, B. W.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Specific physical activities or working conditions are suspected for increasing the risk of preterm birth (PTB). The aim of this meta-analysis is to review and summarize the pre-existing evidence on the effect of shift work or long working hours on the risk of PTB. We conducted a systematic search

  14. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  15. Female- and Male-Specific Risk Factors for Stroke : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Michiel H F; Algra, Annemijn M; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Klijn, Catharina J M

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The incidence of stroke is higher in men than in women. The influence of sex-specific risk factors on stroke incidence and mortality is largely unknown. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of female- and male-specific risk factors for stroke. Data Sources: PubMed,

  16. Female- and Male-Specific Risk Factors for Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, M.H.; Algra, A.M.; Kappelle, L.J.; Klijn, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The incidence of stroke is higher in men than in women. The influence of sex-specific risk factors on stroke incidence and mortality is largely unknown. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of female- and male-specific risk factors for stroke. Data Sources: PubMed,

  17. Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rui; Kim, Bobae V.; van Wely, Madelon; Johnson, Neil P.; Costello, Michael F.; Zhang, Hanwang; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Legro, Richard S.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Robert J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narula, Neeraj; Kassam, Zain; Yuan, Yuhong; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Ponsioen, Cyriel; Reinisch, Walter; Moayyedi, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in the colonic microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and restoration of healthy gut microbiota may ameliorate disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment for

  19. Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Spedding

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of Vitamin D supplements in depression is controversial, awaiting further literature analysis. Biological flaws in primary studies is a possible reason meta-analyses of Vitamin D have failed to demonstrate efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analysis of Vitamin D and depression compared studies with and without biological flaws. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was un...

  20. Systematics and Population Level Analysis of Anopheles darlingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conn JE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phylogenetic analysis of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus (Danoff-Burg and Conn, unpub. data using six data sets {morphological (all life stages; scanning electron micrographs of eggs; nuclear ITS2 sequences; mitochondrial COII, ND2 and ND6 sequences} revealed different topologies when each data set was analyzed separately but no heterogeneity between the data sets using the arn test. Consequently, the most accurate estimate of the phylogeny was obtained when all the data were combined. This new phylogeny supports a monophyletic Nyssorhynchus subgenus but both previously recognized sections in the subgenus (Albimanus and Argyritarsis were demonstrated to be paraphyletic relative to each other and four of the seven clades included species previously placed in both sections. One of these clades includes both Anopheles darlingi and An. albimanus, suggesting that the ability to vector malaria effectively may have originated once in this subgenus. Both a conserved (315 bp and a variable (425 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene from 15 populations of An. darlingi from Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela were used to examine the evolutionary history of this species and to test several analytical assumptions. Results demonstrated (1 parsimony analysis is equally informative compared to distance analysis using NJ; (2 clades or clusters are more strongly supported when these two regions are combined compared to either region separately; (3 evidence (in the form of remnants of older haplotype lineages for two colonization events; and (4 significant genetic divergence within the population from Peixoto de Azevedo (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The oldest lineage includes populations from Peixoto, Boa Vista (State of Roraima and Dourado (State of São Paulo.

  1. Inflammation and sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Giulia; Trevisan, Caterina; Carraro, Sara; Solmi, Marco; Luchini, Claudio; Stubbs, Brendon; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; Veronese, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory cytokines have been shown to prompt muscle wasting, ultimately stimulating protein catabolism and suppressing muscle synthesis. However, the possible association between inflammatory parameters and sarcopenia is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to summarize the current evidence about this topic with a meta-analysis of studies reporting serum inflammatory parameters in patients with sarcopenia vs. people without sarcopenia (controls). An electronic PubMed and Scopus search through to 09/01/2016 and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies comparing serum levels of inflammatory cytokines between patients with sarcopenia and controls was made, calculating random-effects standardized mean differences (SMDs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect size. Out of 1370 initial hits, 17 studies with a total of 11249 participants (3072 with sarcopenia and 8177 without) were meta-analyzed. Sarcopenic participants had significantly higher levels of CRP (SMD=0.51; 95%CI 0.26, 0.77; psarcopenia versus controls. Sarcopenic people did not have higher levels of TNF-α than controls (SMD=0.28; 95%CI -0.26, 0.83; p=0.31; I 2 =97%). In conclusion, sarcopenia seems to be associated with elevated serum CRP levels; future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of social network analysis to obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; de la Haye, K; Ji, M; An, R

    2018-04-20

    People's health behaviours and outcomes can be profoundly shaped by the social networks they are embedded in. Based on graph theory, social network analysis is a research framework for the study of social interactions and the structure of these interactions among social actors. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science for articles published until August 2017 that applied social network analysis to examine obesity and social networks. Eight studies (three cross-sectional and five longitudinal) conducted in the US (n = 6) and Australia (n = 2) were identified. Seven focused on adolescents' and one on adults' friendship networks. They examined structural features of these networks that were associated with obesity, including degree distribution, popularity, modularity maximization and K-clique percolation. All three cross-sectional studies that used exponential random graph models found individuals with similar body weight status and/or weight-related behaviour were more likely to share a network tie than individuals with dissimilar traits. Three longitudinal studies using stochastic actor-based models found friendship network characteristics influenced change in individuals' body weight status and/or weight-related behaviour over time. Future research should focus on diverse populations and types of social networks and identifying the mechanisms by which social networks influence obesity to inform network-based interventions. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Optimizing Bus Passenger Complaint Service through Big Data Analysis: Systematized Analysis for Improved Public Sector Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Kun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply–demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan, was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector–transportation company–passenger supply chain.

  4. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, M.; Llewellyn, A.; Owen, C. G.; Woolacott, N.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included ...

  5. [Systematic umbilical cord blood analysis at birth: feasibility and reliability in a French labour ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D; Clerc, J; Decullier, E; Gavanier, G; Dupuis, O

    2012-10-01

    At birth, evaluation of neonatal well-being is crucial. It is though important to perform umbilical cord blood gas analysis, and then to analyze the samples. We wanted to establish the feasibility and reliability of systematic umbilical cord blood sampling in a French labour ward. Study of systematic umbilical cord blood gas analysis was realized retrospectively from 1000 consecutive deliveries. We first established the feasibility of the samples. Feasibility was defined by the ratio of complete cord acid-base data on the number of deliveries from alive newborns. Afterwards, we established the reliability on the remaining cord samples. Reliability was the ratio of samples that fulfilled quality criteria defined by Westgate et al. and revised by Kro et al., on the number of complete samples from alive newborns. At last, we looked for factors that would influence these results. The systematic umbilical cord blood sample feasibility reached 91.6%, and the reliability reached 80.7%. About the delivery mode, 38.6% of emergency caesarians (IC 95% [30.8-46.3]; Panalysis were significantly less validated during emergency caesarians. Realization of systematic cord blood gas analysis was followed by 8.4% of incomplete samples, and by 19.3% that were uninterpretable. Training sessions should be organized to improve the feasibility and reliability, especially during emergency caesarians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Different materials for direct pulp capping: systematic review and meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Brouwer, Fredrik; Schwendicke, Anja; Paris, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We systematically assessed randomized controlled trials comparing direct pulp capping materials. Trials comparing materials for direct capping and evaluating clinically and/or radiographically determined success after minimum 3 months were included. Two reviewers independently screened electronic databases (Medline, Central, Embase) and performed hand searches. Risk of bias was assessed and meta-analyses were performed, separated for dentition. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Strength of evidence was graded using the GRADE approach. From a total of 453 identified studies, 11 (all with high risk of bias) investigating 1094 teeth (922 patients) were included. Six studies were on primary teeth (all with carious exposures) and five on permanent teeth (carious and artificial exposures). Mean follow-up was 14 months (range 3-24). Most studies used calcium hydroxide as control, comparing it to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (three studies), bonding without prior etching/conditioning (two), or bonding with prior etching/conditioning, enamel matrix proteins, resin-modified glass ionomer cement, calcium sulfate, zinc oxide eugenol, corticosteroids, antibiotics, or formocresol (each in only one study). One study compared MTA and calcium-enriched cement. In permanent teeth, risk of failure was significantly decreased if MTA instead of calcium hydroxide was used (risk ratio (RR) [95 % confidence intervals (CI)] 0.59 [0.39/0.90]); no difference was found for primary teeth. Other comparisons did not find significant differences or were supported by only one study. No firm evidence was reached according to trial sequential analysis. There is insufficient data to recommend or refute the use of a specific material. More long-term practice-based studies with real-life exposures are required. To reduce risk of failure, dentists might consider using MTA instead of calcium hydroxide (CH) for direct capping. Current evidence is insufficient for

  7. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  8. Abreaction for conversion disorder: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj

    2010-08-01

    The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.

  9. Systematic analysis of protein turnover in primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Toby; Franken, Holger; Kosinski, Jan; Kurzawa, Nils; Zinn, Nico; Sweetman, Gavain; Poeckel, Daniel; Ratnu, Vikram S; Schramm, Maike; Becher, Isabelle; Steidel, Michael; Noh, Kyung-Min; Bergamini, Giovanna; Beck, Martin; Bantscheff, Marcus; Savitski, Mikhail M

    2018-02-15

    A better understanding of proteostasis in health and disease requires robust methods to determine protein half-lives. Here we improve the precision and accuracy of peptide ion intensity-based quantification, enabling more accurate protein turnover determination in non-dividing cells by dynamic SILAC-based proteomics. This approach allows exact determination of protein half-lives ranging from 10 to >1000 h. We identified 4000-6000 proteins in several non-dividing cell types, corresponding to 9699 unique protein identifications over the entire data set. We observed similar protein half-lives in B-cells, natural killer cells and monocytes, whereas hepatocytes and mouse embryonic neurons show substantial differences. Our data set extends and statistically validates the previous observation that subunits of protein complexes tend to have coherent turnover. Moreover, analysis of different proteasome and nuclear pore complex assemblies suggests that their turnover rate is architecture dependent. These results illustrate that our approach allows investigating protein turnover and its implications in various cell types.

  10. Agonist Binding to Chemosensory Receptors: A Systematic Bioinformatics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fierro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human G-protein coupled receptors (hGPCRs constitute a large and highly pharmaceutically relevant membrane receptor superfamily. About half of the hGPCRs' family members are chemosensory receptors, involved in bitter taste and olfaction, along with a variety of other physiological processes. Hence these receptors constitute promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Molecular modeling has been so far the most important tool to get insights on agonist binding and receptor activation. Here we investigate both aspects by bioinformatics-based predictions across all bitter taste and odorant receptors for which site-directed mutagenesis data are available. First, we observe that state-of-the-art homology modeling combined with previously used docking procedures turned out to reproduce only a limited fraction of ligand/receptor interactions inferred by experiments. This is most probably caused by the low sequence identity with available structural templates, which limits the accuracy of the protein model and in particular of the side-chains' orientations. Methods which transcend the limited sampling of the conformational space of docking may improve the predictions. As an example corroborating this, we review here multi-scale simulations from our lab and show that, for the three complexes studied so far, they significantly enhance the predictive power of the computational approach. Second, our bioinformatics analysis provides support to previous claims that several residues, including those at positions 1.50, 2.50, and 7.52, are involved in receptor activation.

  11. Systematic approach to scenario development using FEP analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.E.E.; Lever, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    UK regulatory requirements require that the 'assessed radiological risk ... to a representative member of the potentially exposed group at greatest risk should be consistent with a risk target of 10 -6 per year' and that risks should be 'summed over all situations that could give rise to exposure to the group'. It is a further requirement that a repository performance assessment provides a 'comprehensive record of the judgements and assumptions on which the risk assessments are based'. In order to meet these requirements, Nirex, working with AEA Technology, has developed an approach to performance assessment based on the identification and analysis of features, events and processes (FEPs). The objectives of the approach are to provide a comprehensive, traceable and clear presentation of a performance assessment for a deep geological radioactive waste repository. The approach to scenario development is fundamental to the overall Nirex strategy for performance assessment, eventually leading to a repository safety case for regulatory submission. This paper outlines the main concepts of the approach, illustrated with examples of work undertaken by Nirex to demonstrate its practicality. Due to the current status of the Nirex repository programme, the approach has not yet been used to conduct a full performance assessment of a repository located at a specific site. (authors)

  12. Indirect health costs in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect all current data on indirect costs related to inflammatory bowel disease as well as assessing homogeneity and comparability, and conducting a meta-analysis. Costs were collected using databases from Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, then average annual cost per patient was calculated and expressed in 2013-rate USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and then adjusted to specific gross domestic product (scenario 2) to make them comparable. The studies were then included in quantitative synthesis using the meta-analysis and bootstrap methods. This systematic review was carried out and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. From 18 publications, overall annual indirect costs per patient as a result of the quantitative synthesis among all studies eligible for meta-analysis ranged from US$2425.01-US$9622.15 depending on the scenario and model used for analysis. The cost of presenteeism was assessed in only two studies. Considering heterogeneity among all identified studies random-effect model presented the most accurate results of meta-analysis equal to US$7189.27 and US$9622.15 per patient per year for scenario 1 and scenario 2, respectively. This systematic review revealed the existence of a relatively small number of studies that reported on the great economic burden of the disease upon society. A great variety of methodologies and cost components resulted in a very large discrepancy in indirect costs and made meta-analysis difficult to perform, so two scenarios were considered and meta-analysis conducted in subgroups to make data more comparable.

  13. A systematic review of breath analysis and detection of volatile organic compounds in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Titlestad, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    research area is breath analysis, with several published attempts to find exhaled compounds as diagnostic markers. The field is broad and no review of published COPD breath analysis studies exists yet. We have conducted a systematic review examining the state of art and identified 12 suitable papers, which...... in breath sampling technologies, the selection of appropriate control groups, and a lack of sophisticated (and standardized) statistical data analysis methods. No cross-hospital/study comparisons have been published yet. We conclude that future efforts should (also) concentrate on making breath data...... analysis more comparable through standardization of sampling, data processing, and reporting....

  14. Systematic review and cladistic analysis of the Hernandariinae (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Bernardino DaSilva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The harvestmen subfamily Hernandariinae is reviewed and a new classification is proposed based on cladistic analysis using 67 morphological characters. The subfamily is composed of six genera and 23 species and occurs in south-southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Hernandaria armatifrons (Roewer, 1917; H. una (Mello-Leitão, 1927; Acrogonyleptes granulatus (H. Soares, 1966; A. pectinifemur (Soares & Soares, 1947; Acanthogonyleptes alticola (Mello-Leitão, 1922; A. editus (Roewer, 1943; A. fallax (Mello-Leitão, 1932; A. fulvigranulatus (Mello-Leitão, 1922; A. marmoratus (Mello-Leitão, 1940; A. pictus (Piza, 1942; A. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935; A. soaresi (Mello-Leitão, 1944; A. variolosus (Mello-Leitão, 1944. Seven synonymies are proposed: Proweyhia Mello-Leitão, 1927 and Metaxundarava Mello-Leitão, 1927 = Hernandaria Sørensen, 1884; Apembolephaenus calcaratus Soares & Soares, 1945 = H. armatifrons (Roewer, 1917; Sphaerobunus Rower, 1917 and Paraproweyhia Soares & Soares, 1947 = Acrogonyleptes Roewer, 1917; Paraproweyhia curitibae Soares & Soares, 1947 = Acrogonyleptes exochus (Mello-Leitão, 1931; and Melloleitaniana curitibae B. Soares, 1943 = Acrogonyleptes spinifrons Roewer, 1917. Three species are revalidated: Acrogonyleptes granulatus (H. Soares, 1966, A. pectinifemur (Soares & Soares, 1947, and A. spinifrons Roewer, 1917. Seven new species are described: Hernandaria sundermannorum sp. nov. (São Paulo State, Brazil, Hernandaria anitagaribaldiae sp. nov. (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, Hernandaria zumbii sp. nov. (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, Hernandaria chicomendesi sp. nov. (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, Acrogonyleptes cheguevarai sp. nov. (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, Pseudotrogulus pagu sp. nov. (São Paulo State, Brazil, Pseudotrogulus trotskyi sp. nov. (Paraná State, Brazil.

