WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross-border migrant population

  1. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  2. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asian Institute of Technology. Institution Country. Thailand. Institution Website. http://www.ait.asia ... study of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Download PDF. Reports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007.

  3. A Qualitative study of language barriers between South African health care providers and cross-border migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Adams, Jo; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2017-01-31

    Communication with health care providers represents an essential part of access to health care for the over 230 million cross-border migrants around the world. In this article, we explore the complexity of health communication from the perspective of cross-border migrants seeking antenatal care in Cape Town, South Africa in order to highlight the importance of high quality medical interpretation. As part of a broader study of migrant maternal and infant nutrition, we conducted a secondary data analysis of semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 23) with Congolese (n = 7), Somali (n = 8) and Zimbabwean (n = 8) women living in Cape Town, as well as nine focus group discussions (including men: n = 3 and women: n = 6) were conducted with migrant Somalis, Congolese, and Zimbabweans (N = 48). We first used content analysis to gather all data related to language and communication. We then analysed this data thematically. Zimbabwean participants described how the inability to speak the local South African language (IsiXhosa) gave rise to labelling and stereotyping by healthcare staff. Congolese and Somali participants described medical procedures, including tubal ligation, which were performed without consent. Partners often tried to play the role of interpreter, which resulted in loss of income and non-professional medical interpretation. Participants' highlighted fears over unwanted procedures or being unable to access care. Challenges of communication without a common language (and without professional medical interpretation), rather than outright denial of care by healthcare professionals, mediated these encounters. Although there are several factors impeding cross-border migrants' access to health care, effective communication is a prerequisite for quality care. Free-to-patient professional medical interpretation would not only benefit migrant populations but would benefit the broader community where language and health literacy are

  4. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  5. Cross-border ties as a source of risk and resilience: Do cross-border ties moderate the relationship between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M.; Alcántara, Carmela; Rudolph, Kara E.; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the associations between health and the cross-border ties that migrants maintain with their family members in communities of origin. We draw on theory related to social ties, ethnic identity, and mental health to examine cross-border ties as potential moderators of the association between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, we find that remittance sending is associated with significantly lower levels of psychological distress for Cuban migrants, and difficulty visiting home is associated with significantly greater psychological distress for Puerto Rican migrants. There were significant associations between migration-related stressors and psychological distress, although these associations fell to non-significance after accounting for multiple testing. We found little evidence that cross-border ties either buffer or exacerbate the association between migration-related stressors and psychological distress. We consider the findings within the current political and historical context of cross-border ties and separation. PMID:27803264

  6. Community participation of cross-border migrants for primary health care in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirilak, Supakit; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Wattanagoon, Yupaporn; Chatchaiyalerk, Surut; Tornee, Songpol; Siri, Sukhontha

    2013-09-01

    This is the first report of the large-scale utilization of migrants as health volunteers in a migrant primary-healthcare program. The program recruited migrants who volunteered to serve their communities. This study explores the identities of these volunteers, their relationship with program management, and their attitudes. The study also investigates the impact of the volunteers, from the migrants' and healthcare workers' perspective. The study was conducted in two provinces, Tak (northern Thailand) and Samut Sakhon (central Thailand). Primary and secondary information was collected. Mixed methods, comprising in-depth interviews, observation and questionnaires, were used to gather primary data from three groups of participants-migrant volunteers, migrants and healthcare workers. Secondary data, and in-depth interviews with healthcare workers, showed that migrant volunteers made a significant contribution to the provision of both preventive and curative services. The quantitative study covered 260 migrant volunteers and 446 migrants. The results found that <5% of volunteers were selected by the community. Almost all attended a training course. Most were assigned to be health communicators; four stated they did nothing. Volunteers' attitudes were very positive. Most migrants reported that the volunteers' work was useful. It was concluded that the migrant health-volunteer program did help deal with migrant health problems. However, management of the program should be closely considered for more effective outcomes.

  7. Women Crossing Borders: The Changing Identities of Professional Chinese Migrant Women in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Around the western world, migration programs are increasingly targeting skilled professionals as governments view migration through the lens of economic efficiency. The majority of Australia’s migration intake now comprises skilled migrants, chosen for their human capital attributes. However, once skilled migrants arrive in Australia, they confront many barriers to re-establishing their careers in a new labour market. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data to explore the consequences of this career disruption for professional women from Hong Kong, who often find themselves reorienting their identities and values away from the world of work and towards non-market-based spheres of life, such as family, leisure and self-development. This evolution challenges the Australian government’s economistic definitions of social citizenship, where migrants are seen almost exclusively as economic beings. Despite the government’s objectives, for many new arrivals, migration to Australia is an opportunity to explore other, non-economic, aspects of life.

  8. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and hepatitis C virus prevalence trends among cross-border migrant Vietnamese female sex workers in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong

    2015-12-09

    Global literature indicates the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has disproportionately affected cross-border migrant female sex workers (FSW). However, few studies reported the HIV risk among Vietnamese FSW at borderline areas in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV, syphilis, and HCV prevalence and corresponding risk factors among this group in Guangxi Province of China in the current study. Demographic and behavioral data as well as test results of blood samples for HIV/syphilis/HCV testing were collected from the annual National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) from the year of 2010 to 2014. The prevalence trends were first examined by stratified demographic and behavioral status. Predictive models with logistic regression were further employed to identify risk predictors for HIV, syphilis and HCV combined with multiple imputation for missing data as well as restricted cubic splines for key continuous covariates. Moreover, weighted prevalence using the distribution of venue types among all FSW from the NSS survey as the standardized population was also reported. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis and HCV across the five year period was 3.2 % (95 % CI = 2.1 %,4.3 %), 6.9 % (95 % CI = 5.3 %,8. %), and 2.6 % (95 % CI = 1.6 %,3.6 %), respectively. HIV prevalence changed from 8.2 % (95 % CI = 0.5 %,15.9 %) in 2010 to 1.7 % (95 % CI = 0.4 %,3.0 %) in 2014, and the prevalence decreased notably among FSW who were younger than 25 years old, stayed less than six months, and who participated in the HIV prevention services (P  0.05). HCV prevalence increased from 0 % in 2010 to 2.2 % (95 % CI = 0.7 %, 3.7 %) in 2014. Multivariable analyses revealed that infection with HCV increased the odds of HIV and syphilis infection. Drug use (aOR = 44.0, 95C % = 16.3,129.5) increased the odds of HCV infection. The relatively higher HIV, syphilis and HCV prevalence among

  10. Defeating Cross Border Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    population of Pakistan, the Hindus with the Hindu in India and the Buddhists in Ladakh with the Tibetans . The cross border ethnic tie between Pakistan...Ladakh region by Buddhist .9 These demographics of IAK lay out the complexity of the issue. While there is an identifiable Kashmiri ethnicity, the three...Demographics IAK Population Muslim Hindu Buddhist Sikh Jammu 4,4 mio 29 % 65 % Less than 2% Less than 5% Kashmir 5,4 mio 96 % less than 4% None Less

  11. Cross-border marriage and disparities in early childhood development in a population-based birth cohort study: the mediation of the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J C-L; Bradley, R H; Chiang, T-L

    2012-07-01

    Taiwan has experienced a large influx of cross-border marriage migrants in recent years. The majority have been women in their childbearing ages and have come from countries with lower average standards of living than Taiwan. This trend has changed the ethnic composition of children who live in Taiwan, and it has generated considerable social concern over the future health status of Taiwan's citizens. This study aimed to examine: (1) whether there are disparities in development between children reared in families characterized by cross-border marriages and children reared in families with two Taiwanese-born parents; and (2) whether the quality of home environment explains the group differences in early childhood development. Data came from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. A total of 19,499 participants who completed 6-month, 18-month and 3-year surveys were included for analysis. Cross-border marriage status was defined by mother's original nationality and categorized into three broad groups: Taiwanese-born, Chinese cross-border and South-East Asian (SEA) cross-border. Early childhood development was measured at age 3 years, and covered the domains of gross motor, fine motor, language and socio-emotional competence. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the mediation effects of the home environment. Children of Chinese and SEA cross-border groups scored lower in fine motor, language and socio-emotional competence than those of their Taiwanese-born counterpart at age 3 years. Chinese-Taiwanese group differences in all three developmental domains became insignificant after the addition of home environment, while SEA-Taiwanese group differences in fine motor and language development remained, yet were noticeably reduced. The mediation of home environment was further confirmed using the Sobel test. Home environment plays a central role in reducing the disparities in developmental outcomes among children of different marriage groups. Interventions should be

  12. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Globalization has led to movement of people and less homogeneous populations in many countries. With the largest movements of people between countries, in the last century, at the start of the 21st century, there were about 175 million people who were living in countries other than the country......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... acculturative stress and developmental possibilities are realities experienced in the search of new worlds and new opportunities. The symposia will include such changes from Denmark, India, UK and the USA, covering theoretical, methodological issues including the ethical aspects. Themes involved in crossing...

  13. Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a Postcolonial Evaluation. Until recently, women have been excluded from migration analyses or perceived as passive dependants of male migrants or non-migrants waiting for their spouses to return. Increasingly, however, scholars and advocates have ...

  14. Transnational ties and the health of sub-Saharan African migrants: The moderating role of gender and family separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Torres, Jacqueline M; Sudhinaraset, May; Asunka, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Recent scholarship has focused on the role that cross-border social and economic ties play in shaping health outcomes for migrant populations. Nevertheless, the extant empirical work on this topic has paid little attention to the health impacts of cross-border separation from close family members. In this paper we examine the association between cross-border ties-and cross-border separation-with the health of sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant adults living in metropolitan France using data from the nationally representative "Trajectoire et Origines" survey (n = 1980 SSA migrants). In logistic regression analyses we find that remitting money and having a child abroad are each associated with poor health among women, but not men. The effect of remittances on health is also modified by the location of one's children: remittance sending is associated with poor health only for SSA-migrants separated from their children. These findings underscore the importance of examining both cross-border connection and cross-border separation in studies of immigrant health, and also underscore the heterogeneous relationships between cross-border ties and health for men and women. This is the first study to our knowledge that examines the relationship between cross-border ties and health for migrants in Europe, with a focus on SSA-migrants in France. These findings have important implications for the health of the growing immigrant and refugee populations in Europe and around the globe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changing Destinations: Ideal Attraction and Actual Movement of Cross-Border Tertiary Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has driven growth in the market for cross-border students. Mainland China, with a burgeoning economy and the largest national population, has become an important source of cross-border students. This study identifies ideal attraction in mainland China to destinations for cross-border tertiary education, as expressed by ideal first…

  16. Injection Drug Use Trajectories Among Migrant Populations: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Jason S; Mittal, Maria Luisa; Horyniak, Danielle; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-01-24

    Dual epidemics of injection drug use and blood-borne disease, characterized as "syndemics," are present in a range of settings. Behaviors that drive such syndemics are particularly prevalent among mobile drug-using populations, for whom cross-border migration may pose additional risks. This narrative review aims to characterize the risk factors for injection drug use initiation associated with migration, employing a risk environment framework and focusing on the San Diego-Tijuana border region as the most dynamic example of these phenomena. Based on previous literature, we divide migration streams into three classes: intra-urban, internal, and international. We synthesized existing literature on migration and drug use to characterize how mobility and migration drive the initiation of injection drug use, as well as the transmission of hepatitis and HIV, and to delineate how these might be addressed through public health intervention. Population mixing between migrants and receiving communities and the consequent transmission of social norms about injection drug use create risk environments for injection drug use initiation. These risk environments have been characterized as a result of local policy environments, injection drug use norms in receiving communities, migration-related stressors, social dislocation, and infringement on the rights of undocumented migrants. Policies that exacerbate risk environments for migrants may inadvertently contribute to the expansion of epidemics of injection-driven blood-borne disease. Successful interventions that address emerging syndemics in border regions may therefore need to be tailored to migrant populations and distinguish between the vulnerabilities experienced by different migration classes and border settings.

  17. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...

  18. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  19. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  20. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  2. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  3. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  4. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico Iniciativas transfronterizas de seguro de salud entre México y los Estados Unidos: Salud Migrante y Medicare en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Vargas Bustamante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory, as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante, and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico.Aunque la reforma del sector sanitario de los Estados Unidos muy probablemente reducirá el número global de ciudadanos estadounidenses de origen mexicano sin cobertura de atención de la salud, esta reforma no afronta los problemas relacionados con esta cobertura para los inmigrantes mexicanos indocumentados, quienes seguirán sin tener seguro aun tras la aplicación de las medidas de la reforma; para los inmigrantes mexicanos documentados de bajos ingresos que no han cumplido el período de espera de cinco años requerido para recibir las prestaciones de Medicaid; o para el número cada vez mayor de ciudadanos estadounidenses jubilados que viven en México y no pueden acceder con facilidad a los servicios de Medicare. En este artículo se analizan dos iniciativas binacionales prometedoras que podrían ayudar a afrontar estos retos: Salud Migrante y Medicare en M

  5. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been el...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration.......The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...

  6. Novel Cross-Border Approaches to Optimise Identification of Asymptomatic and Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Infection in Mobile Populations Crossing Cambodian Borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M Edwards

    Full Text Available Human population movement across country borders presents a real challenge for malaria control and elimination efforts in Cambodia and its neighbouring countries. To quantify Plasmodium infection among the border-crossing population, including asymptomatic and artemisinin resistant (AR parasites, three official border crossing points, one from each of Cambodia's borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, were selected for sampling.A total of 3206 participants (of 4110 approached were recruited as they crossed the border, tested for malaria and interviewed. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 5.4% of all screened individuals were found to harbour Plasmodium parasites. The proportion was highest at the Laos border (11.5%. Overall there were 97 P. vivax (55.7%, 55 P. falciparum (31.6%, two P. malariae (1.1% and 20 mixed infections (11.5%. Of identified infections, only 20% were febrile at the time of screening. Of the 24 P. falciparum samples where a further PCR was possible to assess AR, 15 (62.5% had mutations in the K13 propeller domain gene, all from participants at the Laos border point. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT pLDH/HRP-2 identified a positivity rate of 3.2% overall and sensitivity compared to RT-PCR was very low (43.1%. Main individual risk factors for infection included sex, fever, being a forest-goer, poor knowledge of malaria prevention methods and previous malaria infection. Occupation, day of the week and time of crossing (morning vs. afternoon also appeared to play an important role in predicting positive cases.This study offers a novel approach to identify asymptomatic infections and monitor AR parasite flow among mobile and migrant populations crossing the borders. Similar screening activities are recommended to identify other hot borders and characterise potential hot spots of AR. Targeted "customised" interventions and surveillance activities should be implemented in these sites to accelerate elimination efforts

  7. Child migrant population morbidity in Piraeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filio Tsaprouni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European migration crisis caused a major influx of migrants in our country. Prevention and control policies have been set on both a national and European level in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. These diseases depend on both the migrant’s country of origin and the countries transited during migration. The policies’ main purpose was to prevent infection among both migrant and local populations, given the fact that migrants may act as a reservoir of diseases thought extinct in developed countries. To this end we began monitoring child morbidity in Piraeus. Demographic and social elements were also inspected during this time. The final results indicated that children in migrant populations suffer from infections common to European countries, as a consequence of overcrowding and living in shelters under unsanitary conditions for long periods of time.

  8. Irregular Female Migrant Workers along Lao-Thai Borders

    OpenAIRE

    SIRAKUL SUWINTHAWONG

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on irregular migration from Laos to Thailand, and irregular migrant labour in Thailand. This research is set in Mukdahan – a small (in size and population) yet important province as a gateway to cross-border activities in the Mekong region. It draws on the experiences of Lao irregular female migrant labourers in Mukdahan, northeastern Thailand, and the practices and perspectives of Thai authorities and employers in relation to irregular migrant labour law and enforcement. ...

  9. The cross-border cooperation agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to achieve a short analysis of cross-border cooperation agreements between territorial-administrative units in the border areas of Romania and similar structures in neighboring states. The article investigates the form they takes these agreements – contract or treaty –, the role of multinational enterprises and the law applicable to transnational contracts, the cross-border cooperation agreement governed by Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration and its legal nature. The end of the article is discussed cross-border cooperation in international documents signed by Romania with its neighbors.

  10. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  11. "When I first saw a condom, I was frightened": A qualitative study of sexual behavior, love and life of young cross-border migrants in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul

    Full Text Available Many young migrant workers move across the border to Chiang Mai, a major city in Northern Thailand, in search of work opportunities. This study describes their sexual behavior, lifestyles, relationships and experiences with youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH services.This is the qualitative arm of a mixed methods study using focus group discussions (FGDs among young MWs aged 15-24 years in urban Chiang Mai. We conducted 6 FGDs with 84 participants (43 males, 41 females organized in groups of 10-15 people, including 3 groups of males, 2 groups of females, and 1 group of both males and females.We found that the lack of parental control, pressure to assimilate into Thai society, access to social media and modern communication technologies, and limited knowledge and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH services interplayed to shape lifestyle and sexual behaviors, including low condom use among young migrants.The present study helped discern the vulnerability of young migrants to adverse SRH outcomes. This particular group of youth needs urgent intervention to improve their knowledge on SRH and access to a youth-friendly clinic to help them personalize risk of HIV and other adverse SRH outcomes.

  12. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...

  13. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  14. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  15. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  16. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  17. Cross-border health care utilization among the Hispanic population in the United States: implications for closing the health care access gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2013-01-01

    To examine predictors of health care service utilization in Mexico or any other country in Latin America among the U.S. Hispanic population. This study used data from the 2007 Pew Hispanic Healthcare Survey, a nationally representative survey of 4013 Hispanic adults. Using the Behavioral Model of Health Service Use (BMHSU) model, we examined three levels of predictive factors: (1) predisposing characteristics (e.g., language proficiency), (2) enabling resources (e.g., health insurance status), and (3) need (e.g., self-perceived health status). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict odds of seeking health care services in Mexico or any other country in Latin America. As hypothesized, lack of continuous health insurance coverage, perceived lack of quality health care, and low English proficiency increased the likelihood of seeking health care in Mexico or any other Latin American country among US Hispanic adults. Self-reported health status and usual source of care, however, were not significant predictors. Hispanic immigrants face critical access gaps to health care in the United States. Implications for closing the access gap for this population are discussed within the context of health care system reform and immigration reform in the United States.

  18. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers....

  19. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  20. Can cross-border pollution reduce pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Panos Hatzipanayotou; Sajal Lahiri; Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    We develop a North-South model of foreign aid and cross-border pollution resulting from production activities in the recipient country. There is both private and public abatement of pollution, the latter being financed through emissions tax revenue and foreign aid. We characterise a Nash equilibrium where the donor country chooses the amount of aid, and the recipient chooses the fraction of aid allocated to pollution abatement and/or the emission tax rate. At this equilibrium, an increase in ...

  1. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  2. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-Border Cooperation of the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko; Totev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the role, prospects and policies of the cross-border cooperation in the Balkan countries border regions. The main goal is to define the reasons, due to which the cross-border cooperation between the enterprises can be considered as an "optimal" policy for the Balkan countries. The opportunities for development of mutually beneficial cross-border relations are presented based on information obtained by different studies. The potential and the barriers for the development o...

  4. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rather, they work in a context where immigration regulations ensure that neither the receiving state nor the employer takes any responsibility for the wellbeing of the labour force. This study aims to demonstrate how women are affected by and affect new patterns of global production, and their place in their country of work.

  5. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...

  6. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  7. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity......, while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity....... Focusing on a entrepreneurship as behaviour, the paper proposes an alternative perspective to cross-border entrepreneurship, discussing cross-border opportunity identification and exploitation between an entrepreneur’s country of residence and a foreign country. This perspective provides a number...

  8. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  9. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  10. Socio-Environmental Issues of Marginal Territories within the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIANA TOTH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system overlapping cross-border areas shapes a particularly dynamic and complex functional area. This paper synthesises several research outcomes regarding the social and environmental dysfunctions and opportunities defining the marginal territories that were emphasised during the ‘Analysis and diagnosis of the current situation in the cross-border area’, a phase of the project ‘Common Strategy of Sustainable Territorial Development of the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area’ (SPATIAL. The main indicators concerning the population structure and movement highlight a series of problematic aspects within the cross-border area: population decline, significant rural population concentration on the Romanian side, demographic ageing, increase in the age dependency ratio, and a negative natural growth and migration rate. The analysis also indicates areas of socio-demographic potential that are marked by population growth, a significant young population presence that is convergent with an important share of active population. In this perspective, the spatial analysis also focused on identifying natural drivers affecting development and restrictive factors, on the environmental quality evaluation, as well as on establishing areas exposed to natural and technological risks. Therefore, delineating and analysing components underlying social and environmental processes were intended to determine those issues and opportunities considered to influence the evolution of this potentially functional area.

  11. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  12. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature as geograph...

  13. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a

  14. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  15. Canadian physicians' responses to cross border health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Packer, Corinne; Chaudhry, Sabrina; Adams, Owen; Blackmer, Jeff

    2014-04-03

    The idea for this survey emanated from desk research and two meetings for researchers that discussed medical tourism and out-of-country health care, which were convened by some of the authors of this article (VR, CP and RL). A Cross Border Health Care Survey was drafted by a number of the authors and administered to Canadian physicians via the Canadian Medical Association's e-panel. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of physicians' experiences with and views of their patients acquiring health care out of country, either as medical tourists (paying out-of-pocket for their care) or out-of-country care patients funded by provincial/territorial public health insurance plans. Quantitative and qualitative results of the survey were analyzed. 631 physicians responded to the survey. Diagnostic procedures were the top-ranked procedure for patients either as out-of-country care recipients or medical tourists. Respondents reported that the main reason why patients sought care abroad was because waiting times in Canada were too long. Some respondents were frustrated with a lack of information about out-of-country procedures upon their patients' return to Canada. The majority of physician respondents agreed that it was their responsibility to provide follow-up care to medical travellers on return to Canada, although a substantial minority disagreed that they had such a responsibility. Cross-border health care, whether government-sanctioned (out-of-country-care) or patient-initiated (medical tourism), is increasing in Canada. Such flows are thought likely to increase with aging populations. Government-sanctioned outbound flows are less problematic than patient-initiated flows but are constrained by low approval rates, which may increase patient initiation. Lack of information and post-return complications pose the greatest concern to Canadian physicians. Further research on both types of flows (government-sanctioned and patient-initiated), and how they affect

  16. A longitudinal analysis of cross-border ties and depression for Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Lee, Anne; González, Hector M; Garcia, Lorena; Haan, Mary N

    2016-07-01

    Recent scholarship suggests a significant association between cross-border ties, or ties maintained with family and friends in countries and communities of origin, and the mental health of immigrants and their descendants. To date, this research has been exclusively cross-sectional, precluding conclusions about a causal association between cross-border ties and mental health outcomes. In the present study we undertake a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cross-border ties and depression measured over a ten-year period for a sample of immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos. Data are from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), a population-based, prospective study of Latin American-origin adults 60 years and older. We find that cross-border ties reported at baseline were significantly associated with depression in subsequent study waves, even after controlling for the presence of depression at baseline, albeit with substantial differences by gender and nativity. Specifically, communication with family and friends in Latin America and travel to Latin America at baseline were each significantly associated with greater odds of depression for immigrant women, but with lower odds of depression for U.S.-born Latina women over the study period. Travel to Latin America at baseline was significantly associated with lower odds of depression for Latino men across the study. Across all models we control for depressive symptomatology at baseline to account for the reciprocal nature of depressive symptoms and engagement with social ties, including cross-border ties. Our findings suggest that cross-border ties may represent a unique source of both resilience and risk for the long-term mental health of immigrant Latinos and their descendants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: A Forgotten Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are the most educationally disadvantaged group in society, with over 70% high school dropouts and 15% functionally illiterate. Mobility, language barriers, and cultural differences combined with health and nutrition problems have a negative effect on school achievement. The constant interruption of the educational…

  18. Cross-Border Labor Migration in Europe: A View from the Emerging Civil Society in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Dubnyak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a case study approach, the paper analyzes available research on the topic of identifying and the effects that cross border wage labor migration makes on the Ukrainian family and on the development of the emerging civil society in Ukraine. The goal of the article is two-fold: to enrich the pool of knowledge on Ukrainian female migrants to Europe, and to engage with recent literature on the role that transnational migration plays in relation to the family and the sending country as part of transnational civil society

  19. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molland, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  20. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  1. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  2. Cross-border collaboration between Greece and FYROM: mobile healthcare provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Stergiani; Vartzopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of eHealth tools and applications denotes the new era in health care sector and especially in health care networks. The telemedicine applications in cross-border areas, referred as a Cross-Border Health network, serve the improvement of the quality of life for the population in cross-border areas. In this work a framework for such a network concerning the collaboration between Greece and FYROM is described. The network is in the first phase of design and is expected to be implemented within the next year. The requirements, the restrictions and the design of the network has been defined by the healthcare professionals and it staff that participate in the project. The results, so far, reveal the acceptance of the system from the staff of the healthcare organizations, while detailed results for the performance of the system will be available in the first quarter of the next year. The work denotes the successful efforts for the development of Cross-border Health Networks.

  3. Cross-border Ties and Arab American Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties – attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  4. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. Copyright © 2016

  5. HIV treatment cascade in migrants and mobile populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till; Vandormael, Alain; Dobra, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Health policy makers aspire to achieve an HIV treatment 'cascade' in which diagnostic and treatment services are accessed early and routinely by HIV-infected individuals. However, migrants and highly mobile individuals are likely to interact with HIV treatment programs and the healthcare system in ways that reflect their movement through time and place, affecting their successful progression through the HIV treatment cascade. We review recent research that has examined the challenges in effective and sustained HIV treatment for migrants and mobile populations. Mobility is associated with increased risk of antiretroviral therapy (ART) nonadherence, lost to follow-up, deterioration in CD4 count, HIV-related death, development of drug resistance and general noncontinuity of HIV care. Migrants' slow progression through the HIV treatment cascade can be attributed to feelings of confusion, helplessness; an inability to effectively communicate in the native language; poor knowledge about administrative or logistical requirements of the healthcare system; the possibility of deportation or expulsion based on the legal status of the undocumented migrant; fear of disclosure and social isolation from the exile or compatriot group. Travel or transition to the host country commonly makes it difficult for migrants to remain enrolled in ART programs and to maintain adherence to treatment. Existing public health systems fail to properly account for migration, and actionable knowledge of the health requirements of migrants is still lacking. A large body of research has shown that migrants are more likely to enter into the healthcare system late and are less likely to be retained at successive stages of the HIV treatment cascade. HIV-infected migrants are especially vulnerable to a wide range of social, economic and political factors that include a lack of direct access to healthcare services; exposure to difficult or oppressive work environments; the separation from family, friends

  6. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  7. MATRIX FOR COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ȘLUSARCIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crossborder areas have no constitutional competences, therefore most of the times they are not part of the decision making process in the agreements in cross-border relationships. Although the states are the ones to decide the policies and the agreements based on their own legal rules, considering the shape of the new European Union, they should more and more accept the conditionality of a regional overstate structure linked only to some geographical parts of the countries. The present paper proposes a theoretical and intuitive frame for assessing the cross-border areas based on the factors that are influencing it, starting from a listing of them, secondly grouping them in separating and uniting, then finding the significant differences. The matrix of factors can be used for conflict resolution or for development of cross-border areas as long as it shows the points that will be a potential obstacle or a source for cooperation.