  15. Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgiri, Saeed; Yoosefian, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Kalankesh, Leila R

    2017-03-01

    Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide. Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women and identifying needs for appropriate related health policies and programs. Researchers searched Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID), Iranian biomedical journals (Iranmedex), and Iranian Research Institute of Information and Documentation (Irandoc) between January 2000 and June 2013, which reported induced abortion. Search terms from two categories including abortion and termination of pregnancy were compiled. The search terms were "induced abortion", "illegal abortion", "illegal abortion", "unsafe abortion", and "criminal abortion". The search was also conducted with "induced termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "unsafe termination of pregnancy" and "criminal termination of pregnancy". Meta-analysis was carried out by using OpenMeta software. Induced abortion rates were calculated based on the random effect model. Overall induced abortion rate was obtained 58.1 per 1000 women (95%CI: 55.16-61.04). In continental level, rate of induced abortion was 14 per 1000 women (95%CI: 11-16). Nation-wide and local rates were obtained 67.27 per 1000 women (95% CI: 60.02-74.23) and 148.92 (95% CI: 140.06-157.79) respectively. Induced abortion is a major public health problem that occurs worldwide whether under the legal restriction or freedom, and it remains as reproductive health concern globally. To eliminate the need for induced abortion is at the core of any effort for preventing this issue. Option with the highest priority is to prevent unwanted pregnancies through promoting reproductive health plans for women of reproductive age. In case the prevention strategies fail, universal provision of

  16. Screening strategies for atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; McAleenan, Alexandra; Thom, Howard Hz; Davies, Philippa; Hollingworth, Will; Higgins, Julian Pt; Okoli, George; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Feder, Gene; Eaton, Diane; Hingorani, Aroon; Fawsitt, Christopher; Lobban, Trudie; Bryden, Peter; Richards, Alison; Sofat, Reecha

    2017-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the risk of thromboembolic events. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent AF-related stroke has been shown to be cost-effective. A national screening programme for AF may prevent AF-related events, but would involve a substantial investment of NHS resources. To conduct a systematic review of the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) of screening tests for AF, update a systematic review of comparative studies evaluating screening strategies for AF, develop an economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies and review observational studies of AF screening to provide inputs to the model. Systematic review, meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Primary care. Adults. Screening strategies, defined by screening test, age at initial and final screens, screening interval and format of screening {systematic opportunistic screening [individuals offered screening if they consult with their general practitioner (GP)] or systematic population screening (when all eligible individuals are invited to screening)}. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios; the odds ratio of detecting new AF cases compared with no screening; and the mean incremental net benefit compared with no screening. Two reviewers screened the search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A DTA meta-analysis was perfomed, and a decision tree and Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the screening strategies. Diagnostic test accuracy depended on the screening test and how it was interpreted. In general, the screening tests identified in our review had high sensitivity (> 0.9). Systematic population and systematic opportunistic screening strategies were found to be similarly effective, with an estimated 170 individuals needed to be screened to detect one additional AF case compared with no screening. Systematic opportunistic screening was more likely to be cost

  17. Systematic Analysis and Innovation for Development Policies of Beijing Seed Industry at Transformation Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing LIU; Fengjun LU; Guozhi ZHANG; Lijiao XIE

    2015-01-01

    At transformation stage,seed Industry is not only a fundamental and strategic industry during the construction of World City,but also part of urban and modern agriculture in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the theory of industrial economics and system theory,the article constructs the seed industry policy analysis model,systematically analyzes the support points of national level and the city of Beijing seed industry policy,and studies policy input,mechanism,output and effects by way of systematic analysis,as well as proposes polices and suggestions on promotion of development for Beijing seed industry and on construction of new seed industry from talent incentive,platform construction,seed trading and enterprise cultivation.

  18. Efficacy of chitosan dressing on endoscopic sinus surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Ke, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan dressing might be promising to promote the recovery following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of chitosan dressing on ESS. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of chitosan dressing on endoscopic sinus surgery were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were synechia and hemostasis. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Four RCTs involving 268 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall following ESS, compared with control intervention, chitosan dressing significantly reduced synechia (RR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.13-0.49; P chitosan dressing could significantly decrease edema and improve hemostasis, but had no effect on granulations, mucosal edema, crusting and infection.

  19. Homeopathy and systematics: a systematic analysis of the therapeutic effects of the plant species used in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatan, V

    2008-07-01

    The therapeutic effects of the plant species used in homeopathy have never been subjected to systematic analysis. A survey of the various Materiae Medicae shows that over 800 plant species are the source of medicines in homeopathy. As these medicines are considered related to one another with respect to their therapeutic effects for treating similar symptoms, the aim is to classify and map them using the concept of homology. This involves placing the discipline of homeopathy into a comparative framework using these plant medicines as taxa, therapeutic effects as characters, and contemporary cladistic techniques to analyse these relationships. The results are compared using cladograms based on different data sets used in biology (e.g. morphological characters and DNA sequences) to test whether similar cladistic patterns exist among these medicines. By classifying the therapeutic actions, genuine homologies can be distinguished from homoplasies. As this is a comparative study it has been necessary first to update the existing nomenclature of the plant species in the homeopathic literature in line with the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

  20. A cross-national comparison of incident reporting systems implemented in German and Swiss hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Tanja; Imhof, Michael; Lessing, Constanze; Briner, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to empirically compare incident reporting systems (IRS) in two European countries and to explore the relationship of IRS characteristics with context factors such as hospital characteristics and characteristics of clinical risk management (CRM). We performed exploratory, secondary analyses of data on characteristics of IRS from nationwide surveys of CRM practices. The survey was originally sent to 2136 hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. Persons responsible for CRM in 622 hospitals completed the survey (response rate 29%). None. Differences between IRS in German and Swiss hospitals were assessed using Chi2, Fisher's Exact and Freeman-Halton-Tests, as appropriate. To explore interrelations between IRS characteristics and context factors (i.e. hospital and CRM characteristics) we computed Cramer's V. Comparing participating hospitals across countries, Swiss hospitals had implemented IRS earlier, more frequently and more often provided introductory IRS training systematically. German hospitals had more frequently systematically implemented standardized procedures for event analyses. IRS characteristics were significantly associated with hospital characteristics such as hospital type as well as with CRM characteristics such as existence of strategic CRM objectives and of a dedicated position for central CRM coordination. This study contributes to an improved understanding of differences in the way IRS are set up in two European countries and explores related context factors. This opens up new possibilities for empirically informed, strategic interventions to further improve dissemination of IRS and thus support hospitals in their efforts to move patient safety forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis: tools for the information age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The amount of available biomedical information is vast and growing. Natural limitations of the way clinicians and researchers approach this treasure trove of information comprise difficulties locating the information, and once located, cognitive biases may lead to inappropriate use of the information. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent important tools in the information age to improve knowledge and action. Systematic reviews represent a census approach to identifying literature to avoid non-response bias. They are a necessary prelude to producing combined quantitative summaries of associations or treatment effects. Meta-analysis comprises the arithmetical techniques for producing combined summaries from individual study reports. Careful, thoughtful and rigorous use of these tools is likely to enhance knowledge and action. Use of standard guidelines, such as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, or embedding these activities within collaborative groups such as the Cochrane Collaboration, are likely to lead to more useful systematic review and meta-analysis reporting. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography in Prostate Cancer: Summary of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent public health problem worldwide. Over the past decade, there has been tremendous research activity in the potential use of positron emission tomography with a number of radiotracers targeted to various biological aspects of this complex tumor. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are important contributions to the relevant literature that summarize the evidence while reducing the effect of various sources of bias in the published data. The accumulation of relevant data in this clinical setting has recently provided the opportunity for systematic reviews. In this brief article, I summarize the published systematic reviews and meta-analysis of positron emission tomography in prostate cancer. Most robust evidence suggests a probable role for first-line use of positron emission tomography with radiolabeled choline in restating patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer with the diagnostic performance that appears to be positively associated with the serum prostate specific antigen level and velocity. Future systematic reviews will be needed for other emerging radiotracers such as those based on prostate specific membrane antigen and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor.

  3. Cross-National User Priorities for Housing Provision and Accessibility — Findings from the European innovAge Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Haak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: “Information barrier: accessible housing”, “Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits”, and “Cost barrier: housing adaptations”. In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision.

  4. The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Lim, Carmen C W; Roest, Annelieke M; de Jonge, Peter; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Harris, Meredith G; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2017-07-31

    impairment. Also, across countries SAD is associated with specific socio-demographic features (younger age, female gender, unmarried status, lower education, and lower income) and with similar patterns of comorbidity. Treatment rates for those with any impairment are lowest in low/lower-middle income countries and highest in high income countries. While differences in SAD prevalence across countries are apparent, we found a number of consistent patterns across the globe, including early age of onset, persistence, impairment in multiple domains, as well as characteristic socio-demographic correlates and associated psychiatric comorbidities. In addition, while there are some differences in the patterns of impairment associated with SAD across the globe, key similarities suggest that the threshold for diagnosis is similar regardless of country income levels or geographic location. Taken together, these cross-national data emphasize the international clinical and public health significance of SAD.

  5. Addressing dichotomous data for participants excluded from trial analysis: a guide for systematic reviewers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie A Akl

    Full Text Available Systematic reviewer authors intending to include all randomized participants in their meta-analyses need to make assumptions about the outcomes of participants with missing data.The objective of this paper is to provide systematic reviewer authors with a relatively simple guidance for addressing dichotomous data for participants excluded from analyses of randomized trials.This guide is based on a review of the Cochrane handbook and published methodological research. The guide deals with participants excluded from the analysis who were considered 'non-adherent to the protocol' but for whom data are available, and participants with missing data.Systematic reviewer authors should include data from 'non-adherent' participants excluded from the primary study authors' analysis but for whom data are available. For missing, unavailable participant data, authors may conduct a complete case analysis (excluding those with missing data as the primary analysis. Alternatively, they may conduct a primary analysis that makes plausible assumptions about the outcomes of participants with missing data. When the primary analysis suggests important benefit, sensitivity meta-analyses using relatively extreme assumptions that may vary in plausibility can inform the extent to which risk of bias impacts the confidence in the results of the primary analysis. The more plausible assumptions draw on the outcome event rates within the trial or in all trials included in the meta-analysis. The proposed guide does not take into account the uncertainty associated with assumed events.This guide proposes methods for handling participants excluded from analyses of randomized trials. These methods can help in establishing the extent to which risk of bias impacts meta-analysis results.

  6. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  7. Association between depression and periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Milena Moreira; Martins, Carolina Castro; Costa, Lidiane Cristina Machado; Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Faria, Rodrigo Lamounier Araújo Melo; Cunha, Fabiano Araújo; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the scientific evidence on the association between depression and periodontitis. An electronic search was conducted in three databases until October 2015 (PROSPERO-CRD42014006451). Hand searches and grey literature were also included. Search retrieved 423 potentially studies. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk bias through a modified version of Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was performed for the presence/absence of periodontitis (dichotomic). Summary effect measures and odds ratio (OR) 95% CI were calculated. After selecting the studies, 15 were included in the systematic review (eight cross-sectional, six case-control and one cohort study). Six studies reported that depression was associated with periodontitis, whereas nine studies did not. The majority of studies had low risk of bias by methodological quality assessment. Meta-analysis of seven cross-sectional studies showed no significant association between depression and periodontitis (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.75-1.41). Findings from the present systematic review showed a great heterogeneity among the studies and the summary effect measure of the meta-analysis cannot affirm an association between depression and periodontitis. Future studies with different designs in distinct populations should be conducted to investigate this association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Follicular flushing during oocyte retrieval: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the literature and identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in order to answer if performing follicular flushing during the oocyte retrieval may improve the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes. An exhaustive electronic search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Only RCTs comparing follicular flushing to aspiration only during ART, were included. We included 5 trials, with a total of 482 patients randomized, with median ages ranging from 30.5 to 37.1. The data analyses did not show significant differences regarding live birth rate, clinical pregnancies rates, and the number of oocytes retrieved. The duration of oocyte retrieval was significantly increased in the follicular flushing group. The results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no advantage to use of routine follicular flushing during OR in an unselected group of patients.

  9. Analysis phase of systematic approach to training (SAT) for nuclear plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The IAEA and many Member States have recognized the benefits of a systematic approach when training nuclear power plant personnel. The Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) fully described in the IAEA publications, is recommended as the best practice for attaining and maintaining the competence and qualification of NPP personnel. Typically, SAT is organised into distinct phases of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, and relies on Feedback as a process for continuous improvement This document is addressed to nuclear power operating organisations facing the challenge of developing training programs for their own personnel. The intention was to provide Member States with examples of the Analysis phase to form foundation of SAT-based training programs. This document is also available in CD form

  10. Bibliometrics of systematic reviews: analysis of citation rates and journal impact factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citations predicted by the journal impact factor (JIF) alone and combined with several other characteristics. Methods We conducted a bibliometric analysis of 1,261 systematic reviews published in 2008 and the citations to them in the Scopus database from 2008 to June 2012. Potential predictors of the citation impact of the reviews were examined using descriptive, univariate and multiple regression analysis. Results The mean number of citations per review over four years was 26.5 (SD ±29.9) or 6.6 citations per review per year. The mean JIF of the journals in which the reviews were published was 4.3 (SD ±4.2). We found that 17% of the reviews accounted for 50% of the total citations and 1.6% of the reviews were not cited. The number of authors was correlated with the number of citations (r = 0.215, P reviews published in the top quartile of JIFs (≥ 5.16) received citations in the bottom quartile (eight or fewer), whereas 9% of reviews published in the lowest JIF quartile (≤ 2.06) received citations in the top quartile (34 or more). Six percent of reviews in journals with no JIF were also in the first quartile of citations. Conclusions The JIF predicted over half of the variation in citations to the systematic reviews. However, the distribution of citations was markedly skewed. Some reviews in journals with low JIFs were well-cited and others in higher JIF journals received relatively few citations; hence the JIF did not accurately represent the number of citations to individual systematic reviews. PMID:24028376

  11. Is there a social gradient of sarcopenia? A meta-analysis and systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darci; Duque, Gustavo; Fredman, Nick; Rizvi, Aoun; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon Lee

    2018-01-13

    Sarcopenia (or loss of muscle mass and function) is a relatively new area within the field of musculoskeletal research and medicine. Investigating whether there is a social gradient, including occupation type and income level, of sarcopenia, as observed for other diseases, will contribute significantly to the limited evidence base for this disease. This new information may inform the prevention and management of sarcopenia and widen the evidence base to support existing and future health campaigns. We will conduct a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, Scopus and EMBASE to identify articles that investigate associations between social determinants of health and sarcopenia in adults aged 50 years and older. Eligibility of the selected studies will be determined by two independent reviewers. The methodological quality of eligible studies will be assessed according to predetermined criteria. Established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity will be used, and where appropriate, we will conduct a meta-analysis. In the event that heterogeneity prevents numerical synthesis, a best evidence analysis will be employed. This systematic review protocol adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols reporting guidelines and will be registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). This systematic review will use published data, thus ethical permissions will not be required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, our results will be presented at (inter)national conferences relevant to the field of sarcopenia, ageing and/or musculoskeletal health and disseminated both electronically and in print. CRD42017072253. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Big Five and tertiary academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and tertiary academic performance. Five frequently used personality measures formed a restricted inclusion criteria pertaining to predictor variables: NEO Personality Inventory...... with Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. Conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of GPA by far with a weighted summary effect of .26. Subgroup analyses tested a potential moderator variable not explored hitherto: academic major of study participants. Academic major was indeed found to moderate...

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Purewal, S.; Chapman, S. C. E.; van den Akker, O. B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to perform an updated investigation of the effects of depression and anxiety on pregnancy outcomes following assisted reproductive technologies. A bibliographic search was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Science Direct databases. Data retrieved were analysed using a random effects model to estimate standardised mean differences. Results Of the 22 included studies, 18 investigated depression, 15 state anxiety, and sev...

  14. Influence of oral processing on appetite and food intake - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Krop, EM; Hetherington, MM; Nekitsing, C; Miquel, S; Postelnicu, L; Sarkar, A

    2018-01-01

    Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appeti...

  15. Interventions for increasing ankle joint dorsiflexion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Rebekah; Nix, Sheree; Wholohan, Aaron; Bradhurst, Rachael; Reed, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankle joint equinus, or restricted dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), has been linked to a range of pathologies of relevance to clinical practitioners. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of conservative interventions on ankle joint ROM in healthy individuals and athletic populations. Methods Keyword searches of Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL databases were performed with the final search being run in August 2013. Studies were eligible for inclu...

  16. Positron Emission Tomography in Prostate Cancer: Summary of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent public health problem worldwide. Over the past decade, there has been tremendous research activity in the potential use of positron emission tomography with a number of radiotracers targeted to various biological aspects of this complex tumor. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are important contributions to the relevant literature that summarize the evidence while reducing the effect of various sources of bias in the published data. The accumulation of releva...

  17. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies car...

  18. CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression and prognosis in cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Xianqin; Gu, Huajian; Li, Min; Tan, Huaming; Jin, Zhishan; Hua, Teng; Shi, Rui; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) plays an important role in tumor progression and a number of studies have suggested that it is an indicator of tumor prognosis. This current meta-analysis systematically reevaluated the predictive potential of CD147/EMMPRIN in various cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase databases to screen the literature. Fixed-effect and random-effect meta-analytical techniques were used to correlate CD147 expression with outcome measures. A t...

  19. Treatments to Prevent Bone Loss in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Altayar, Osama; Al Nofal, Alaa; Carranza Leon, B. Gisella; Prokop, Larry J.; Wang, Zhen; Murad, M. Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the effect of hormonal therapy [estrogen therapy including oral contraceptive pills (OCP)] and bisphosphonates in preventing bone loss in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Methods: We searched several electronic databases for controlled and noncontrolled studies that enrolled females of any age presenting with FHA (including athletic, weight loss, and stress-associated amenorrhea/olig...

  20. Is living the gender contract really a free choice? A cross-national comparison of preferences or constraints in mothers’ and fathers’ participation in paid and unpaid work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Olsson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a cross-national study of the work-family balance in families with dependent children. The countries included are Denmark, Hungary, Italy and the UK. The article aims at investigating the question “why” we still, in all four European countries, seem to live according to a traditional gender role pattern in the division of paid and unpaid work, despites mothers’ entrance on the paid labour market. Women still bear the main responsibility of unpaid work. With preference theory as a starting point, the paper investigates preferences and constraints in relation to mothers’ and fathers’ work- and family lives. The paper relies on qualitative interviews. By using qualitative interviews, the analysis is based on fathers’ and mothers’ articulation of their work-life balance. The design of the interview guide has been inspired by Prue Chamberlayne’s biographical methods. Thus, the analysis is based upon both fathers’ and mothers’personal (life stories in the four countries.

  1. The incidence of kidney cancer in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanipour, Soheil; Namvar, Gholamreza; Fathalipour, Mohammad; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of kidney cancer from different areas of Iran was reported. Nevertheless, there is no available systematic reviews in this regard. Therefore, the present systematic review carried out to estimate the incidence rate of kidney cancer among Iranian people. This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) in September 2017. A search was concluded using Medline/ PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google scholar for international papers and four national databases (Scientific Information Database, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc) for Persian papers. The incidence rate of kidney cancer was calculated using random effect model. An aggregate of 159 papers were retrieved in the primary search of the databases. Further screening and advanced refinement of the retrieved studies produced 15 studies totally. The age-standardized rate (ASR) of kidney cancer was 1.94, 95% CI (1.62-2.55) and 1.36, 95 % CI (1.09-1.62) in males and females, respectively. In comparison to other parts of the world, the incidence of kidney cancer was lower in Iran. Afterwards, further studies are necessary to outline the exact incidence rate and the trend of kidney cancer in Iran. © Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  2. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  3. Insulin resistance in patients with type 1 diabetes assessed by glucose clamp studies: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on insulin resistance in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared to healthy controls, assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies. Design and methods: We conducted a systematic search of

  4. Falls Prevention Education for Older Adults during and after Hospitalization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…

  5. ABERRANT RESTING-STATE BRAIN ACTIVITY IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A META-ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Saskia B. J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of trauma-exposed individuals develop PTSD. Although a growing number of studies have investigated resting-state abnormalities in PTSD, inconsistent results suggest a need for a meta-analysis and a systematic review. We conducted a systematic literature search in four online databases

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of skin substitutes in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: Highlights of a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santema, T. B. Katrien; Poyck, Paul P. C.; Ubbink, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Skin substitutes are increasingly used in the treatment of various types of acute and chronic wounds. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of skin substitutes on ulcer healing and limb salvage in the treatment of diabetic foot

  7. Using qualitative comparative analysis in a systematic review of a complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Jacobs, Sara; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E

    2016-05-04

    Systematic reviews evaluating complex interventions often encounter substantial clinical heterogeneity in intervention components and implementation features making synthesis challenging. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a non-probabilistic method that uses mathematical set theory to study complex phenomena; it has been proposed as a potential method to complement traditional evidence synthesis in reviews of complex interventions to identify key intervention components or implementation features that might explain effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The objective of this study was to describe our approach in detail and examine the suitability of using QCA within the context of a systematic review. We used data from a completed systematic review of behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence to conduct two substantive analyses using QCA. The first analysis sought to identify combinations of nine behavior change techniques/components (BCTs) found among effective interventions, and the second analysis sought to identify combinations of five implementation features (e.g., agent, target, mode, time span, exposure) found among effective interventions. For each substantive analysis, we reframed the review's research questions to be designed for use with QCA, calibrated sets (i.e., transformed raw data into data used in analysis), and identified the necessary and/or sufficient combinations of BCTs and implementation features found in effective interventions. Our application of QCA for each substantive analysis is described in detail. We extended the original review findings by identifying seven combinations of BCTs and four combinations of implementation features that were sufficient for improving adherence. We found reasonable alignment between several systematic review steps and processes used in QCA except that typical approaches to study abstraction for some intervention components and features did not support a robust calibration for QCA. QCA was

  8. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Reduces Incident Frailty Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Avgerinou, Christina; Iliffe, Steve; Walters, Kate

    2018-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature on prospective cohort studies examining associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and incident frailty and to perform a meta-analysis to synthesize the pooled risk estimates. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched on September 14, 2017. We reviewed references of included studies and relevant review papers and performed forward citation tracking for additional studies. Corresponding authors were contacted for additional data necessary for a meta-analysis. Community-dwelling older adults (mean age ≥60). Incident frailty risk according to adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Two reviewers independently screened the title, abstract, and full text to ascertain the eligibility of 125 studies that the systematic search of the literature identified, and four studies were included (5,789 older people with mean follow-up of 3.9 years). Two reviewers extracted data from the studies independently. All four studies provided adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of incident frailty risk according to three Mediterranean diet score (MDS) groups (0-3, 4-5, and 6-9). Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with significantly lower incident frailty risk (pooled OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.47-0.82, P = .001 for MDS 4-5; pooled OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.31-0.64, P Mediterranean diet is associated with significantly lower risk of incident frailty in community-dwelling older people. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet can reduce the risk of frailty, including in non-Mediterranean populations. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Pharmacotherapies for fatigue in chronic liver disease (CLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effiong, Andem; Kumari, Prerna

    2018-02-14

    This is the protocol for a systematic review (and meta-analysis) of an intervention. The primary objective of this systematic review will be to assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological therapies (pharmacotherapies) for the management of fatigue in adults with CLD of any etiology. The effects of pharmacological therapies on fatigue in CLD will be compared against those of placebo, no intervention, or non-pharmacological interventions. Specifically, this review will examine whether pharmacological therapies improve CLD-associated fatigue, and if they do, what key elements are associated with their effectiveness. The results of this systematic review will assist clinicians, policy-makers, researchers, and people with CLD in decision-making on how best to manage fatigue and its associated symptoms. MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EU Clinical Trials Register, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), ClinicalTrials.gov, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings will be searched for relevant studies. No language or date restrictions will be applied. Eligible studies will include adults with CLD of any etiology. Included studies will be randomized controlled trials. From included studies, data on participant characteristics, study design, setting, research ethics compliance, and intervention outcomes will be extracted. Risk of bias in included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted. If substantial or considerable levels of heterogeneity are detected, analysis will be limited to a narrative synthesis. This systematic review will examine the effectiveness of pharmacological therapies on fatigue reduction in people with CLD. Such therapies may be more effective than non-pharmacological interventions in treating fatigue symptoms in CLD. Evidence derived from the findings of this study will guide future practice, policy, and research. PROSPERO, CRD

  10. Association between Hypertension and Epistaxis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2017-12-01

    Objective Whether there is an association or a cause-and-effect relationship between epistaxis and hypertension is a subject of longstanding controversy. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the association between epistaxis and hypertension and to verify whether hypertension is an independent risk factor of epistaxis. Data Sources A comprehensive search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Review Methods The review was performed according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Results We screened 2768 unique studies and selected 10 for this meta-analysis. Overall, the risk of epistaxis was significantly increased for patients with hypertension (odds ratio, 1.532 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.181-1.986]; number needed to treat, 14.9 [95% CI, 12.3-19.0]). Results of the Q test and I 2 statistics suggested considerable heterogeneity ([Formula: see text] = 0.038, I 2 = 49.3%). The sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding 1 study at a time, and it revealed no change in statistical significance. Conclusion Although this meta-analysis had some limitations, our study demonstrated that hypertension was significantly associated with the risk of epistaxis. However, since this association does not support a causal relationship between hypertension and epistaxis, further clinical trials with large patient populations will be required to determine the impact of hypertension on epistaxis.

  11. Trust and management : Explaining cross-national differences in work autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    We open the black box of what goes on in firms in terms of management of their operations. Work autonomy is a key aspect of firm organization and we test the hypothesis that societal trust affects the level of autonomy that firms grant to their employees. Analysis of up to 189,213 individuals from

  12. Measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) : A cross-national validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, M.N.; Molina, P.; Abler, B.; Kessler, H.; Vanbrabant, L.G.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355587327; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) across two European nations. Participants were Italian and German undergraduate students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for the two-factor

  13. Burton Clark's "The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, John

    2010-01-01

    In "The Higher Education System", Burton Clark provides a model for the organisational analysis of higher education institutions and systems. Central to the model are the concepts of knowledge, beliefs and authority. In particular, Clark examines how different interest groups both inside and outside the university shape and subvert the…

  14. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  15. Problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Miettunen, Jouko; Pontes, Halley M; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the interplay between problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes at different developmental stages. A total of 50 empirical studies met the specified inclusion criteria, and a meta-analysis using correlation coefficients was used for the studies that reported adverse health implications regarding the impact of problematic gaming behaviour on depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and somatisation. Overall, the results suggested that problematic gaming behaviour is significantly associated with a wide range of detrimental health-related outcomes. Finally, the limitations of this review alongside its implications were discussed and considered for future research.

  16. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  17. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: vasconv@cdtn.br; reissc@cdtn.br; aclc@cdtn.br; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: bete@feq.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  18. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Jordao, Elizabete

    2008-01-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  19. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Lateral Ankle Sprain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Shida, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lateral ankle ligamentous sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in recreational activities and competitive sports. Many studies have attempted to determine whether there are certain intrinsic factors that can predict LAS. However, no consensus has been reached on the predictive intrinsic factors. To identify the intrinsic risk factors of LAS by meta-analysis from data in randomized control trials and prospective cohort studies. A systematic computerized literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials was performed. A computerized literature search from inception to January 2015 resulted in 1133 studies of the LAS intrinsic risk factors written in English. Systematic review. Level 4. The modified quality index was used to assess the quality of the design of the papers and the standardized mean difference was used as an index to pool included study outcomes. Eight articles were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis results showed that body mass index, slow eccentric inversion strength, fast concentric plantar flexion strength, passive inversion joint position sense, and peroneus brevis reaction time correlated with LAS. Body mass index, slow eccentric inversion strength, fast concentric plantar flexion strength, passive inversion joint position sense, and the reaction time of the peroneus brevis were associated with significantly increased risk of LAS.

  20. Recurrence of hidradenitis suppurativa after surgical management: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Ali; Hazen, Paul G; Bechara, Falk G; Zwingerman, Nora; Moazenzadeh, Marzyeh; Bashash, Morteza; Sibbald, R Gary; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of apocrine-bearing skin. Treatment is challenging and long-standing. Surgery is one of the treatment options with varying reported success rates. This study provides a comprehensive systematic review of surgical approaches in the management of HS. A systematic literature search and meta-analysis of proportions were performed on the included studies. Of a total of 1147 retrieved articles, 22 were included in the analysis. These were the estimated average recurrences: wide excision, 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0-22.0%); local incision, 22.0% (95% CI, 10.0-37.0%); and deroofing, 27.0% (95% CI, 23.0-31.0%). In the wide excision group, recurrence rates were as follows: 15% (95% CI, 0-72%) for primary closure, 8% (95% CI, 2.0-16.0%) for using flaps, and 6.0% (95% CI, 0.0-24.0%) for grafting. The secondary intention healing option was most commonly chosen after local excision and deroofing. There was poor quality evidence and potential improper reporting of the results. This systematic review found lower recurrence rates with wide excision, using skin flaps or skin grafts as the closure methods. The heterogeneity of the patient populations was high and statistically significant within and across all types of excisions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression in HIV and HCV co-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Rusted, Jennifer; Whale, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the differences in the prevalence of depression and presence of depressive symptoms between HIV/HCV co-infection, HIV mono-infection, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection. A systematic electronic search of bibliographic databases was performed to locate articles published from the earliest available online until December 2014. Outcomes of depression were based on clinical interviews and validated self-reported measures of depression/depressive symptoms. Of the 188 records initially screened, 29 articles were included in the descriptive systematic review and six were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic results indicated that, as measured by self-reported measures of depression, HIV/HCV co-infected patients were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms than either HIV (SMD = .24, 95% CI: .03-.46, p = .02) or HCV mono-infected (SMD = .55, 95% CI: .17-.94, p = .005) patients. The variability of the results of the reviewed studies, largely dependent on the samples' characteristics and the methods of assessment of depression, suggests that a clear interpretation of how depression outcomes are affected by the presence of HIV/HCV co-infection is still needed. Failing to diagnose depression or to early screen depressive symptoms may have a significant impact on patients' overall functioning and compromise treatments' outcomes.

  2. A cross-national comparison of the transition out of elite sport of Swiss, Danish and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the transition out of elite sport of former Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes in terms of (a) preconditions of retirement, (b) the transitional and adaptation period, and (c) consequences of the transition. The sample consisted of 231 Swiss, 86 Danish...... athletes relocated mainly in jobs connected to the sport and thus rated their previous sport network as more important for finding an occupation compared to Swiss and Danish athletes. Based on our results and in line with findings of previous cross-national studies, we emphasize that it is important...... from the three countries. Athletes differed significantly in their educational level, their athletic identity, and their working experience while active in the sport. Swiss athletes experienced the least distress during the transition, while Polish athletes reported the highest difficulties. Polish...

  3. Family ties and health cross-nationally: the contextualizing role of familistic culture and public pension spending in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Christine A

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research theorizes that cross-national variation in the relationship between family ties and health is due to nation-level differences in culture and policy/economics, no study has examined this theorization empirically. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), this study uses multilevel modeling to analyze individual-, nation-, and cross-level effects for 30,291 older adults in 14 nations. Family ties to spouses/partners and parents are associated with better health, but ties to coresident children are associated with poorer health in certain contexts. Familistic culture and public pension spending have a weak but statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational family ties and health. This article underscores the complexity of family and highlights the need for continued theorization and measurement at the nation level to promote older adults' health in diverse contexts.

  4. Soybean exports and deforestation from a world-systems perspective: a cross-national investigation of comparative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kelly F

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on world-system theorizing to explore the relationship between deforestation and the vertical flow of soybean exports from less-developed nations to more-developed nations as a specific form of ecologically unequal exchange. Despite overwhelming case-study research exploring soybean-deforestation dynamics in less-developed countries, the current literature lacks any cross-national investigation of this trend. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine whether soybean exports are associated with deforestation and if the magnitude of this relationship varies by region. Overall, the findings confirm the proposed hypotheses and suggest that having a comparative advantage in soybean production is not a viable development strategy.

  5. COMPARISON OF REQUIREMENTS FOR BRAND MANAGERS RESPONSIBLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS OF BRANDS: A CROSS-NATIONAL STUDY IN THE US AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblowská Zuzana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present partial results of an independent research project. The author´s choice of the position “Brand Manager” was influenced by the fact that branding is a very powerful tool in striving for competitiveness in the 21st century. The paper focuses on a set of requirements in terms of educational level, professional experience, knowledge, technical competence, and business management skills for candidates for the position of “Brand Manager”. Berelson´s content analysis method was used to study recruitment advertisement texts. A cross-national study was conducted to compare requirements in the US and in the Czech Republic. The result of the present research project in the US confirmed a fundamental need for a university education, knowledge of marketing, and experience in the field of the advertising company´s business. An unexpected result was that the groups of technical competences as well as required practices and work experience for brand managers in the US and the Czech Republic had statistically significant differences. The article concludes with a number of recommendations formulated for the implementation of the human resource management practices of recruiting and selection, as their inappropriate strategy and implementation is common and the consequences are costly.

  6. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...... of dependent and independent variables in the two sub-cohorts. Stratified logistic regression analysis was performed to identify causes for absence within the two sub-cohorts, and logistic regression analysis was performed to study differences in sickness absence levels between the two sub-cohorts. RESULTS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...

  7. The indirect costs of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Kawalec, Paweł

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarize all current data on the indirect costs related to absenteeism and presenteeism associated with ankylosing spondylitis. The search was conducted using Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. All collected costs were recalculated to average annual cost per patient, expressed in 2013 prices USD using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity. Identified studies were then analyzed to assess their possible inclusion in the meta-analysis. We identified 32 records. The average annual indirect cost per patient varies among all the identified results from US$660.95 to 45,953.87. The mean annual indirect per patient equals US$6454.76. This systematic review summarizes current data related to indirect costs generated by ankylosing spondylitis; it revealed the great economic burden of the disease for society. We observed a great variety of the considered components of indirect costs and their definitions.