  8. Definition labour migrant (updated) : Second, revised version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Different definitions in which one can comprehend who counts as a migrant are used. Moreover, also in the regulatory frame that applies for migrants, in statistics on the stocks and flows of migrant workers, in analysis of labour mobility and cross-border recruitment, in data sources and research

  9. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  10. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...

  11. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  12. Cross-border insolvencies as a global economic problem | Stander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National insolvency laws have not kept pace with the trend, and there is a need to develop an efficient and fair system for the administration of cross-border ... improves the position of foreign creditors, foreign representatives and foreign courts, while it is still doubtful how foreign courts will treat South African creditors.

  13. Crossing Borders within: Stanley Cavell and the Politics of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko; Standish, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The matter of crossing borders in the creation of democratic communities arises in ways that are pressing, both within the nation-state and on a global scale. Tensions between tendencies toward nationalism and the cosmopolitan call for global understanding touch the heart of ideas of democracy as beginning at home--at political, psychological, and…

  14. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international

  15. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political

  16. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe.

  17. Improving the Tanzania - Mombasa cross-border chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesveld, van M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the pilot is to improve the cross-border tomato chain from Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania, to Mombasa Kenya, by increasing substantially (10%) the productivity (physical and financial yield per unit input), the product quality and the total market volume.

  18. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  19. Cross-Border Acquisitions and Employee-Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Vansteenkiste, Cara

    2017-01-01

    We provide novel evidence that a firm’s engagement in employee-related issues explains part of the value difference between its domestic and cross-border takeovers. An acquirer’s investment in employee relations is positively related to the firm’s performance when acquiring domestically, but

  20. Shifting Institutional Boundaries through Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Sin, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African…

  1. Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine the relationship between migration, prostitution and trafficking with respect to cross-border movement of women between three South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Researchers will. conduct an extensive review of the literature on female migration in the three countries;; examine ...

  2. What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if economic factors drive gross and net cross-border venture capital inflows differently. Using a dataset of venture capital investments in European and North American countries from 2000 to 2008, we find that higher expected economic growth goes hand in hand with higher gross as well

  3. Cross-border Banking in Europe and Financial Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are

  4. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of cross-border tobacco shopping and tobacco smuggling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, C Ben

    2008-02-01

    In France, cigarette sales have fallen sharply, especially in border areas, since the price increases of 2003 and 2004. It was proposed that these falls were not due to people quitting smoking but rather to increased cross-border sales of tobacco and/or smuggling. This paper aims to test this proposition. Three approaches have been used. First, cigarette sales data from French sources for the period 1999-2006 were collected, and a simulation of the changes seen within these sales was carried out in order to estimate what the sales situation would have looked like without the presence of foreign tobacco. Second, the statements regarding tobacco consumed reported by the French population with registered tobacco sales were compared. Finally, in order to identify the countries of origin of foreign tobacco entering France, we collected a random sample of cigarette packs from a waste collection centre. According to the first method, cross-border shopping and smuggling of tobacco accounted for 8635 tones of tobacco in 2004, 9934 in 2005, and 9930 in 2006, ie, between 14% and 17% of total sales. The second method gave larger results: the difference between registered cigarette sales and cigarettes declared as being smoked was around 12,000 to 13,000 tones in 2005, equivalent to 20% of legal sales. The collection of cigarette packs at a waste collection centre showed that foreign cigarettes accounted for 18.6% of our sample in 2005 and 15.5% in 2006. France seems mainly to be a victim of cross-border purchasing of tobacco products, with the contraband market for tobacco remaining modest. in order to avoid cross-border purchases, an increased harmonization of national policies on the taxation of tobacco products needs to be envisaged by the European Union.

  5. Glass Barriers : Constraints to Women's Small-Scale Cross-Border Trade in Cambodia and Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Seror, Marlon; Record, Richard; Clarke, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Trade facilitation projects often assume indirect benefits for small-scale, cross-border traders. Recent studies have shown the challenges faced in Africa by this population, especially women, but it remains unknown in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, despite large trade facilitation investments. This paper fills this gap, thanks to an innovative mix of original qualitati...

  6. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...... for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a depiction...

  7. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three impo...... in this study, is an important step forward in merger and acquisition (M&A) research. Moreover, numerous research findings offer tactical implications for international acquirers.......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition...

  8. Regional economic development policy of cross-border cooperation: improving trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Lutchak

    2014-11-01

    Accordingly, it is necessary to work out a proper independent regional policy of economic cross-border cooperation development that will define a strategy for border regions development and cross-border cooperation across the whole state border. In the process of implementation this policy should include programme development that will provide for the use of opportunities of cross-border cooperation for increase of living standards of border regions by forming of integrated cross-border economic space of Ukraine.

  9. HIV testing and counselling for migrant populations living in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population's, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing-in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care-as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective.

  10. Cross-border Cooperation as a Mechanism of Regional Marketing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Denis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a pragmatic approach to certain aspects of cross-border regionalisation. The marketing component of Euroregion development and the implementation of cross-border cooperation projects are considered as key directions of the joint activity of cross-border partner-regions. The authors analyse the opportunity to apply the territory brand model to research on the mechanisms of cross-border cooperation and to the elaboration of an efficient development strategy as a promising direction of further study of the cross-border cooperation and regionalisation phenomena.

  11. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants.

  12. Cross-border Specialization of Interregional Interaction: Applying New Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border cooperation as a type of interregional interaction is becoming a significant factor in the development of border regions. It can be viewed as a result of intensification of cross-border contacts and greater economic openness of cross-border regions. Thus, the roots of current development are quite easy to pinpoint. However, assessment of the impact of cross-border cooperation on the development of border regions appears to be a research challenge. In this paper, we offer an approach to the assessment of the role of cross-border cooperation in the system of interregional interaction between border regions. We present a system of indices to describe cross-border specialization of interregional interaction in certain fields, namely investment, international trade, tourism, and migration. Cross-border specialization determines the role of cross-border cooperation in regional external relations. The empiric data we have gathered is used to develop and implement a pilot assessment of cross-border specialization of interregional relations which are characteristic of the border regions of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The article offers cross-border specialization indices for each border region of the Northwestern Federal District. With their help, we were able to identify the spheres of interaction with the highest degree of cross-border specialization, and in particular foreign investment and business activities with the participation of foreign capital.

  13. Genetic profile of tuberculosis among the migrant population in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q-F; Pang, Y; Chen, Q-Y; Lin, S-F; Lin, J; Zhao, Y; Wei, S-Z; Zheng, J-F; Zheng, S-H

    2013-05-01

    The Fujian District in China has a high migrant worker population. Although tuberculosis (TB) among migrants is a serious threat to public health in Fujian, little is known about the molecular characteristics of TB isolates in this population. To investigate the genetic profile of TB among the migrant population in Fujian. Our study enrolled 243 pulmonary TB patients registered in Fujian. Our data demonstrated that the Beijing genotype was the most common genotype in Fujian, and that the proportion of migrants with the Beijing genotype was significantly higher than that of permanent residents. Furthermore, the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Fujian was diverse, with no difference in the distribution of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) subgroups between the migrant and permanent populations. In addition, the discriminatory power of MIRU-VNTR in this study was higher than that found in other regions of China, possibly due to the high percentage of migrants in Fujian. The Beijing genotype was the predominant genotype in Fujian. TB strains isolated from this migrant population revealed a genetic profile similar to that of the permanent population. Improvement in public medical and insurance programmes for migrants might be crucial in the effective control of TB in Fujian.

  14. Malaria in seasonal migrant population in Southern Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, H C; Chandrashekar, Pant; Kurien, G; Sreehari, U; Yadav, R S

    2011-12-01

    Malaria in migrant workers is always a major problem to control due to their temporary stay in shelters, and other operational constraints. Hence, a study was undertaken in brick kilns in Bharuch district, Gujarat state, India to study the problem of malaria in the work force. Mass blood surveys were carried out in 15 brick kilns. Blood slides were collected from both febrile and afebrile cases. Positive cases were treated as per the national drug policy and were followed up. Mosquito collections were carried out by pyrethrum spray collection in early morning hours. Human blood index and sporozoite rates were determined as per standard procedures. All age groups were found affected with malaria at brick kilns. Prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in ≤ 14 years of age-group as compared to adults. Post treatment follow up examination of patients revealed high malaria infection due to non-compliance of chloroquine. The appearance of parasitaemia among Plasmodium falciparum treated cases indicate the possibility of chloroquine resistance. The proportion of P. falciparum was >50% in migrant population. In stable population in villages, overall decline in malaria cases was observed in 2008-2010. The sporozoite rate of 4.2% in Anopheles culicifacies indicates active malaria transmission at brick kilns. The investigation demonstrated that suitable microclimatic conditions for malaria transmission exist in these areas during hottest period. The district health department should consider these factors in planning malaria surveillance and control. As current magnitude and diversity of population movements in rural as well as in urban areas are unprecedented, this issue is worthy of attention.

  15. Creditor protection in cross-border mergers; unfinished business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert T.M.J. Raaijmakers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In cross-border mergers, creditor protection is important to facilitate a smooth, efficient and transparent process necessary to facilitate the single market. As all assets and liabilities are being transferred and there is a risk that the liabilities of the acquiring company will exceed the assets, creditor protection needs to be safeguarded in legal mergers. As the title suggests, creditor protection in the context of cross-border mergers and the recently adopted directive is examined in this paper, as well as the position of creditors under Dutch law and the Third Directive. The ex-ante and ex-post systems of creditor protection, both existing in the Member States of the EU, and which are both supported by strong arguments, are also discussed. The fact that differences in creditor protection rules nevertheless remain may create unjustifiable differences in the position of various groups of creditors involved in one single cross-border merger. The authors conclude that the case for leaving creditor protection to the Member States is weakening. Differences in national legislation on creditor protection, defendable as they may be, are ultimately of a technical nature and create unnecessary and unjustifiable impediments. There are strong arguments, in other words, to adopt the same provisions for all transactions for the sake of simplicity, but while this may be attractive, it can lead to undesired delay. Amending the Directive at this point in time thus seems equally unfeasible. This stresses the need to make haste with at least some further harmonization of creditor protection rules related to the Third Directive.

  16. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  17. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka

    2016-01-01

    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  18. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    The European Defence Industry is undergoing consolidation cutting across national borders. This is spurred by European Union policy initiatives and active encouragement by some national governments fearing a US-led global consolidation of the industry. The process in many ways proves challenging...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... of foreign policy identities. Ultimately the paper aspires to establish an analytical framework combining insights from international political economy and international politics....

  19. Pipeline politics—A study of India′s proposed cross border gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Kulkarni, Sanket Sudhir; Ahuja, Dilip R.

    2013-01-01

    India′s energy situation is characterized by increasing energy demand, high fossil fuel dependency, large import shares, and significant portion of population deprived of modern energy services. At this juncture, natural gas, being the cleanest fossil fuel with high efficiency and cost effectiveness, is expected to play an important role. India, with only 0.6% of proven world reserves, is not endowed with adequate natural gas domestically. Nevertheless, there are gas reserves in neighbouring regions which gives rise to the prospects of three cross border gas pipeline projects, namely, Iran–Pakistan–India, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, and Myanmar–Bangladesh–India. This study is a political analysis of these pipeline projects. First, it provides justification on use of natural gas and promotion of cross border energy trade. Then it examines these three pipeline projects and analyses the security concerns, role of different actors, their positions, shifting goals, and strategies. The study develops scenarios on the basis of changing circumstances and discusses some of the pertinent issues like technology options for underground/underwater pipelines and role of private players. It also explores impact of India′s broader foreign relations and role of SAARC on the future of pipelines and proposes energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) as a concept for regional security. -- Highlights: •We justify the need for cross border energy trade through gas pipelines for India. •We examine prospective pipeline projects—IPI, TAPI, MBI and their security issues. •We develop scenarios and analyze role of actors, their positions, and strategies. •We discuss technology and policy options for realizing these gas pipelines. •We propose energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) for regional security

  20. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  1. Understanding Transnational African Migrants' Perspectives of Dietary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Osideko, Anuolwaupo; Schwingel, Andiara

    2016-10-28

    Dietary behaviors serve as determinants for chronic diseases such as hypertension across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated dietary perspectives specifically for US transnational African migrants, a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin. Using PEN-3 model, focus group interviews with 14 transnational African migrants (seven males and seven females) were conducted in Chicago to explore the perceptions of dietary behavior in regard to chronic disease risk factors among our target population. The findings underscore that transnational African migrants maintain strong ties with their African community of origin, impacting dietary behaviors and attitudes. Further, transnational African migrants maintain traditional dishes through their connections. Despite the ability to import African traditional foods through personal connections, African migrants face a challenge in maintaining culture yet conforming to norms of acculturation. Results from this study serve to advocate for further exploration of the interaction between African migrant dietary behaviors and risk factors to chronic diseases.

  2. Regional economic development policy of cross-border cooperation: improving trends

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Sokolovska

    2014-01-01

    Development of regional cross-border economic cooperation on the national and regional levels become increasingly important for the european integration of Ukraine. When forming the state regional policy, in the field of cross-border economic cooperation it is necessary to use the approach that is directed at strengthening the role of regions in the integration process of Ukraine and cross-border cooperation development, increasing the region’s competitiveness, that can finally result in econ...

  3. Income, Wealth and Consumption of Cross-Border Commuters to Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Michael Ziegelmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Exceeding 40% of domestic employment cross-border commuters are extremely important to Luxembourg's economy and labour market in general. This paper presents unique information on their income, wealth and consumption using representative survey data from cross-border commuter households to Luxembourg. The estimated average total net wealth of cross-border commuter households is about EUR 240,000, which falls substantially short of comparable estimates for Luxembourg resident households exceed...

  4. Tax avoidance with cross-border hybrid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...... in the other country with a cross-border hybrid instrument. We then investigate why countries tend to allow the use of hybrid instruments for tax avoidance and show that even if effective anti-avoidance rules are available, there exists a global policy equilibrium in which no country uses such rules...

  5. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd; Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    , content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video...... mathematics, language, science, social studies and history. This paper provides an in-depth description and analysis of how four social science and history elementary school teachers and their 70 students (5th–7th grades) worked together between November 2011 and December 2012. Previous research regarding...... with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students...

  6. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  7. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... outcomes. The results shed light on the mechanisms through which the constructs influence value creation in CBAs and highlight the procedural and dynamic character of these determinants. The results also indicate that an integrative and process perspective, such as the “input-process-output” model proposed...... important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition...

  8. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    initiatives that aim to cultivate co-operation between countries, regions and municipalities while ensuring the protection and promoting the interests and rights of the people living in border regions. Despite these regional initiatives, the effective functioning of cross-border co-operation still remains...... largely unknown across West Africa. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap, with an analysis of both the social structure and the geography of West African governance networks. On the basis of this structural and geographic analysis, policy recommendations are formulated aimed at implementing...... policies that are more place-based, more attentive to relations between the actors at play in co-operation, and more specifically adapted to the constraints and opportunities of the West African region....

  9. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  10. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  11. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  12. [Violence and mental health issues among Mexican adolescents that have considered or attempted cross-border migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Ayala, Ruben; Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Sánchez-Estrada, Marcela; Hernández-Girón, Carlos

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to estimate the role of victimization by violence among Mexican adolescents that have considered or attempted migrating to the United States, including mental health variables (emotional self-esteem, self-esteem in school, depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide) as mediators of the effects. The study used a cross-sectional design with a stratified cluster sample of 13,198 adolescents from the 2nd Mexican National Survey on Exclusion, Intolerance, and Violence in public schools in 2009. The analysis used the regression models proposed by Baron & Kenny. Prevalence of having considered or attempted cross-border migration was 23.1%. Mean age was 16.36 years. Female adolescents constituted 54.9% of the sample, and 56% were lower-income. Mental health variables that acted as partial mediators were suicidal ideation (35.9%), depression (19.2%), attempted suicide (17.7%), emotional self-esteem (6.2%), and self-esteem in school (3.4%) for moderate family violence, and emotional self-esteem (17.5%) for social rejection in school and suicidal ideation (8.1%) for physical harm in school. Female adolescents showed greater impact from mediators than men in considering or having attempted cross-border migration. The study discusses the importance of incorporating the prevention of violence in the social contexts studied here and incorporating mental health in dealing with violence in adolescents and in public health programs in transit areas for illegal migrants.

  13. Cross-border constraints, institutional changes and integration of the Dutch-German gas market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Mulder, Machiel

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of nine institutional changes to the integration of the Dutch and German gas markets. We analyse this contribution through the impact of bottlenecks in the cross-border infrastructure on the absolute value of cross-border price differences. In the period 2007-2013, the

  14. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale....

  15. Case for a Regional Approach to the Regulation of Cross Border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that national higher education quality regulatory agencies and frameworks may not be adequate to regulate cross border higher education, given its multinational character. Therefore, the paper argues for a regional approach to the regulation of cross border education. Thereafter, it discusses some of the ...

  16. Civic Stratification and the Exclusion of Undocumented Immigrants from Cross-border Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Waldinger, Roger

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework and an empirical example of the relationship between the civic stratification of immigrants in the United States, and their access to healthcare. We use the 2007 Pew Hispanic Center/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Hispanic Healthcare Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. Latinos (N = 2,783 foreign-born respondents) and find that immigrants who are not citizens or legal permanent residents are significantly more likely to be excluded from care in both the United States and across borders. Legal-status differences in cross-border care utilization persisted after controlling for health status, insurance coverage, and other potential demographic and socioeconomic predictors of care. Exclusion from care on both sides of the border was associated with reduced rates of receiving timely preventive services. Civic stratification, and political determinants broadly speaking, should be considered alongside social determinants of population health and health care. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  17. Civic stratification and the exclusion of undocumented immigrants from cross-border health care*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M.; Waldinger, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework and an empirical example of the relationship between the civic stratification of immigrants in the United States, and their access to healthcare. We use the 2007 Pew/RWJF Hispanic Healthcare Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. Latinos (n=2783 foreign-born respondents) and find that immigrants who are not citizens or legal permanent residents are significantly more likely to be excluded from care in both the U.S. and across borders. Legal status differences in cross-border care utilization persisted after controlling for health status, insurance coverage, and other potential demographic and socio-economic predictors of care. Exclusion from care on both sides of the border was associated with reduced rates of receiving timely preventive services. Civic stratification, and political determinants broadly speaking, should be considered alongside social determinants of population health and healthcare. PMID:26582512

  18. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    collaboration are described through preliminary descriptive statistics. This provides an answer to the specific research question of this paper: does high levels of proximity guarantee subsequent high levels of scientific collaboration and integration in a cross-border context? Consequently, the preliminary......A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions...... and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  19. Requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies in the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication paper investigates requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies. We refer to European cross-border regions, which are located in the European Baltic Sea Region. We hypothesize that there is no efficient cross-border spatial planning without engagement from various stakeholders, supported by novel spatial planning technologies. This study presents the results from a survey that identifies the requirements for spatial planning technologies adequate for cross - border regions. On the basis of this survey, carried out within the INTECRE project partners coming from the Baltic Sea Region, the study provides general recommendations about cross - border spatial planning technologies. Addressed in the survey are the following central issues: definition of the scope of such technologies, the data base and international planning data provision, features and properties of planning technologies, and stakeholder involvement. The research findings are transferable to wider European and extra- European contexts.

  20. Nonbreeding-Season Drivers of Population Dynamics in Seasonal Migrants: Conservation Parallels Across Taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For seasonal migrants, logistical constraints have often limited conservation efforts to improving survival and reproduction during the breeding season only. Yet, mounting empirical evidence suggests that events occurring throughout the migratory life cycle can critically alter the demography of many migrant species. Herein, we build upon recent syntheses of avian migration research to review the role of non-breeding seasons in determining the population dynamics and fitness of diverse migratory taxa, including salmonid fishes, marine mammals, ungulates, sea turtles, butterflies, and numerous bird groups. We discuss several similarities across these varied migrants: (i non-breeding survivorship tends to be a strong driver of population growth; (ii non-breeding events can affect fitness in subsequent seasons through seasonal interactions at individual- and population-levels; (iii broad-scale climatic influences often alter non-breeding resources and migration timing, and may amplify population impacts through covariation among seasonal vital rates; and (iv changes to both stationary and migratory non-breeding habitats can have important consequences for abundance and population trends. Finally, we draw on these patterns to recommend that future conservation research for seasonal migrants will benefit from: (1 more explicit recognition of the important parallels among taxonomically diverse migratory animals; (2 an expanded research perspective focused on quantification of all seasonal vital rates and their interactions; and (3 the development of detailed population projection models that account for complexity and uncertainty in migrant population dynamics.

  1. Golden Jubilee photos - The first cross-border Accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic ...

  2. Structural changes in cross-border liabilities: A multidimensional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Spelta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We study the international interbank market through a geometric analysis of empirical data. The geometric analysis of the time series of cross-country liabilities shows that the systematic information of the interbank international market is contained in a space of small dimension. Geometric spaces of financial relations across countries are developed, for which the space volume, multivariate skewness and multivariate kurtosis are computed. The behavior of these coefficients reveals an important modification acting in the financial linkages since 1997 and allows us to relate the shape of the geometric space that emerges in recent years to the globally turbulent period that has characterized financial systems since the late 1990s. Here we show that, besides a persistent decrease in the volume of the geometric space since 1997, the observation of a generalized increase in the values of the multivariate skewness and kurtosis sheds some light on the behavior of cross-border interdependencies during periods of financial crises. This was found to occur in such a systematic fashion, that these coefficients may be used as a proxy for systemic risk.

  3. FRAMEWORK FOR A CROSS-BORDER TRANSDISCIPLINARY DESIGN STUDIO EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahinah Ibrahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for an architectural construction integration (A-CI design studio curriculum in the context of an architectural graduate program. It aims to apply trans-disciplinary principles to educate competent graduates in sustainable global design-build practice. The A-CI curriculum emulates the computer-integrated Project Based Learning Laboratory (PBL model developed at Stanford University by building on the PBL’s framework, and principles of learning and teaching professional, cultural, technological, and spatial differences amongst the building stakeholders. We extend it to include a project’s financial and regulatory decision-making process along the planning and architectural design processes at the earlier project development life-cycle phases. The paper will first present the literature review on transdisciplinary learning, followed by a description on the framework and principles of the PBL model before proposing how we extend the PBL model to integrate the early architectural design phase. The proposed program’s framework covers a four-semester curriculum at graduate level during which, students from participating universities in developing countries have the opportunity to participate in a global building project with students from participating universities in developed countries. An additional benefit of this curriculum is that it would allow students from both developing and developed countries to experience cross-border trans-disciplinary learning and teaching.

  4. Dietary patterns in internal migrants in a continental country: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Ferreira Carioca

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the differences and similarities in dietary patterns among migrants and natives.A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of São Paulo. The study population included internal migrants, defined as individuals born outside São Paulo city who had lived in the city for ten years or longer. The final population (n = 999 was divided into three groups: natives of São Paulo (n = 354, migrants from the Southeast (n = 349 and migrants from the Northeast (n = 296. Factor and principal component analysis was employed to derive dietary patterns. The standardized scores were compared among groups using linear regression.Differences in income per capita, years of education, self-reported race, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, nutritional status and prevalence of hypertension were found for place of birth. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (salad dressings, vegetables, natural flavorings, fruits, whole-grain bread, white cheeses and juices, traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar, and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats. Compared to natives, migrants from the Southeast had an inversely proportional adherence to the modern pattern whereas migrants from the Northeast had an inverse association with the prudent and modern patterns and a positive association with the traditional pattern.São Paulo natives and internal migrants from other regions of Brazil exhibited different dietary patterns. The results presented here add perspectives to be considered in the study of non-communicable diseases and its different incidences among migrants and natives.

  5. The nexus between cross-border migration and international trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempted to unlock the conundrum of migration-trade relationship in Tanzania, using the country's migrant stock (diaspora) in the parts of the world. It also aimed to investigate how this effect, if at all exist, differs between developing and developed countries. The augmented gravity model of trade has been ...

  6. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border partnerships are a distinctive example of inter-organizational cooperation, embedded, in terms of territory, in the neighboring borderland regions of two or more countries. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the sustainable cross-border cooperation and affect motivation to increase cooperation between cross-border partners. The objective implementation is connected with the verification of a hypothesis referring to the possible impact of the European Union funds on the trans-boundary cooperation transformations. Results of desk research and quantitative research involving IDI, CATI, CAWI and CATI and PAPI data collection methods, implemented in the Polish–Czech borderland in 2016 were used in this paper. Research on the Polish–Lithuanian borderland was also used in the paper to conduct comparative analysis, useful to identify and evaluate factors motivating sustainable cross-border cooperation in the Czech–Polish borderland. The sustainable, cross-border and inter-organizational cooperation in the borderlands results from the simultaneous interaction of three groups of factors: (1 people and institutions (the quality of interpersonal relationships; (2 cross-border planning, procedures and support mechanisms (e.g., the possibility of jointly planning the cross-border cooperation and obtaining EU funds for the development of the borderlands as well as the availability of other funds helpful in this kind of cooperation; and (3 environment (historical affinity and geographical proximity of neighboring border regions, system support at the regional and local level in neighboring countries.

  7. CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE – PROBLEMS IN IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Talar

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border e-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon in the contemporary world economy and very little examined. The aim of this paper is to specify and charac-terize basic problems for the cross-border e-commerce research. It was carried out a wide literature review, including methodological manuals, studies, reports and statistics. The problems with definition of the cross-border e-commerce notion were studied, as well as the scope of official statistics and private sources of data in thi...

  8. Feasibility Analysis of Developing Cross-border Network Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jun

    In the era of economic globalization, strengthen of international cooperation on network education is a general trend. Although China has not made commitments about the market access and national treatment of cross-border supply in Schedule of Specific Commitments on Services, the basic conditions of network education development in China have been met. The Chinese government should formulate strategies for the development of cross-border network education and take relevant measures to implement them. In the near future, the carrying out of cross-border network education in China will become an irreversible trend, and will possess broad prospect with the advance of globalization of Chinese education.

  9. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  10. Migrants travelling to their country of origin: a bridge population for HIV transmission?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Merlijn A.; van Veen, Maaike G.; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Coutinho, Roel A.; van de Laar, Marita J. W.; Prins, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background: By having unprotected heterosexual contact in both The Netherlands and their homeland, migrants who travel to their homeland might form a bridge population for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission. We studied the determinants for such a population in two large

  11. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.Z. Ikram (Umar Z.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); S. Harding (Seeromanie); G. Rey (Grégoire); R.S. Bhopal (Raj); E. Regidor (Enrique); A. Rosato (Antonio); K. Juel (Knud); K. Stronks (Karien); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland,

  12. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S.; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain.