  8. Analysis of Existing Guidelines for the Systematic Planning Process of Clinical Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löpprich, Martin; Knaup, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Clinical registries are a powerful method to observe the clinical practice and natural disease history. In contrast to clinical trials, where guidelines and standardized methods exist and are mandatory, only a few initiatives have published methodological guidelines for clinical registries. The objective of this paper was to review these guidelines and systematically assess their completeness, usability and feasibility according to a SWOT analysis. The results show that each guideline has its own strengths and weaknesses. While one supports the systematic planning process, the other discusses clinical registries in great detail. However, the feasibility was mostly limited and the special requirements of clinical registries, their flexible, expandable and adaptable technological structure was not addressed consistently.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical skin incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Lisa N F; Brown, Carl J

    2012-08-01

    The creation of surgical skin incisions has historically been performed using a cold scalpel. The use of electrocautery for this purpose has been controversial with respect to patient safety and surgical efficacy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare skin incisions made by electrocautery and a scalpel. A systematic electronic literature search was performed using 2 electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed), and the methodological quality of included publications was evaluated. Six RCTs were identified comparing electrocautery (n = 606) and a scalpel (n = 628) for skin incisions. No significant difference in wound infection rates or scar cosmesis was identified between the treatment groups. Electrocautery significantly reduced the incision time and postoperative wound pain. A trend toward less incisional blood loss from skin incisions made with electrocautery was noted. Electrocautery is a safe and effective method for performing surgical skin incisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Baseline Ohip-Edent Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duale, J M J; Patel, Y A; Wu, J; Hyde, T P

    2018-03-01

    OHIP-EDENT is widely used in the literature to assess Oral-Health-Related-Quality-of-Life (OHRQoL) for edentulous patients. However the normal variance and mean of the baseline OHIP scores has not been reported. It would facilitate critical appraisal of studies if we had knowledge of the normal variation and mean of baseline OHIP-EDENT scores. An established figure for baseline OHIP-EDENT, obtained from a meta-analysis, would simplify comparisons of studies and quantify variations in initial OHRQoL of the trial participants. The aim of this study is to quantify a normal baseline value for pre-operative OHIP-EDENT scores by a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. A systematic literature review was carried. 83 papers were identified that included OHIP-EDENT values. After screening and eligibility assessment, 7 papers were selected and included in the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis for the 7 papers by a random-effect model yielded a mean baseline OHIP-EDENT score of 28.63 with a 95% Confidence intervals from 21.93 to 35.34. A pre-operative baseline OHIP-EDENT has been established by meta-analysis of published papers. This will facilitate the comparison of the initial OHRQoL of one study population to that found elsewhere in the published literature. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  11. Clinical information modeling processes for semantic interoperability of electronic health records: systematic review and inductive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Moner, David; Cruz, Wellington Dimas da; Santos, Marcelo R; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat; Kalra, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review aims to identify and compare the existing processes and methodologies that have been published in the literature for defining clinical information models (CIMs) that support the semantic interoperability of electronic health record (EHR) systems. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses systematic review methodology, the authors reviewed published papers between 2000 and 2013 that covered that semantic interoperability of EHRs, found by searching the PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and ScienceDirect databases. Additionally, after selection of a final group of articles, an inductive content analysis was done to summarize the steps and methodologies followed in order to build CIMs described in those articles. Three hundred and seventy-eight articles were screened and thirty six were selected for full review. The articles selected for full review were analyzed to extract relevant information for the analysis and characterized according to the steps the authors had followed for clinical information modeling. Most of the reviewed papers lack a detailed description of the modeling methodologies used to create CIMs. A representative example is the lack of description related to the definition of terminology bindings and the publication of the generated models. However, this systematic review confirms that most clinical information modeling activities follow very similar steps for the definition of CIMs. Having a robust and shared methodology could improve their correctness, reliability, and quality. Independently of implementation technologies and standards, it is possible to find common patterns in methods for developing CIMs, suggesting the viability of defining a unified good practice methodology to be used by any clinical information modeler. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Therapies for bruxism: a systematic review and network meta-analysis (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, Mauro Elias; Hutton, Brian; Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2017-01-13

    Bruxism is a sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth that may be related to irreversible tooth injuries. It is a prevalent condition occurring in up to 31% of adults. However, there is no definitive answer as to which of the many currently available treatments (including drug therapy, intramuscular injections, physiotherapy, biofeedback, kinesiotherapy, use of intraoral devices, or psychological therapy) is the best for the clinical management of the different manifestations of bruxism. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to answer the following question: what is the best treatment for adult bruxists? Comprehensive searches of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Scopus, and LILACS will be completed using the following keywords: bruxism and therapies and related entry terms. Studies will be included, according to the eligibility criteria (Controlled Clinical Trials and Randomized Clinical Trials, considering specific outcome measures for bruxism). The reference lists of included studies will be hand searched. Relevant data will be extracted from included studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. Risk of bias of the included studies will be assessed, and the overall strength of the evidence will be summarized (i.e., GRADE). A random effects model will be used for all pairwise meta-analyses (with a 95% confidence interval). A Bayesian network meta-analysis will explore the relative benefits between the various treatments. The review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews incorporating Network Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-NMA) statement. This systematic review aims at identifying and evaluating therapies to treat bruxism. This systematic review may lead to several recommendations, for both patients and researchers, as which is the best therapy for a specific patient case and how future studies need to be designed, considering what is available now and what is

  13. Financial conflicts of interest and conclusions about neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza: an analysis of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Arachi, Diana; Hudgins, Joel; Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2014-10-07

    Industry funding and financial conflicts of interest may contribute to bias in the synthesis and interpretation of scientific evidence. To examine the association between financial conflicts of interest and characteristics of systematic reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors. Retrospective analysis. Reviews that examined the use of neuraminidase inhibitors in the prophylaxis or treatment of influenza, were published between January 2005 and May 2014, and used a systematic search protocol. Two investigators blinded to all information regarding the review authors independently assessed the presentation of evidence on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors as favorable or not favorable. Financial conflicts of interest were identified using the index reviews, other publications, and Web-based searches. Associations between financial conflicts of interest, favorability assessments, and presence of critical appraisals of evidence quality were analyzed. Twenty-six systematic reviews were identified, of which 13 examined prophylaxis and 24 examined treatment, accounting for 37 distinct assessments. Among assessments associated with a financial conflict of interest, 7 of 8 (88%) were classified as favorable, compared with 5 of 29 (17%) among those without a financial conflict of interest. Reviewers without financial conflicts of interest were more likely to include statements about the quality of the primary studies than those with financial conflicts of interest. The heterogeneity in populations and outcomes examined in the reviews precluded analysis of the contribution of selective inclusion of evidence on the discordance of the assessments made in the reviews. Many of the systematic reviews had overlapping authorship. Reviewers with financial conflicts of interest may be more likely to present evidence about neuraminidase inhibitors in a favorable manner and recommend the use of these drugs than reviewers without financial conflicts of interest. Australian National Health and

  14. Basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Anderson; Leite, Heloísa Marquardt; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Watte, Guilherme; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2018-05-17

    To perform a qualitative synthesis (systematic review) and quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases for observational studies on the association between basal cortisol levels and MetS. The quality of individual studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa score. A random effects model was used to report pooled quantitative results and the I 2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Egger's and Begg's tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-six studies (19 cross-sectional and seven case-control) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The majority was classified as having a low risk of bias and used established criteria for the diagnosis of MetS. Twenty-one studies provided data on basal cortisol levels as continuous values and were included in the meta-analysis; they comprised 35 analyses and 11,808 subjects. Pooled results showed no significant difference in basal cortisol levels between subjects with and without MetS (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.11 to 0.14). There was high heterogeneity between the studies when all comparisons were considered (I 2  = 83.1%;p meta-analysis of studies evaluating saliva samples showed no significantly lower basal cortisol levels among subjects with MetS (SMD=-0.18, 95% CI=-0.37 to 0.01), whereas those studies that evaluated serum samples (SMD = 0.11, 95% CI=-0.02 to 0.24) and urine samples (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI=-0.40 to 1.86) showed no significantly higher basal cortisol levels among subjects with MetS. In the subgroup and meta-regression analyses, a significant difference in basal cortisol levels was observed according to study design, population base, age, gender, cortisol level assessment method, and study quality. This systematic review

  15. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  16. Lower vs. higher fluid volumes in sepsis-protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, T S; Møller, M H; Hjortrup, P B

    2017-01-01

    sequential analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing different strategies to obtain separation in fluid volumes or balances during resuscitation of adult patients with sepsis. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos...... for relevant literature. We will follow the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated...

  17. Association between periodontitis and ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leira, Yago; Seoane, Juan; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Takkouche, Bahi; Blanco, Juan; Castillo, José

    2017-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested an association between periodontitis and cerebral ischemia. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether this link exists, and if so, the degree to which it is significant. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guideline for systematic review was used. The search strategy included using electronic databases and hand searching works published up to March 2015. MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Proceedings Web of Science and Current Contents Connect were searched by two independent reviewers. Case-control, cross-sectional or cohort studies including patients with measures of periodontitis and ischemic stroke were eligible to be included in the analysis. Quality assessments of selected studies were performed. From a total of 414 titles and abstracts, 57 potentially relevant full text papers were identified. After inclusion criteria were applied, 8 studies were included in the present systematic review (5 case-control and 3 cohort studies). Although it was not the intention, cross-sectional studies were excluded due to eligibility criteria were not accomplished. Therefore, meta-analyses were conducted with data retrieved from the 8 studies included. These meta-analyses showed statistically significant association between periodontitis and ischemic stroke in both cohort pooled relative risks at 2.52 (1.77–3.58), and case-control studies pooled relative risks at 3.04 (1.10–8.43). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis demonstrated an association between periodontitis and ischemic stroke. However, well-designed prospective studies should be carried out to provide robust evidence of the link between both diseases. In regards to ischemic stroke subtypes, further case-control studies should be carried out to investigate whether there is any association between the different subtypes of cerebral infarcts and periodontitis.

  18. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  19. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaeun Kim

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is a common syndrome in chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis. The association between sarcopenia and outcomes, such as complications and survival has recently been described in various patient groups. However, study results remain inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with cirrhosis.We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis (MA on the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in liver cirrhosis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Of the 312 studies identified, 20 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies used CT to diagnose sarcopenia. Two studies used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, 10 studies used skeletal muscle index (SMI and 8 studies used total psoas muscle area (TPA. Seven studies included Asian participants and the remaining 13 studies included Western participants. The prevalence rate of sarcopenia among participants was mean 48.1%, and appeared more among men with a rate of 61.6% whereas the rate was 36% for women. With respect to clinical outcomes, patients with sarcopenia had poorer survival rates and an increased risk of complications such as infection compared to those without sarcopenia. According to the analysis of race subgroup, Asians had a HR 2.45 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.44-4.16, P = 0.001 of mortality whereas Westerners had a HR 1.45 (95% CI = 1.002-2.09, P<0.05.Based on this SR and MA, the presence of sarcopenia is related to a poor prognosis and occurrence of cirrhotic complications and could be used for risk assessment. Moreover, Asian participants had higher mortality related to sarcopenia compared to the Western participants.

  20. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gaeun; Kim, Moon Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a common syndrome in chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis. The association between sarcopenia and outcomes, such as complications and survival has recently been described in various patient groups. However, study results remain inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with cirrhosis. Methods and findings We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) on the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in liver cirrhosis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Of the 312 studies identified, 20 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies used CT to diagnose sarcopenia. Two studies used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), 10 studies used skeletal muscle index (SMI) and 8 studies used total psoas muscle area (TPA). Seven studies included Asian participants and the remaining 13 studies included Western participants. The prevalence rate of sarcopenia among participants was mean 48.1%, and appeared more among men with a rate of 61.6% whereas the rate was 36% for women. With respect to clinical outcomes, patients with sarcopenia had poorer survival rates and an increased risk of complications such as infection compared to those without sarcopenia. According to the analysis of race subgroup, Asians had a HR 2.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44–4.16, P = 0.001) of mortality whereas Westerners had a HR 1.45 (95% CI = 1.002–2.09, Psarcopenia is related to a poor prognosis and occurrence of cirrhotic complications and could be used for risk assessment. Moreover, Asian participants had higher mortality related to sarcopenia compared to the Western participants. PMID:29065187

  1. Equation-free analysis of agent-based models and systematic parameter determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Spencer A.; Lloyd, David J. B.; Skeldon, Anne C.

    2016-12-01

    Agent based models (ABM)s are increasingly used in social science, economics, mathematics, biology and computer science to describe time dependent systems in circumstances where a description in terms of equations is difficult. Yet few tools are currently available for the systematic analysis of ABM behaviour. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis is a well-established tool for the study of deterministic systems. Recently, equation-free (EF) methods have been developed to extend numerical continuation techniques to systems where the dynamics are described at a microscopic scale and continuation of a macroscopic property of the system is considered. To date, the practical use of EF methods has been limited by; (1) the over-head of application-specific implementation; (2) the laborious configuration of problem-specific parameters; and (3) large ensemble sizes (potentially) leading to computationally restrictive run-times. In this paper we address these issues with our tool for the EF continuation of stochastic systems, which includes algorithms to systematically configuration problem specific parameters and enhance robustness to noise. Our tool is generic and can be applied to any 'black-box' simulator and determines the essential EF parameters prior to EF analysis. Robustness is significantly improved using our convergence-constraint with a corrector-repeat (C3R) method. This algorithm automatically detects outliers based on the dynamics of the underlying system enabling both an order of magnitude reduction in ensemble size and continuation of systems at much higher levels of noise than classical approaches. We demonstrate our method with application to several ABM models, revealing parameter dependence, bifurcation and stability analysis of these complex systems giving a deep understanding of the dynamical behaviour of the models in a way that is not otherwise easily obtainable. In each case we demonstrate our systematic parameter determination stage for

  2. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2. Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.61). Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73) and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84). Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor. Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human behavior

  3. Endoscopic versus surgical treatment of ampullary adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Ernesto Quaresma; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux; Chaves, Dalton Marques; Kondo, André; Pu, Leonardo Zorrón Cheng Tao; Baracat, Felipe Iankelevich

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to address the outcomes of endoscopic resection compared with surgery in the treatment of ampullary adenomas. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. For this purpose, the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scopus and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were scanned. Studies included patients with ampullary adenomas and data considering endoscopic treatment compared with surgery. The entire analysis was based on a fixed-effects model. Five retrospective cohort studies were selected (466 patients). All five studies (466 patients) had complete primary resection data available and showed a difference that favored surgical treatment (risk difference [RD] = -0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.44 to -0.04). Primary success data were identified in all five studies as well. Analysis showed that the surgical approach outperformed endoscopic treatment for this outcome (RD = -0.37, 95% CI = -0.50 to -0.24). Recurrence data were found in all studies (466 patients), with a benefit indicated for surgical treatment (RD = 0.10, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.19). Three studies (252 patients) presented complication data, but analysis showed no difference between the approaches for this parameter (RD = -0.15, 95% CI = -0.53 to 0.23). Considering complete primary resection, primary success and recurrence outcomes, the surgical approach achieves significantly better results. Regarding complication data, this systematic review concludes that rates are not significantly different. PMID:26872081

  4. Rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The population rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) is frequently reported as 10%. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the true population based frequency of FALS has never been performed. METHOD: A Medline literature review identified all original articles reporting a rate of FALS. Studies were grouped according to the type of data presented and examined for sources of case ascertainment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of reported rates of FALS was then conducted to facilitate comparison between studies and calculate a pooled rate of FALS. RESULTS: 38 papers reported a rate of FALS. Thirty-three papers were included in analysis and the rate of FALS for all studies was 4.6% (95% CI 3.9% to 5.5%). Restricting the analysis to prospective population based registry data revealed a rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.1% to 6.1%). The incidence of FALS was lower in southern Europe. There was no correlation between rate of FALS and reported SOD1 mutation rates. CONCLUSION: The rate of FALS among prospective population based registries is 5.1% (CI 4.1 to 6.1%), and not 10% as is often stated. Further detailed prospective population based studies of familial ALS are required to confirm this rate.

  5. Risk of malignancy in ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Wenli; Fei, Yunyun; Li, Yongzhe; Zhang, Fengchun

    2016-08-18

    Current knowledge about the overall and site-specific risk of malignancy associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to address this knowledge gap. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane library and the virtual health library) were systematically searched. A manual search of publications within the last 2 years in key journals in the field (Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Rheumatology and Arthritis &rheumatology) was also performed. STATA 11.2 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. After screening, twenty-three studies, of different designs, were eligible for meta-analysis. AS is associated with a 14% (pooled RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.25) increase in the overall risk for malignancy. Compared to controls, patients with AS are at a specific increased risk for malignancy of the digestive system (pooled RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.42), multiple myelomas (pooled RR 1.92; 95% CI 1.37 to 3.69) and lymphomas (pooled RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.57). On subgroup analysis, evidence from high quality cohort studies indicated that AS patients from Asia are at highest risk for malignancy overall. Confirmation of findings from large-scale longitudinal studies is needed to identify specific risk factors and to evaluate treatment effects.