  13. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  14. Knowledge transfer and innovation in cross-border cooperation programmes between Finland and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2017-01-01

    to these programmes in terms of their role in enhancing cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation, particularly in the field of tourism. To shed light on the issue, semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of (12 Russian; 12 Finnish) organisations that had participated in ENPI CBC funded...... tourism related Finnish-Russian cross-border projects. The results shed light on the possibilities of and obstacles to cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation. ENPI CBC programmes between Finland and Russia are highly relevant for successful cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation...... in the tourism sector: the projects were particularly successful in transmitting new service concepts and best practices across the border. While, for example, language issues and the differences in legislative systems between the two countries can constitute barriers for practical CBC, the dissimilarity between...

  15. CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE – PROBLEMS IN IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon in the contemporary world economy and very little examined. The aim of this paper is to specify and charac-terize basic problems for the cross-border e-commerce research. It was carried out a wide literature review, including methodological manuals, studies, reports and statistics. The problems with definition of the cross-border e-commerce notion were studied, as well as the scope of official statistics and private sources of data in this area. The finding is that the studies of cross-border e-commerce are currently faced with serious problems of fundamental nature, which are identification of meaning and quantitative dimension of this phenomenon.

  16. A balanced way for China's inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of solutions to China’s inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation, the doctoral dissertation provides 10 original recommendations accompanied with comments, which are entitled “CICIA”.

  17. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing: Exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; van Herk, H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  18. Multidisciplinary view on sustainable development of cross-border agri supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Willems, S.

    2002-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to cross-border chain development is necessary. Four important dimensions of food chains are recognised: the economic, the technological, social/legal and environmental dimension. All four dimensions cover supply chains from farm to fork

  19. Domestic banking sector development and cross border mergers and acquisitions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikplimi K. Agbloyor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, economists have started taking a closer look at cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As due to its phenomenal rise in the past two decades. This study investigates the relation between banking sector development and cross M&As in Africa. Our sample consists of 11 African countries with data covering the period, 1993–2008. We use a Baltagi panel instrumental variable Error Component Two Stage Least Squares (EC2SLS estimator with the Baltagi-Chang estimators of the variance components to deal with endogeneity. The results of the study indicate that banking sector development promotes cross border M&A activity in Africa. We also document evidence suggesting that cross border M&A activity drives banking sector development in Africa. Overall, our evidence suggests a two-way causation between banking sector development and cross border M&As.

  20. Ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis risk for migrant groups - A population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Peter; Thygesen, Malene; Das-Munshi, Jay; Becares, Laia; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2017-12-01

    Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). Neighbourhood exposures were measured at age 15. For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. For migrants of African origin there was a 1.94-fold increase (95% CI, 1.17-3.23) comparing lowest and highest density quintiles; with similar effects for migrants from Europe (excluding Scandinavia): incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.99 (95% CI, 1.56-2.54); Asia: IRR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.02-2.59); and the Middle East: IRR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.38). This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. Adjusting for ethnic density revealed a positive association between level of urbanicity and psychosis for two groups, with a statistically significant linear trend (average effect of a one quintile increase) for migrants from Europe: IRR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16) and the Middle East: IRR 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.23). In this first nationwide population-based study of ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis we show that lower ethnic density is associated with increased incidence of non-affective psychosis for different migrant groups; masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen N. Berger; Robert DeYoung; Hesna Genay; Gregory F. Udell

    1999-01-01

    We address the causes, consequences, and implications of the cross-border consolidation of financial institutions by reviewing several hundred studies, providing comparative international data, and estimating cross-border banking efficiency in France, Germany, Spain, the U.K., and the U.S. during the 1990s. We find that, on average, domestic banks have higher profit efficiency than foreign banks. However, banks from at least one country (the U.S.) appear to operate with relatively high effici...

  2. Functions of Cross-Border Economic Activities in Skouw Sae Community, Jayapura City

    OpenAIRE

    La Usman; Syafri Sairin

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border economic activities are often done by people of Skouw Sae Village, Muara Tami District, Jayapura City to Wutung Village, Vanimo, Papua New Guinea. This study attempts to analyze the functions of economic activity in this community. Data were processed using qualitative analysis. The results of this study found seven functions of cross-border economic activities. First, to meet nutritional needs of the family. Second, to meet reproductive needs for family continuity. Third, to mee...

  3. Cross-Border Higher Education Institutions in Mainland China : A developmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mei; Li, Shengbing

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border higher education institutions are considered a main way to fulfill the educational internalization in Mainland China; to some extent they represent the attitude of entering the international market. In this paper, the history, status quo, and future of Chinese-foreign cooperatively-run schools are analyzed and discussed. Cross-border higher education institutions in Mainland China have experienced the process from accidental and disorder to a systematic and quality orientation.

  4. Unresolved legal questions in cross-border health care in Europe: liability and data protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, I N; Commers, M J

    2013-11-01

    Directive 2011/24/EU was designed to clarify the rights of EU citizens in evaluating, accessing and obtaining reimbursement for cross-border care. Based on three regional case studies, the authors attempted to assess the added value of the Directive in helping clarify issues in to two key areas that have been identified as barriers to cross-border care: liability and data protection. Qualitative case study employing secondary data sources including research of jurisprudence, that set up a Legal framework as a base to investigate liability and data protection in the context of cross-border projects. By means of three case studies that have tackled liability and data protection hurdles in cross-border care implementation, this article attempts to provide insight into legal certainty and uncertainty regarding cross-border care in Europe. The case studies reveal that the Directive has not resolved core uncertainties related to liability and data protection issues within cross-border health care. Some issues related to the practice of cross-border health care in Europe have been further clarified by the Directive and some direction has been given to possible solutions for issues connected to liability and data protection. Directive 2011/24/EU is clearly a transposition of existing regulations on data protection and ECJ case law, plus a set of additional, mostly, voluntary rules that might enhance regional border cooperation. Therefore, as shown in the case studies, a practical and case by case approach is still necessary in designing and providing cross-border care. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The socio-economic impacts of Singaporean cross-border tourism in Malaysia and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border tourism is often proposed by governments as an incentive for economic growth, but critics have suggested that its impacts are, in fact, overplayed. This paper\\ud presents research in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle. It presents a study of Singaporean cross-border tourism to its neighbours and discusses its\\ud economic impacts in two locations: Kukup, a traditional fishing village in Malaysia; and Bintan island in Indonesia. The project examined the broad economic...

  6. Learning Mobility Challenging Borders: Cross-border Experiences of eastern European Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marcu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This article examines the cross-border mobility practices of eastern European immigrants across and within European Union (EU) borders, taking into account the changes in the patterns of the EU border regime, which have affected mobility in the last 20 years. Drawing on empirical research with references to in-depth qualitative interviews of eastern immigrants in Spain, this article highlights the ways in which the emerging models of cross-border mobility management are producing new geo...

  7. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Barnebeck Andersen; Carl-Johan Dalgaard

    2006-01-01

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cross-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity an...

  8. Knowledge-based urban development of cross-border twin cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2016-01-01

    sets out to propose an analytical framework for empirical studies on shared KBUD processes of cross-border twin cities based on indicators adapted from the literature on cross-border regional innovation systems. The proposed framework was tested with two cases: Helsinki-Tallinn and Copenhagen......-Malmö. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, guide potential further studies on KBUD and twin cities and raise relevant suggestions for urban policy-makers in border regions....

  9. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce: Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Thai Young; Dekker, Rommert; Heij, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online buyers. They can reduce psychological barriers to cross-border demand by designing websites that simplify the search for and comparison of products and suppliers across countries. They can reduce cost ba...

  10. Comparison of neotropical migrant landbird populations wintering in tropical forest, isolated forest fragments, and agricultural habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Colon, J.A.; Estrada, R.; Sutton, A.; Sutton, R.; Weyer, D.; Hagan, John M.; Johnston, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Neotropical migrant bird populations were sampled at 76 sites in seven countries by using mist nets and point counts during a six-winter study. Populations in major agricultural habitats were compared with those in extensive forest and isolated forest fragments. Certain Neotropical migrants, such as the Northern Parula, American Redstart, and the Black-throated Blue, Magnolia, Black-and-white, and Hooded warblers, were present in arboreal agricultural habitats such as pine, cacao, citrus, and shade coffee plantations in relatively large numbers. Many north temperate zone shrub-nesting species, such as the Gray Catbird, White-eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, and Indigo Bunting, also used agricultural habitats in winter, as did resident hummingbirds and migrant orioles. Ground-foraging migrants, such as thrushes and Kentucky Warblers, were rarely found in the agricultural habitats sampled. Although many Neotropical migrants use some croplands, this use might be severely limited by overgrazing by cattle, by intensive management (such as removal of ground cover in an orchard), or by heavy use of insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides.

  11. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Supporting decision making in cross-border regions: a health technology assessment tool for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Saskia; Lombardi, Gloria; Commers, Matt; Dauben, Hans-Peter; Evers, Silvia; Michelsen, Kai; Oortwijn, Wija; Opara, Chibuzo; Brand, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an health technology assessment (HTA) decision tool to support the decision-making process on health technologies for hospital decision makers in cross-border regions. Several methods were used to collect information necessary to develop the cross-border mini-HTA decision tool. The literature was inventoried on HTA in border regions and local settings and the use of HTA by local decision makers. Semi-structured interviews with hospital decision makers in cross-border regions were also performed. Based on group discussion of the resulting information, it was decided to use the Danish mini-HTA guideline as a starting point for development of the decision tool. After finishing the first version of the decision tool it was tested in two pilot studies. Some questions in the Danish mini-HTA guideline were not relevant. Other questions needed rephrasing and questions about cross-border situations were added. The pilots showed several missing topics, including legal questions and reimbursement issues. The final decision tool consists of three sections: a general section, a section for hospitals not cooperating cross-border and a section for hospitals that are cooperating with hospitals across a national or regional border. Based on our literature search, this may be the first cross-border mini-HTA decision tool. The decision tool will be of help for healthcare professionals and decision makers in border settings who would like to use HTA evidence to support their decision-making process.

  13. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  14. Population Prevalence of Need for Spectacles and Spectacle Ownership Among Urban Migrant Children in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuqin; Yi, Hongmei; Lu, Lina; Zhang, Linxiu; Ma, Xiaochen; Jin, Ling; Zhang, Haiqing; Naidoo, Kovin S; Minto, Hasan; Zou, Haidong; Rozelle, Scott; Congdon, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    The number of urban migrants in China is 300 million and is increasing rapidly in response to government policies. Urban migrants have poor access to health care, but little is known about rates of correction of refractive error among migrant children. This is of particular significance in light of recent evidence demonstrating the educational impact of providing children with spectacles. To measure prevalence of spectacle need and ownership among Chinese migrant children. Population-based, cross-sectional study among children who failed vision testing (uncorrected visual acuity ≤6/12 in either eye) between September 15 and 30, 2013, at 94 randomly selected primary schools in predominantly migrant communities in Shanghai, Suzhou, and Wuxi, China. Refractive error by cycloplegic refraction; spectacle ownership, defined as producing glasses at school, having been told to bring them; and needing glasses, defined as uncorrected visual acuity of 6/12 or less correctable to greater than 6/12 in either eye, with myopia of -0.5 diopters (D) or less, hyperopia of +2.0 D or greater, or astigmatism of 0.75 D or greater in both eyes. Among 4409 children, 4376 (99.3%) completed vision screening (mean [SD] age, 11.0 [0.81] years; 55.3% boys; 4225 [96.5%] migrant and 151 [3.5%] local). Among 1204 children failing vision testing (total, 27.5%; 1147 migrant children [27.1%] vs 57 local children [37.7%]; P = .003), 850 (70.6%) completed refraction. Spectacle ownership in migrant children needing glasses (147 of 640 children [23.0%]) was less than among local children (12 of 34 children [35.3%]) (odds ratio = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.95; P = .03). Having uncorrected visual acuity less than 6/18 in both eyes was associated positively with baseline spectacle ownership (odds ratio = 5.73; 95% CI, 3.81-8.62; P migrant children, there was a high prevalence of need for spectacles and a very low rate of spectacle ownership. Spectacle distribution programs are needed

  15. Sonhos que cruzam fronteiras: sentidos construídos a partir do processo migratório Dreams that cross borders: senses constructed from the migration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizara Carolina Marin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este capítulo tem como objetivo desenhar um panorama sobre as vidas que cruzam fronteiras no que tange aos sonhos, antes e pós-migração, a partir da análise de relatos de migrantes de Porto Alegre e de Barcelona. Busca-se compreender a vida em trânsito e o projeto de retorno no processo migratório.This chapter aims to provide a picture of the lives that cross borders when it comes to dreams, before and after migration, from the analysis of reports provided by migrants from Porto Alegre and Barcelona. The objective is to comprehend the life in transit and the return project within the migration process.

  16. Impact of new migrant populations on the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; He, X-X; Chang, Z-R; Ren, Y-H; Zhou, J-Y; Ju, L-R; Jia, Z-W

    2011-02-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) case notification rate in Beijing has been increasing since 2000. Migration was speculated to play an important role in promoting the growth of the epidemic. The identification of spatial clusters of TB can be a key indicator for targeting limited public health resources. Spatial modelling was applied to the 220 towns of Beijing and summarised for the 18 districts, which were combined into four functional areas in 2005 and 2006. Population density was combined with the numbers of TB cases, and TB incidence data was used to identify high rate clusters. A negative binomial regression model was used to confirm the association between TB and migration status in Beijing. There were 4584 TB cases among permanent residents and 2838 among migrants. TB cases and population were most densely grouped in four central districts. High-rate TB clusters in both permanent residents and migrants were detected in the 'New Districts for Urban Development' and Chaoyang District in 2005 and 2006. Migration and the population growth rate of new migrants are contributing to the TB increase in Beijing. The increasing migrant population has had a drastic influence on the spatial distribution of TB in Beijing. Spatial analysis could provide additional information in addition to common incidence plots.

  17. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level.

  18. Initiatives of cross-border regional planning in Matamoros-Brownsville (Mexico-United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oliveras González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border regional planning is a recent phenomenon, which its first initiatives date back to 1960s. Currently some experiences have been conducted, most of them in Europe. The weak development of this phenomenon lies on the obstacles and limitations that it has to deal with. Those obstacles derive from the asymmetries between the political and administrative systems, urban and spatial policies, land planning and land uses, etc. on each side of an international border. In a great extent, cross-border planning has been theoretically approached from an institutional construction perspective. However, in this research it has been adopted the symbolic regional construction perspective that allows to analyze cross-border regional planning through spatial imaginaries. In this sense, crossborder planning is understood as a result of the interaction between regional actors and the social constructed values and meanings (geographical, cultural, social, economic, historical, etc. given to border and cross-border regions. This investigation pursues, in first place, to determine the spatial imaginaries on which cross-border planning is constructed and, at the same time, the spatial imaginaries that cross-border planning reproduces; in second place, to determine in which way cross-border planning contributes to deactivate the border (deborder or, on the contrary, to reproduce and reinforce the spatial differentiation process (the process by which two contiguous national or bordered spaces build spatial discontinuities as a way to distinguish of each other. To achieve these objectives, it has been conducted a content analysis based on the documentation of the spatial and urban planning and of the cross-border initiatives from a case study area; a direct observation of an ongoing cross-border initiative; and interviews to key informants (planning agencies and other organizations related to cross-border initiatives. In the Mexico-United States border region

  19. The Debtor’s Property Selling in the Cross-Border Insolvency Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sproge Daiga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of this research is “The debtor’s property selling in the cross-border insolvency proceedings”. The insolvency proceeding gets the cross-border status also in case, if a debtor is an owner of the property outside of the main interests’ centre, namely, in another country. Therefore, there are many problematic cases when insolvency administrator (also called insolvency practitioner defines the real estate in this other country and has to make a decision concerning the methods of selling the real estate in accordance with the law of the Member State in which territory the insolvency proceedings have been started. At the same time, the administrator shall provide that the property is sold in particular with regard to procedures for the realization of assets defined in the legislation of that country, where such real estate has been located. The article’s aim is to give a view of the features of the sale of the property in the insolvency proceedings and to define the possible lack and improvements in the cross-border insolvency concerning the selling of a debtor’s property. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union has adopted Regulation (EU 2015/848 of 20 May 2015 on Insolvency proceedings, which shall apply from 26 June 2017, with some exceptions Despite the regulation of the cross-border insolvency has been improved, the procedure of the property disposal is still incomplete in the cross-border insolvency proceedings. Within the study the following research methods are applied: the analytical method, comparative method, sociological method and descriptive method. The predicted value of the research is theoretical and also practical. The research should be useful for the insolvency proceedings administrators, the companies and the banks, other experts involved in the cross-border insolvency proceedings, as well as for students to improve their theoretical knowledge about the cross-border insolvency.

  20. The Thai/Myanmar border health program: lessons in working with migrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Emerson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Migrant populations are often vulnerable, and various political, economic, cultural, historical and social situations can make it especially challenging to address public health issues. Not attending to these issues poses increased risks for the migrants, the people in the country they live in, eventually, the rest of the world. There are many locations high density with density population migrants throughout the world, amongst there are the Thailand/Myanmar border it is estimated more than one million migrants have crossed from Myanmar into Thailand. This area has one of Asia’s highest malaria infection rates and an increased prevalence of tuberculosis. In 2000, the Ministers of Health of Thailand and Myanmar met jointly to address the public health issues in the border area. Following this meeting the World Health Organization, supported by United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID, provided funding to support program activities. This included the establishment of the Border Health Program which was initiated in 2001. The Thai/Myanmar Border Health Program sought to improve the health of the most vulnerable populations on the border, and key elements of the program were data collection and system development, coordination, training and information distribution. Implicit to the success of the program was ongoing coordination with the various players, including the governments, non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”, donors, researchers and UN agencies. Several lessons were learned which can be applied in similar settings, and needs for research and study were identified. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 43-9

  1. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  2. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  3. Service utilization for mental problems in a metropolitan migrant population in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhaoguo; Hu, Chiyi; Wei, Xiaolin; Yang, Hong; Shu, Mingyue; Liu, Tiebang

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of service utilization for mental health problems of the first-generation migrant population in Shenzhen, China, a city that attracts millions of unskilled rural laborers each year. Using the structured World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the investigators conducted face-to-face surveys between September 1, 2005, and January 30, 2006. A total of 7,134 respondents age 18 years and above finished the surveys. The main outcomes were prevalence of mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria, as well as prevalence of mental health services used in different sectors. Nine percent of the sample had ever used some type of service for mental health issues, and 6.3% used services outside of the health service sector, such as human services and complementary and alternative medicine. In addition, DSM criteria for a mental disorder over the lifetime were met by 18.1% of respondents; of the respondents with a mental disorder, 18.3% had used mental health services at least once. Migrants who were unmarried, had high family income, were raised in metropolitan areas, had histories of homelessness or attempted suicide, had a psychotic disorder, or had an anxiety disorder were more likely to use services for mental health care. In Shenzhen, few migrants used mental health services and most used complementary and alternative medicine services. Future studies of service utilization patterns in migrant populations should give special attention to personal characteristics, such as family support.

  4. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Peeter [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, East Tallinn Central Hospital, Paernu mnt 104, 11312 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Peeter.Ross@itk.ee; Sepper, Ruth [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Ruth.Sepper@gmail.com; Pohjonen, Hanna [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Hanna.Pohjonen@rosalieco.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  6. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Peeter; Sepper, Ruth; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  7. Smoking prevalence among migrants in the US compared to the US-born and the population in countries of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizzo R Bosdriesz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.

  8. Cross-border healthcare in Spain and the implementation of the Directive 2011/24/EU on the Application of Patient's Rights in Cross-border Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    This work describes and assesses the implementation of the Cross-border Healthcare Directive in Spain. Although implementation has not yet taken place, the Government has already adopted a draft implementing regulation, on which this article is based. In addition, this article deals with a number of other rules that have been adopted in Spain, which are not strictly aimed at the implementation of the Directive but which are expected to facilitate its implementation and to help cement its effectiveness.

  9. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  10. Functions of Cross-Border Economic Activities in Skouw Sae Community, Jayapura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Usman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border economic activities are often done by people of Skouw Sae Village, Muara Tami District, Jayapura City to Wutung Village, Vanimo, Papua New Guinea. This study attempts to analyze the functions of economic activity in this community. Data were processed using qualitative analysis. The results of this study found seven functions of cross-border economic activities. First, to meet nutritional needs of the family. Second, to meet reproductive needs for family continuity. Third, to meet the needs for comfort and welfare of wife's family. Fourth, to meet safety needs. Fifth, to meet the needs for relaxation. Sixth, to meet mobility needs. Seventh, to meet the needs for growth. It also meets the needs for activities and systems of ideas related to the fulfillment of seven needs. In conclusion, the functions of cross-border economic activities of Skouw Sae Village are to meet basic, institutional and symbolical needs of local people.

  11. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  12. Promotion of Cultural Tourism through Cooperation in the Cross-Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rădulescu Corina Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness and richness of culture and heritage in the cross-border area: Hungary, Slovakia, Romania and Ukraine (HU-SK-RO-UA creates the opportunity for developing cultural tourism through innovative tourism and integrated tourism products, with the result of promoting tourism, generally in Europe and especially in Trans-Carpatic Region. For this purpose, new projects initiated can achieve better cooperation and coordination between the relevant stakeholders in the tourism sector, as well as to develop and implement joint tourism strategies. The paper presents a project proposal on promoting the culture and heritage in HU-SK-RO-UA area, through tourism function. The main activities designed in the project lead to joint cross-border tourism management in order to increase the attractiveness of cultural sites and joint cross-border touristic offer, by strengthening joint new touristic products and organizing joint cultural events.

  13. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  14. Family planning management for the migrant population in sending areas. Urban family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This brief article was adapted from a report by the Longchang County Government, Sichuan Province, China, at the National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programs. The Longchang County family planning program has shifted emphasis since 1990 toward management of out-migrant workers. Overpopulation in the family planning region resulted in each person having about one-sixth of an acre (0.6 mu) of land. There were about 200,000 surplus rural workers. 75,000 migrants left the region in 1995, of which 70,300 had signed birth control contracts and had received family planning certificates. Family planning township agencies in Longchang County increased their IEC and counseling services for migrants and their families. The Longchang County family planning program maintained family planning contacts in receiving areas in order to obtain pregnancy and birth information on the migrant population. During 1991-95 the number of unplanned births declined from 1394 to 71, and 97% of the births were planned.

  15. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross......-border policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within...

  16. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...

  17. The impact of cross-border reproductive care or 'fertility tourism' on NHS maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, A; David, A L; Shenfield, F; Jauniaux, E R

    2009-10-01

    High order multiple pregnancies have substantial morbidity and mortality. Fertility treatment is commonly responsible for their conception and is available globally with variable regulation. We investigated cross-border fertility treatment in these pregnancies in a UK fetal medicine unit, recording mode of conception, country of fertility treatment, reason for non-UK treatment and fetal reduction. Over an 11-year period, 109 women had a high order multiple pregnancy. Ninety-four women (86%) conceived with fertility treatment of whom 24 (26%) had this performed overseas. Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to obstetricians. National data on its occurrence is urgently needed.

  18. Chinese enterprise’s wealth effect of cross-border M&A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingrui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the Chinese enterprises’ wealth effect of cross-border M&A and the factors which impact it. The results indicate that in the [-10, 10] event window Chinese enterprises’ get wealth effect from cross-border M&A, but in the longer event windows this wealth effect doesn’t exist. And high R&D density of the acquirer enterprises, acquisitions experience and host country’s high level of innovation have positive influence to this cumulative abnormal return, while large asset scale, high growth speed, high equity centralized degrees and horizontal acquisition mode have significant negative effects.

  19. Social Isolation and Spousal Violence: Comparing Female Marriage Migrants with Local Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Y. P.; Cheung, Y. W.; Cheung, Adam K. L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the impact of network participation, social support, and social control on the violence victimization of female marriage migrants by a spouse. Data were from a household survey of 492 cross-border and 379 local married couples in Hong Kong in 2007. The findings indicated that female marriage migrants were more vulnerable to…

  20. Depression and anxiety among migrants in Austria: a population based study of prevalence and utilization of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkenaar, Marlies M E; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Ristl, Robin; Pichlhöfer, Otto

    2013-10-01

    Although migrants form a large part of the Austrian population, information about mental health of migrants in Austria is scarce. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of dysphoric disorders (depression and anxiety) and the corresponding utilization of health care services of Eastern European, western and other migrants with the non-migrant population in Austria. We performed a telephone survey on a random sample of the general population of Austria aged 15 years and older (n=3509) between October 2010 and September 2011. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and utilization of health care services in the last 4 weeks was inquired. 15.0% of our sample had a migration background. Female migrants from Eastern Europe, first and second generation, had a higher prevalence of dysphoric disorders (29.7% and 33.4% respectively) than Austrian women (15.2%) (p<0.001). The prevalence in the other migrant groups did not differ significantly from the Austrian population. There was no gender difference in dysphoric disorders in the Austrian population. After adjustment for age and chronic diseases, having a dysphoric disorder was associated with a higher utilization of health care services among migrant and Austrian women, but not among men. Because of the explorative nature of the study multiple testing correction was not performed. The reason for health care utilization was not assessed. Mental health of female migrants from Eastern Europe should be studied in more detail; men could be an underserved group, both in migrants and Austrians. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospects for the Cross-Border Cooperation between Russia and Poland in the Field of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia A.; Korneevets, Valentin S.; Semenova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research topic is driven by the increasing role of cross-border cooperation for economic development of regions of the neighbouring countries located in the immediate vicinity to the border, as well as for the tourism development. The purpose of scientific research, the results of which are presented in the article, was the…

  2. The Changing Nature of Volunteering and the Cross-Border Mobility: Where Does Learning Come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the more conventional approaches of volunteering, by looking into the experiences of young people involved in long-term cross-border volunteering in Romania. Drawing on qualitative interviews with European Voluntary Service volunteers, the paper examines how this experience is intersecting their learning trajectories. The…

  3. Spillover of Corporate Governance Standards in Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-border acquisitions, the differences between the bidder and target corporate governance have an important impact on the takeover returns. Our country-level corporate governance indices capture the changes in the quality of the national corporate governance regulations over the past 15

  4. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  5. Developing Qualitative Coding Frameworks for Educational Research: Immigration, Education and the Children Crossing Borders Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys; Pastori, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    The Children Crossing Borders (CCB) study is a polyvocal, multi-sited project on immigration and early childhood education and care in five countries: Italy, Germany, France, England and the USA. The complicated nature of the data pushed us as a group to expand our methodological resources to not only organize the data but also to make it…

  6. Cross-border reproductive care : market forces in action or market failure? An economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark

    2011-01-01

    From an economist's perspective, cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) reflects a global market economy bringing together the needs of patients and skills of doctors at an agreed price. From this perspective CBRC is neither wrong nor right, rather it reflects rational economic behaviour of couples

  7. Cross-border reproductive care: a phenomenon expressing the controversial aspects of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretti, Anna Pia; Pennings, Guido; Gianaroli, Luca; Natali, Francesca; Magli, M Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Cross-border reproductive care, also called reproductive tourism, refers to the travelling of citizens from their country of residence to another country in order to receive fertility treatment through assisted reproductive technology. Several reasons account for cross-border reproductive care: (i) a certain kind of treatment is forbidden by law in the couple's own country or is inaccessible to the couple because of their demographic or social characteristics; (ii) foreign centres report higher success rates compared with those of the centres in the country of residence; (iii) a specific treatment may be locally unavailable because of a lack of expertise or because the treatment is considered experimental or insufficiently safe; and (iv) limited access to the treatment in the couple's home country because of long waiting lists, excessive distance from a centre or high costs. Although cross-border reproductive care can be viewed as a safety valve, the phenomenon is often associated with a high risk of health dangers, frustration and disparities. Solutions to these problematic effects need to be considered in the light of the fact that cross-border reproductive care is a growing phenomenon. 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in transition economies1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the microeconomic determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in 11 transition economies over the period 1992-2006. We find that foreign banks target relatively large and efficient banks when they enter transition economies with weak institutions. This evidence provides support for the

  9. Smart specialisation strategies and cross-border integration of regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Zenker, Andrea; Hufnagl, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    by illustrating its practical implementation in the Upper Rhine area (i.e. Alsace in France and Baden-Württemberg in Germany). The first section revisits not only the smart specialisation concept in itself but also discusses it vis-à-vis the thematic of cross-border regional innovation systems and outlines some...

  10. Czech-German Cross-Border Cooperation in the enlarged European Union

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houžvička, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-3 ISSN 1214-7567 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS7028301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : European Union * local elites * cross/border cooperation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  11. Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions: A Piece of The Natural Resource Curse Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Swart (Julia); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe combine the resource curse literature with the literature on cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) to investigate two hypotheses, namely (i) countries with a comparative advantage in natural resources attract more M&As in natural resource intensive sectors and (ii) countries

  12. Who bears the burden of international taxation? Evidence from cross-border M&As

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border M&As can trigger additional taxation of the target's income in the form of non-resident dividend withholding taxes and acquirer-country corporate income taxation. This paper finds that this additional international taxation is fully capitalized into lower takeover premiums. In contrast,

  13. Breaking the deadlock: lessons from cross-border spatial projects in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the specific characteristics of decision-making in cross-border spatial projects and draws some lessons for European territorial cooperation. This is done by examining three major infrastructure projects between the Netherlands and Flanders: the construction of a high-speed rail

  14. Living with four polities : States and cross-border flows in the Myanmar-Thailand borderland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lertchavalitsakul, B.

    2017-01-01

    Living with Four Polities: States and Cross-border Flows in the Myanmar-Thailand Borderland detangles the multifacetedness of one of Asia’s most dynamic borderlands. Based on 12-months ethnographic fieldwork on the border between Myanmar’s southern Shan State and northwest Thailand, this

  15. Will MyBank lead to more cross-border e-commerce in the EU?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The launch of MyBank – the EU wide online payment system that provides consumers the possibility to make payments for goods and services in other EU countries via their own online banking environment – may give a boost to cross-border e-commerce within the European Union.

  16. Practical Obstacles in Cross-Border Litigation and Communication between (EU) Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Stadler (Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In cross-border civil litigation the use of different official court languages causes severe problems when - at least one of the parties - is not familiar with the official language of the court, since the parties' constitutional right to a fair trial depends very

  17. Volume and diagnosis: an approach to cross-border care in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, P.; Suñol, R.; van Beek, B.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Bruneau, C.; Vlcek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Mobility of patients is a pertinent issue on the European Union's agenda. This study aimed to estimate the volume and main diagnoses of cross-border care in eight European countries, in order to provide policy makers with background information about the nature of patient mobility in Europe. This

  18. Volume and diagnosis: an approach to cross-border care in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, P.; Sunol, R.; van Beek, B.; Lombarts, M.J.M.H.; Bruneau, C.; Vicek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Mobility of patients is a pertinent issue on the European Union's agenda. This study aimed to estimate the volume and main diagnoses of cross-border care in eight European countries, in order to provide policy makers with background information about the nature of patient mobility in

  19. Constructing regional advantage in branding the cross-border Euroregion Galicia-northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a constructing regional advantage (CRA) approach in respect of examining the potential of joint branding strategies intended to position and give visibility to cross-border regions. The CRA concept is introduced here to improve understanding about the empirical significance of a

  20. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  1. Reconsidering Privatization in Cross-Border Engagements: The Sometimes Public Nature of Private Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Privatization trends in higher education have typically been analyzed from the perspective of the institution and its relationship with the sponsoring state. The recent phenomenon of international cross-border higher education, however, represents a more complicated picture of privatization. Geographic separation from the sponsoring state is an…

  2. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  3. Spatial graduation of fuel taxes; Consequences for cross-border and domestic fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.J.; Rietveld, P.; Bruinsma, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes between various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometers driven. One possible way of dealing with this problem of low

  4. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  5. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  6. Who makes the (new) metropolis? Cross-border coalition and urban development in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, F.

    2012-01-01

    In fragmented agglomerations, urban development in peripheral areas tends to express the hegemony of the core city over its suburbs. However, this paper demonstrates that, despite deep-rooted political conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation can still take place in the context of cross-border

  7. Inter-Cultural Competence and Cross-Border Inter-firm Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies in cross-cultural management and cross-border interfirm relations have been among the dominant research themes in international business management during the last three decades. There are significant commonalities in the foundational thoughts underlying these studies and there have been...

  8. Cross-Border Cooperation with Bavaria and Saxony in the Oppinion of the Local Elites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovková, Jitka; Brož, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2005), s. 3-4 ISSN 1214-7567 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS7028301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : integration * elites * cross-border Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  9. Cross-Border Health Care in the European Union: Evaluation of Different Financing Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Walter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the financing arrangements for planned cross-border health care within the European Union. A financial arrangement is taken to provide a financial incentive but may also involve payment risks and administrative burden. For the pathways given by the Social Security Regulations (883/2004 and 987/2009 and the EU Directive 2011/24/EU, we investigate how the associated financial arrangements act on providers, patients and on publicly funded health insurance. First, the Regulations can induce cross-border health care that will increase domestic health care expenditure and may threaten national health policy by setting an incentive for patients to go abroad for health care not covered by domestic health insurance. Second, the financial arrangement of the Directive may induce cross-border health care which will lower domestic health care expenditure. However, due to considerable payment risks and administrative burden on both patients and providers, these benefits will not be reaped in full. Moreover, in the presence of national cost containment policies, the Directive may provide an incentive for cross-border health care that is too strong. Finally, due to the requirement to pay upfront, the financial arrangement also suffers from a lack of equity of access to health care provision abroad.

  10. Cross-border mobility of workers between Galicia and north of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falagán Mota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with cross-border flows of people within the Euroregion Galicia-North of Portugal, paying particular attention to those led by workers. Based on data for daily mobility between the places of residence and work (commuters, it can be defined, within this territory, the so-called Polycentric Urban Regions (PUR of Vigo and Porto. These regions should constitute significant referents of cross-border mobility, whose importance we begin to realize by estimating the movement of passengers across border crossings linking the south of Galicia and the north of Portugal. In this context, given the non-existence of official statistics, the reports prepared by the Eures Galicia/Região Norte office provide relevant information about the flow of cross-border workers in the area, which we have complemented by conducting two surveys directed, respectively, to involved workers and companies, and data from a recent study on labour mobility in the Euroregion. The evidence demonstrates the quantitative importance achieved in the territory analyzed by this interesting phenomenon of cross-border work and allows a description of its characteristics that shows the difficulties faced by the process of construction of a European labor market.

  11. Professional Development for Cross-Border Managers: New Growth Opportunities for Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalberg, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of business enterprises for professionals trained for the challenges of cross-border assignments will increase exponentially through the decade. Business schools will be hard pressed to deliver programs with the scope, scale, and effectiveness necessary to address the unique competencies required for cross-cultural understanding and…

  12. Cross-border transfer of knowledge: Cultural lessons from project GLOBE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javidan, Mansour; Stahl, Günther K.; Brodbeck, Felix; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Distant cross-border business is on the rise. It necessitates effective transfer of knowledge across geographic and cultural borders. In this article we present the key results from the GLOBE study of 62 cultures and apply them to a real-life case of a North European business school designing and

  13. Motives for Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: Some Evidence from Danish Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses two questions based on Danish firms’ practices: first, what are motives for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As)? Second, how the external and internal factors influence the firms’ decisions? According to the results of survey questionnaire and multiple-case study...

  14. Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Private Equity Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphery-Jenner, M.; Sautner, Z.; Suchard, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the role of private equity firms in cross-border mergers and acquisitions. We find that private equity-owned firms are more likely to become targets in crossborder M&A transactions. This effect is particularly strong in transactions where the target or its shareholders actively reach out

  15. The road: an ethnography of the Albanian-Greek cross-border motorway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalakoglou, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an ethnographic study of a 29-kilometer stretch of cross-border highway located in South Albania and linking the city of Gjirokasẗer with the main checkpoint on the Albanian-Greek border. The road, its politics, and its poetics constitute an ideal point of entry for an

  16. Cross-border dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Nulens, Eric; Valvatne, Havard; Sebastian, Silvie; Driessen, Christel; Craeghs, Jos; De Brauwer, Els; Heising, Bernhard; Kraat, Yvette J; Riebe, Joachim; Stals, Frans S; Trienekens, Thera A; Scheres, Jacques; Friedrich, Alexander W; van Tiel, Frank H; Beisser, Patrick S; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the

  17. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  18. Cross-Border Trade: An Analysis of Trade and Market Integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of cross-border trade and market integration reveal that inhabitants of the border areas have become economically, socially and politically integrated in spite of the conflict over the Bakassi Peninsula. Based on empirical analysis, bilateral agreements between Nigeria and Cameroon have made negligible ...

  19. Cross-Border Insolvency Law in Europe: Present Status and Future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2007 the European countries celebrated the first lustrum of the EU Insolvency Regulation (1346/2000). This article describes where Europe stands with its model which is based on well known theories of private international law for dealing with cross-border insolvencies. The EU Insolvency Regulation provides for a ...

  20. Prevention of HIV infection among migrant population groups in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.

  1. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries – a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation - as measured with a standardized acculturation scale - and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. Results The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Conclusion Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The ‘Healthy Migrant Effect’ may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and

  2. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Swinburn, Boyd; Mellor, David; Renzaho, Andre

    2013-05-10

    There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation--as measured with a standardized acculturation scale--and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination's Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The 'Healthy Migrant Effect' may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and fitness may counteract the obesogenic food

  3. Towards Cross-Border Landslide Hazard and Risk Assessment in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponaro, A.; Pilz, M.; Wieland, M.; Pittore, M.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.

    2014-12-01

    The countries of Central Asia are known to be among the most exposed in the world to landslide hazard and risk. In the past, several devastating slope failures have caused intense economic and human losses across the entire region. The large variability of local geological materials, difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally, and problems in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify landslide hazard. Moreover, due to uncontrolled urban expansion in mountainous areas, a growth in vulnerability of exposed population as well as overall risk has to be expected. In order to mitigate landslide risk, novel and strategic approaches are required mainly for enhanced understanding of causal factors, for reducing exposure to hazards, and for controlling land-use practices in a harmonized transnational way. We have already presented a regional landslide susceptibility assessment for Kyrgyzstan. First results allow for the identification of most potential landslide areas all over the country, with sufficient degree of accuracy. Based on this, we hereby propose a procedure for obtaining cross-border risk map of earthquake-induced landslides among central Asian countries, by employing statistical tools and updated input information in such remote and data-scarce regions. The method is initially applied to Kyrgyzstan where the majority of input parameters is available, and subsequently extended to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. At first, the influence of diverse potential parameters (topography, geology, tectonic lineaments) as well as seismic triggering to landslide activation is evaluated. Elements at risk are then analyzed in relation to landslide hazard, and their vulnerability is hence established. A sensitivity analysis is carried out, and results are validated to an independent dataset.

  4. The value of express delivery services for cross-border e-commerce in European Union markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFurther growth of cross-border e-commerce in the European Union markets requires improved express delivery services. The framework presented in this paper identifies relevant contextual factors that affect express delivery adoption rates in European cross-border e-commerce. This

  5. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development

  6. A Strategic Spatial Planning Approach to Cross-Border Place Branding with References to Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo; Zenker, Sebastian; Jacobsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place-branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS III Alto Minho, Cávado, Ave, Área Metropolitina do

  7. Cross-border cattle marketing in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1990: geographical patterns and government induced change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); P. Quarles van Ufford (Paul); F. Zaal (fred)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter aims to study the impact of government policies on cross-border cattle marketing in Africa. It analyses the extent to which this type of cross-border trade has been created, diverted or contracted as a result of government policies. The chapter portrays the geographical

  8. Cross-border shipment route selection utilizing analytic hierarchy process (AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeris Ammarapala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a member of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, Thailand expects a growth of cross-border trade with neighboring countries, especially the agricultural products shipment. To facilitate this, a number of strategies are set, such as the utilization of single check point, the Asian Highway (AH route development, and the truck lane initiation. However, majority of agricultural products traded through the borders are transported using the rural roads, from growing area to the factory, before continuing to the borders using different highways. It is, therefore, necessary for the Department of Rural Roads (DRR to plan for rural road improvement to accommodate the growth of the cross-border trades in the near future. This research, thus, aims to select potential rural roads to support cross-border shipment utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Seven key factors affecting rural roads selection, with references from transport and other related literatures, are extracted. They include:1 cross-border trade value, 2 distance from border to rural road, 3 agriculture and processed agriculture goods transported across the border, 4 compatibility with national strategies, 5 area characteristics around the rural road, 6 truck volume, and 7 number of rural roads in the radius of 50 kilometers from the border. Interviews are conducted with the experts based on seven key factors to collect data for the AHP analysis. The results identify the weight of each factor with an acceptable consistency ratio. It shows that the cross-border trade value is the most important factor as it achieves the highest weight. The distance from border to rural road and the compatibility with national strategies are also found crucial when making rural road selection decision. The Department of Rural Roads could use the results to select suitable roads, and plan for road improvement to support the crossborder shipment when the AEC is fully implemented.

  9. Declines in migrant shorebird populations from a winter-quarter perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert E; Kolberg, Holger; Braby, Rod; Erni, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Many long-distance migrating shorebird (i.e., sandpipers, plovers, flamingos, oystercatchers) populations are declining. Although regular shorebird monitoring programs exist worldwide, most estimates of shorebird population trends and sizes are poor or nonexistent. We built a state-space model to estimate shorebird population trends. Compared with more commonly used methods of trend estimation, state-space models are more mechanistic, allow for the separation of observation and state process, and can easily accommodate multivariate time series and nonlinear trends. We fitted the model to count data collected from 1990 to 2013 on 18 common shorebirds at the 2 largest coastal wetlands in southern Africa, Sandwich Harbour (a relatively pristine bay) and Walvis Bay (an international harbor), Namibia. Four of the 12 long-distance migrant species declined since 1990: Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres), Little Stint (Calidris minuta), Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula), and Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Populations of resident species and short-distance migrants increased or were stable. Similar patterns at a key South African wetland suggest that shorebird populations migrating to southern Africa are declining in line with the global decline, but local conditions in southern Africa's largest wetlands are not contributing to these declines. State-space models provide estimates of population levels and trends and could be used widely to improve the current state of water bird estimates. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Dream vs. reality: seven case-studies on the desirability and feasibility of cross-border hospital collaboration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita

    2014-09-01

    Despite being a niche phenomenon, cross-border health care collaboration receives a lot of attention in the EU and figures visibly on the policy agenda, in particular since the policy process which eventually led to the adoption of Directive 2011/24/EU. One of the underlying assumptions is that cross-border collaboration is desirable, providing justification to both the European Commission and to border-region stakeholders for promoting it. The purpose of this paper is to question this assumption and to examine the role of actors in pushing (or not) for cross-border collaboration. The analysis takes place in two parts. First, the EU policies to promote cross-border collaboration and the tools employed are examined, namely (a) use of European funds to sponsor concrete border-region collaboration projects, (b) use of European funds to sponsor research which gives visibility to cross-border collaboration, and (c) use of the European Commission's newly acquired legal mandate to encourage "Member States to cooperate in cross-border health care provision in border-regions" (Art. 10) and support "Member States in the development of European reference networks between health care providers and centres of expertise" (Art. 12). Second, evidence gathered in 2011-2013 from seven European border-regions on hospital cross-border collaboration is systematically reviewed to assess the reality of cross-border collaboration - can it work and when, and why do actors engage in cross-border collaboration? The preliminary findings suggest that while the EU plays a prominent role in some border-region initiatives, cross-border collaboration needs such a specific set of circumstances to work that it is questionable whether it can effectively be promoted. Moreover, local actors make use of the EU (as a source of funding, legislation or legitimisation) to serve their needs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. HIV / AIDS in China: migrant population, drug injection responsible for increased transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1998-01-01

    By 2000, China will have 1.2 million people infected with HIV and 33,000 people with AIDS. While HIV infection has been reported from almost all provinces and occupational groups in the country, HIV prevalence is highest among IV drug users in Yunnan province. The major source of infection elsewhere in China is through the receipt of tainted blood products and heterosexual intercourse. A National AIDS Committee was formed in October 1986 to advise the government on AIDS policy, and since 1990 to coordinate all AIDS prevention activities. The National Strategies Plan for AIDS/STD Prevention in China during 1996-2000 was prepared in 1995. China's in-country migrant labor population may become the most vulnerable to HIV infection. There are currently about 120 million migrant workers in China, of whom about half are registered, nonpermanent residents working in the fastest developing regions. The open nature of China's economy relative to recent past decades has made it difficult to monitor and control internal migration. Floating populations are the most difficult to reach with preventive health education and they tend to be deprived of access of health care. 61.4% of the migrant population is male and 40% are aged 20-24 years. China's traditional trade routes may be a factor in HIV infection. HIV/AIDS epidemiology, the synergy of STDs and AIDS in China, the international partnership in HIV/AIDS prevention in China, the role of international nongovernmental organizations in China, Hong Kong's contribution to AIDS prevention in China, awareness of the problems associated with HIV infection in China, and the challenges for AIDS-related work in China are discussed.

  12. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2016-01-01

    Frequent and open interaction between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs is necessary for venture capital investments to occur. Increasingly, these investments are made across jurisdictions. The vast majority of these cross-border investments are carried out in a syndicate of two or more...... VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...... examine worldwide venture capital investment flows from 2000–2012 and consider the effects of geographical, cultural, and institutional proximity as well as institutional and relational trust. We find trust to mitigate the negative effects of geographical and cultural distance, where institutional trust...

  13. Is the depressive effect of renewables on power prices contagious? A cross border econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Sebastien; Roques, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    European power markets have become more integrated and the implementation of market coupling has reinforced the efficiency of cross-border trading. This paper investigates empirically the impact of renewables growth in Germany on German and French power price volatility. We find that renewables depress power prices on average and increase volatility not only domestically but also across borders. We also leverage market resiliency data to investigate the impact of increases in interconnection capacity. We find that power price volatility would decrease in France despite some contagion effects of volatility from German renewables production. Our findings have important policy implications as they demonstrate the need to coordinate cross-border support policies for renewables in order to mitigate the impact of volatility on power prices in coupled power markets. (authors)

  14. Barrier effect and cross-border cooperation. The Sweden-Norway INTERREG–A territorial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Historic developments that occurred in the last centuries have affected the barrier effect of national borders in Europe and, consequently, the degree and the intensity of the cooperation between neighbouring countries. However, the establishment of the European Single Market, in the last three decades, has deepened the cross-border cooperation inside the EU Territory. In this respect, the INTERREG-A initiative has played a major role, since 1990. This article intends to shed some light on the progress of the cross-border cooperation in the Swedish-Norwegian border region, and the territorial effects of the INTERREG-A programme in the reduction of the barrier effect along the border in five dimensions (institutional-urban, accessibility, culture-social, environmental-heritage and economy-technology.

  15. Proposal for a model for analyzing strategies for cross-border trade union collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rubio Campos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to analyze the effectiveness of cross-border union collaboration to address the adverse effects of globalization on working conditions. The methodology used is compared analysis, with cases from North America and the European Union. In a first level of analysis, the cases were divided into four typologies and in a second level two categories were constructed, the intensity and effectiveness of the collaboration, with graduation variables within each category. The value of the study lies in the new proposed model of analysis and the number of cases reviewed, but one limitation is its exploratory nature. It was found that cross-border union collaboration result an effective strategy to address the adverse effects of globalization on labor conditions, to varying degrees depending on institutionalization and frequency of collaboration.

  16. South-South cross-border patient travel to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanda, Abel; Crush, Jonathan

    2017-12-13

    This paper explores intra-regional South-South cross-border patient travel within the context of Southern Africa. South Africa, in particular, has been widely touted as one of the emerging destinations of high-end patients from the Global North alongside other destinations such as Brazil, India, Costa Rica and Thailand. Using South Africa as a case study, the paper demonstrates that South-South cross-border patient travel is far more significant than North-South patient travel both in numerical and financial terms. Every year, thousands of patients from neighbouring countries travel to South Africa in search of medical treatment for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. Despite its size and importance, the South-South flow of patients in Southern Africa is not fully understood and requires further scholarly research.

  17. Export experience and key success factors in cross-border trade: Evidence from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Dhliwayo

    2017-02-01

    Contribution/value-add: Few studies on cross border trading have been carried out in the Southern African Development Community region. The key success factors and the constraints in this type of trade had not been adequately explored. The economic contribution of CBT, which usually goes unnoticed, was highlighted. Interventions to appropriately address the challenges faced, such as trading legitimacy and border harassment, were suggested.

  18. Cross-border transmission capacity allocation mechanisms in South East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    South East Europe (SEE) is moving rapidly toward the creation of a regional electricity market and wholesale electricity market/power exchange that will improve competitive performance and increase liquidity and reliability. We describe the current applied and future possible congestion management methods in Europe including the SEE region. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a regional electricity and cross-border trade within the region and neighboring countries, and concludes with a brief discussion of policy issues. (author)

  19. Cross-Border Region Králíky - Międzylesie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Cetkovský, Stanislav; Martinát, Stanislav; Nosková, Helena; Zapletalová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2007), s. 40-54 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518; CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : cross-border region * periphery * regional development * Králíky * Międzylesie Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  20. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.R.; Dooley, J.J.; Bradley, D.J.

    1998-02-01

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  1. Medical sociology as a heuristic instrument for medical tourism and cross-border healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we establish a relationship between medical sociology and the study of medical tourism and cross-border healthcare by introducing Ronald Andersen’s behavioral model of healthcare use, and linking this model to the recent empirical study of Kovacs et al. on patients travelling to Hungary for orthopedic treatment. Finally, we plead for more measurement in the field of patient mobility. PMID:25844386

  2. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  3. The Great Cross-Border Bank Deleveraging; Supply Constraints and Intra-Group Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio M Cerutti; Stijn Claessens

    2014-01-01

    International banks greatly reduced their direct cross-border and local affiliates’ lending as the global financial crisis strained balance sheets, lowered borrower demand, and changed government policies. Using bilateral, lender-borrower countrydata and controlling for credit demand, we show that reductions largely varied in line with markets’ prior assessments of banks’ vulnerabilities, with banks’ financial statement variables and lender-borrower country characteristics playing minor roles...

  4. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  5. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  6. Multilatinas and Value Creation from Cross-Border Acquisitions: An Event Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Feldmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The central proposition of this paper is to assess the performance of cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas. Applying the event study method to a sample of 607 announcements of acquisitions during the period 1989-2011 by 182 Multilatinas from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, we conclude that: (a on average, these announcements have a neutral impact on the short-term returns to acquiring companies’ shareholders; (b cross-sectional analysis reveals that relative size of the deals have anegative and significant effect on investors’ reactions and; (c unlike the institutional distance between home and host countries, cultural distance matters, since it has a negative and significant effect on the perceptions that investors have regarding the expected economic impact of acquirers’ cross-border merger and acquisition(M&A decisions. Inasmuch as the market rationality assumption that underlies the event study method has been questioned, future research lines are proposed in order to search for alternative long-term performance constructs concerning M&A processes in general that can: (a shed light on the reality of value creation (and destruction from cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas; and (b contribute to strategy, international business and M&A theories and practice.

  7. Cross-border-assisted reproduction: a qualitative account of UK travellers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine; Blyth, Eric; Norton, Wendy; Pacey, Allan; Rapport, Frances

    2016-06-01

    Surveys on patients' experiences of cross-border fertility treatment have reported a range of positive and challenging features. However, the number of such studies is limited, and there is no detailed qualitative account of the experiences of UK patients who travel overseas for fertility treatment. The present study used a cross-sectional, qualitative design and in-depth interviews. Fifty-one participants (41 women and 10 men, representing 41 treatment 'cases') participated in semi-structured interviews. The experiences reported were broadly positive with a large proportion of participants (39 cases, 95%) citing a favourable overall experience with only two cases (5%) reporting a more negative experience. Thematic analysis revealed 6 major categories and 20 sub-categories, which described the positive and challenging aspects of cross-border fertility travel. The positive aspects were represented by the categories: 'access', 'control' and 'care and respect'. The more challenging aspects were categorized as 'logistics and coordination of care', 'uncertainty' and 'cultural dissonance'. The study confirms findings from others that despite some challenges, there is a relatively high level of patient satisfaction with cross-border treatment with participants able to extend the boundaries of their fertility-seeking trajectories and in some cases, regain a sense of control over their treatment.

  8. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  9. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  10. Paediatric tuberculosis in Queensland, Australia: overrepresentation of cross-border and Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, E J; Coulter, C; Simpson, G; Clark, J; Nourse, C

    2017-03-01

    Queensland, Australia. Understanding paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is important, as children with TB typically reflect recent community transmission. Children pose unique diagnostic challenges and are at risk of developing severe disseminated infection. To describe the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of children with TB disease in Queensland. This is a retrospective case series of children diagnosed with TB aged 0-16 years notified in 2005-2014. Data collected in the Queensland Notifiable Conditions System were extracted and analysed. Of 127 children diagnosed with TB, 16 were Australian-born (including 12 Indigenous Queenslanders), 41 were overseas-born permanent and temporary residents and 70 were cross-border Papua New Guinea (PNG) children; 88 children had pulmonary disease (with/without other sites) and 39 had extra-pulmonary disease only, with lymph node TB the predominant extra-pulmonary site; 70.1% of children had laboratory confirmation; and 14 cross-border children had multidrug-resistant TB. Treatment outcomes among children residing in Australia were good (100% among Australian-born and 97.2% among permanent and temporary residents), but they were less favourable among PNG children diagnosed in the Torres Strait Protected Zone (76.6%). Queensland has unique challenges in TB control, with a high proportion of cross-border diagnoses and over-representation of Indigenous children. Vigilance is needed given the wide spectrum of clinical presentation, particularly in high-risk communities.