  6. Rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2010-11-03

    Background The population rate of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) is frequently reported as 10%. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the true population based frequency of FALS has never been performed. Method A Medline literature review identified all original articles reporting a rate of FALS. Studies were grouped according to the type of data presented and examined for sources of case ascertainment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of reported rates of FALS was then conducted to facilitate comparison between studies and calculate a pooled rate of FALS. Results 38 papers reported a rate of FALS. Thirty-three papers were included in analysis and the rate of FALS for all studies was 4.6% (95% CI 3.9% to 5.5%). Restricting the analysis to prospective population based registry data revealed a rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.1% to 6.1%). The incidence of FALS was lower in southern Europe. There was no correlation between rate of FALS and reported SOD1 mutation rates. Conclusion The rate of FALS among prospective population based registries is 5.1% (CI 4.1 to 6.1%), and not 10% as is often stated. Further detailed prospective population based studies of familial ALS are required to confirm this rate.

  7. Periodontal disease severity in subjects with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, David Jonathan R; Mello-Neto, João M; Alves, Breno Edson S; Matheus, Henrique R; Ervolino, Edilson; Theodoro, Letícia H; de Almeida, Juliano M

    Despite clinical trials and reviews attempt to assess a possible relationship between dementia and periodontal disease, no meta-analysis has been performed and this issue remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess severity of periodontitis in subjects with dementia. The search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase/MEDLINE. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk bias (Newcastle-Ottawa scale). Meta-analyses were performed using the means of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) in patients with or without dementia. The mean difference were analyzed (P ≤ 0.05). Fourteen studies were included in the systematic review. In the qualitative analysis, most studies reported higher prevalence of periodontal disease in dementia patients. The studies had low risk of bias and two meta-analyses were performed for each parameter, including or not a cross-sectional study. The meta-analyses including the cross-sectional study demonstrated significant association between dementia and periodontal disease (mean difference: PD = 1.41; CAL = 1.40, P periodontal conditions in dementia patients, due to different study types and the high heterogeneity among them, the meta-analysis does not support the association between dementia and severity of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Salas, M M S; Nascimento, G G; Tarquinio, S B C; Faggion, C M; Peres, M A; Thomson, W M; Demarco, F F

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries is the main problem oral health and it is not well established in the literature if the enamel defects are a risk factor for its development. Studies have reported a potential association between developmental defects enamel (DDE) and dental caries occurrence. We investigated the association between DDE and caries in permanent dentition of children and teenagers. A systematic review was carried out using four databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct), which were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2014. Population-based studies assessing differences in dental caries experience according to the presence of enamel defects (and their types) were included. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the pooled effect, and meta-regression was carried out to identify heterogeneity sources. From the 2558 initially identified papers, nine studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria after checking the titles, abstracts, references, and complete reading. Seven of them were included in the meta-analysis with random model. A positive association between enamel defects and dental caries was identified; meta-analysis showed that individuals with DDE had higher pooled odds of having dental caries experience [OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.3; 3.54)]. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that adjustment for sociodemographic factors, countries' socioeconomic status, and bias (quality of studies) explained the high heterogeneity observed. A higher chance of dental caries should be expected among individuals with enamel defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic intervention for internalized stigma of severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Ching, S C; Tang, K H; Lam, H T; Law, Peggy Y Y; Wan, C N

    2016-05-01

    Internalized stigma can lead to pervasive negative effects among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although prevalence of internalized stigma is high, there is a dearth of interventions and meanwhile a lack of evidence as to their effectiveness. This study aims at unraveling the existence of different therapeutic interventions and the effectiveness internalized stigma reduction in people with SMI via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they (1) involved community or hospital based interventions on internalized stigma, (2) included participants who were given a diagnosis of SMI>50%, and (3) were empirical and quantitative in nature. Fourteen articles were selected for extensive review and five for meta-analysis. Nine studies showed significant decrease in internalized stigma and two showed sustainable effects. Meta-analysis showed that there was a small to moderate significant effect in therapeutic interventions (SMD=-0.43; p=0.003). Among the intervention elements, four studies suggested a favorable effect of psychoeducation. Meta-analysis showed that there was small to moderate significant effect (SMD=-0.40; p=0.001). Most internalized stigma reduction programs appear to be effective. This systematic review cannot make any recommendation on which intervention is more effective although psychoeducation seems most promising. More Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) on particular intervention components using standard outcome measures are recommended in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Statin Treatment and Mortality in Bacterial Infections – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Bergman, Peter; Andersson, Jan; Lindh, Jonatan D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported improved survival in severe bacterial infections among statin treated patients. In addition, statins have been ascribed beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statin-treatment on mortality in patients with bacterial infections, by means of a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies investigating the association between statin use and mortality in patients with bacterial disease were identified in a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis was performed to calculate the overall odds ratio of mortality in statin users. The literature search identified 947 citations from which 40 relevant studies were extracted. In all, 15 studies comprising 113 910 patients were included in the final analysis. Statin use was associated with a significantly (pstatin treatment was no longer significant, with an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.58–1.07). Conclusion/Significance According to the meta-analysis of observational studies presented here, patients on statin therapy seem to have a better outcome in bacterial infections. However, the association did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for apparent publication bias. Thus, there is a great need for randomised controlled trials investigating the possible beneficial effect of statins in bacterial infections. PMID:20502712

  11. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: Wang.Zhen@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nabhan, Mohammed [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

  12. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Nabhan, Mohammed; Schild, Steven E.; Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence

  13. A systematic fault tree analysis based on multi-level flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Ohara, Ai

    2010-01-01

    The fault tree analysis (FTA) is widely applied for the safety evaluation of a large-scale and mission-critical system. Because the potential of the FTA, however, strongly depends on human skill of analyzers, problems are pointed out in (1) education and training, (2) unreliable quality, (3) necessity of expertise knowledge, and (4) update of FTA results after the reconstruction of a target system. To get rid of these problems, many techniques to systematize FTA activities by applying computer technologies have been proposed. However, these techniques only use structural information of a target system and do not use functional information that is one of important properties of an artifact. The principle of FTA is to trace comprehensively cause-effect relations from a top undesirable effect to anomaly causes. The tracing is similar to the causality estimation technique that the authors proposed to find plausible counter actions to prevent or to mitigate the undesirable behavior of plants based on the model by a functional modeling technique, Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM). The authors have extended this systematic technique to construct a fault tree (FT). This paper presents an algorithm of systematic construction of FT based on MFM models and demonstrates the applicability of the extended technique by the FT construction result of a cooling plant of nitric acid. (author)

  14. Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Nirav; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A

    2016-08-01

    To systematically review the evidence base related to hamstring strength and flexibility in previously injured hamstrings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE from inception to August 2015. Full-text English articles which included studies which assessed at least one measure of hamstring strength or flexibility in men and women with prior hamstring strain injury within 24 months of the testing date. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Previously injured legs demonstrated deficits across several variables. Lower isometric strength was found hamstring to quadricep strength ratios were also reduced well after return to play (60:60°/s, d=-0.32; 240:240°/s, d=-0.43) and functional (30:240°/s, d=-0.88), but these effects were inconsistent across measurement methods. After hamstring strain, acute isometric and passive straight leg raise deficits resolve within 20-50 days. Deficits in eccentric and concentric strength and strength ratios persist after return to play, but this effect was inconsistent across measurement methods. Flexibility and isometric strength should be monitored throughout rehabilitation, but dynamic strength should be assessed at and following return to play. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to collect all current data on the indirect costs (IC) related to psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. We considered original studies, systematic reviews, economic evaluations, conference abstracts and posters. All collected data were recalculated to average annual cost per patient, expressed using the consumer price index for 2013 and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity. Eight of the identified publications presented IC of PsA. Average annual IC per patient calculated using the friction cost approach range from US$1693.83 to $12,318.45, while using the human capital approach they range from US$1750.68 to $50,270.52. Result of the meta-analysis was a basis for calculating cost of work disability equaled US$10,754.04 per patient per year in 2013 prices. This systematic review revealed a great economic burden of the disease to the society. A small number of studies on IC in PsA justify further investigations.

  16. Hormonal contraceptives and cerebral venous thrombosis risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz eAmoozegar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP has previously been shown to increase the risk of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST. Whether this risk varies by type of OCP use, duration of use and other forms of hormonal contraceptives is largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current state of knowledge on these issues.Methods: We performed a search to identify all published studies on the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of CVST in women aged 15-50, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane systematic review, the Cochrane Center for Clinical Trials and CINAHL. Risk of CVST was estimated using random effects models. Stratification and meta-regression were used to assess heterogeneity. Results: Of 861 studies reviewed for eligibility, quality, and data extraction, 11 were included in the final systematic review. The pooled odds of developing CVST in women of reproductive age taking oral contraceptives was over 7 times higher compared to women not taking oral contraceptives (OR=7.59, 95% CI 3.82 – 15.09. There is some indication that third generation OCPs may confer a higher risk of CVST than second generation OCPs, but this remains controversial. Data is insufficient to make any conclusions about duration of use and other forms of hormonal contraceptives and risk of CVST. Conclusions: OCP use increases the risk of developing CVST in women of reproductive age. Better studies are needed to determine if duration and type of hormonal contraceptive use modifies this risk.

  17. Electroacupuncture for women with stress urinary incontinence: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weixin; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuanping; Yan, Xia; Wu, Siping

    2017-12-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a widespread complaint in the adult women. Electroacupuncture has been widely applied in the treatment of SUI. But its efficacy has not been evaluated scientifically and systematically. Therefore, we provide a protocol of systematic evaluation to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI. The retrieved databases include 3 English literature databases, namely PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and 3 Chinese literature databases, namely Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI will be searched in the above-mentioned databases from the time when the respective databases were established to December 2017. The change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test will be accepted as the primary outcomes. We will use RevMan V.5.3 software as well to compute the data synthesis carefully when a meta-analysis is allowed. This study will provide a high-quality synthesis to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI. The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether electroacupuncture is an effective intervention for women with SUI. PROSPERO CRD42017070947.

  18. Role of the ultrasonographic 'whirlpool sign' in intestinal volvulus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyuma, Callistus O A; Adam, Ahmed; Aigbodion, Sunday J; McDowall, Jared; Gerber, Louis; Buchanan, Sean; Laher, Abdullah E

    2018-05-08

    Intestinal volvulus is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when loops of bowel twist around its supporting mesentery and associated vasculature. Clinicians often rely on various radiological investigations for prompt diagnosis to avoid complications such as bowel infarction. This review assesses the clinical reliability of the ultrasonographic whirlpool sign (WS) in the diagnosis of intestinal volvulus. In adherence with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) statement, a systematic search of BMJ Best Practice, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed (August 2017), using relevant search terms. Selected studies were ranked for quality and relevance using the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Program) tool. Sixteen articles (1640 participants) were assessed. The mean and median sample size was 102.5 (SD ± 192.23) and 28 (range 7-770), respectively. The WS was positive in 212 of 255 (83.1%) patients with intestinal volvulus. Meta-analysis of the studies that provided sufficient data resulted in a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 87.42% (95% confidence interval (CI): 81.05-92.25) and 98.63% (95% CI: 97.88-99.18), respectively, with an estimated summary effect of 5.28 (95% CI: 4.47-6.08, P volvulus. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Political Regime and Learning Outcomes of Stakeholder Participation: Cross-National Study of 81 Biosphere Reserves

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    Alba Mohedano Roldán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in natural resource management has spread widely, even to nondemocracies, driven by expectations of beneficial outcomes such as multidirectional learning. However, can we expect participation to be equally effective in achieving multidirectional learning in democracies and nondemocracies? Unsurprisingly, previous studies indicate the relevance of power distribution for learning. Higher levels of repression and accumulation of political capital in nondemocracies should limit the distribution of power across stakeholders. Yet, the relationship between political regime, participation, and learning has rarely been studied empirically. I address this gap by analysing multidirectional learning in stakeholder participation in 81 Man and the Biosphere reserves across 35 countries using ordinary least squares regression, Firth logistic regression, and heat maps. The results suggest that the amount of stakeholders sharing knowledge and learning is similar in both regimes. However, a closer analysis reveals differences in the impact different stakeholders have on the learning process. More concretely, local actors share knowledge more often and have a greater impact on stakeholders’ learning in democracies, while state actors display similar behavior across regimes in terms of learning and sharing knowledge. Thus, although there are notable similarities across regimes, multidirectional learning through stakeholder participation is influenced by the political context.

  20. The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosario; Elipe, Paz; Mora-Merchán, Joaquin A; Genta, M Luisa; Brighi, Antonella; Guarini, Annalisa; Smith, Peter K; Thompson, Fran; Tippett, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  3. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  4. The rights and freedoms gradient of health: evidence from a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent eBezo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status, social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of socioeconomic status and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of socioeconomic status on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the rights and freedoms gradient of health in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health.

  5. Content analysis of advertisements related to oral health in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaghi Azar, F; Mamizadeh, M; Nikniaz, Z; Ghojazadeh, M; Hajebrahimi, S; Salehnia, F; Mashhadi Abdolahi, H

    2018-03-01

    The evidence about the content of TV advertisements broadcast during children's viewing times with an emphasis on the number of food advertisements and the number of cariogenic food advertisements was systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published up until October 2017 in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Persian databases such as Magiran, IranDoc, and Iranmedex with the keywords that were related to advertising and oral health in children were searched and screened by two reviewers independently, and the outcomes of interest were extracted. Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2.0. A total of 480 titles were retrieved and reduced to 256 eligible studies after deletion of duplicates, and finally, after closer assessment of titles and abstracts, five articles were selected for systematic review and meta-analysis. Of the included studies, three were conducted in the UK, one in India, and one in Greece. About 38.0% (95% confidence interval: 19.6-60.6, P = 0.296) of advertisements were related to food and also about 70.6% (95% confidence interval: 53.7-83.3, P < 0.019) of food advertisements were related to cariogenic foods. Food advertising during children's programs is dominated by food items that are potentially harmful to oral health. Moreover, the advertisements shifted toward food items that appeared healthy but contain a large amount of hidden sugar. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does a referral from home to hospital affect satisfaction with childbirth? A cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouwy Anneleen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Belgian and Dutch societies present many similarities but differ with regard to the organisation of maternity care. The Dutch way of giving birth is well known for its high percentage of home births and its low medical intervention rate. In contrast, home births in Belgium are uncommon and the medical model is taken for granted. Dutch and Belgian maternity care systems are compared with regard to the influence of being referred to specialist care during pregnancy or intrapartum while planning for a home birth. We expect that a referral will result in lower satisfaction with childbirth, especially in Belgium. Methods Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first two weeks after childbirth, either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 563 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004–2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept. Results Belgian women are more satisfied than Dutch women and home births are more satisfying than hospital births. Women who are referred to the hospital while planning for a home birth are less satisfied than women who planned to give birth in hospital and did. A referral has a greater negative impact on satisfaction for Dutch women. Conclusion There is no reason to believe Dutch women receive hospital care of lesser quality than Belgian women in case of a referral. Belgian and Dutch attach different meaning to being referred, resulting in a different evaluation of childbirth. In the Dutch maternity care system home births lead to higher satisfaction, but once a referral to the hospital is necessary satisfaction drops and ends up lower than satisfaction with hospital births that were planned in advance

  7. Utility of a Systematic Approach to Teaching Photographic Nasal Analysis to Otolaryngology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitschek, Jon; Dresner, Harley; Hilger, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Photographic nasal analysis constitutes a critical step along the path toward accurate diagnosis and precise surgical planning in rhinoplasty. The learned process by which one assesses photographs, analyzes relevant anatomical landmarks, and generates a global view of the nasal aesthetic is less widely described. To discern the common pitfalls in performing photographic nasal analysis and to quantify the utility of a systematic approach model in teaching photographic nasal analysis to otolaryngology residents. This prospective observational study included 20 participants from a university-based otolaryngology residency program. The control and intervention groups underwent baseline graded assessment of 3 patients. The intervention group received instruction on a systematic approach model for nasal analysis, and both groups underwent postintervention testing at 10 weeks. Data were collected from October 1, 2015, through June 1, 2016. A 10-minute, 11-slide presentation provided instruction on a systematic approach to nasal analysis to the intervention group. Graded photographic nasal analysis using a binary 18-point system. The 20 otolaryngology residents (15 men and 5 women; age range, 24-34 years) were adept at mentioning dorsal deviation and dorsal profile with focused descriptions of tip angle and contour. Areas commonly omitted by residents included verification of the Frankfort plane, position of the lower lateral crura, radix position, and ratio of the ala to tip lobule. The intervention group demonstrated immediate improvement after instruction on the teaching model, with the mean (SD) postintervention test score doubling compared with their baseline performance (7.5 [2.7] vs 10.3 [2.5]; P Otolaryngology residents demonstrated proficiency at incorporating nasal deviation, tip angle, and dorsal profile contour into their nasal analysis. They often omitted verification of the Frankfort plane, position of lower lateral crura, radix depth, and ala-to-tip lobule

  8. Epidemiology of brucellosis in Iran: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Jazi, Faramarz Masjedian; Mostafaei, Shayan; Sedighi, Mansour