  11. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  12. Psychopathology in a migrant population visiting a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navkiran S Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration is a risk factor for psychosis in international migrants. Objectives: We compared the psychiatric morbidity in first and second generation interstate migrants in India. Methods: Psychiatric morbidity was assessed in 18-64-year-old first and second generation migrants of both the gender using Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview. Total 70 subjects were included in the study. Males and females of both the generation compared. Results: Mood disorders are found to be most common disorder in second generation migrants. Where females of second generation migrants have a major depressive episode with melancholic features, as compared to males who have manic episode significantly higher in second generation migrants. Conclusion: Migration is a risk factor for mood disorders especially in second generation migrants. As adversity of migration, discrimination, and acculturation faced from birth and early life leads to higher rates of psychiatry morbidity in second generation migrants.

  13. Cross-border Childbirth Between Mainland China and Hong Kong: Social Pressures and Policy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Yam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using secondary data analysis, this paper examines the societal impact of mainland Chinese expectant mothers who gave birth in Hong Kong (HK. In 2009, 45.4% of live births were born to this group of women, compared to 10.2% in 1995. These women agreed unanimously that giving birth in HK would secure the future of their child with permanent residency, access to free education, subsidised health care, social welfare benefits and a better standard of living. For parents who choose to have more than one child, cross-border birthing can provide an opportunity to bypass China’s one-child policy. This rising trend has put heavy pressure on the already stretched obstetric services at the expense of local women. The Hospital Authority (HA responsible for public hospitals acknowledged that in the 2004-5 financial year, 1 670 mainland women failed to pay HK$12.64 million (USD1.63m in hospital bills; and in 2005-6, 2 138 women defaulted HK$28.58m (USD3.68m. In response to protests at this situation and the lack of an effective policy, HA introduced an obstetric package in February 2007. Non-local expectant mothers must now pay HK$39 000 (USD5 000 in advance to cover one antenatal visit, delivery service and delivery-related hospitalisation for three days; non-compliant women would be charged HK$48 000 (USD6 154. Mainland women who are over 28 weeks’ gestation are now denied entry at immigration checkpoint if they do not have a prior booking. Between February and December 2007, an HA audit showed a 229% increase in booking for public hospitals alone and secured HK$257.4m (USD33m in fees. Non-compliant cases and last-minute hospital admissions were significantly reduced. In addition to the high bill settlement rate, this policy has provided a steady workload and training opportunities for many health care providers. If these new citizens remain in HK, they may contribute to the prosperity as well as alleviating the ageing population of HK.

  14. Attitudes towards cross-border reproductive care among infertile Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri; Shimazono, Yosuke; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-01

    The attitudes towards cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) held by infertile Japanese patients have not been explored. The objective of the present study was to examine interest levels, preferred destinations, motivations, and sources of information related to CBRC. Our findings provide a general outline of CBRC and the future of reproduction and assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Japan. The study used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 2,007 infertile Japanese patients from 65 accredited ART clinics in Japan (response rate, 27.4 %) via anonymous questionnaires. Most of the infertile Japanese patients who responded denied using CBRC. However, by group, 171 (8.5 %) patients in non-donor in vitro fertilization, 150 (7.5 %) in egg donation, 145 (7.2 %) in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, and 129 (6.4 %) in surrogacy said that, depending on the situation, they might travel abroad in the future. Older respondents were more likely to express an intention to travel overseas for egg donation in the future. The most popular destination for CBRC was the United States. Popular reasons for interest in CBRC among those considering or planning using this approach to third-party reproduction were that egg donation or surrogacy was unavailable or that obtaining ethical approval takes too long in Japan, whereas these processes are legal and affordable overseas. However, high cost was the most common reason for hesitancy regarding CBRC. Among the participants who were considering or planning to travel abroad for this purpose, TV, medical agencies, print media, and message boards on websites were popular sources of information, whereas doctors, friends, and patient self-help groups were not. Although CBRC among infertile Japanese patients is not at present common, the demand for and use of this approach may increase in the future in the context of the increasingly aging population. Lack of regulation and unavailability of third-party reproduction is a

  15. Cross-border reproductive care among French patients: experiences in Greece, Spain and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozée Gomez, Virginie; de La Rochebrochard, Elise

    2013-11-01

    What are the characteristics, motivation and experience of French patients seeking cross-border reproductive care (CBRC)? French patients seeking CBRC are same-sex couples, single women who are not eligible for assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) in France and heterosexual couples seeking oocyte donation due to extremely limited access to this technique in France, while their choice of Greece as a destination is influenced by financial issues. CBRC is a new, increasing, complex and poorly understood phenomenon. A few studies have investigated UK, German or Italian CBRC patients, but none have specifically investigated French patients although France is one of the top four countries of origin of CBRC patients in Europe. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010-2012 in three ART centres in Greece, Belgium and Spain in order to investigate French patients treated in these centres. Recruitment was prospective in Greece and Belgium and retrospective in Spain. The overall response rate was 68%, with 128 French patients participating. French patients filled in a questionnaire. Information was collected on their socio-economic characteristics and their search for ART treatment in France and in other countries. In the Belgian centre, 89% of French patients used sperm donation whereas oocyte donation was used by 100% of patients in the Greek centre and 74% of patients in the Spanish centre. The majority (94%) of French patients using sperm donation in Belgium were not legally eligible for access to ART in France as they were same-sex couples or single women, and the main criterion of choice of centre was its geographical proximity (71%). Most of the French patients using oocyte donation in Greece and Spain fulfilled criteria for fully reimbursed oocyte donation treatment in France as they were heterosexual couples (99%) with the woman aged France. Half of French CBRC patients using oocyte donation in Spain had a low/intermediate occupational level (such as

  16. The ethnic gap in mental health: A population-based study of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Shadia; Suvisaari, Jaana; Koskinen, Seppo; Koponen, Päivikki; Mölsä, Mulki; Lehtisalo, Riikka; Schubert, Carla; Pakaslahti, Antti; Castaneda, Anu Emilia

    2016-05-01

    Research demonstrates that migrants are more vulnerable to poor mental health than general populations, but population-based studies with distinct migrant groups are scarce. We aim to (1) assess the prevalence of mental health symptoms in Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in Finland; (2) compare the prevalence of mental health symptoms in these migrant groups to the Finnish population; (3) determine which socio-demographic factors are associated with mental health symptoms. We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and Health 2011 Survey. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), and 1.75 was used as cut-off for clinically significant symptoms. Somatization was measured using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) somatization scale. The age-adjusted prevalence of mental health symptoms in the studied groups was calculated by gender using predicted margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which socio-demographic factors are associated with mental health symptoms in the studied population groups. The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was higher in Russian women (24%) and Kurdish men (23%) and women (49%) than in the Finnish population (9-10%). These differences were statistically significant (pmigration-related factors (e.g. poor language proficiency and short time since migration) significantly increased the odds for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Mental health symptoms are highly prevalent particularly in Kurdish migrants in Finland. Holistic interventions and co-operation between integration and mental health services are acutely needed. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. The value of express delivery services for cross-border e-commerce in European Union markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Thai Young; Dekker, Rommert; Heij, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFurther growth of cross-border e-commerce in the European Union markets requires improved express delivery services. The framework presented in this paper identifies relevant contextual factors that affect express delivery adoption rates in European cross-border e-commerce. This framework leads to a set of hypotheses, both on the effects of express deliveries on financial performance indicators (order incidence, order size, and repurchase rate) and on the factors that drive demand...

  18. Interpretation and qualification of short-term employment in cross-border situation at Article 15(2)OECD MC

    OpenAIRE

    Asllani, Shkumbin

    2017-01-01

    The free movement of people and capital has enabled individuals and businesses to engage in cross-border transactions. Global economy and the competitiveness between international groups have acknowledged the necessity for a dynamic human workforce and openness of the labour market for mobility of workers within affiliated companies and different multinational enterprises. Cross-border short-term employment[1] has been crucial part of modern development of the international business.[2]  Mobi...

  19. Risk Factors and Current Health-Seeking Patterns of Migrants in Northeastern Mexico: Healthcare Needs for a Socially Vulnerable Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesslé, Philippe; González-Salazar, Francisco; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Sánchez-González, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    This study identified risk factors for health and access to healthcare services of migrants during their journey across Mexico to the United States. Data were collected in shelters located in Monterrey, the largest city of northeastern Mexico, through a basic clinical examination and a survey completed by 75 migrants; 92% of them were undocumented Central Americans. During their transit, they are at a high risk of contracting, developing, and transmitting diseases. The need of working to survive affects health-seeking behavior and a constant fear of being traced keeps migrants away from public health services, which delays diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Negligent lifestyles, such as smoking, drinking (31.8% of men and 11.1% of women), and drug abuse (13% of men and 11% of women), were found. Regarding tuberculosis (TB), undocumented migrants are usually not screened, even though they come from countries with a high TB burden. Besides, they might be overexposed to TB because of their living conditions in overcrowded places with deficient hygiene, protection, and malnutrition (54.7% of the sample). Possible comorbidities like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS; 4%) and diabetes (2.7%, but probably under-diagnosed) were referred. Migrants have little TB knowledge, which is independent of their level of education or a previous experience of deportation. About one-third of the migrants were totally unfamiliar with TB-related symptoms, while 36% had correct knowledge of basic TB symptoms. We conclude that a shortage of information on the highly vulnerable migratory population combined with a lack of social support and health education among migrants may play a significant role in the spread of communicable diseases. We recommend that health authorities address this urgent, binational, public health concern in order to prevent outbreaks of emerging infections.

  20. Risk factors and current health seeking patterns of migrants in northeastern Mexico: healthcare needs for a socially vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eStoesslé

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identified risk factors for health and access to healthcare services of migrants during their journey across Mexico to the United States. Data were collected in shelters located in Monterrey, the largest city of northeastern Mexico, through a basic clinical examination and a survey completed by 75 migrants; 92% of them were undocumented Central Americans. During their transit, they are at a high risk of contracting, developing, and transmitting diseases. The need of working to survive affects health-seeking behavior and a constant fear of being traced keeps migrants away from public health services, which delays diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Negligent lifestyles, such as smoking, drinking (31.8% of men and 11.1% of women, and drug abuse (13% of men and 11% of women, were found. Regarding tuberculosis (TB, undocumented migrants are usually not screened, even though they come from countries with a high TB burden. Besides, they might be overexposed to TB because of their living conditions in overcrowded places with deficient hygiene, protection, and malnutrition (54.7% of the sample. Possible comorbidities like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS; 4% and diabetes (2.7%, but probably under-diagnosed were referred. Migrants have little TB knowledge, which is independent of their level of education or a previous experience of deportation. About one-third of the migrants were totally unfamiliar with TB-related symptoms, while 36% had correct knowledge of basic TB symptoms. We conclude that a shortage of information on the highly vulnerable migratory population combined with a lack of social support and health education among migrants may play a significant role in the spread of communicable diseases. We recommend that health authorities address this urgent, binational, public health concern, in order to prevent outbreaks of emerging infections.

  1. Smart border initiative: a Franco-German cross-border energy optimisation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Integrated and optimised local energy systems will play a key role in achieving the energy transition objectives set by France and Germany, in line with the Energy Union's goals, and contribute to ensuring a secure, affordable and climate-friendly energy supply in the EU. In order to capitalise on the French and German expertise and experiences in developing such systems and to continue strengthening the cross-border cooperation towards a fully integrated European energy market, both Governments have decided to launch a common initiative to identify and structure a cross-border energy optimisation project. Tilia and Dena have undertaken this mission to jointly develop the Smart Border Initiative (SBI). The SBI will, on the one hand, connect policies designed by France and Germany in order to support their cities and territories in their energy transition strategies and European market integration. It is currently a paradox that, though more balanced and resilient energy systems build up, bottom-up, at the local level, borders remain an obstacle to this local integration, in spite of the numerous complementarities observed in cross-border regions, and of their specific needs, in terms of smart mobility for example. The SBI project aims at enabling European neighbouring regions separated by a border to jointly build up optimised local energy systems, and jointly develop their local economies following an integrated, sustainable and low-carbon model. On the other hand, this showcase project will initiate a new stage in the EU electricity market integration, by completing high voltage interconnections with local, low voltage integration at DSO level, opening new optimisation possibilities in managing the electricity balance, and enabling DSOs to jointly overcome some of the current challenges, notably the increased share of renewable energy (RE) and ensuring Europe's security of supply

  2. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy systems that represent Northern and Southern Europe. Both systems go through three developmental steps that increase the cross-sector interconnectivity. At each developmental step an increasing level of transmission capacities is examined to identify the benefits of cross-border interconnectivity. The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have to be clarified. The first part defines the approach and the second is the construction of the two archetypes. - Highlights: • A method to investigate system integration and system interconnection is suggested. • The implementation is investigated across a Northern and Southern energy system. • The study identifies benefits of system integration and system interconnection. • The performance of the energy system benefits most from system integration.

  3. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time.A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries.By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  4. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  5. Cross Border Business Cycle Impacts on the El Paso Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Kincal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is comparatively little empirical evidence regarding the impacts of cross border business cycle fluctuations on metropolitan housing markets located near international boundaries. This study examines the impacts of economic conditions in Mexico on sales of existing single–family houses in El Paso, Texas. Anecdotal evidence suggests that these impacts are fairly notable. Annual frequency data from the University of Texas at El Paso Border Region Modeling Project are used to test this possibility. Results indicate that solid empirical evidence of such a linkage is elusive.

  6. Motivations, Valuation, and Performance Assessment in Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...... the practitioners’ CBM&A practice, performance, and opinions using an online survey, we aim to improve and integrate understanding of these topics, as well as identify the research gaps. Based on survey evidence, we obtained some unexpected findings, and a couple of conclusions have been drawn in the end. Meanwhile...

  7. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    regions that plan for high penetration of intermittent renewables. Extreme intermittency in the nature of wind power imposes elevated risk levels to power system operation. This every day challenge of wind dominant power systems necessitate the crucial role of operating reserves. In this paper, we propose...... benefit of reserve provision provided by cross border interconnections. The focus here will be on reserve services from abundant hydropower resource in Norway, taking advantage of fast VSC-based HVDC interconnection that is expected to be commissioned in immediate coming years....

  8. FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik

    FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...... on international level. The project started in late 2009 with a runtime of 3 years. The FURGY project pursues the goal to strengthen this existing location advantage by a vital cross-border network. In the sector of renewable energy surveys, interdisciplinary networks and active information policies shall optimize...

  9. LINGUOCULTURAL MONITORING OF THE CROSS-BORDER REGION: ALTAI VIEWED BY CHINESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrieva, L.M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of linguocultural monitoring of the cross-border region. The studied group consists of Chinese students who receive education in the institutions of higher education in Barnaul. The reactions of the students to the stimulus-words related to the Altai realia are studied in the investigation. The results of the investigation show that most associations are those with positive connotation which can be explained by the desire of the students to appeal to the interlocutor and establish contacts. The results of the associative experiment once again prove the necessity of such investigations for intercultural communication.

  10. Modelled surface ozone over southern africa during the cross border air pollution impact assessment project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available over southern Africa during the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact Assessment Project M. Zunckel a,*, A. Koosailee a,f, G. Yarwood b, G. Maure c, K. Venjonoka d, A.M. van Tienhoven a, L. Otter e a CSIR Environmentek, P.O. Box 17001, Congella 4013, Durban... the biogenic and anthropogenic emissions data. References Annegarn, H.J., Turner, C.R., Helas, G., Tosen, G.R., Rorich, R.P., 1996. Gaseous pollutants. In: Held, G., Gore, B.J., Surridge, A.D., Tosen, G.R., Turner, C.R., Walmsley, R.D. (Eds.), Air Pollution...

  11. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöber, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region bui...... a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building...

  12. The financial implications of certain types of cross-border pollution: The polluter-pays principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Favorable Paris Convention regulations: absolute liability, exclusive liability, channeling of liability to the operator in case of nuclear damage, financial security, limited maximum liability, single legal forum, ten-year time limit. Difficulties of application for certain types of cross-border pollution not covered by the Paris Convention: so-called orphan sources (stolen, lost, or abandoned sealed sources or confiscated contaminated metallurgical scrap). Benefits of the polluter-pays principle: identification of the polluter, identification of the holder of the polluted materials, responsible parties held accountable, financial reparations. Analysis of the polluter-pays principle already recognized in numerous international texts on environmental law. (author)

  13. Foreign currency-related translation complexities in cross-border healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Rodrigues, Jean M

    2009-01-01

    International cross-border private hospital chains need to apply the standards for foreign currency translation in order to consolidate the balance sheet and income statements. This not only exposes such chains to exchange rate fluctuations in different ways, but also creates added requirements for enterprise-level IT systems especially when they produce parameters which are used to measure the financial and operational performance of the foreign subsidiary or the parent hospital. Such systems would need to come to terms with the complexities involved in such currency-related translations in order to provide the correct data for performance benchmarking.

  14. Talents, creativity and innovation in Austria and the Czech Republic: a cross-border empirical investigation:

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenstorfer, Barbara; Nový, Jan; Peherstorfer, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive cross-border empirical investigation has been carried out in the framework of an intercultural European Union Project (The Czech Republic/Austria) in the border regions of South Bohemia and NorthernAustria. The aimwas to gain knowledge in terms of the statusquo of creativity and innovation, as well as the situation and requirements in terms of working and living in the region. Thereby, emphasis is placed on the needs and requirements of young people (talents) in order to see w...

  15. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  16. Winter rainfall predicts phenology in widely separated populations of a migrant songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Ann E; Marra, Peter P; Hannon, Susan J; Studds, Colin E; Ratcliffe, Laurene M

    2013-06-01

    Climate change is affecting behaviour and phenology in many animals. In migratory birds, weather patterns both at breeding and at non-breeding sites can influence the timing of spring migration and breeding. However, variation in responses to weather across a species range has rarely been studied, particularly among populations that may winter in different locations. We used prior knowledge of migratory connectivity to test the influence of weather from predicted non-breeding sites on bird phenology in two breeding populations of a long-distance migratory bird species separated by 3,000 km. We found that winter rainfall showed similar associations with arrival and egg-laying dates in separate breeding populations on an east-west axis: greater rainfall in Jamaica and eastern Mexico was generally associated with advanced American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) phenology in Ontario and Alberta, respectively. In Ontario, these patterns of response could largely be explained by changes in the behaviour of individual birds, i.e., phenotypic plasticity. By explicitly incorporating migratory connectivity into responses to climate, our data suggest that widely separated breeding populations can show independent and geographically specific associations with changing weather conditions. The tendency of individuals to delay migration and breeding following dry winters could result in population declines due to predicted drying trends in tropical areas and the tight linkage between early arrival/breeding and reproductive success in long-distance migrants.

  17. Communication and cultural interaction in health promotion strategies to migrant populations in Italy: the cross-cultural phone counselling experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglieri, Filippo Maria; Colucci, Anna; Barbina, Donatella; Fanales-Belasio, Emanuele; Luzi, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years migration processes have progressively increased worldwide and in Italy about 5 millions of residing migrants are estimated. To meet health needs of these new residents, effective relational and communication tools, which allow a reciprocal intercultural interaction within health care structures, are therefore necessary. This article faces the main features of the relational-communication processes associated with health promotion and care in the migrant population in Italy to the aim of identifying the key and critical points within the interaction between different cultures, focusing on the role of specific professional figures, including cultural mediators and health educators. Within the activity of HIV phone counselling operated by Psycho-sociobehavioural, Communication and Training Operating Unit of National Institute of Health in Italy, an intercultural approach was successfully experienced in a project targeted to migrants (2007-2008). Specifically, the presence of cultural mediators answering in the languages of main migrants' groups allowed the increase of calls from migrant people and of the information provided.

  18. [Fruit and vegetables intake among the Chinese migrant population aged 18 to 59 years old in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Linhong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Li, Yichong; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To describe the intake of fruit and vegetables among employed migrant population aged 18 to 59 year-olds in China. Data from the Migrant Population Survey related to China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that conducted in 170 counties/districts in 31 provinces, 2012, was used. Information on non-communicable diseases and related risk factors among migrant population were collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview, physical measurement and lab tests. A total of 48 704 subjects aged 18 to 59 years old were included in our study. Sample was standardized by age and sex. Information on average daily fruit and vegetables intake, prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake, grouped by sex, age, industries, and education level were analyzed. The average daily intakes of vegetables and fruits were 353.7 (95%CI:351.3-356.2) g and 125.1 (95%CI:123.4-126.9) g respectively, among the employed migrant population aged 18-59 years old in China. Prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake was 44.1% (95% CI:43.5%-44.6% ) among employed migrant population, 46.2% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.0%)for males and 41.2% (95% CI:40.3%-42.0%)for females (χ(2) = 82.19, P fruit and vegetables intake was the highest among people working in accommodation and restaurants (46.2%, 95%CI:45.0%-47.3%) while the lowest seen among those working in social services (42.5%, 95%CI:41.4%-43.7%,χ(2) = 15.81, P fruit and vegetables intake showed a decrease along with the increase of education levels (χ(2) = 22.29, P fruit and vegetables intake. Being male and with low education level were risk factors linked with the higher prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake.

  19. Large landslides in the Pyrenees: preliminary tasks carried out for a harmonized cross-border risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José; Grandjean, Gilles; Copons, Ramon; Vaunat, Jean; Buxó, Pere; Colas, Bastien; Darrozes, José; Gasc, Muriel; Guinau, Marta; Gutiérrez, Francisco; García, Juan Carlos; Virely, Didier; Crosetto, Michele; Mas, Raül

    2017-04-01

    Large landslides are recognised as one of the main erosional agents in mountain ranges, having a significant influence on landscape evolution. However, few efforts have been carried out to assess their geomorphological impact from a regional perspective. Regional-scale investigations are also necessary for the reliable evaluation of the associated risks (i.e. for land-use planning). Large landslides are common in the Pyrenees but: 1) their geographic distribution on a regional scale is not well known; 2) their geological and geomorphological controlling factors have been only studied preliminarily; and 3) their state of activity and stability conditions are unknown for most of the cases. Regional analyses of large landslides, as those carried out by Crosta et al. (2013) in the Alps, are rare worldwide. Jarman et al. (2014) conducted a very preliminary analysis in a sector of the Pyrenees. The construction of a cartographic inventory constitutes the basics for such type of studies, which are typically hindered by the lack of cross-border landslide data bases and methodologies. The aim of this contribution is to present the preliminary works carried out for constructing a harmonized inventory of large landslides in the Pyrenees, involving for the first time both sides of the cordillera and the main groups working in landslide risk in France, Spain and Andorra. Methods used for landslide hazard and risk analysis have been compiled and compared, showing a significant divergence, even as regards the terminology. A preliminary cross-border inventory sheet on risk of large landslides has been prepared. It includes specific fields for the assessment of landslide activity (by using complimentary methods such as morpho-stratigraphy, morphometric analysis and remote techniques) and indirect potential costs (that typically overcome direct ones), which usually are neglected in the existing data bases. Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. and Agliardi, F., 2013. Deep seated gravitational

  20. A simulation approach to reconciling customs and trade risk associated with cross-border freight movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Alwyn J.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa critically depends on increased exports to enable economic growth and job creation. Logistical inefficiencies, however, are hampering exports, with cross-border freight delays a key contributor that adds cost and unpredictability to the supply chain, making South Africa an unattractive participant in global just-in-time value chains. The detention of cargo consignments at border posts is intended to reduce the risk of customs duties not being paid and to prevent the smuggling of illegal contraband. These risks must be weighed against the risk to trade caused by unpredictable time delays, and the resulting harmful impact on the economy. The increased use of ICT technologies has been proposed to enable a more attractive compromise between customs and trade risks. This study investigates the impact of the proposed new measures, including the use of technology, on the efficiency of cross-border freight movements. The research approach will combine the analysis of historical electronic transaction data exchanged between customs and consignors, with the simulation of different scenarios for the ICT support of customs processes. The expected impact of the proposed measures on exports within and from the SADC region, and the direct impact on corridor users, are estimated and compared against the estimated cost of the proposed measures. It is shown that implementing the proposed improvements should represent an attractive investment for the regional economy.

  1. Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing: Concept, Structure and Salient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharullizuannizam Salehuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing (“Product” is the product to enable the Bank to undertake project and contract cross-border financing activities or other identified business ventures on “pure” Joint Venture basis, using the underlying Islamic financing contract of Musharakah. Musharakah concept has a low market share of less than 2.5% in the overall existing Islamic financing products in Malaysia. This product encourages mobilization of idle capital / cash entities and thus provides a basis for economic cooperation between these organizations in the society. The product also is expected to inject greater prosper to the Bank’s overall performance and ultimately able to assist small time landowners in a big way through business risk sharing. Musharakah provides an alternative investment, which will cater for Islamic investors and partners, especially from GCC, who may have been reluctant to invest in conventional or current debt-based financing scheme. With Musharakah concept, the most preferred and globally accepted Islamic financing, this can attract these investors to participate on similar risk-sharing arrangements through the creation of Specific Investment Account (SIA or Islamic Syndication to back financing made into the Joint Venture.

  2. Scoping paper on new CDM baseline methodology for cross-border power trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poeyry has been sub-contracted by Carbon Limits, under the African Development Bank CDM Support Programme, to prepare a new CDM baseline methodology for cross border trade, based on a transmission line from Ethiopia to Kenya. The first step in that process is to review the response of the UNFCCC, particularly the Methodologies Panel ('Meth Panel') of the CDM Executive Board, to the various proposals on cross-border trade and interconnection of grids. This report reviews the Methodology Panel and Executive Board decisions on 4 requests for revisions of ACM2 'Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources', and 5 proposed new baseline methodologies (NM255, NM269, NM272, NM318, NM342), all of which were rejected. We analyse the reasons the methodologies were rejected, and whether the proposed draft Approved Methodology (AM) that the Methodology Panel created in response to NM269 and NM272 is a suitable basis for a new methodology proposal.(auth)

  3. Particle Swarm Optimization with Power-Law Parameter Based on the Cross-Border Reset Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, H.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of traditional particle swarm optimization, this paper introduces the principle of Levy flight and cross-border reset mechanism. In the proposed particle swarm optimization, the dynamic variation of parameters meets the power-law distribution and the pattern of particles transition conforms to the Levy flight in the process of algorithm optimization. It means the particles make long distance movements in the search space with a small probability and make short distance movements with a large probability. Therefore, the particles can jump out of local optimum more easily and coordinate the global search and local search of particle swarm optimization. This paper also designs the cross-border reset mechanism to make particles regain optimization ability when stranding on the border of search space after a long distance movement. The simulation results demonstrate the proposed algorithms are easier to jump out of local optimum and have higher accuracy when compared with the existing similar algorithms based on benchmark test functions and handwriting character recognition system.

  4. The value of information in explicit cross-border capacity auction regimes in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Jan; Viehmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We study two electricity markets connected by a fixed amount of cross-border capacity. The total amount of capacity is known to all electricity traders and allocated via an auction. The capacity allocated to each bidder in the auction remains private information. We assume that traders are faced with a demand function reflecting the relationship between electricity transmitted between the markets and the spot price difference. Therefore, traders act like Bayesian–Cournot oligopolists in exercising their transmission rights when presented with incomplete information about the competitors’ capacities. Our analysis breaks down the welfare effect into three different components: Cournot behavior, capacity constraints, and incomplete information. We find that social welfare increases with the level of information with which traders are endowed. - Highlights: • We regard the utilization of explicitly auctioned cross-border capacities in electricity markets as a Bayesian Cournot game. • We analyze social welfare and find three forces diminishing it, (1) firms play a cournot game, (2) the presence of capacity constraints, (3) incomplete information. • We derive information regimes from “real world” examples and analyze their effect on social welfare

  5. Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on MESP Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Schenone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy, which transcends boundaries or governments and fosters a common effort for sustainability through networking. The European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI aims at reinforcing cooperation between the European Union (EU and partner countries’ regions placed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. To this extent, MESP (Managing the Environmental Sustainability of Ports for a durable development can be considered as a typical cross border cooperation project, willing to create a sustainable environmental management of port in northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean basin. This has been achieved through the development of specific guidelines towards environmental sustainability and the collection of common tools, methodologies, good practices and innovations focused on pollution reduction that can be replicated in Mediterranean ports and further. This was possible through the creation of a strong cooperation network and long-lasting collaborations among partners and stakeholders such as harbour cities, port authorities, universities, research centres and scientific skills.

  6. Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions in China: A Test of the Free Cash Flow Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates whether Chinese cross-border investments have positive impact onshareholders wealth and whether the amount of bidders’ free cash flow influences the shareholderreturns resulted from the acquisitions. The sample is based on 77 top Chinese cross-border investmentsduring the years 2005-2009 with each deal value of minimum US$100 million. The assessmentsof acquisition abnormal returns are based on the event study methodology (Brown & Warner, 1985.Cross-sectional regression analysis is used to determine the bidding firms factors which significantlyaffect the returns. Factors are examined using OLS with White’s heteroscedasticity-corrected standarderrors, since the assumption of homoscedasticity is likely to be violated. The study proves Chinesecross- border acquisitions result in positive abnormal returns which is consistent with synergyhypothesis. The amount of bidders’ free cash flow is also found to be marginally but positively associatedwith shareholders return which is consistent with Myers and Majluf’s pecking order hypothesisbut unsupportive of Jensen’s free cash flow hypothesis.

  7. Supply chain cost improvement opportunities through streamlining cross-border operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Havenga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cross-Border Road Transport Agency (CBRTA in South Africa aims to encourage and facilitate trade between South Africa and its neighbouring countries. The CBRTA sponsored a study by Stellenbosch University (SU to determine the logistics cost impact of cross-border delays between South Africa and its major neighbouring trading partners, and prioritise opportunities for improvement. SU is the proprietor of both a comprehensive freight demand model and a logistics cost model for South Africa, which enable extractions and extensions of freight flows and related costs for specific purposes. Through the application of these models, the following information is identified and presented in this paper: South Africa’s most important border posts (based on traffic flows; a product profile for imports and exports through these border posts; the modal split (road and rail; the annual logistics costs incurred on the corridors feeding the border posts, as well as the additional costs incurred due to border delays. The research has proved that the streamlining of border-post operations that take a total supply chain view (i.e. of both border operations and those that could be moved from the border is beneficial.

  8. Challenges in the management of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, B; López-Vélez, R

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America. Due to migration the infection has crossed borders and it is estimated that 68,000-120,000 people with Chagas disease are currently living in Europe and 30% of them may develop visceral involvement. However, up to 90% of Chagas disease cases in Europe remain undiagnosed. The challenges which have to be overcome in Chagas disease in non-endemic countries are focused on related downing barriers to health care access, and related to screening, diagnostic tools and therapeutic management. The aim of this review is to highlight how healthcare management for Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe may be improved. Medical literature was searched using PubMed. No limits were placed with respect to the language or date of publication although most of the articles selected were articles published in the last five years. Chosen search terms were "Chagas disease" AND ("migrants" OR "screening" OR "transmission" OR "treatment"; OR "knowledge" OR "non-endemic countries"); migrants AND ("Public health" OR "Health Service Accessibility" OR "Delivery of Health care"); and "Congenital Chagas disease". Healthcare management of migrant populations with Chagas disease in Europe has to be improved: -Surveillance programmes are needed to measure the burden of the disease; -screening programmes are needed; -administrative and cultural barriers in the access to health care for migrants should be reduced; -education programmes on Chagas disease should be performed -research on new diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are required. This review highlights the needs of profound changes in the health care of Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain....... We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries...... combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from...

  10. The Theoretical Prerequisites for the Emergence of Interactive Marketing in the System of Management of Cross-Border Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegedosh Kristian V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to characterize the basic theoretical aspects of marketing in cross-border cooperation. It has been found that, in the current context of the IT sector development, it is of substantial relevance to apply the benefits of online marketing together with integrating it into the international regional cross-border economic relations. The author’s own conception of the use of interactive marketing to further improve interaction of the entities of neighbouring countries in various areas of cross-border cooperation (CBC has been proposed. A layout of web site interface of the interactive cross-border business center has been developed on the example of the euroregional formation of member countries in the Interregional Association «Carpathian Euroregion». One of the main challenges to the development of the CBC today is the lack of a well-functioning mechanism of interaction of «local authorities – regional development agencies – business structures». However, after building a model for development of a cross-border economy based on interactive marketing principles, the border areas on both sides will be able to better develop the regional economy and, consequently, the social well-being of the territory as a whole.

  11. Cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M

    2013-03-01

    At the same time that health researchers have mostly ignored the cross-border nature of immigrant social networks, scholars of immigrant "transnationalism" have left health largely unexamined. This paper addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults living in the greater Los Angeles area (n = 1268). Findings based on an ordered logistic regression analysis suggest that cross-border relationships may have both protective and adverse effects on overall health status. Specifically, those reporting a period of extended parental cross-border separation during childhood have lower odds of reporting better categories of self-rated health, all else equal. Conversely, a significant positive association was found between having a close relative living abroad and self-rated health status for foreign-born respondents when interacted with immigrant generation (foreign versus U.S.-born). Given the findings of significant negative and positive relationships between cross-border ties and self-rated general health status, I discuss the implications for future research on the social determinants of immigrant health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the Chinese Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua An

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this treatise, we provide empirical evidence based on stock and operating performance measures to show how cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As are different from domestic transactions from the perspective of foreign acquirers. We analyze the shareholder wealth effect from 663 domestic and international M&As announced by Chinese corporations between 1994 and 2006. We have uncovered some differences between national and cross-border M&As. We find that foreign acquirers experience significantly higher stock and operating performance than transactions carried out only by domestic firms. Higher target gains for cross-border transactions are consistent with the acquirer's ability to correctly value or capture synergies in cross-border takeovers. We also examine the source of wealth gains in Chinese targets of foreign acquirers. We find that the exchange rate and taxes are more important in justifying the target premium in foreign takeovers than in domestic takeovers. Taken together, our results suggest that the realization of synergy is the main motive behind foreign takeovers. We also analyze the role of corporate governance in cross-border M&As. Consistent with our hypothesis, the dummy for B shares or H shares is positively related with the takeover premium, indicating that strong corporate governance standards influence the valuation process in transition economies.

  13. Diet, nutrition and cardiac risk factor profile of tribal migrant population in an urban slum in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagajeevan Babu Geddam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration of tribal population to urban areas may increase the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. In this study an attempt was made to explore the risk factors influencing cardio vascular disease, hypertension and Type 2 diabetes among the tribal migrants living in urban areas. A population based cross sectional study was carried out on tribal migrants (n=138 men, n=137 women aged ≥30 years of low economic status, living in an urban slum (Kondapur of Hyderabad, Telangana, India.  Blood lipids, glucose, homocysteine, glycated Haemoglobin, blood pressure and nutritional biochemical markers such as serum albumin, serum protein, Vitamin-D and haemoglobin were examined in a subsample of tribal migrants. The prevalence of overweight in men and women was 35.3% and 32.4% while general obesity was 14.3% and 24.3% respectively. In addition, high concentration of total cholesterol, low density lipo proteins (LDL, triglycerides, homocysteine and glycosylated haemoglobin in the study population was also observed.  Duration of stay had no significant association with overweight and obesity. Majority of tribal migrants did not meet at least 50% of RDI of micro-nutrients such as iron (80-84%, vitamin A (81-83% and riboflavin (67-84%. Similar finding was observed with food groups such as leafy vegetables (84-91%, milk and milk products. However, the consumption of fat and protein was found to be ≥70% of RDA indicating transition in diet pattern. The present study shows urban life style and diets may predispose to higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among tribal migrants living in urban areas.

  14. The Challenging Task of Governing Cross-Border Investment in Peripheral Regions: Polish Investors in Northeast Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinder Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the challenging task of governing cross-border investment in peripheral regions. The main objective is to identify common opportunities and obstacles in the Pomerania Euroregion by taking the case study of Polish citizens/ entrepreneurs investing in northeast Germany. This relatively new phenomenon is accompanied by large uncertainties and risks, and lacks further empirical insights. At the same time it breaks new ground, creates alternatives, calls for the development of efficient modes of cross-border cooperation and addresses mutual governance issues on an inter-regional basis between manifold stakeholders on both sides of the border. The case study summarises findings from fieldwork, elaborates a quantitative and qualitative assessment of cross-border governance measures within formal and informal institutions, and tries to formulate policy recommendations for prospective approaches

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF HOME COUNTRY MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON INWARD CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehleanu Mariana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Expanding abroad and entering on foreign markets is a natural step in the process of growth and development of firms. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions represent, currently, an important tool in the competitive struggle, which is increasingly intense due to the globalization of economies, and also the driving force behind the growth of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI flows globally. In Romania, the share of cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows in the total FDI inflows increased progressively, reaching 46,6% in 2006, when the highest value of these transactions was registered (5.308 million dollars, according to UNCTAD. The aim of this empirical research is to study the correlation between the number of inward cross-border mergers acquisitions and a series of other variables, considered factors of influence, over the period 1992-2013. Using simple regression models, the study reveals that economic factors such as Gross domestic product (GDP, stock market capitalization (as a percentage of GDP, interest rate, exchange rate, M2 monetary aggregate and inflation have an important role in explaining cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows. Between the number of inward cross-border mergers and acquisitions and GDP, M2 monetary aggregate, market capitalization, respectively the exchange rate, there is a direct and linear correlation and between the number of inward mergers and acquisitions and the interest rate, respectively the inflation, there is an inverse linear correlation. The research conducted reveals the important role played by macroeconomic factors with regard to the cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows, as an entry mode of FDI in Romania.

  16. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Bo; Wang, Huipo

    2016-01-01

    By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compe...

  17. Cross-border environmental peace” in development contexts: the convergence of peace with de-territorialized development

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan; Maganda, Carmen; Conde, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Powe...

  18. BANKING ON MULTINATIONALS: THE DETERMINANTS OF CROSS-BORDER CREDITS TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, 1990-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Zapotichna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the rising dependence of Central and Eastern Europe on multinational banks’ credits, the main purpose of the article is to identify and examine the determinants of cross-border credits through a methodology based on “push” and “pull” factors. The author presents the results of a regression analysis on the determinants of cross-border credits provided by multinational banks from EU-15 to Central and Eastern Europe over the period of 1990-2015 by using the statistical data compiled and published by the Bank for International Settlements. The obtained results suggest that global as well as home and host country level determinants influence cross-border credits but to a different extent. According to our results, higher stability and predictability of global economic environment contribute to higher cross-border credit growth. The results of the host country determinants analysis indicate that more effective and profitable economies receive more credits from multinational banks. We also find that multinational banks provide more credits to countries with small markets, low inflation rate, high external debt burden, high capital account deficit, fixed exchange rate regime, and developed institutional environment. Regarding home level determinants, we find the existence of a negative correlation between home country economic cycle and the amount of cross-border credits received by the host country, which can be explained by low economic growth in continental Europe over the period under consideration that stimulated European banks to expand lending on foreign markets with higher profit opportunities. Thus, cross-border credits appear to have been countercyclical to growth in home countries and procyclical to growth in host countries. Finally, it is found that host country level determinants play the most important role in explaining changes in cross-border credits on host countries in Central and Eastern Europe during

  19. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection......, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy...

  20. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  1. Financial risk identification and control of cross border merger and acquisition enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina DUMITRESCU – PECULEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions are basic channels for modern companies’ growth. With globalization speeding up, multinational companies increasingly take on M_A activities to strengthen global market positions and raise competitiveness. In recent years, M_A activities have played an important role in Chinese companies. Financial risk is inherent to M_A processes in cross-border companies. Also, more than 50% of Chinese companies did not achieve their M_A goals. Therefore, recognizing and controlling financial risk is essential. This paper analyses the financial risk from different perspectives and then provides suggestions by analysing a typical M_A case: Bohai Leasing merger with Seaco Company. Complete due diligence and clear M_A strategies, combination of various financing instrument, strategic paying methods and finance integration are some ways for controlling and decreasing finance risk.

  2. An assessment of the Danish-German cross-border auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the auction prices at the cross-border auction between West Denmark and Germany and between East Denmark and Germany (the Kontek cable). Monthly and annual transmission capacities appear to be more highly valued than daily transmission capacity on average. The two cross-border auctions show different trends: the auctions between West Denmark and Germany exhibit a higher level of prices in the southbound direction, and between East Denmark and Germany, higher prices in the northbound direction. We find a relatively strong correspondence in the pricing of products over different time frames (daily, monthly and annual auctions) between West Denmark and Germany and a weak correspondence for the products between East Denmark and Germany. In the daily auctions, market players can decide whether to use their capacity after the clearing of the day-ahead market, while in the monthly and annual auctions they must decide whether to use their capacity prior to clearing. If they choose not to use their capacity, the use-it-or-lose-it principle applies. The capacity is then subsequently released to the daily market. Since the daily cross-border auctions are free of commitment, they should be valued as options. Likewise, in the monthly and annual auctions market players can choose not to nominate their capacity but as this must occur before the clearing of the day-ahead market, they will not know the directions of the power flows a priori. If they nominate the capacity they must use it; if the direction turns out to be ''wrong,'' it is then possible to purchase capacity in the opposite direction in the daily auctions. If market players can accurately predict the outcome of the spot markets day ahead, the value of monthly and annual capacity should more closely reflect the value of an option. Thus, one would expect the value of the monthly and annual capacity to be between the value of an option and an obligation. Although this suggests that the

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  4. Implementation of the Patients' Rights in Cross-border Healthcare directive in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsena, Solvita

    2014-03-01

    Latvia, being one of the EU Member States, has an obligation to implement the rules stated by the Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients' Rights in Cross-border Healthcare (hereinafter--the Directive) before 25 October 2013 in existing national legislation and practice. Implementation was carried out under pressured circumstances. A National Contact Point has been established, information is provided for patients in Latvian and to some extent in English, the Medical Treatment Risk Fund will start operations to provide compensation for harm, and the restrictions and procedure for prior authorisation have been stated. The need to secure quality of care and patient safety and well as privacy protection are the most challenging tasks for Latvia. It can be concluded that some progress in patients' rights can be achieved, but it is doubtful if patients' mobility will be stimulated.

  5. Avoiding another directive: the unstable politics of European Union cross-border health care law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L

    2013-10-01

    The European Union’s (EU) 2011 Directive on cross-border patient mobility codifies the right of any EU citizen to travel abroad for treatment and be reimbursed on the same terms as they would be at home. Governments hoped it would end the string of court cases that had reshaped EU health law but this article argues that it is likely to produce yet more judicial challenges. Patient mobility is an attractive idea with unclear definitions and divergent implementation. In many cases, providers, insurers and governments will not communicate and leave the patient with a bill – almost daring the patient to sue, and the courts to make more policy. Governments should try to prevent this by investing in coordination and alternative redress for patients who might otherwise sue.

  6. Stereotypes in the perception of cross-border business partners (on the example of Podlasie entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszuk Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the Podlasie entrepreneurs think about neighboring nations (Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Russian in a stereotypical way (ascribing to them certain negative characteristic and, if that affects in any way the decision about cooperation. The theoretical part of the article concerns the concept of stereotype, its features and functions. In the empirical part the results of research are presented. It was carried out on a group of Polish entrepreneurs (in Podlasie in order to identify their attitudes and opinions on some neighboring nations (Russians, Belarusians, Lithuanians and Ukrainians. The research was a pilot study. The sample included two hundred entrepreneurs. Authors’ questionnaire was used. In the light of the study negative national stereotypes seem to have a great importance in creating cross-border networking.

  7. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  8. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Justine I; Huang, Zhuojie; Savelyev, Alexander; MacEachren, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic) and spatial (local, national to international) scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  9. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection......In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating......, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy...

  10. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  11. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    Four technical universities in Europe work together in the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu) to lower the technical barriers for cross-border collaboration. Universities have many connections to the outside world (e.g. to other universities, to joint...... the applications used there. The objective of Virtual Campus Hub is to use state-of-the-art European e-Infrastructures (Géant) in combination with federated authentication to establish a single sign-on system between universities. A pilot environment, which links applications from the four partner universities...... to European e-Infrastructures relies upon the National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) which are not geared towards commercial enterprises at present. A range of applications for online teaching and collaboration has been developed as part of the Virtual Campus Hub project. These include remote...

  12. Towards a cross-border government? Exploring institutionality for Colombo-Peruvian “integration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mayela Hurtado Bautista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the dynamic of border cooperation between Peru and Colombia. It briefly analyzes some of the cooperation mechanisms and indicates, based on technical reports as well as normative and organizational analysis, that these cooperation mechanisms failed due to, among other reasons, having articulated the local and intermediary government entities in a fragmented manner in managing binational cooperation. This difficulty is even present in the most recent adaptations of the cooperation mechanisms, predicting a new failure in the efforts of both countries. Therefore, it is necessary to attempt a different manner of exercising diplomacy, in which the local and intermediary government entities play central roles in binational cooperation, in the interest of facing the structural and institutional problems established in the design of these policies, applying a cross-border focus.

  13. Capacity mechanisms and cross-border participation: the EU wide approach in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    A capacity remuneration mechanism (CRM) which excludes cross border participants is considered to have serious distortive effects on long term competition, compared to explicit cross border participation (CBP), on the grounds that it doesn't capture the advantages of multi-system competition. This paper examines the reality of these advantages by distinguishing situations with and without congestion between systems during critical periods because congestion separates markets and their collective goods of reliability and adequacy for each system, and suppresses any economic and physical relevance of a capacity commitment from a new external participant to a CRM. From the limited perspective of any single system, there are two potential advantages of explicit CBP: the first is the supplement of the set of committed capacities to a CRM; the second is the lower cost of the adequacy policy of the system, thanks to enlarged competition, but it is illusory because the clearing price of capacity is the same with and without explicit CBP. Moreover concretization of such benefits for the system is not possible when there is congestion. From the EU wide perspective, we identify some potential gains of social efficiency from explicit CBP at the multi-system level, when we have systems with a long standing situation of over-capacity beside systems with tight situations during their critical periods; or when there exists projects of hydro equipment (pumping storage, etc... But again, congestion removes any sense to any additional revenue to them. In any case erratic revenues certainly do not steer new investment towards either system. Furthermore exchanges of capacity rights between systems equipped with different CRMs introduce a supplement of distortions compared to the same situation with implicit CPB and no trade of capacity rights. It is problematic in the case of congestion; this delays the price signal of capacity scarcity in the system with the least attractive CRM

  14. Cross-border mergers and minority protection
    An open-ended harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Wyckaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minority protection is an important, though difficult, issue in company law, and a subtle balance must be struck between the legitimate interests of the majority and minority shareholder(s. The rules on minority protection in the context of the Cross-border Mergers Directive, which was recently adopted and should have been transposed into Member States’ national law towards the end of 2007, are examined in this paper. The authors analyse how minority shareholders are protected within the scope of this Directive and how some of the Member States (such as Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands have transposed or will transpose some of these protective provisions. The different levels of minority protection (information rights, consultation rights, rights to challenge majority decisions and other specific rights are considered, as well as which types of shareholders can benefit from such protection, and why they should be afforded protection. With respect to the last question, the authors conclude that the change in corporate law encountered especially by the shareholders of the disappearing company seems to be the major rationale underlying the European legislator's decision to introduce minority protection (but not oblige Member States to do so. The authors submit that this reflects too narrow a vision on the need for minority protection because it ignores the fact that the change of the corporate form as a consequence of a merger is in itself sufficient rationale for protecting minority shareholders. It remains somewhat of a mystery as to why the European legislator, while confirming that a cross-border merger should be subject to the same rules as a national merger, has created one possible and very vague exception to that rule.

  15. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  16. The Analysis of the Tourism Plan within a Cross-border Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrtko Josip Čelan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Regional Tourism Product Plan (RTPP and analyses the strategic approach in the planning of tourism. Until 1 July 2013 the Hungary-Croatia Cross-border Co-operation Programme 2007-2013 (hereinafter HU-HR (IPA CBC Programme was part of the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA. Compared to the previous periods, IPA brought significant development in co-operation, by introducing single set of rules and the Lead Beneficiary principle. The HU-HR (IPA CBC Programme applied a new two-step development of tourism. First, it prescribed the preparation of RTPP within a special project and only after the RTPP was elaborated could the open call for tourism proposals be launched. There was no similar case in other CBC programmes. The author will review the Programme level documents and reports, furthermore, examine the RTPP outcomes and the methodology introduced in the planning of tourism actions in the Programme. The risks RTPP involved and its influence on the implementation of the Programme and tourism projects will be investigated by highlighting the problems of application of RTPP in practice. The aim of this work is to focus on and to evaluate this specific planning methodology, and to assess whether it could be recommended to other similar programmes. Due to the shortcomings that the RTPP entailed, the author will come to conclusion that the planning of such strategies has to be prepared in advance and that the two-step approach of tourism development should not be recommended to other cross-border programmes.

  17. Open issues concerning cross border trade mechanism in southeastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugu, Florin; Mihailescu, Florentina; Cirlan, Florica

    2004-01-01

    The first South East Europe Electricity Regulatory Forum (SEEER) has agreed that all participants in the 'Athens Process' (AP) should collaborate efficiently in achieving a clear common objective consisting in the creation of a competitive Regional Electricity Market (REM) in South-Eastern Europe (SEE), based on the rules currently in force and being developed in the European Union. The 'Memorandum of Understanding on the REM in SEE and its integration in EU Internal Electricity Market (IEM)' has charged CEER to undertake actions for pursuing a series of specific technical activities. One of the most important actions was the implementation of a trading mechanism such as cross border tariffs. Based on this mechanism the Transmission System Operators, TSO, shall receive compensation for costs incurred as a result of hosting transit flows of electricity on their network. An important problem is the Horizontal Network (HN) cost calculation. Horizontal Network is defined as a part of the transmission network that is most significantly influenced by the cross border exchanges. The calculation of the cost of the SEE HN is in some way problematic because the reorganization of the SEE power sector in different countries is often at the beginning. The paper presents the impact on the TSO's cost claim of the following technical issues which, at present, are not solved in conformity to ETSO CBT mechanism for 2003: - 110 kV network inclusion in the HN definition and its impact on HN cost; - Consideration of the standard cost in the calculation of the HN annual cost; - Consideration of the annual consumption for the calculation of the HN annual cost due to transits (transit key). The Cross Border Trade, CBT, mechanism represents an harmonized payment scheme for the compensation of the national transmission systems for their usage by the cross border flows. The paper addresses the following issues: 1. Assessment of the current state of play in the SEE region; 2. Main principles

  18. The size of the irregular migrant population in the European Union – counting the uncountable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dita; Kovacheva, Vesela; Prescott, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to estimate the size of the irregular migrant population in a specific city or country, and even more difficult to arrive at estimates at the European level. A review of past attempts at European-level estimates reveals that they rely on rough and outdated rules-of-thumb. In this paper, we present our own European level estimates for 2002, 2005, and 2008. We aggregate country-specific information, aiming at approximate comparability by consistent use of minimum and maximum estimates and by adjusting for obvious differences in definition and timescale. While the aggregated estimates are not considered highly reliable, they do -- for the first time -- provide transparency. The provision of more systematic medium quality estimates is shown to be the most promising way for improvement. The presented estimate indicates a minimum of 1.9 million and a maximum of 3.8 million irregular foreign residents in the 27 member states of the European Union (2008). Unlike rules-of-thumb, the aggregated EU estimates indicate a decline in the number of irregular foreign residents between 2002 and 2008. This decline has been influenced by the EU enlargement and legalisation programmes.

  19. When to see a doctor for common health problems: distribution patterns of functional health literacy across migrant populations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann Rau, Sabine; Sakarya, Sibel; Abel, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Knowing when to seek professional help for health problems is considered an important aspect of health literacy. However, little is known about the distribution of help-seeking knowledge in the general population or specific subpopulations. We analysed data from the "Health Monitoring of the Swiss Migrant Population 2010" and used a short survey tool to study the distribution of help-seeking knowledge. We sampled members of four migrant groups (from Portugal, Turkey, Serbia and Kosovo; n = 2,614). Our tool contained 12 items that addressed common physical and psychological health problems. A total sum score measured help-seeking knowledge. Two sub-scores analysed knowledge related to potential overuse (minor symptoms) or potential underuse (major symptoms). We applied linear regression to show variations in help-seeking knowledge by age, sex, region of origin and length of stay. Controlling for self-rated health, we found that region of origin, higher education, female gender and younger age were significantly associated with higher knowledge scores. We present empirical evidence of unequal distribution of help-seeking knowledge across four migrant populations in Switzerland. Our findings contribute to current conceptual developments in health literacy, and provide starting points for future research.

  20. Health and access to health services of rural-to-urban migrant populations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2013-01-01

    Viet Nam has increasing internal migration since the Renovation (Doi Moi) in 1986. Migration flows – particularly rural-to-urban migration – have positive and negative effects to migrants, their family, and socio-economics in their places of origin and of destination. On the one hand, migration is an opportunity for improving wages of migrants, for ensuring economic security of their family, and for contributing to social and economic developments of the country. On the other hand, migration ...

  1. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  2. A flow-based methodology for the calculation of TSO to TSO compensations for cross-border flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.; Andersson, G.; Lekane, Th.; Marien, A.; Mees, E.; Naef, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the development of the European internal electricity market, several methods for the tarification of cross-border flows have been proposed. This paper presents a flow-based method for the calculation of TSO to TSO compensations for cross-border flows. The basic principle of this approach is the allocation of the costs of cross-border flows to the TSOs who are responsible for these flows. This method is cost reflective, non-transaction based and compatible with domestic tariffs. It can be applied when limited data are available. Each internal transmission network is then modelled as an aggregated node, called 'supernode', and the European network is synthesized by a graph of supernodes and arcs, each arc representing all cross-border lines between two adjacent countries. When detailed data are available, the proposed methodology is also applicable to all the nodes and lines of the transmission network. Costs associated with flows transiting through supernodes or network elements are forwarded through the network in a way reflecting how the flows make use of the network. The costs can be charged either towards loads and exports or towards generations and imports. Combination of the two charging directions can also be considered. (author)

  3. The RCM Guide: a novel protection tool for cross-border disaster-induced displacement in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kälin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available States in the Americas confront complex challenges in the face of human mobility caused by both sudden- and slow-onset disasters. A new regional guide presents practices and measures to help address the protection needs of cross-border disaster-displaced persons.