    2017-08-01

    Brucellosis is still one of the most challenging issues for health and the economy in many developing countries such as Iran. Considering the high prevalence of brucellosis, the aim of the current study was to systematically review published data about the annual incidence rate of this infection from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) for Iran using meta-analysis. We searched several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, google scholar, IranMedex and Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID) by using the following keywords: "Brucella", "Brucellosis", "Malta fever", "Mediterranean fever", "undulant fever", "zoonosis" and "Iran" in Title/Abstract/Keywords fields. Articles/Abstracts, which used clinical specimens and reported the incidence of brucellosis, were included in this review. Quality of studies was assessed by STROB and PRISMA forms. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 (STATA Corp, College Station, TX) and P-values under 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Out of the 8326 results, we found 34 articles suitable, according to inclusion and exlusion criteria, for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of brucellosis was estimated 0.001% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.0005-0.0015%) annually. Relative frequency of brucellosis in different studies varied from 7.0/100000 to 276.41/100000 in Qom and Kermanshah provinces, respectively. This systematic-review and meta-analysis study showed that the highest incidences of brucellosis are occurred in west and northwest regions of Iran. Totally, the incidence of the disease in Iran is in the high range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antenatal corticosteroids for neonates born before 25 Weeks-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Mangesh Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids before 25 weeks of gestation is unclear.To assess and compare neonatal outcomes following ANC exposure at 22, 23 and 24 weeks of gestation by conducting systematic review and meta- analysis.A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT and non-RCTs reporting on neonatal outcomes after exposure to ANC up to 246 weeks of gestation using the Cochrane systematic review methodology. Databases Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central library, and online abstracts of conference proceedings including the Pediatric Academic Society (PAS were searched in Feb 2017. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality defined as death before discharge during the first admission. Secondary outcomes included severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH> grade III and IV/or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC >stage II and chronic lung disease (CLD. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. The level of evidence (LOE was summarised using the GRADE guidelines.There were no RCTs; 8 high quality non-RCTs were included in the review. Meta-analysis showed reduction in mortality [N = 10109; OR = 0.47(0.39-0.56, p<0.00001; LOE: Moderate] and severe IVH and PVL [N = 5084; OR = 0.71(0.61-0.82, p<0.00001; LOE: Low] after exposure to ANC in neonates born <25 weeks. There was no significant difference in CLD [N = 4649; OR = 1.19(0.85-1.65 p = 0.31; LOE: Low] and NEC [N = 5403; OR = 0.95 (0.76-1.19 p = 0.65; LOE: Low]. Mortality was comparable in neonates born at 22, 23 or 24 weeks.Moderate to low quality evidence indicates that exposure to ANC is associated with reduction in mortality and IVH/or PVL in neonates born before 25 weeks.

  10. Contact With Mental Health Services Prior to Suicide: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Fredrik A; Myhre, Martin Øverlien; Kildahl, Anine Therese

    2018-04-16

    Access to mental health care is regarded as a central suicide prevention strategy. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of contact with mental health services preceding suicide. A systematic search for articles reporting prevalence of contact with mental health services before suicide was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO, restricted to studies published from January 1, 2000, to January 12, 2017. A random-effects meta-analysis with double arcsine transformations was conducted, with meta-regression used to explore heterogeneity. Thirty-five studies were included in the systematic review, and 20 were included in the meta-analysis. Among suicide decedents in the population, 3.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=2.6%-4.8%) were inpatients at the time of death. In the year before death, 18.3% (CI=14.6%-22.4%) of suicide decedents had contact with inpatient mental health services, 26.1% (CI=16.5%-37.0%) had contact with outpatient mental health services, and 25.7% (CI=22.7%-28.9%) had contact with inpatient or outpatient mental health services. Meta-regression showed that women had significantly higher levels of contact compared with men and that the prevalence of contact with inpatient or outpatient services increased according to the sample year. Contact with services prior to suicide was found to be common and contact with inpatient or outpatient mental health services before suicide seems to be increasing. However, the reviewed studies were mainly conducted in Western European and North American countries, and most studies focused on psychiatric hospitalization, which resulted in limited data on contact with outpatient services. Better monitoring and data on suicides that occur during and after treatment seem warranted.

  11. Effectiveness of Acupuncture for Treating Sciatica: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshi Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a systematic review and meta-analysis, which aimed to assess the current evidence on the effects and safety of acupuncture for treating sciatica. In this review, a total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included. As a result, we found that the use of acupuncture may be more effective than drugs and may enhance the effect of drugs for patients with sciatica, but because of the insufficient number of relevant and rigorous studies, the evidence is limited. Future trials using rigorous methodology, appropriate comparisons, and clinically relevant outcomes should be conducted.

  12. From Genome to Function: Systematic Analysis of the Soil Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Samuel G.; Wipat, Anil

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that lives primarily in the soil and associated water sources. Whilst this bacterium has been studied extensively in the laboratory, relatively few studies have been undertaken to study its activity in natural environments. The publication of the B. subtilis genome sequence and subsequent systematic functional analysis programme have provided an opportunity to develop tools for analysing the role and expression of Bacillus genes in situ. In this paper we discuss analytical approaches that are being developed to relate genes to function in environments such as the rhizosphere. PMID:18628943

  13. Virtual reality for improving balance in patients after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Han, Xiu-Guo; Sheng, Jing; Ma, Shao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality interventions for improving balance in people after stroke. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science and CENTRAL. Two reviewers assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. Sixteen studies involving 428 participants were included. People who received virtual reality interventions showed marked improvements in Berg Balance Scale (mean difference: 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.09-2.83, Pvirtual reality to improve balance after stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. "Bed Side" Human Milk Analysis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Human milk analyzers can measure macronutrient content in native breast milk to tailor adequate supplementation with fortifiers. This article reviews all studies using milk analyzers, including (i) evaluation of devices, (ii) the impact of different conditions on the macronutrient analysis of human milk, and (iii) clinical trials to improve growth. Results lack consistency, potentially due to systematic errors in the validation of the device, or pre-analytical sample preparation errors like homogenization. It is crucial to introduce good laboratory and clinical practice when using these devices; otherwise a non-validated clinical usage can severely affect growth outcomes of infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review of reliability and diagnostic validity of joint vibration analysis for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonia; Crow, Heidi C; McCall, W D; Gonzalez, Yoly M

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of papers reporting the reliability and diagnostic validity of the joint vibration analysis (JVA) for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Pubmed identified English-language publications of the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JVA. Guidelines were adapted from applied STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) to evaluate the publications. Fifteen publications were included in this review, each of which presented methodological limitations. This literature is unable to provide evidence to support the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JVA for diagnosis of TMD.

  16. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Context Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety-mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The “gender roles” hypothesis suggests that these differences should narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. Objective To study time-space (i.e., cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative and determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality (GRT) as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Design/Setting and Participants Face-to face household surveys of 72,933 community-dwelling adults in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Main Outcomes The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in Female:Male (F:M) odds-ratios (ORs) of these disorders across cohorts defined by age ranges 18–34, 35–49, 50–64, and 65+. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in GRT on these ORs. Results Women had more anxiety-mood disorders than men and men more externalizing-substance disorders than women in all cohorts and countries. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (MDD) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in GRT. Conclusion While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial inter-cohort narrowing of

  17. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    selecting the hybrid over the conventional vehicle at various fuel prices is illustrated. These results are based on data from various OECD motions on fuel price, annual miles of travel per vehicle, and driving cycles assumed to be applicable in those nations. Scatter in results plotted as a function of average speed, related to details of driving cycles and the vehicles selected for analysis, is discussed.

  18. Effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing crashes, the first cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Strandroth, Johan; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Fildes, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing real-life crashes. Since the European Parliament has voted on legislation making ABS mandatory on all new motorcycles over 125 cc from 2016, the fitment rate in Europe is likely to increase in the coming years. Though previous research has focused on mostly large displacement motorcycles, this study used police reports from Spain (2006-2009), Italy (2009), and Sweden (2003-2012) in order to analyze a wide range of motorcycles, including scooters, and compare countries with different motorcycling habits. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced exposure approach. Previous research found that head-on crashes were the least ABS-affected crash type and was therefore used as the nonsensitive crash type for ABS in these calculations. The same motorcycle models, with and without ABS, were compared and the calculations were carried out for each country separately. Crashes involving only scooters were further analyzed. The effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing injury crashes ranged from 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-36) in Italy to 29% (95% CI, 20-38) in Spain, and 34% (95% CI, 16-52) in Sweden. The reductions in severe and fatal crashes were even greater, at 34% (95% CI, 24-44) in Spain and 42% (95% CI, 23-61) in Sweden. The overall reductions of crashes involving ABS-equipped scooters (at least 250 cc) were 27% (95% CI, 12-42) in Italy and 22% (95% CI, 2-42) in Spain. ABS on scooters with at least a 250 cc engine reduced severe and fatal crashes by 31% (95% CI, 12-50), based on Spanish data alone. At this stage, there is more than sufficient scientific-based evidence to support the implementation of ABS on all motorcycles, even light ones. Further research should aim at understanding the injury mitigating effects of motorcycle ABS, possibly in combination with combined braking systems.

  19. Health coaching interventions for persons with chronic conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Kasey R; Barakat, Suzette; Ahn, Sangwoo; Prokop, Larry J; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Chronic conditions are increasingly more common and negatively impact quality of life, disability, morbidity, and mortality. Health coaching has emerged as a possible intervention to help individuals with chronic conditions adopt health supportive behaviors that improve both quality of life and health outcomes. We planned a systematic review and meta-analysis of the contemporary health coaching literature published in the last decade to evaluate the effect of health coaching on clinically important, disease-specific, functional, and behavioral outcomes. We will include randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared health coaching to alternative interventions or usual care. To enable adoption of effective interventions, we aim to explore how the effect of intervention is modified by the intervention components, delivering personnel (i.e., health professionals vs trained lay or peer persons), dose, frequency, and setting. Analysis of intervention outcomes will be reported and classified using an existing theoretical framework, the Theory of Patient Capacity, to identify the areas of patients' capacity to access and use healthcare and enact self-care where coaching may be an effective intervention. This systematic review and meta-analysis will identify and synthesize evidence to inform the practice of health coaching by providing evidence on components and characteristics of the intervention essential for success in individuals with chronic health conditions. PROSPERO CRD42016039730.

  20. Collective empowerment strategies for patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoni, Nayara Ragi; Aquino, Jéssica Azevedo; Sanches-Giraud, Cristina; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Cláudia; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Santos, Thiago Reis; Alves, Geisa Cristina Silva; Dal Fabbro, Amaury Lelis; Baldoni, André Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and analyze collective empowerment strategies for patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Direct and BVS. The term "Diabetes Mellitus" was used with each of the following describers, along with the connector "AND": "self-care", "health education", "motivation" and "empowerment". Inclusion criteria were: intervention study with control group published between 2004 and 2014. For meta-analysis, RevMan V 5.3 software was used. Among the nine analyzed articles, 66.7% (n=6) were developed in patients diagnosed with DM2. Concerning the indicators for intervention effectiveness evaluation, all articles (n=9) used glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the most used instrument was Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities Measure, representing 44.4% (n=4) of the studies. The types of strategies used were similar in the articles. There was evidence of a decrease in HbA1c levels in 66.7% (n=6). The meta-analysis found significant evidence indicating beneficial effects of empowerment. Programs based on collective empowerment in DM have shown the interventions lead to improvement in clinical parameters, behavior, increased knowledge about DM, and self-care. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Open and Minimally Invasive Adrenalectomy: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Patrick; Probst, Pascal; Hüttner, Felix J; Gooßen, Käthe; Proctor, Tanja; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Strobel, Oliver; Büchler, Markus W; Diener, Markus K

    2017-11-01

    Adrenalectomy can be performed via open and various minimally invasive approaches. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence on surgical techniques of adrenalectomy. Systematic literature searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) were conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing at least two surgical procedures for adrenalectomy. Statistical analyses were performed, and meta-analyses were conducted. Furthermore, an indirect comparison of RCTs and a network meta-analysis of CCTs were carried out for each outcome. Twenty-six trials (1710 patients) were included. Postoperative complication rates did not show differences for open and minimally invasive techniques. Operation time was significantly shorter for open adrenalectomy than for the robotic approach (p meta-analysis showed open adrenalectomy to be the fastest technique. Blood loss was significantly reduced in the robotic arm compared with open and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (p = 0.01). Length of hospital stay (LOS) was significantly lower after conventional laparoscopy than open adrenalectomy in CCTs (p meta-analysis revealed the lowest LOS after retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is safe and should be preferred over open adrenalectomy due to shorter LOS, lower blood loss, and equivalent complication rates. The retroperitoneoscopic access features the shortest LOS and operating time. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted, especially to compare the posterior retroperitoneoscopic and the transperitoneal robotic approach.

  2. Efficacy of probiotic supplement for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiajia; Pan, Qiangwei; Chen, Yumei; Zhang, Hongping; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-09-19

    Probiotic supplement might be beneficial for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, Embase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome were fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma glucose. Meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effect or random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 830 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting serum insulin (Std. mean difference = -0.95; 95% CI = -1.73 to -0.17; p gestational age (Std. mean difference = 0.07; 95% CI = -0.20-0.34; p = .63), and gestational weight (Std. mean difference = -0.11; 95% CI = -0.38-0.16; p = .43). Compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation was found to significantly reduce insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting serum insulin, but had no substantial influence on fasting plasma glucose, gestational age and gestational weight.

  3. Professional burnout among medical students: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erschens, Rebecca; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Loda, Teresa; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Huhn, Daniel; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian

    2018-04-14

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to summarize the available evidence on the prevalence of professional burnout among medical students. The review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles, reporting burnout among medical students published between 2000 and 2017. The meta-analysis was conducted on the available data on burnout rates in medical students measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS). Fifty-eight out of 3006 studies were found eligible for inclusion. Twelve of these studies met the criteria for meta-analysis. Weighted mean values for the three sub-dimensions of the MBI-HSS were M = 22.93 (SD = 10.25) for Emotional Exhaustion, M = 8.88 (SD = 5.64) for Depersonalization, and M = 35.11 (SD = 8.03) for Personal Accomplishment. Prevalence rates for professional burnout ranged from 7.0% to 75.2%, depending on country-specific factors, applied instruments, cutoff-criteria for burnout symptomatology. This review underlines the burden of burnout among medical students. Future research should explicitly focus on specific context factors and student group under investigation. Such efforts are necessary to control for context-dependent confounders in research on medical students' mental health impairment to enable more meaningful comparisons and adequate prevention strategies.

  4. Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Souza Bittencourt

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-invasive ventilation (NIV may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF. The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration. Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9 in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique.

  5. Relationship between nurse psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuangjie; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Jiao

    2018-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize and analyse studies that explored the relationship between the psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of nurses. Nurse turnover is an important cause of staff shortage. Job satisfaction is a major predictor of nurse turnover and is connected to the psychological empowerment of nurses. This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 1,572 articles on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were retrieved from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science. The articles were written in English and published before or by April 2017. Studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were summarized. The majority of the included studies revealed that psychological empowerment and job satisfaction are significantly correlated. Only two studies showed that the two factors are not significantly correlated. The result of this meta-analysis is consistent with the results of most studies. One study reported that psychological empowerment partially mediates the structural empowerment and job satisfaction of school health nurses. Two studies, however, did not find that the mediating role of psychological empowerment between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. The results of this review provided evidence for the importance of psychological empowerment for the job satisfaction of among nurses. Exploring the correlation between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction can provide guidelines and recommendation for the development of strategies to promote nurse retention and alleviate nursing shortage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Explaining Communication Displacement and Large-Scale Social Change in Core Networks: A Cross-National Comparison of Why Bigger is Not Better and Less Can Mean More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, Keith; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison of the Uni......The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison...