  4. Establishing trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and

  5. People, borders, trajectories: an approach to cross-border mobility and immobility in and to the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, B.M.R. van der; Naerssen, Ton van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the outlines of a geographical approach to cross-border mobility, which in this article we use synonymously with international migration. The approach consists of three constitutive parts that we discern in international migration: people, borders and trajectories. People

  6. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  7. The International Diversification of Banks and the Value of their Cross-Border M&A Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Ongena, S.; van der Poel, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of international diversification of banks on the value of their M&A advice. We study bidder returns to 1,253 cross-border M&A announcements. We find that acquirers engaging a more internationally diversified financial advisor generate lower excess returns.

  8. Capital gains taxation and the cost of capital : Evidence from unanticipated cross-border transfers of the tax base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Harry; Voget, Johannes; Wagner, Wolf

    2017-01-01

    In a cross-border takeover, the tax base associated with future capital gains is transferred from target shareholders to acquirer shareholders. Cross-country differences in capital gains tax rates enable us to estimate the discount in target valuation on account of future capital gains. A one

  9. Cross border Classical Swine Fever control: Improving Dutch and German crisis management systems by an integrated public-private approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, O.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Schütz, V.; Brinkmann, D.; Petersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research approach is to analyse in which ways crisis management measures against Classical Swine Fever (CSF) can be improved by a public private cross border model. A core activity contains the analysis of information and communication systems: In a case study it has been

  10. Regulating the New Borderlands: An Event History Analysis of State Cross-Border Distance Higher Education Policy Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border state distance higher education policy is a complex web of complicated and often contradictory regulations stretching across 50 states and 14 US territories. This study examined the applicability of strategic choice theory to state higher education policy innovation in the context of the adoption of polices that regulate the distance…

  11. Crossing borders in educational innovation : Framing foreign examples in discussing comprehensive education in the Netherlands, 1969-1979

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greveling, Linda; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, crossing borders to study comprehensive schools was an important strategy in the 1970s, a decisive period for the start and the end of the innovation. According to policy-borrowing theory, actors that engage in debating educational issues are framing foreign examples of

  12. Free movement of People and Cross-Border Welfare in the European Union: Dynamic Rules, Limited Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Pons Rotger, Gabriel; Thierry, Jessica Maria Sampson

    2018-01-01

    For decades, the European legislators and the Court of Justice have extended the rights to free movement and cross-border welfare in the European Union (EU). Strong assumptions on the impact of these rules have been posed, by some held to lead to welfare migration and thus to be a fundamental cha...

  13. Simulation of cross-border impacts resulting from classical swine fever epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a

  14. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  15. Technological and cross-border mixture value chain of science and engineering of multi-integrative mechatronics-integronics-adaptronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Popan, Gheorghe

    2013-10-01

    This scientific paper presents in national premiere and in original concept of the author, the scientific national and the author's original concept, the technological and cross-border mixture value chain of science and engineering of multi-integrative Mechatronics-Integronics-Adaptronics, as high-tech vector support development, for viability and sustainability of a new intelligent and competitive labour market.

  16. A Critical Analysis of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision of Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmur, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    The nation state is not helpless if it wishes to respond to the significant increase since the 1980s in the cross-border provision of higher education. In 2003, the General Council of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) nevertheless commissioned the development of practices and principles to further…

  17. 77 FR 10958 - International Services Surveys: BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... covered entities to include companies that operate debit networks based on a personal identification number (PIN). PIN-based debit network companies will be required to report on cross- border transactions between U.S. cardholders traveling abroad and foreign businesses and foreign cardholders traveling in the...

  18. 76 FR 66872 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... include companies that operate personal identification number (PIN)-based debit networks. As proposed, PIN-based debit network companies would be required to report on cross-border transactions between (1) U.S. cardholders traveling abroad and foreign businesses and (2) foreign cardholders traveling in the United States...

  19. It's no longer mine: the role of brand ownership and advertising in cross-border brand acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.; Kwak, H.; Puzakova, M.; Park, J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-border brand acquisitions are increasingly common in the global marketplace, research on how consumers respond to them is limited. Building on social identity and psychological ownership theories, we introduce the concept of brand ownership to the advertising literature, and show its

  20. An optional instrument on EU contract law: could it increase legal certainty and foster cross-border trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    It seems likely that an optional instrument on European contract law could have some positive impact on cross-border trade, although its size remains very difficult to estimate. Whether an optional instrument will increase legal certainty depends on the degree to which the European legislator will

  1. Simulation of Cross-border Impacts Resulting from Classical Swine Fever Epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-02-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a shared veterinary and, consequently, economic risk. The objectives of this study were to examine classical swine fever (CSF) control strategies' veterinary and direct economic impacts for NL, NRW and LS given the current production structure and to analyse CSF's cross-border causes and impacts within the NL-NRW-LS region. The course of the epidemic was simulated by the use of InterSpread Plus, whereas economic analysis was restricted to calculating disease control costs and costs directly resulting from the control measures applied. Three veterinary control strategies were considered: a strategy based on the minimum EU requirements, a vaccination and a depopulation strategy based on NL and GER's contingency plans. Regardless of the veterinary control strategy, simulated outbreak sizes and durations for 2010 were much smaller than those simulated previously, using data from over 10 years ago. For example, worst-case outbreaks (50th percentile) in NL resulted in 30-40 infected farms and lasted for two to four and a half months; associated direct costs and direct consequential costs ranged from €24.7 to 28.6 million and €11.7 to 26.7 million, respectively. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies were efficient in controlling outbreaks, especially large outbreaks, whereas the EU minimum strategy was especially deficient in controlling worst-case outbreaks. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies resulted in low direct costs and direct consequential costs. The probability of cross-border disease spread was relatively low, and cross-border spread resulted in small, short outbreaks in neighbouring countries. Few opportunities for further cross-border harmonization and

  2. Predictors on delay of initial health-seeking in new pulmonary tuberculosis cases among migrants population in East China.

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    Xinxu Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the length of delay in initial health-seeking in new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases among migrant population in the eastern part of China, and factors associated with it. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire in six counties in Shanghai, Guangdong and Jiangsu from May to October, 2008, to estimate the extent and factors responsible for delayed initial health-seeking of the new PTB cases. The interval between self-reported onset of TB symptoms and date of first attendance at any medical institution was determined. More than the median duration was defined as delayed health-seeking. RESULTS: A total of 323 new migrant PTB patients participated in the study. Only 6.5% had medical insurance. The median and mean durations to initial health-seeking were respectively 10 and 31 days. There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors and delayed initial health-seeking. Average monthly working days >24 (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.03-2.51, and hemoptysis or bloody sputum (AOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.85 were significantly associated with delayed initial health-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to improve health seeking behavior among the migrant population in China must focus on strengthening their labor, medical security and health education.

  3. Utilization of maternal health services by the migrant population living in the non-notified slums of Hyderabad city, India

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    Jagjivan Babu Geddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increase in accessibility and utilization of maternal health services in the state of Telangana, penetration of these services in vulnerable communities is inadequate. Aims & Objectives: To understand the determinants of utilization of reproductive health services by migrant population living in non-notified slums of Hyderabad city in the Indian state of Telangana. Material & Methods: It is a community based cross sectional study of 761 rural to urban internal migrant mothers with a child of less than 2 years of age residing for a period minimum of 30 days and not more than 10 years. Information was collected for socio demographic details, antenatal care and child delivery. Results: Mothers receiving at least 4 antenatal care visits and institutional deliveries in migrants was 69.6% and 69% respectively, compared to 85.8% and 97% in general population of Hyderabad city. The likelihood of mothers receiving adequate care is 6.7 times higher in mothers with secondary education compared to formal education. The likelihood of institutional delivery is 7.8 times higher in mothers availing adequate antenatal care versus inadequate care and 2.2 times higher in mothers with secondary education versus formal education. Conclusion: Utilization of antenatal care services and promotion of institutional deliveries can be improved by acting on the supply side barriers such as health care infrastructure and demand side barriers such as indirect consumer costs, financial constraints and community engagement

  4. Affinity to host population stimulates physical growth in adult offspring of Turkish migrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Aydan; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-01-18

    Because of political conflicts and climate change, migration will be increased worldwide and integration in host societies is a challenge also for migrants. We hypothesize that migrants, who take up the challenge in a new social environment are taller than migrants who do not pose this challenge. We analyze by a questionnaire possible social, nutritional and ethnic influencing factors to body height (BH) of adult offspring of Turkish migrants (n = 82, 39 males) aged from 18 to 34 years (mean age 24.6 years). The results of multiple regression (downward selection) show that the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the Turkish culture, the smaller he is (95% CI, -3.79, -0.323). Further, the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the German culture, the taller he is (95% CI, -0.152, 1.738). We discussed it comparable to primates taking up their challenge in dominance, where as a result their body size increase is associated with higher IGF-1 level. IGF-1 is associated with emotional belonging and has a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism and growth of the human body. With all pilot characteristics of our study results show that the successful challenge of integration in a new society is strongly associated with the emotional integration and identification in the sense of a personal sense of belonging to society. We discuss taller BH as a signal of social growth adjustment. In this sense, a secular trend of BH adaptation of migrants to hosts is a sign of integration.

  5. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy: findings from the ITC Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Allwright, S.; Mons, U.; McNeill, A.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; Siahpush, M.; Joossens, L.; Fong, G.T.; de Vries, H.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. OBJECTIVE: To describe socioeconomic and country

  6. Cross-Border Higher Education for Labor Market Needs: Mobility of Public-Funded Malaysian Students to Japan over Years. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako; Hong, Yeeyoung

    2011-01-01

    As globalization and the knowledge economy spreads, the demand for highly skilled workers has increased and developing countries are engaged in cross-border higher education to develop high level human resources for their nations. Using data on a cross-border higher education program between Malaysia and Japan, namely the Higher Education Loan…

  7. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  8. Trends of cross-border mobility of physicians and nurses between Portugal and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Context Health workforce cross-border mobility has an impact not only on individual health workers, but also on how health services are organized, planned, and delivered. This paper presents the results of a study of current mobility trends of health professionals along the borders between Portugal and Spain. The objective was to describe the profile of mobile physicians and nurses; to elicit the opinions of employers on mobility factors; to describe incentive policies to retain or attract health professionals; and to collect and analyse employers’ opinions on the impact of this mobility on their health services. Methods Phone interviews of key informants were used to collect relevant data. The interviews were conducted during December 2010 and January 2011 in health organizations along the border of the two countries. In Portugal and Spain, four and 13 organizations were selected, respectively. Interviews were obtained in all the Portuguese organizations and in four of the Spanish organizations. Results Findings suggest that cross-border mobility between the two countries has decreased. From Spain to Portugal, mobility trends are mainly of physicians who seek professional development in the form of specialization, the availability of positions, better salaries, and the perceived good living conditions. The mobility of nurses lasted until 2008, when reforms improved working conditions in Spain and contributed to reversing the flow. Since then, there has been an increase of Portuguese nurses going to Spain seeking better working conditions or simply a job. Portuguese nurses as well as Spanish physicians are well considered in terms of professionalism and qualifications by their Spanish and Portuguese hosts, respectively. Conclusions There is a deficit of valid data on the health workforce in general. The present study allowed further exploration of the reality of the mobility trends between Portugal and Spain. At present, the mobility trends are mainly of Spanish

  9. Population aging and migrant workers: bottlenecks in tuberculosis control in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sumedh; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Hui; You, Hua; Fan, Hong; Huang, Lifang; Wang, Qungang; Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG) of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level.

  10. Parasites and vectors carry no passport: how to fund cross-border and regional efforts to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye Cara

    2012-10-01

    multi-country proposals showed that applicants described their projects in one of two ways: a regional ‘network approach’ by which benefits are derived from economies of scale or from enhanced opportunities for mutual support and learning or the development of common policies and approaches; or a ‘cross-border’ approach for enabling activities to be more effectively delivered towards border-crossing populations or vectors. In Round 10, only those with a ‘network approach’ were recommended for funding. The Global Fund has only ever approved six malaria multi-country applications. Four approved applications stated strong arguments for a multi-country initiative, combining both ‘cross-border’ and ‘network’ approaches. Conclusion With the cancellation of Round 11 and the proposal that the Global Fund adopt a more targeted and strategic approach to funding, the time is opportune for the Global Fund to develop a clear consensus about the key factors and criteria for funding malaria specific multi-country initiatives. This study found that currently there was a lack of guidance on the key features that a successful multi-country proposal needs to be approved and that applications directed towards the ‘network’ approach were most successful in Round 10. This type of multi-country proposal may favour other diseases such as HIV, whereas the need for malaria control and elimination is different, focusing on cross-border coordination and delivery of interventions to specific groups. The Global Fund should seek to address these issues and give better guidance to countries and regions and investigate disease-specific calls for multi-country and regional applications.

  11. Reprint of: Dream vs. reality: seven case-studies on the desirability and feasibility of cross-border hospital collaboration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a niche phenomenon, cross-border health care collaboration receives a lot of attention in the EU and figures visibly on the policy agenda, in particular since the policy process which eventually led to the adoption of Directive 2011/24/EU. One of the underlying assumptions is that cross-border collaboration is desirable, providing justification to both the European Commission and to border-region stakeholders for promoting it. The purpose of this paper is to question this assumption and to examine the role of actors in pushing (or not) for cross-border collaboration. The analysis takes place in two parts. First, the EU policies to promote cross-border collaboration and the tools employed are examined, namely (a) use of European funds to sponsor concrete border-region collaboration projects, (b) use of European funds to sponsor research which gives visibility to cross-border collaboration, and (c) use of the European Commission's newly acquired legal mandate to encourage "Member States to cooperate in cross-border health care provision in border-regions" (Art. 10) and support "Member States in the development of European reference networks between health care providers and centres of expertise" (Art. 12). Second, evidence gathered in 2011-2013 from seven European border-regions on hospital cross-border collaboration is systematically reviewed to assess the reality of cross-border collaboration - can it work and when, and why do actors engage in cross-border collaboration? The preliminary findings suggest that while the EU plays a prominent role in some border-region initiatives, cross-border collaboration needs such a specific set of circumstances to work that it is questionable whether it can effectively be promoted. Moreover, local actors make use of the EU (as a source of funding, legislation or legitimisation) to serve their needs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cross-border portfolio investment networks and indicators for financial crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Andreas C; Joseph, Stephan E; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-02-10

    Cross-border equity and long-term debt securities portfolio investment networks are analysed from 2002 to 2012, covering the 2008 global financial crisis. They serve as network-proxies for measuring the robustness of the global financial system and the interdependence of financial markets, respectively. Two early-warning indicators for financial crises are identified: First, the algebraic connectivity of the equity securities network, as a measure for structural robustness, drops close to zero already in 2005, while there is an over-representation of high-degree off-shore financial centres among the countries most-related to this observation, suggesting an investigation of such nodes with respect to the structural stability of the global financial system. Second, using a phenomenological model, the edge density of the debt securities network is found to describe, and even forecast, the proliferation of several over-the-counter-traded financial derivatives, most prominently credit default swaps, enabling one to detect potentially dangerous levels of market interdependence and systemic risk.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

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    Andreea N. POPOVICI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current research is to study bank mergers and acquisitions (M-A and to see whether they have implications on the productivity of the target banks, and also for the bidder bank. The aim of this paper is to see if, during 2002-2008 period, three banks from the European banking system, Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania, Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the bank is the purchaser or the target. To reach our goal, we used DEA method, by estimating the productivity achieved by these three banks during the period pre-M-A, post M-A, but we also estimated the productivity for entire period of seven years. Using Malquist DEA method, we show that, on average, the merger or acquisition in which a bank was involved improved the Total Factor Productivity of all analyzed banks.

  14. Cross-border impacts of the restriction of hazardous substances: a perspective based on Japanese solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Masaaki; Tsunemi, Kiyotaka

    2013-08-20

    Despite the relevance of the global economy, Regulatory Impact Assessments of the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) in the European Union (EU) are based only on domestic impacts. This paper explores the cross-border environmental impacts of the RoHS by focusing on the shifts to lead-free solders in Japan, which exports many electronics to the EU. The regulatory impacts are quantified by integrating a material flow analysis for metals constituting a solder with a scenario analysis with and without the RoHS. The results indicate that the EU regulation, the RoHS, has triggered shifts in Japan to lead-free solders, not only for electronics subject to this regulation, but for other products as well. We also find that the RoHS leads to a slow reduction in environmental emissions of the target, lead, but results in a rapid increase in the use of tin and silver in lead-free solders. This indicates the importance of assessing potential alternative substances, the use of which may increase as a result of adhering to the RoHS. The latter constitutes a negative impact because of recent concerns regarding resource criticality.

  15. The Fight against Terrorism and Cross-Border Crime in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing an area of freedom, security and justice, an objective assumed by the European Union can only be achieved under conditions that ensure an improvement of judicial cooperation activity in criminal matters. The Council Framework Decision 2008/615/JHA of 23 June 2008 is the framework normative act that rules the Member States' cooperation in the fight against terrorism and cross-border crime. This paper is a review of the European legislative act, with critical remarks and it represents the sequel of these types of examinations, previously published. The research results consist of the presentation of some critical observations regarding the skills of the agents operating in the territory of another Member State rather than in the country from where they come, terms of keeping the data that regards people, the need to take in the records the judicial persons and the need for establishing separate accounts that would regard the natural and legal persons from other countries that are not members of the European Union. The relevant conclusions highlight the usefulness of European legislative act as a whole and the need to complete it with new provisions. The work is useful both for theorists and practitioners in the field, the essential contribution consisting of the formulation of critical remarks and sustained proposals de lege ferenda.

  16. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods: The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results: We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion: Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. PMID:26029895

  17. Better governance through more transparency on advance cross-border tax rulings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Brodzka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the challenge posed by tax fraud and tax evasion has increased considerably and has become a major concern within the European Union. As a consequence, in the European initiatives a special emphasis has been laid on the actions aimed at reinforcing the anti-abuse provisions in bilateral tax treaties, national legislation and EU corporate legislation. Any artificial arrangement carried out for tax avoidance purposes would be ignored and companies would be taxed instead on the basis of actual economic substance. The aim of the article is presenting the European initiative aimed at implementing the automatic mode of the exchange of information on cross-border tax rulings and advance pricing arrangements. The paper investigates if the implemented measure can help Member States to detect certain abusive tax practices taken by companies, and to take the effective actions in response. It also tries to answer the question whether the initiative can result in more transparency and – as a consequence – in much better governance, both at the states’ and the corporations’ level.

  18. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-border Regions

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    Birgit Stöber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen these arguments, the paper will focus on two examples from Northern Europe, the existing Danish-Swedish Øresund link as well as the planned link between Denmark and Germany across the Femernbelt. In the course of the paper, focus will be on central bodies or actors that are taking up the issue of culture within a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building’ (Paasi 2010:2300.

  19. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform.

  20. The role of basic data registers in cross-border interconnection of eHealth solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregar, Mirjana; Marčun, Tomaž; Dovžan, Irma; Cehovin, Lojzka

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly closer international business cooperation in the areas of production, trade, transport and activities such as tourism and education is promoting the mobility of people. This increases the need for the provision of health care services across borders. In order to provide increasingly safer and effective treatment that is of ever higher quality in these cases as well, it is necessary to ensure that data accompanies patients even when they travel to other regions, countries or continents. eHealth solutions are one of the key tools for achieving such objectives. When building these solutions, it is necessary to take into account the different aspects and limitations brought about by the differences in the environments where such a treatment of a patient takes place. In the debates on the various types of cross-border interoperability of eHealth solutions, it is necessary to bring to attention the necessity of suitable management and interconnection of data registers that form the basis of every information system: data on patients, health care service providers and basic code tables. It is necessary to promote well-arranged and quality data in the patient's domestic environment and the best possible options for transferring and using those data in the foreign environment where the patient is receiving medical care at a particular moment. Many of the discussions dealing with conditions for the interoperability of health care information systems actually start with questions of how to ensure the interconnectivity of basic data registers.

  1. Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence from the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Brenna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of “voting with their feet”. We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI, aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe.

  2. Disassortative sexual mixing among migrant populations in The Netherlands: a potential for HIV/STI transmission?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, M. G.; Kramer, M. A.; Op de Coul, E. L. M.; van Leeuwen, A. P.; de Zwart, O.; van de Laar, M. J. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; Prins, M. [= Maria

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among large migrant groups in the Netherlands, we studied the associations between their demographic and sexual characteristics, in particular condom use, and their sexual mixing patterns with other ethnic groups.

  3. HIV Infection in Migrant Populations in the European Union and European Economic Area in 2007-2012: An Epidemic on the Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Victoria; Alvárez-del Arco, Débora; Alejos, Belén; Monge, Susana; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; del Amo, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Migrants are considered a key group at risk for HIV infection. This study describes the epidemiology of HIV and the distribution of late HIV presentation among migrants within the European Union/European Economic Area during 2007-2012. HIV cases reported to European Surveillance System (TESSy) were analyzed. Migrants were defined as people whose geographical origin was different than the reporting country. Multiple logistic regression was used to model late HIV presentation. Overall, 156,817 HIV cases were reported, of which 60,446 (38%) were migrants. Of these, 53% were from Sub-Saharan Africa, 12% from Latin America, 9% from Western Europe, 7% from Central Europe, 5% from South and Southeast Asia, 4% from East Europe, 4% from Caribbean, and 3% from North Africa and Middle East. Male and female migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America had higher odds of late HIV presentation than native men and women. Migrants accounted for 40% of all HIV notifications in 2007 versus 35% in 2012. HIV cases in women from Sub-Saharan Africa decreased from 3725 in 2007 to 2354 in 2012. The number of HIV cases from Latin America peaked in 2010 to decrease thereafter. HIV diagnoses in migrant men who have sex with men increased from 1927 in 2007 to 2459 in 2012. Migrants represent two-fifths of the HIV cases reported and had higher late HIV presentation. HIV epidemic in migrant populations in European Union/European Economic Area member states is changing, probably reflecting the global changes in the HIV pandemic, the impact of large-scale ART implementation, and migration fluctuations secondary to the economic crisis in Europe.

  4. The ethnic gap in mobility: a comparison of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants and the general Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, S; Sainio, P; Castaneda, A E; Härkänen, T; Stenholm, S; Koponen, P; Koskinen, S

    2016-04-18

    Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu) and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29-64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing). The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 %) and Kurdish origin men (32 %) and women (57 %) compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5-12 %). In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7-17 %) was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish), were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07-6.29, Kurds OR 7.40; 95 % CI 4.65-11.77). This study demonstrates

  5. Bodies Folded in Migrant Crypts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    2016-01-01

    , and to performing mobility in general. Dis/ability and migration have not been associated in the literature. We adopt an analytical symmetry between humans and non-humans, in this case between bodies and crypts. By suggesting an infected, ambivalent, and hybrid approach to the human subject, the body......This article considers media narratives that suggest that hiding in trucks, buses, and other vehicles to cross borders has, in fact, been a common practice in the context of migration to, and within, Europe. We aim to problematize how the tension between the materiality of bordering practices...... and human migrants generates a dis/abled subject. In this context, dis/ability may be a cause or consequence of migration, both in physical/material (the folding of bodies in the crypt) and cultural/semiotic terms, and may become a barrier to accessing protection, to entering and/or crossing a country...

  6. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    and ethnic minority groups in the EU-countries.   Methods Publications were ascertained by a systematic search of PUBMED and EMBASE. Eligibility of studies was based on the abstracts and the full texts. Additional articles were identified via the references. The final number of studies included was 17.......   Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross...

  7. Suggestions for foreign trade enterprises to reduce cost after implementation of RMB cross-border trade settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After RMB cross-border trade settlement was implemented, the ability of foreign trade enterprises to evade foreign exchange risk has enhanced to a great extent. In the meantime, with exchange rate fluctuations, foreign trade enterprises have become more sensitive with exchange rate variation. Based on predecessors’achievement, this thesis reasonably proposed a cost model applicable to foreign trade enterprises, in which the variables are all related to exchange rate. Therefore, by making exchange rate estimation, this thesis conducted data analysis and modeling, so as to find a way for foreign trade enterprises to predict exchange rate in a reasonable way. The thesis reached the conclusion that foreign trade enterprises can better control their cost based on RMB cross-border settlement.

  8. Computer-Mediated Education And Globalization - A Case Study On Cross-border Course "Globalization and Media"

    OpenAIRE

    Luyan Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies computer mediated education in social science, in particular, communication studies. As universities in the United States build closer relationships with foreign universities, cross-border education becomes more feasible with the assistance of web technology. To illustrate how this can be done, a trial course Globalization and Media is offered to students in both China and US from a US university. In the first part of the online tutorial, it is mainly instructor-based as th...

  9. THE RELATION BETWEEN TERRITORIAL COLECTIVITIES IN FRANCE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. THOUGHTS ON THE CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BARBOIU-GILIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available France, one of the founding members of the European Union, is a unitary state from the administrativeterritorial point of view, based on deep centralism. Having territorial collectivities with highly complex structure (communes, departments, regions, sui-generis collectivities and overseas collectivities, France committed itself to cooperation not only between its own administrative structures, but also to cross-border cooperation within the European Union. After showing reluctance to external actions underwent by territorial collectivities, France ended up with acknowledging this right of its territorial collectivities within the «decentralized cooperation», expressly brought under regulation by the Law of 6 February 1992. According to the law, there is no need for any ratification on behalf of the State to allow cooperation between territorial collectivities, within the boundaries of their competence. The Law of 1992 thus authorized the territorial collectivities to close agreements with other collectivities from abroad. Furthermore, the Law of 4 February 1995 allowed several treaties with the border states to be signed, thus creating the SAAR-LOR-LUX region (an European cross-border region that made way for cooperation between Germany, France and Luxembourg. The French legislation also allowed several European districts to be created, acting as local groups for cross-border cooperation, created on the initiative of territorial collectivities. The aim of our study is to identify the main relationship between territorial collectivities in France and EU and to analyze the cooperation instruments used by the French collectivities in order to foster the cross-border cooperation.

  10. Perceived Costs and Benefits of IFRS Adoption of Cross-Border Mergers: A Statistical Analysis of Indian and Chinese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Mert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the links between IFRS adoption status, mergers tempo, and perception of IFRS costs and benefits among Indian and Chinese companies. As more capital accrues in India and China, more cross-border mergers activity initiated from these countries should be expected. This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the results related the adaption of IFRS in India and China. During the analyses around 2 authors‘ books were related to this p...

  11. A Proxy War in Arabia:The Dhofar Insurgency and Cross-Border Raids into South Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a hitherto obscure aspect of the conflict in Dhofar, Oman (1963–76), the Anglo-Omani covert operation (Operation Dhib) to send Mahra tribesmen to conduct cross-border raids into South Yemen during the early 1970s. Using declassified British government papers, this article outlines the origins of Operation Dhib, and the contrasting objectives of the Sultanate of Oman and the United Kingdom in instigating and sponsoring this covert action.