  7. esATAC: An Easy-to-use Systematic pipeline for ATAC-seq data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Huan; Li, Yanda; Wang, Xiaowo

    2018-03-07

    ATAC-seq is rapidly emerging as one of the major experimental approaches to probe chromatin accessibility genome-wide. Here, we present "esATAC", a highly integrated easy-to-use R/Bioconductor package, for systematic ATAC-seq data analysis. It covers essential steps for full analyzing procedure, including raw data processing, quality control and downstream statistical analysis such as peak calling, enrichment analysis and transcription factor footprinting. esATAC supports one command line execution for preset pipelines, and provides flexible interfaces for building customized pipelines. esATAC package is open source under the GPL-3.0 license. It is implemented in R and C ++. Source code and binaries for Linux, MAC OS X and Windows are available through Bioconductor https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/esATAC.html). xwwang@tsinghua.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Cell-Free DNA in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Boysen, Anders K; Pallisgård, Niels; Johansen, Julia S; Tabernero, Josep; Sørensen, Morten M; Jensen, Benny V; Hansen, Torben F; Sefrioui, David; Andersen, Rikke F; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2017-09-01

    Circulating DNA can be detected and quantified in the blood of cancer patients and used for detection of tumor-specific genetic alterations. The clinical utility has been intensively investigated for the past 10 years. The majority of reports focus on analyzing the clinical potential of tumor-specific mutations, whereas the use of total cell-free DNA (cfDNA) quantification is somehow controversial and sparsely described in the literature, but holds important clinical information in itself. The purpose of the present report was to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we report on the overall performance of cfDNA as source for KRAS mutation detection. A systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed by two independent investigators. Eligibility criteria were (a) total cfDNA analysis, (b) mCRC, and (c) prognostic value during palliative treatment. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and meta-analysis applied on both aggregate data extraction and individual patients' data. Ten eligible cohorts were identified, including a total of 1,076 patients. Seven studies used quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, two BEAMing [beads, emulsification, amplification, and magnetics] technology, and one study digital droplet polymerase chain reaction. The baseline levels of cfDNA was similar in the presented studies, and all studies reported a clear prognostic value in favor of patients with lowest levels of baseline cfDNA. A meta-analysis revealed a combined estimate of favorable overall survival hazard ratio (HR) in patients with levels below the median cfDNA (HR = 2.39, 95% confidence interval 2.03-2.82, p  meta-analysis. Reliable prognostic markers could help to guide patients and treating physicians regarding the relevance and choice of

  9. Therapeutic clowns in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kannan; Sivaramakrishnan, Gowri

    2016-10-01

    Children and/or their parents are in fear and anxiety when admitted to hospitals or undergo invasive surgeries or investigations. Clown therapy has been shown as an effective measure in reducing this hospital fear and anxiety. Hence, we carried out a systematic compilation of the existing evidence on the clinical utility of hospital clowns in pediatric population. Electronic databases were searched with an appropriate search strategy, and only randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of clown therapy with standard care in children were included. The key outcome measures were as follows: extent of anxiety and pain felt by children and extent of state and trait parental anxiety. Random effect model was applied when moderate to severe heterogeneity was observed. Forest plot, I(2) statistics and risk of bias were evaluated using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 19 studies were found eligible to be included in the systematic review and 16 for meta-analysis. The pooled SMD [95 % CI] for child anxiety score was -0.83 [-1.16, -0.51] favoring clown therapy. Similarly, a statistically significant reduction {SMD [95 % CI] -0.46 [-0.7, -0.21]} in the state anxiety was observed amongst parents. We found that hospital clowns play a significant role in reducing stress and anxiety levels in children admitted to hospitals as well as their parents. • Trials with clown doctors in pediatric population have shown conflicting results in allaying anxiety amongst children undergoing either hospitalization or invasive procedures What is new: • This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis on hospital clowns • We found out that hospital clowns reduce anxiety amongst children before undergoing either hospitalization or invasive procedures.

  10. Efficacy of acupuncture treatment for functional dyspepsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ka-Na; Chung, Sun-Yong; Cho, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The use of acupuncture treatment (AT) for functional dyspepsia is increasing, particularly in Asia. However, the efficacy of AT and its side effects have not been assessed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies related to the effectiveness of AT for functional dyspepsia. This study is a systemic review and meta-analysis. Seven electronic databases, including those in the English and Chinese languages, were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials of AT for functional dyspepsia through November 2012. There were no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) AT compared with placebo control or a comparative intervention were considered. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated using the risk of bias (ROB). Subgroups were analyzed according to the kinds of controls. The primary outcomes were symptom scores. These included visual analogue scale (VAS) and Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were the total effective rate and adverse effects. Twenty studies, including 1423 individual cases, were systematically reviewed. The risk of bias was high. Compared to sham AT, AT was associated with a significant positive effect in patients with functional dyspepsia (2.66, 95% CI 1.85-3.82). AT also improved symptoms for functional dyspepsia (1.18, 95% CI 1.01-2.60) compared to GI tract regulators on total effective rate. In addition, two articles produced a scale in favor of AT compared to medication (0.54, 95% CI 0.18-0.90). Two RCTs reported minimal AT-related adverse events. The evidence suggests that AT is effective for functional dyspepsia. However, well-planned, long-term studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of AT for functional dyspepsia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Kind of blue: A systematic review and meta-analysis of music interventions in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, Margrethe Langer; Jespersen, Kira Vibe; Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Vuust, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels; Gram, Jeppe; Johansen, Christoffer

    2018-02-01

    Music may be a valuable and low-cost coping strategy for cancer patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the psychological and physical effects of music interventions in cancer treatment. We included randomized, controlled trials with adult patients in active cancer treatment exposed to different music interventions versus control conditions. Qualitative studies and systematic reviews were excluded. We identified a total of 2624 records through 2 systematic searches (June 2015 and September 2016) in PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cinahl, Web of Science, Cochrane, and PsycINFO and used Risk of Bias Assessment, GRADE and Checklist for Reporting Music-Based Interventions to evaluate the music applied and quality of the studies. We conducted meta-analyses using Review Manager (version 5.3). PROSPERO reg. no. CRD42015026024. We included 25 RCT's (N = 1784) of which 20 were eligible for the meta-analysis (N = 1565). Music reduced anxiety (SMD -0·80 [95% CI, -1.35 to -0.25]), pain (SMD -0.88 [95% CI -1.45 to -0.32]), and improved mood (SMD -0.55 [95% CI, -0.98 to -0.13]). However, studies were hampered by heterogeneity with I 2 varying between 54% and 96%. Quality of the studies ranged from very low to low. The most effective mode of music intervention appeared to be passive listening to self-selected, recorded music in a single session design. Music may be a tool in reducing anxiety, pain, and improving mood among patients with cancer in active treatment. However, methodological limitations in the studies conducted so far prevent firm conclusions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Does Chinese calligraphy therapy reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ouyang, Wen-Chen

    2018-03-07

    There are currently no systematic reviews or meta-analyses of Chinese calligraphy therapy (CCT) to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of CCT for people with neuropsychiatric symptoms. We searched Chinese and English databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Wanfang Data for relevant articles published between the earliest year available and December 2016. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical studies and the associated keywords were "handwriting," "Chinese calligraphy," "Chinese calligraphy therapy," "Calligraphy exercise," and "Calligraphy training." The 21 articles that met these criteria were used in the analysis. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist was used to assess methodological quality. CCT significantly reduced psychosis (10 studies, 965 subjects, standardized mean difference [SMD] = - 0.17, 95% confidence intervals [CI] [- 0.30, - 0.40], Z = 2.60, p schizophrenia symptoms (4 studies, 287 subjects, SMD = - 0.35, 95% CI [- 0.59, - 0.12], Z = 2.96, p = 0.003) and reduced the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (4 studies, 276 subjects, SMD = - 1.39, 95% CI [- 1.65, - 1.12], Z = 10.23, p < 0.001). CCT exerts a curative effect on neuropsychiatric symptoms, but the evidence remains insufficient. A large number of RCTs are needed to facilitate additional systematic reviews of evidence for CCT.

  13. Sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth: a systematic review of reviews and analysis of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Wiesner, Glen

    2017-03-28

    Sedentary behaviour (sitting time) has becoming a very popular topic for research and translation since early studies on TV viewing in children in the 1980s. The most studied area for sedentary behaviour health outcomes has been adiposity in young people. However, the literature is replete with inconsistencies. We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide a comprehensive analysis of evidence and state-of-the-art synthesis on whether sedentary behaviours are associated with adiposity in young people, and to what extent any association can be considered 'causal'. Searches yielded 29 systematic reviews of over 450 separate papers. We analysed results by observational (cross-sectional and longitudinal) and intervention designs. Small associations were reported for screen time and adiposity from cross-sectional evidence, but associations were less consistent from longitudinal studies. Studies using objective accelerometer measures of sedentary behaviour yielded null associations. Most studies assessed BMI/BMI-z. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour produced modest effects for weight status and adiposity. Accounting for effects from sedentary behaviour reduction alone is difficult as many interventions included additional changes in behaviour, such as physical activity and dietary intake. Analysis of causality guided by the classic Bradford Hill criteria concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth, although a small dose-response association exists. Associations between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in children and adolescents are small to very small and there is little to no evidence that this association is causal. This remains a complex field with different exposure and outcome measures and research designs. But claims for 'clear' associations between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth, and certainly for causality, are premature or misguided.

  14. Can the Ni classification of vessels predict neoplasia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Camilla S; Rosenberg, Tine; Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Groentved, Aagot Moeller; Kjaergaard, Thomas; Godballe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The Ni classification of vascular change from 2011 is well documented for evaluating pharyngeal and laryngeal lesions, primarily focusing on cancer. In the planning of surgery it may be more relevant to differentiate neoplasia from non-neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate the ability of the Ni classification to predict laryngeal or hypopharyngeal neoplasia and to investigate if a changed cutoff value would support the recent European Laryngological Society (ELS) proposal of perpendicular vascular changes as indicative of neoplasia. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. We systematically searched for publications from 2011 until 2016. All retrieved studies were reviewed and qualitatively assessed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the Ni classification with two different cutoffs were calculated, and bubble and summary receiver operating characteristics plots were created. The combined sensitivity of five studies (n = 687) with Ni type IV-V defined as test-positive was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.95), and specificity was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.89). The equivalent combined sensitivity of four studies (n = 624) with Ni type V defined as test-positive was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87), and specificity was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97). The diagnostic accuracy of the Ni classification in predicting neoplasia was high, without significant difference between the two analyzed cutoff values. Implementation of the proposed ELS classification of vascular changes seems reasonable from a clinical perspective, with comparable accuracy. Attention must be drawn to the accompanying risk of exposing patients to unnecessary surgery. Laryngoscope, 128:168-176, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Mark J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lonsdale, Chris; White, Rhiannon L; Lubans, David R

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that physical self-concept is associated with physical activity in children and adolescents, but no systematic review of this literature has been conducted. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the strength of associations between physical activity and physical self-concept (general and sub-domains) in children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to examine potential moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept. A systematic search of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, Web of Science and Scopus) with no date restrictions was conducted. Random effects meta-analyses with correction for measurement were employed. The associations between physical activity and general physical self-concept and sub-domains were explored. A risk of bias assessment was conducted by two reviewers. The search identified 64 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Thirty-three studies addressed multiple outcomes of general physical self-concept: 28 studies examined general physical self-concept, 59 examined perceived competence, 25 examined perceived fitness, and 55 examined perceived appearance. Perceived competence was most strongly associated with physical activity (r = 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.35, p self-concept (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p self-concept (p self-concept and its various sub-domains in children and adolescents. Age and sex are key moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept.

  16. Total hip arthroplasty after a previous pelvic osteotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Murata, Y; Sato, T; Tsuchiya, R; Wada, Y

    2018-06-01

    There are several reports regarding total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a previous pelvic osteotomy (PO). However, to our knowledge, until now there has been no formal systematic review and meta-analysis published to summarize the clinical results of THA after a previous PO. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of results of THA after a previous PO. We focus on these questions as follows: does a previous PO affect the results of subsequent THA, such as clinical outcomes, operative time, operative blood loss, and radiological parameters. Using PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, we searched for relevant original papers. The pooling of data was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3, Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). A p-value50%, significant heterogeneity was assumed and a random-effects model was applied for the meta-analysis. A fixed-effects model was applied in the absence of significant heterogeneity. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that there was no significant difference in postoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score (I 2 =0%, SMD=-0.15, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.06, p=0.17), postoperative Harris hip score (I 2 =60%, SMD=-0.23, 95% CI: -0.50 to 0.05, p=0.10), operative time (I 2 =86%, SMD=0.37, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.82, p=0.11), operative blood loss (I 2 =82%, SMD=0.23, 95% CI: -0.17 to 0.63, p=0.25), and cup abduction angle (I 2 =43%, SMD=-0.08, 95% CI: -0.25 to 0.09, p=0.38) between THA with and without a previous PO. However, cup anteversion angle of THA with a previous PO was significantly smaller than that of without a previous PO (I 2 =77%, SMD=-0.63, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.13, p=0.01). Systematic review and meta-analysis of results of THA after a previous PO was performed. A previous PO did not affect the results of subsequent THA, except for cup anteversion. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality randomized controlled trials are required

  17. The Systematic Approach to Training: Analysis and Evaluation in the Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticevic, S.; Weichselbraun, A.; Pickett, S.; Crete, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    In applying a systematic approach to training (SAT), identifying the learning needs is the first step - a learning needs analysis allows the organization to identify the competencies required to perform a particular job. A systematic approach can provide a clear structure for training and education programme development as well as the necessary evaluation and feedback so that the organization can adjust the development accordingly and deliver the optimal learning experience. In this presentation we will describes two key elements of a SAT used in the Safeguards Training Section in the Department of Safeguards: Analysis and Evaluation. Analysis is the first part of a SAT needed to define competencies for Safeguards staff in order to improve training development within the Department. We describe the training needs analysis used to capture and articulate the various competencies required for safeguards implementation based upon an analysis of tasks and activities carried out by staff members in the Department. Firstly, we highlight the different qualitative methods used to gather information from staff and the process of evaluating and organizing this information into a structured framework. Secondly, we describe how this framework provides the necessary reference to specify learning objectives, evaluate training effectiveness, review and revise training offerings, and select appropriate training paths based on identified needs. In addition, as part of the SAT, evaluation is performed to identify the usefulness of course outcomes and improvements for future offerings based on lessons learned, to ensure that appropriate knowledge and skills are being taught and to demonstrate the value of training by meeting the organization's needs. We present how the Kirkpatrick four-level evaluation model has been implemented by Safeguards Training Section in order to evaluate course effectiveness after the training has been completed, and discuss how the current evaluation

  18. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  19. Using a Systematic Approach to Identifying Organizational Factors in Root Cause Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallogly, Kay Wilde

    2011-01-01

    This presentation set the scene for the second discussion session. In her presentation, the author observed that: - Investigators do not see the connection between the analysis tools available and the identification of HOF. Most investigators use the tools in a cursory manner and so do not derive the full benefits of the tools. Some tools are used for presentation purposes as opposed to being used for analytical purposes e.g. event and causal factors charts. In some cases, the report will indicate that specific analytical tools were used in the investigation but the analysis is not in the body of the report. - Some investigators are documenting HOF causes but do not recognize them as such. This indicates a lack of understanding of HOF. - Others investigators focus on technical issues because of their own comfort level. - The culture of the Organisation will affect the depth of the investigation and therefore the use of the analytical tools to pursue HOF issues. - The author contends that if analysis tools are applied systematically to gather factually based data, then HOF issues can be identified. The use of factual information (without judgement and subjectivity) is important to maintain the credibility of the investigation especially when HOF issues are identified. - Systematic use of tools assists in better communication of the issues to foster greater understanding and acceptance by senior management. - Barrier Analysis, Change Analysis, and TWIN (Task Demands, Work Environment, Individual Capabilities, and Human Nature) all offer the opportunity to identify HOF issues if the analyst pursues this line of investigation. It was illustrated that many elements of the TWIN Error Precursors are themselves Organisational in nature. - The TWIN model applied to the Anatomy of an Event will help to distinguish those which are Organisational issues (Latent Organisational Weaknesses, Error Precursors and Flawed Defences) and those which are human factors (Active Errors

  20. Association of sleep bruxism with ceramic restoration failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Gilberto; Batistella, Elis Ângela; Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Simek Vega Gonçalves, Thais Marques; Mendes de Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia; Porporatti, André Luís; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic restorations are popular because of their excellent optical properties. However, failures are still a major concern, and dentists are confronted with the following question: is sleep bruxism (SB) associated with an increased frequency of ceramic restoration failures? The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether the presence of SB is associated with increased ceramic restoration failure. Observational studies and clinical trials that evaluated the short- and long-term survival rate of ceramic restorations in SB participants were selected. Sleep bruxism diagnostic criteria must have included at least 1 of the following: questionnaire, clinical evaluation, or polysomnography. Seven databases, in addition to 3 nonpeer-reviewed literature databases, were searched. The risk of bias was assessed by using the meta-analysis of statistics assessment and review instrument (MAStARI) checklist. Eight studies were included for qualitative synthesis, but only 5 for the meta-analysis. Three studies were categorized as moderate risk and 5 as high risk of bias. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies were considered high. Increased hazard ratio (HR=7.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.50 to 23.95) and odds ratio (OR=2.52; 95% CI=1.24 to 5.12) were observed considering only anterior ceramic veneers. Nevertheless, limited data from the meta-analysis and from the restricted number of included studies suggested that differences in the overall odds of failure concerning SB and other types of ceramic restorations did not favor or disfavor any association (OR=1.10; 95% CI=0.43 to 2.8). The overall quality of evidence was considered very low according to the GRADE criteria. Within the limitations of this systematic review, the overall result from the meta-analysis did not favor any association between SB and increased odds of failure for ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  1. Methotrexate for the Treatment of Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Ruben J; Lawton, Rachel C; Dubinsky, Marla C; Rubin, David T

    2018-04-23

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunomodulator used for the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are currently no RCTs that assess the treatment efficacy of methotrexate within the pediatric IBD patient population. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of MTX therapy among the existing pediatric literature. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane library from inception until March 2016. Synonyms for 'pediatric', 'methotrexate' and 'IBD' were utilized as both free text and MESH search terms. The studies included contained clinical remission (CR) rates for MTX treatment of pediatric IBD patients 18 yrs old, as mono- or combination therapy. Case studies with <10 patients were excluded. Quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis calculated pooled CR rates. A random-effects meta-analysis with forest plots was performed using R. Fourteen (11 monotherapy, 1 combination therapy, 2 both; n = 886 patients) observational studies were eligible out of 202 studies. No interventional studies were identified. The pooled achieved CR rate for pediatric CD patients on monotherapy within 3-6 months was 57.7% (95% CI 48.2-66.6%), (P =0.22; I2 = 29.8%). The CR was 37.1% (95% CI 29.5-45.5%), (P = 0.20; I2 = 37.4%) for maintenance therapy at 12 months. Sub-analysis could not identify CR differences between MTX administration types, thiopurine exposure. This meta-analysis demonstrated that, over 50% of pediatric Crohn's disease patients induced with methotrexate achieved clinical remission, while 12-month remission rate was only 37%. Prospective controlled interventional trials should assess treatment efficacy among patient subgroups. 10.1093/ibd/izy078_video1izy078.video15774883936001.

  2. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ranjbaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder characterized by physical, mental and behavioral changes in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in the reproductive age women. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the overall prevalence of PMS in Iran by a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched international databases included ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, and also local databases including Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database, and Magiran for articles in English and Persian language published up to September 2016. We carried out data analysis with Stata version 11. We examined heterogeneity in the results of studies through I2 statistics and Chi-square based Q test. Also, we investigated the effects of potential heterogeneity factors in the prevalence of PMS by meta-regression. Results: We studied a total of 9147 reproductive-age women from 24 articles which entered to meta-analysis. Based on the result of random effect model, we estimated the overall prevalence of PMS 70.8% [95% CI: 63.8-77.7]. The results of subgroup analysis revealed that prevalence of PMS was 80.4% (95% CI; 66.9-93.9 among high school students, 68.9% (95% CI; 59.2-78.6 among university students, and 54.9% (95% CI; 51.6-58.2 in general population. Univariate meta-regression model showed that prevalence of PMS was decreased by increasing the age of subjects but this was not statistically significant (p=0.155. Conclusion: Our finding showed that PMS was prevalent in Iranian reproductive age women especially among high school students. More epidemiological research for determining factors that affect PMS prevalence seems essential.

  3. Risk of Occupational Accidents in Workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Sanna, Antonio; Mancardi, Gian Luigi; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the single most important preventable medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and driving accidents. OSA may also adversely affect work performance through a decrease in productivity, and an increase in the injury rate. Nevertheless, no systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between OSA and work accidents has been performed thus far. Methods: PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of an initial list of 1,099 papers, 10 studies (12,553 participants) were eligible for our review, and 7 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effects were measured by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). An assessment was made of the methodological quality of the studies. Moderator analysis and funnel plot analysis were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Results: Compared to controls, the odds of work accident was found to be nearly double in workers with OSA (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.53–3.10). Occupational driving was associated with a higher effect size. Conclusions: OSA is an underdiagnosed nonoccupational disease that has a strong adverse effect on work accidents. The nearly twofold increased odds of work accidents in subjects with OSA calls for workplace screening in selected safety-sensitive occupations. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1171. Citation: Garbarino S, Guglielmi O, Sanna A, Mancardi GL, Magnavita N. Risk of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1211–1218. PMID:26951401

  4. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on parkinsonian gait: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Shashank; Ghai, Ishan; Schmitz, Gerd; Effenberg, Alfred O

    2018-01-11

    The use of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance in parkinsonian patients' is an emerging area of interest. Different theories and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have been suggested for ascertaining the enhancement in motor performance. However, a consensus as to its effects based on characteristics of effective stimuli, and training dosage is still not reached. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of different auditory feedbacks on gait and postural performance in patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to PRISMA guidelines, from inception until May 2017, on online databases; Web of science, PEDro, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and PROQUEST. Of 4204 records, 50 studies, involving 1892 participants met our inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed an overall positive effect on gait velocity, stride length, and a negative effect on cadence with application of auditory cueing. Neurophysiological mechanisms, training dosage, effects of higher information processing constraints, and use of cueing as an adjunct with medications are thoroughly discussed. This present review bridges the gaps in literature by suggesting application of rhythmic auditory cueing in conventional rehabilitation approaches to enhance motor performance and quality of life in the parkinsonian community.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis in cardiac surgery: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Bobby; Tam, Derrick Y; Mazine, Amine; Tricco, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the strengths and weaknesses of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to inform our current understanding of cardiac surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of a focused topic can provide a quantitative estimate for the effect of a treatment intervention or exposure. In cardiac surgery, observational studies and small, single-center prospective trials provide most of the clinical outcomes that form the evidence base for patient management and guideline recommendations. As such, meta-analyses can be particularly valuable in synthesizing the literature for a particular focused surgical question. Since the year 2000, there are over 800 meta-analysis-related publications in our field. There are some limitations to this technique, including clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity, among other challenges. Despite these caveats, results of meta-analyses have been useful in forming treatment recommendations or in providing guidance in the design of future clinical trials. There is a growing number of meta-analyses in the field of cardiac surgery. Knowledge translation via meta-analyses will continue to guide and inform cardiac surgical practice and our practice guidelines.

  6. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaraei, Masoud; Fakhar, Mahdi; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Banimostafavi, Elham Sadat

    2017-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti- Leishmania activity which used in Iran. Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant family, extraction method, concentrations of extracts, animal models and parasite strains. A total of 68 articles including 188 experiments (140 in vitro and 48 in vivo) between 1999 and 2015, met our eligibility criteria. Thoroughly, 98 types of plants were examined against three genera of Leishmania spp. For the heterogeneity study conducted, it was showed that there was a great deal of variation among studies. Based on random effect, meta-analysis pooled mean of IC50 was obtained 456.64 (95% CI: 396.15, 517.12). The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species , Allium sativum , Achilleamille folium , Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris . The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti- Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  7. Racism and health service utilisation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci; Paradies, Yin

    2017-01-01

    Although racism has been posited as driver of racial/ethnic inequities in healthcare, the relationship between racism and health service use and experience has yet to be systematically reviewed or meta-analysed. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative empirical studies that report associations between self-reported racism and various measures of healthcare service utilisation. Data were reviewed and extracted from 83 papers reporting 70 studies. Studies included 250,850 participants and were conducted predominately in the U.S. The meta-analysis included 59 papers reporting 52 studies, which were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with more negative patient experiences of health services (HSU-E) (OR = 0.351 (95% CI [0.236,0.521], k = 19), including lower levels of healthcare-related trust, satisfaction, and communication. Racism was not associated with health service use (HSU-U) as an outcome group, and was not associated with most individual HSU-U outcomes, including having had examinations, health service visits and admissions to health professionals and services. Racism was associated with health service use outcomes such as delaying/not getting healthcare, and lack of adherence to treatment uptake, although these effects may be influenced by a small sample of studies, and publication bias, respectively. Limitations to the literature reviewed in terms of study designs, sampling methods and measurements are discussed along with suggested future directions in the field. PMID:29253855

  8. Effect of Exergames on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern in current society. In recent years many studies began to investigate the potential benefits of exergames on depression. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review to synthesize the existing studies and discover the overall effect size of exergames on treating depression. A comprehensive literature search was conducted among major bibliographic databases in computer technology, psychology, and medical science. Key study characteristics of participants, interventions, and experiment were extracted in the systematic review. Both studies using independent groups and matched groups were included in meta-analysis. Overall effect size of Hedges' g was calculated, followed by subgroup analyses. Nine studies included in the review, while eight studies applying exergames of Nintendo's Wii or Wii Fit. A random effects meta-analysis on eight studies resulted an overall significant effect size of g = 0.21. Demographic factors, depression severity, number of session, and game type were found to be significant moderators for the effectiveness. The study has not only supported the positive effect of exergames on alleviating depression, but also provided many theoretical and practical implications for health professionals and police makers. More rigorous experimental controlled studies are needed in this new research field.

  9. Comparing robotic, laparoscopic and open cystectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fonseka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcomes between Open Radical Cystectomy (ORC, Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy (LRC and Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy (RARC. RARC is to be compared to LRC and ORC and LRC compared to ORC. Material and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, collating studies comparing RARC, LRC and ORC. Surgical and oncological outcome data were extracted and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-four studies were selected with total of 2,104 cases analyzed. RARC had a longer operative time (OPT compared to LRC with no statistical difference between length of stay (LOS and estimated blood loss (EBL. RARC had a significantly shorter LOS, reduced EBL, lower complication rate and longer OPT compared to ORC. There were no significant differences regarding lymph node yield (LNY and positive surgical margins (PSM. LRC had a reduced EBL, shorter LOS and increased OPT compared to ORC. There was no significant difference regarding LNY. Conclusion: RARC is comparable to LRC with better surgical results than ORC. LRC has better surgical outcomes than ORC. With the unique technological features of the robotic surgical system and increasing trend of intra-corporeal reconstruction it is likely that RARC will become the surgical option of choice.

  10. Body checking and body avoidance in eating disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodijevic, Alexandra; Buck, Kimberly; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; de Paoli, Tara; Krug, Isabel

    2018-05-01

    This review sought to systematically review and quantify the evidence related to body checking and body avoidance in eating disorders (EDs) to gauge the size of effects, as well as examine potential differences between clinical and nonclinical populations, and between different ED subtypes. PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycEXTRA, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE databases were searched for academic literature published until October 2017. A grey literature search was also conducted. Fifty-two studies were identified for the systematic review, of which 34 were eligible for meta-analysis. Only female samples were included in the meta-analysis. ED cases experienced significantly higher body checking (d = 1.26, p < .001) and body avoidance (d = 1.88, p < .001) overall relative to healthy controls, but neither behaviour varied by ED subtype. In nonclinical samples, body checking (r = .60) and body avoidance (r = .56) were significantly correlated with ED pathology (p < .001). These findings support transdiagnostic theoretical models and approaches to ED treatment and early intervention programmes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Michal; Bohannon, Richard W; Sontakova, Lenka; Tufano, James J; Shiells, Kate; Holmerova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO host , and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.55). The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia.

  12. Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Buys, Roselien; Smart, Neil A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise is widely recommended as one of the key preventive lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of hypertension and to manage high blood pressure (BP), but individual studies investigating the effect of exercise on ambulatory BP have remained inconclusive. Therefore, the primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of aerobic endurance training on daytime and night-time BP in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Clinical trial registry from their inception to May 2012. Randomized controlled trials of at least 4 weeks investigating the effects of aerobic endurance training on ambulatory BP in healthy adults were included. Inverse weighted random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence limits. We included 15 randomized controlled trials, involving 17 study groups and 633 participants (394 exercise participants and 239 control participants). Overall, endurance training induced a significant reduction in daytime SBP [-3.2 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -5.0 to-1.3] and daytime DBP (-2.7 mmHg, 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.5). No effect was observed on night-time BP. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that aerobic endurance exercise significantly decreases daytime, but not night-time, ambulatory BP.

  13. Image Sharing Technologies and Reduction of Imaging Utilization: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R.; Jung, Hye-Young; Ostrovsky, Aaron; Das, Lala Tanmoy; McGinty, Geraldine B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Image sharing technologies may reduce unneeded imaging by improving provider access to imaging information. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the impact of image sharing technologies on patient imaging utilization. Methods Quantitative evaluations of the effects of PACS, regional image exchange networks, interoperable electronic heath records, tools for importing physical media, and health information exchange systems on utilization were identified through a systematic review of the published and gray English-language literature (2004–2014). Outcomes, standard effect sizes (ESs), settings, technology, populations, and risk of bias were abstracted from each study. The impact of image sharing technologies was summarized with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models. Results A total of 17 articles were included in the review, with a total of 42 different studies. Image sharing technology was associated with a significant decrease in repeat imaging (pooled effect size [ES] = −0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.25, −0.09]; P utilization (pooled ES = 0.20; 95% CI = [0.07, 0.32]; P = .002). For all outcomes combined, image sharing technology was not associated with utilization. Most studies were at risk for bias. Conclusions Image sharing technology was associated with reductions in repeat and unnecessary imaging, in both the overall literature and the most-rigorous studies. Stronger evidence is needed to further explore the role of specific technologies and their potential impact on various modalities, patient populations, and settings. PMID:26614882

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

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    Raphael José Perrier-Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart transplantation (HTx is considered an efficient and gold-standard procedure for patients with end-stage heart failure. After surgery, patients have lower aerobic power (VO2max and compensatory hemodynamic responses. The aim of the present study was to assess through a systematic review with meta-analysis whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT can provide benefits for those parameters. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, which searched the databases and data portals PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Wiley until December 2016 (pairs. The following terms and descriptors were used: “heart recipient” OR “heart transplant recipient” OR ”heart transplant” OR “cardiac transplant” OR “heart graft”. Descriptors via DeCS and Mesh were: “heart transplantation’’ OR “cardiac transplantation”. The words used in combination (AND were: “exercise training” OR “interval training” OR “high intensity interval training” OR “high intensity training” OR “anaerobic training” OR “intermittent training” OR “sprint training”. The initial search identified 1064 studies. Then, only those studies assessing the influence of HIIT on the post-HTx period were added, resulting in three studies analyzed. The significance level adopted was 0.05. Heart transplant recipients showed significant improvement in VO2peak, heart rate and peak blood pressure in 8 to 12 weeks of intervention.

  15. Depression after Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Akpa, Onoja; Elugbadebo, Fisayo; Owolabi, Mayowa; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method). Seventeen studies, comprising 1483 stroke survivors, met the criteria for syntheses. The pooled frequency of clinically diagnosed PSD was 31% (95% CI = 26%-36%), versus 13.9% in healthy control pairs. Prevalence did not vary much across healthcare settings but was affected by methods of depression ascertainment. PSD was significantly associated with low education, cognitive impairment, physical disability, poor quality of life, and divorced marital status. Almost 1 in 3 individuals with stroke in SSA has clinical depression. Despite limitations around quality of identified studies, results of the present systematic review overlap with findings in the global literature and highlight useful targets for the design and trial of tailored intervention for PSD in SSA.

  16. Depression after Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Methods. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method. Results. Seventeen studies, comprising 1483 stroke survivors, met the criteria for syntheses. The pooled frequency of clinically diagnosed PSD was 31% (95% CI = 26%–36%, versus 13.9% in healthy control pairs. Prevalence did not vary much across healthcare settings but was affected by methods of depression ascertainment. PSD was significantly associated with low education, cognitive impairment, physical disability, poor quality of life, and divorced marital status. Conclusion. Almost 1 in 3 individuals with stroke in SSA has clinical depression. Despite limitations around quality of identified studies, results of the present systematic review overlap with findings in the global literature and highlight useful targets for the design and trial of tailored intervention for PSD in SSA.

  17. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effectiveness of treatments for androgenetic alopecia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Areej; Godwin, Marshall

    2017-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern hair loss, is a hair loss disorder mediated by dihydrotestosterone, the potent form of testosterone. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and HairMax LaserComb, which is FDA-cleared, are the only treatments recognized by the FDA as treatments of androgenetic alopecia. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of nonsurgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in comparison to placebo for improving hair density, thickness, growth (defined by an increased anagen:telogen ratio), or subjective global assessments done by patients and investigators. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched up to December 2016, with no lower limit on the year. We included only randomized controlled trials of good or fair quality based on the US Preventive Services Task Force quality assessment process. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for 5 groups of studies that tested the following hair loss treatments: low-level laser light therapy in men, 5% minoxidil in men, 2% minoxidil in men, 1 mg finasteride in men, and 2% minoxidil in women. All treatments were superior to placebo (P laser light therapy are effective for promoting hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia and that minoxidil is effective in women with androgenetic alopecia. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Signal Quality Improvement Algorithms for MEMS Gyroscope-Based Human Motion Analysis Systems: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Du

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion sensors such as MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers are characterized by a small size, light weight, high sensitivity, and low cost. They are used in an increasing number of applications. However, they are easily influenced by environmental effects such as temperature change, shock, and vibration. Thus, signal processing is essential for minimizing errors and improving signal quality and system stability. The aim of this work is to investigate and present a systematic review of different signal error reduction algorithms that are used for MEMS gyroscope-based motion analysis systems for human motion analysis or have the potential to be used in this area. A systematic search was performed with the search engines/databases of the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, and Scopus. Sixteen papers that focus on MEMS gyroscope-related signal processing and were published in journals or conference proceedings in the past 10 years were found and fully reviewed. Seventeen algorithms were categorized into four main groups: Kalman-filter-based algorithms, adaptive-based algorithms, simple filter algorithms, and compensation-based algorithms. The algorithms were analyzed and presented along with their characteristics such as advantages, disadvantages, and time limitations. A user guide to the most suitable signal processing algorithms within this area is presented.