  12. Do Historical Landscape Patterns Help Explain Persistent Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations in a Cross-Border Aquifer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of agricultural production on nitrate contamination of groundwater is a pressing global concern and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) are often implemented as a means to help alleviate this problem. In Western North America, the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer spans the US-Canada border and provides drinking water for over 100,000 people. Intensive agriculture combined with high precipitation and well-drained soils make this aquifer susceptible to nitrate contamination. Long-term studies indicate elevated nitrate concentrations may be influenced by overlying land use; thus, in recent decades, various agricultural BMPs and stewardship programs have been implemented in the region to help reduce potential nitrate sources to the aquifer. Despite these improved nutrient management practices, nitrate concentrations have remained relatively high. To explore how time lags associated with surface inputs might explain this pattern, we ask two questions: (1) How have agricultural landscape patterns changed historically? (2) Do historical agricultural patterns explain continued elevated nitrate concentrations? Responses of nitrate concentrations in deep wells (with screens > 15 m below the water table) were contrasted with shallow wells (screens < 15 m) in the US and Canada. A seamless cross-border mosaic of land cover was created by harmonizing a variety of US and Canadian land use and land cover data. Surrounding each well, terrestrial zones of influence (aligned with the directional flow of groundwater) were delineated then historical and contemporary landscape patterns were characterized within these zones. To link landscape patterns with nitrate, multiple regression was used to compare the strength of relationships between historical land uses and mean nitrate concentrations from both deep and shallow wells. Because previous research showed that contemporary land cover was significantly correlated with shallow well nitrate concentrations, we hypothesize

  13. Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.

  14. Cross-border promotion of formula milk in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoutthakeo, Phonephay; Otsuka, Keiko; Ito, Chiaki; Sayamoungkhoun, Panome; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of formula milk promotion via the media from Thailand to Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), where a cultural and linguistic proximity are shared. A cross-sectional study was conducted through a structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion (FGD) with mothers who had children under 2 years of age and lived in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for quantitative data analysis. Content analysis was used for qualitative data analysis. Among infants aged 6-23 months, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate for 6 months was 16.1% (n = 106/658). Among infants aged 0-5 months, 17.6% (n = 61/346) was exclusively breastfed at the time of survey (24 h recall). Of 1022 mothers, 89.9% reported frequent exposure to the Thai media's promotion of formula milk through TV commercials and 79.1% identified TV commercial as influential for them to develop a positive attitude towards the use of formula milk. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, mothers who reported a positive attitude towards Thai TV commercial on the formula use (n = 449) were approximately 75% less likely to practice EBF for 6 months than those who reported a negative attitude (n = 64). FGD further revealed that the participants tend to believe in the information in TV commercial for formula milk. The promotion of formula milk via media from Thailand negatively affects breastfeeding mothers in Lao PDR. Cross-border impacts of promoting formula milk should be addressed globally. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  16. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compete with each other; second since they are located in Bohai Sea (North China, they have to compete with other cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas (South China. In this paper, our aim is to build models to provide best price strategies for these two cities. Based on the two-sided market theory and the geographical position, this paper builds two competitive theory models. Through the analyzing of the equilibrium, we get two main results: (1 according to different service area, the cities (Dalian and Tianjin should have different price; (2 the two-sided market characters have an impact on their strategies.

  17. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  18. Hookworm infections among migrant workers in Malaysia: Molecular identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Douadi, Benacer; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Wilson, John-James; Behnke, Jerzy M; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-09-01

    Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant

  19. An epidemiological modelling study to estimate the composition of HIV-positive populations including migrants from endemic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, F; Delpech, V; Albert, J

    2017-01-01

    of these people, 24 600 (15 000-36 200) were estimated to be undiagnosed; this number has remained stable over the last decade. An estimated 32% of the total undiagnosed population had CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl in 2013. Twenty-five and 23% of black African men and women heterosexuals living with HIV......OBJECTIVE: Migrants account for a significant number of people living with HIV in Europe, and it is important to fully consider this population in national estimates. Using a novel approach with the UK as an example, we present key public health measures of the HIV epidemic, taking into account...... diagnoses, number of deaths, CD4 cell count at diagnosis, as well as time of arrival into the UK for migrants and the annual number of people receiving care were used. RESULTS: An estimated 106 400 (90% plausibility range: 88 700-124 600) people were living with HIV in the UK in 2013. Twenty-three percent...

  20. Cancer incidence in ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to the host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    To investigate cancer incidence patterns among ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) from the Former Soviet Union, a large migrant group in Germany, in comparison to autochthonous Saarland population over a 20 year observation period. Data were obtained from a cohort of Aussiedler residing in the federal state of Saarland (n=18,619). Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through record linkage with the Saarland Cancer Registry and local population registries. During the follow up period from 1990 to 2009 we observed 638 incident diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (except non-melanoma skin cancer). The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.04). However, site-specific SIRs revealed great variation. Stomach cancer incidence was significantly higher among Aussiedler. Lung cancer was elevated for males, but lower among females. Additionally, diagnoses for colorectal cancer among males were significantly lower. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) over time show not all cancer rates of Aussiedler attenuate as expected to Saarland rates. For example, lung and prostate cancer incidence rates show increasing disparity from Saarland rates and female breast cancer incidence develops in parallel. Furthermore, ASR for overall cancer incidence of Aussiedler shows a yearly decrease (p=0.06) whereas Saarland rates remain stable. Aussiedler incidence rates reflect incidence pattern observed in their countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stage of cancer diagnoses among migrants from the former Soviet Union in comparison to the German population - are diagnoses among migrants delayed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, An Bin; Jaehn, Philipp; Holleczek, Bernd; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2018-01-17

    In this study, we compared stage at diagnosis, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of most frequent cancer diagnoses between re-settlers (Aussiedler) from the former Soviet Union and the general population in the Saarland in Germany to assess possible delays in diagnosis of cancer among this migrant group. Lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin and stomach cancer diagnoses among a cohort of 18,619 re-settlers living in the Saarland between 1990 and 2009 were identified by the federal state's cancer registry. Vital status was available for the respective time-period and used to calculate SIR and SMR in comparison to the autochthonous population. Tumor stages were condensed into local and advanced stages. Odds ratios (OR) for an advanced tumor stage were modeled in dependence of re-settler-status and relevant covariates by logistic regression. Missing values were addressed in a sensitivity analysis. The influence of duration of stay in Germany on advanced stage diagnosis was analyzed among re-settlers. SIR and SMR of lung and breast cancer were lower among female re-settlers, while SIR and SMR of colorectal and prostate cancer were lower among male re-settlers. SIR and SMR of stomach cancer were elevated among both sexes. Female re-settlers showed an elevated OR for being diagnosed with advanced stage breast cancer. Both male and female re-settlers showed an elevated OR when observing all six sites combined (OR among males 1.47, p = 0.04; OR among females 1.37, p = 0.05). The result of elevated ORs was supported in the sensitivity analysis. Finally, male re-settlers showed a weak association between duration of stay in Germany and reduced risk for advanced stage diagnosis. Re-settlers were more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage. These findings are in line with previous research having shown unfavorable health care utilization of re-settlers. Overall

  2. The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang (Avery. W), Yu; Wang, Yi; Lee, Soo Hee

    2017-01-01

    Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-comme...

  3. Addressing migration-related social and health inequalities in Australia: call for research funding priorities to recognise the needs of migrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre; Polonsky, Michael; Mellor, David; Cyril, Sheila

    2016-02-01

    Migrants constitute 26% of the total Australian population and, although disproportionately affected by chronic diseases, they are under-represented in health research. The aim of the present study was to describe trends in Australian Research Council (ARC)- and National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)-funded initiatives from 2002 to 2011 with a key focus on migration-related research funding. Data on all NHMRC- and ARC-funded initiatives between 2002 and 2011 were collected from the research funding statistics and national competitive grants program data systems, respectively. The research funding expenditures within these two schemes were categorised into two major groups: (1) people focused (migrant-related and mainstream-related); and (2) basic science focused. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data and report the trends in NHMRC and ARC funding over the 10-year period. Over 10 years, the ARC funded 15 354 initiatives worth A$5.5 billion, with 897 (5.8%) people-focused projects funded, worth A$254.4 million. Migrant-related research constituted 7.8% of all people-focused research. The NHMRC funded 12399 initiatives worth A$5.6 billion, with 447 (3.6%) people-focused projects funded, worth A$207.2 million. Migrant-related research accounted for 6.2% of all people-focused initiatives. Although migrant groups are disproportionately affected by social and health inequalities, the findings of the present study show that migrant-related research is inadequately funded compared with mainstream-related research. Unless equitable research funding is achieved, it will be impossible to build a strong evidence base for planning effective measures to reduce these inequalities among migrants.

  4. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students: A case study about creating innovative ICT didactic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Spante

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education, the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history. This paper provides an in-depth description and analysis of how four social science and history elementary school teachers and their 70 students (5th–7th grades worked together between November 2011 and December 2012. Previous research regarding the use of information and communication technology (ICT in history education in elementary schools is limited, thus calling for contemporary investigations in this particular subject domain. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK model, enhancing the combination of teachers’ pedagogical, content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video productions, texts and photos distributed and shared on a mutual blog, real-time interaction and teachers’ communication. The teachers tried out two ICT didactic models. In the asynchronous model, the major focus was on the form and content of the video productions being shared, whereas work with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students in the three nations, facilitating goal fulfillment in communication skills and digital competence. However, achieving subject-specific goals in history

  5. Cross-border trading and transmission networks: a model for competition in natural gas and electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross border energy trading, for which transmission networks are a vital policy, is expanding. Within an environment of competition and open access, reform of transmission pricing, access and investment is needed. A theoretical framework for such reform is outlined. The design objectives advocated are to maintain a reliable service; to provide economic efficiency; to allow for long-term transmission contracts; to arrange compensation through a settlements system; to allow decomposition by region and company and to preserve administrative feasibility. A ''contract network'' model for transmission rights in a network is discussed. (UK)

  6. Cross-Border Fund Flows and Hong Kong Banks' External Transactions vis-a-vis Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Shi; Andrew Tsang

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores what information on cross-border fund flows between Hong Kong and the Mainland can be extracted from existing statistics on banking transactions. As the stock of gross liabilities has been larger than claims since mid-1999, the Mainland remains a net supplier of funds (in terms of both Hong Kong dollar and foreign currency) to the banking system in Hong Kong. Hong Kong ran a current account surplus with the Mainland in the past few years, thereby contributing to a rise in c...

  7. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M.; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2018-03-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  8. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M.; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2017-11-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  9. Depressive symptoms in first-and second-generation migrants: a cross-sectional study of a multi-ethnic working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, Marcel; Maksimovic, Sasa; Ersöz, Burcu; Machleidt, Wielant; Ziegenbein, Marc; Calliess, Iris T

    2012-11-01

    Migrants in Europe may suffer from depression more often than the native-born population of the particular host country. Reports about the prevalence of depression in migrants are, however, heterogeneous and the possible causes are the subject of controversial discussion. The aims of this study are to determine the incidence of depressiveness in a large multi-ethnic working population with and without a history of migration, and to investigate possible connections with migration status and acculturation criteria. The cross-sectional study asked 7062 employees of a university hospital to complete a self-rating questionnaire concerning socio-demographic data, migration status and indicators of acculturation. Depressiveness was assessed by means of the German version of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The response rate was 41.7% (N = 2932); 14.9% of the participants (n = 419) reported a history of migration, 275 (65.8%) of whom were first-generation (M1) and 143 (34.2%) second-generation (M2) migrants. According to the CES-D scores, 8.7% of non-migrants (n = 207) suffered from clinically relevant depressive symptoms, compared to 16% (n = 44) of the M1 group (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.44-3.04, p rate of depressiveness (χ (2) = 16.68, p < .001). Our results suggest that first- and second-generation female migrants are more likely to suffer from depressiveness than non-migrant females. In this model a history of migration is shown to be an independent risk factor for depressiveness.

  10. Perceived Costs and Benefits of IFRS Adoption of Cross-Border Mergers: A Statistical Analysis of Indian and Chinese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the links between IFRS adoption status, mergers tempo, and perception of IFRS costs and benefits among Indian and Chinese companies. As more capital accrues in India and China, more cross-border mergers activity initiated from these countries should be expected. This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the results related the adaption of IFRS in India and China. During the analyses around 2 authors‘ books were related to this paper. During the study it was focused to collect information observation through published academic books and articles. Some questions raised by the increased tempo of cross-border mergers activity are as follows: (a What are the differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? (b What are the differences between IFRS adopters and IFRS non-adopters in perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? This study identified some significant differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceived IFRS costs and benefits, centering on the role that management accounting played for Chinese companies. Additionally, there were significant differences between how IFRS adopters and non-adopters perceived IFRS in terms of statement simplification, global credibility, and investor attractiveness. This study provides a statistical analysis for the IFRS adaption process of Indian and Chinese companies for the crossborder merger actions.

  11. Exploring Mature-Aged Students’ Motives for Doctoral Study and their Challenges: A Cross Border Research Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Sok Kuan Fung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: It aimed at investigating the motives and challenges of 15 mature-aged doctoral students at two education faculties in Australian and Asian contexts. Background: This cross-border research collaboration investigated the first international higher-research forum between two education faculties in Hong Kong and Australia. Methodology: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA was used to explore partic-ipants’ self-reported experiences concerning the motivations and challeng-es of 15 mature-aged doctoral students. Contribution: The findings have important implications for global doctoral program de-velopment, international exchange forum organizations, intercultural capaci-ty building, academic enhancement and cross-border research collabora-tion. Findings: From interview data four overarching themes emerged: Taking calculated risks, Determination to succeed, Financial stress, and Balancing life and research. Recommendations for Practitioners: Recommendations include mentoring schemes, greater support for isolated students, and more opportunities for students to complete their PhD by publication. Recommendation for Researchers: More research is needed to investigate mature-aged students’ motives for embarking on study in diverse cultural contexts among different ethnic groups. Impact on Society: This study recognized the merits and potentials of mature students whose research contributes to their societies. Future Research: Future research directions include using multiple case study design, thus exploring diverse aspects of the existing sample in greater depth, as well as tapping into a new sample of students at risk of attrition at both faculties.

  12. Valuation of physical transmission rights—An analysis of electricity cross-border capacities between Germany and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobben, Magnus; Dieckmann, Birgit; Reichmann, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss market-coherent valuation of physical transmission rights for cross-border capacities between Germany and the Netherlands. Aiming at a fair valuation of these contracts, the most important stylized facts of electricity prices such as mean reversion, spikes and correlations of regional prices have to be considered. We present different approaches to the valuation of physical transmission rights and perform a quantitative analysis of the results. On the one hand various challenges of modeling regional price spreads are analyzed. On the other hand we indicate a structural undervaluation of physical transmission rights in all model constellations, i.e. market prices are below theoretical prices of PTR's flexibility. We discuss several reasons for this undervaluation and finally state that regulatory modifications have to be made to avoid missing incentives for the extension of cross-border capacities. - Highlights: ► Modeling transmission rights as option contracts. ► Analysis of regional price spreads. ► Indication of a structural undervaluation of physical transmission rights.

  13. Organizational and Legal Features of the Implementation of Cross-border Pipeline Construction Projects in Modern Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raises questions of the implementation of the strategic priorities of development of the national economy. Their relationship and dependence on the successful implementation of transcontinental and cross-border projects are due to the possibility of realization of transit potential of a country, as well as broad prospects of cooperation with neighboring countries in Europe and Asia. The solution of organizational and legal problems of pipelines construction on the territory of countries - participants of such projects as the “Nord Stream”, etc., requires a search for the optimal combination of international law and national regulatory procedures. The success of the implementation of cross-border projects is linked by the authors to the development of regulations, as one of the most effective forms of practical implementation of the technology of the interface of economic interests of the countries - participants. Being a kind of institutional arrangements, regulations will let to resolve contradictions of international requirements and national procedures promptly.

  14. Extraterritoriality for cross-border reproductive care: should states act against citizens travelling abroad for illegal infertility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of assisted reproduction technologies, there has been discussion on which people should have access to these technologies and which treatments and techniques are morally acceptable. However, national legislation can no longer determine what citizens do. Some countries react to their citizens going abroad to evade restrictions by implementing even more restrictive laws. Turkey has recently become the first state to ban reproductive travel in pursuit of donor gametes. Several states in Australia have enacted or are considering laws that prohibit international commercial surrogacy. This article investigates the consistency and morality of several state reactions to cross-border reproductive care (CBRC), including extraterritorial regulation. The only widespread existing extraterritorial regulation of private life concerns female genital cutting (FGC), sex with children and (largely in the past) abortion. This discussion develops an analogy with these cross-border crimes to evaluate the morality of similar legislation in cases of CBRC. The dissimilarity in these analogies shows that extraterritoriality is a radical position that is generally inappropriate in the case of CBRC. Subsequently, several potential state reactions to CBRC for law evasion are considered. It is concluded that legislation of CBRC should be modest, tolerant and nuanced. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementing the First Cross-border Professional Development Online Course through International E-mentoring: Reflections and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhini Gayathri Jayatilleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper discusses the accomplishments, issues, and challenges experienced by Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL academics when offering the first cross-border professional development online course to train online tutors and mentors. The course was delivered exclusively online and facilitated by OUSL academics and e-mentors from the USA. The course was comprised of 30 participants: 9 from Pakistan, 10 from Mauritius and 11 from Sri Lanka. This qualitative study is based on reflections of both faculty and participants. Data were collected using reflections and informal anecdotal records of the three OUSL academics and self-reflection instruments (pre, mid and final administered to participants, and reflective journal entries made by participants. Participants’ views were triangulated with the reflections of the OUSL academics to validate the results. While there were many accomplishments in the design and delivery of the course, the findings revealed that there were many challenges in implementing the course: pedagogical, organizational and technological aspects in particular. The paper provides recommendations to address such challenges when offering cross-border online courses in the future.

  16. The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang (Avery. W

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-commerce on trade distance and consumer welfare. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of cross-border e-commerce on international trade in the context of China, mainly from the perspective of transaction cost economics in conjunction with the traditional comparative advantage model by analyzing information cost, negotiation cost, transportation cost, tariffs and middlemen cost separately. Firstly, the new theoretical model suggests that cross-border e-commerce may have a positive role in promoting international trade only when the negative impact caused by tariff cost and transportation cost is offset. Secondly, our result shows that cross-border e-commerce has a positive effect on the growth of China’s international trade in each year. However, the positive effect does not show incremental growth over time, possibly as a result of the weak implementation of favorable policies in trade, in addition to global trade shrinking.

  17. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge about self-perceived health can help us understand the health status and needs among migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU) which is essential to improve equity and integration. The objective was to examine and compare self-perceived health among migrant...... to reduce ethnic inequalities in health.  ...

  18. Effect of lifestyle on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among farmers, migrants with Yi ethnicity and Han population in Sichuan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiu; Wei, Daying; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Konglai; Ma, Mingju; Pan, Li; Yu, Tao; Xue, Fang; Shan, Guangliang

    2010-01-01

    Yi people are the most primitive society in China. Little information on the metabolic syndrome (MS) is available in Yi people. We explored whether differing lifestyle affected the prevalence of MS among farmers and migrants of Yi ethnicity and Han population in one of the Southwestern parts of China. The prevalence of MS among the three populations was described under the same International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The study populations comprised of 1,535 Yi farmers, 1,306 Yi migrants and 2,130 Han people. The effects of physical activity, obesity and other risk factor on MS were evaluated. Results showed that the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of MS was 9.9 times higher in Yi migrants (23.8%) and 6.3 times higher in Han people (15.2%) than in Yi farmers (2.4%). In addition, the prevalence of MS increased significantly with age in both sexes, except for a slight increase in Yi farmers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was much lower in Yi farmers (9.3% in men and 16.5% in women) than that in Yi migrants (46.2% in men and 34.8% in women) and Han people (40.6% in men and 31.9% in women). Levels of physical activity were much greater in Yi farmers than in Yi migrants and Han people. These results indicated that lifestyle had strongly influenced the development of MS in Han and Yi Chinese and our study provided one more piece of evidence imputing that high prevalence of MS might be related to a change in lifestyle associated with urbanization.

  19. [Mortality rates of foreign national residents in Japan: comparison with the Japanese population and a possible healthy migrant effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Eiko; Maeda, Yuko; Yamamoto, Taro

    2017-01-01

    relatively healthy and that a healthy migrant effect exists in Japan. Because this health advantage may either decrease or converge with that of the native population after long-term residence as a previous research reported; without intervention, these lower mortality rates in the young and middle-aged foreign national residents may eventually increase or even exceed those of the Japanese population. More attention should be paid to middle-aged foreign national residents who have higher rates of mortality due to accidents and suicide as well as foreign national residents aged ≥60 years, who have an extremely high mortality rates due to suicide. Although overestimations and underestimations are still possible, CDRs are considered more appropriate than PDRs, since the impact is smaller. Future investigations should focus on the healthy migrant effect in Japan in order to address current and upcoming health issues among foreign national residents.

  20. Distinctive role of income in the all-cause mortality among working age migrants and the settled population in Finland: A follow-up study from 2001 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kishan; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Kokkinen, Lauri; Donnelly, Michael; O'Reilly, Dermot; Vaananen, Ari

    2018-03-01

    Although income level may play a significant part in mortality among migrants, previous research has not focused on the relationship between income, migration and mortality risk. The aim of this register study was to compare all-cause mortality by income level between different migrant groups and the majority settled population of Finland. A random sample was drawn of 1,058,391 working age people (age range 18-64 years; 50.4% men) living in Finland in 2000 and linked to mortality data from 2001 to 2014. The data were obtained from Statistics Finland. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between region of origin and all-cause mortality in low- and high-income groups. The risk for all-cause mortality was significantly lower among migrants than among the settled majority population (hazards ratio (HR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.62). After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, employment status and personal income, the risk of mortality was significantly reduced for low-income migrants compared with the settled majority population with a low income level (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.42-0.50) and for high-income migrants compared with the high-income settled majority (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.69-0.95). Results comparing individual high-income migrant groups and the settled population were not significant. Low-income migrants from Africa, the Middle East and Asia had the lowest mortality risk of any migrant group studied (HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.27-0.39). Particularly low-income migrants seem to display a survival advantage compared with the corresponding income group in the settled majority population. Downward social mobility, differences in health-related lifestyles and the healthy migrant effect may explain this phenomenon.

  1. Letting the managers manage: analyzing capacity to conserve biodiversity in a cross-border protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Clement

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss is one of the most significant drivers of ecosystem change and is projected to continue at a rapid rate. While protected areas, such as national parks, are seen as important refuges for biodiversity, their effectiveness in stemming biodiversity decline has been questioned. Public agencies have a critical role in the governance of many such areas, but there are tensions between the need for these agencies to be more "adaptive" and their current operating environment. Our aim is to analyze how institutions enable or constrain capacity to conserve biodiversity in a globally significant cross-border network of protected areas, the Australian Alps. Using a novel conceptual framework for diagnosing biodiversity institutions, our research examined institutional adaptive capacity and more general capacity for conserving biodiversity. Several intertwined issues limit public agencies' capacity to fulfill their conservation responsibilities. Narrowly defined accountability measures constrain adaptive capacity and divert attention away from addressing key biodiversity outcomes. Implications for learning were also evident, with protected area agencies demonstrating successful learning for on-ground issues but less success in applying this learning to deeper policy change. Poor capacity to buffer political and community influences in managing significant cross-border drivers of biodiversity decline signals poor fit with the institutional context and has implications for functional fit. While cooperative federalism provides potential benefits for buffering through diversity, it also means protected area agencies have restricted authority to address cross-border threats. Restrictions on staff authority and discretion, as public servants, have further implications for deploying capacity. This analysis, particularly the possibility of fostering "ambidexterity" - creatively responding to political pressures in a way that also achieves a desirable

  2. Impact of cigarette price differences across the entire European Union on cross-border purchase of tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Blecher, Evan; Filippidis, Filippos T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Vozikis, Athanassios; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the impact of cigarette price differences across the European Union (EU) on cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers. Individual-level tobacco-related data (including cross-border tobacco purchasing behavior) were from the Special Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1), a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years from 27 EU Member States during 2012. Country-specific weighted average prices (WAP) per 1000 cigarettes (as of 1 July 2012) were obtained from the European Commission, and divided by 50 to yield WAP per cigarette pack. The dispersion in EU cigarette prices was measured with the coefficient of variation. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to measure the relationship between EU-wide cigarette price differential and cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers (n=6896). The coefficient of variation for cigarette WAP within the EU was 0.39 (mean price=€3.99/pack). Of all current cigarette smokers in the EU, 26.2% (27.5 million persons) engaged in a cross-border tobacco purchase within the past 12 months, of which 56.3% did so because of cheaper price in another country. EU-wide cigarette price differential was significantly associated with making a cross-border tobacco purchase because of cheaper price (adjusted OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.47). Reducing differences in cigarette tax and price within the EU, coupled with a stricter limitation on the quantity of cigarettes that it is possible to carry from one Member State to another, may help reduce cross-border tax avoidance strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The prevalence of angina symptoms and association with cardiovascular risk factors, among rural, urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Robert H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration in low- and middle-income countries causes an increase in individual cardiovascular risk. Cost-effective interventions at early stages of the natural history of coronary disease such as angina may stem an epidemic of premature coronary deaths in these countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of angina in developing countries, whilst the understanding the aetiology of angina is complicated by the difficulty in measuring it across differing populations. Methods The PERU MIGRANT study was designed to investigate differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific cardiovascular disease risk factors. Mass-migration seen in Peru from 1980s onwards was largely driven by politically motivated violence resulting in less 'healthy migrant' selection bias. The Rose angina questionnaire was used to record chest pain, which was classified definite, possible and non-exertional. Mental health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular disease risk factors and mental health were used to assess the risk of chest pain in the migrant and urban groups compared to the rural group, and further to assess the relationship (age and sex-adjusted between risk factors, mental health and chest pain. Results Compared to the urban group, rural dwellers had a greatly increased likelihood of possible/definite angina (multi-adjusted OR 2.82 (1.68- 4.73. Urban and migrant groups had higher levels of risk factors (e.g. smoking - 20.1% urban, 5.5% rural. No diabetes was seen in the rural dwellers who complained of possible/definite angina. Rural dwellers had a higher prevalence of mood disorder and the presence of a mood disorder was associated with possible/definite angina in all three groups, but not consistently with non-exertional chest pain. Conclusion Rural groups had a higher prevalence of angina as

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among migrant fishermen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: People migrate from place to place for diverse reasons chief among which is economic. Migrant fishermen like other migrant population lead high risk sexual lifestyle and are therefore, predisposed to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV among migrant ...

  5. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is de...

  6. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500251

  7. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  8. On the counterintuitive consequences of high-performance work practices in cross-border post-merger human integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilaki, A.; Smith, Pernille; Giangreco, A.

    2012-01-01

    Human integration in cross-border mergers poses challenges to the successful implementation of post-merger processes. Executives often rely on human resource practices to achieve human integration in newly formed organisations. Using an ethnographic study of a merger of four banks in four countries......, this article investigates the impact of systemic and integrated human resource practices [i.e., high-performance work practices (HPWPs)] on human integration and how their implementation affects employees' behaviours and attitudes towards post-merger human integration. We find that the implementation of HPWPs......, such as communication, employee involvement, and team building, may not always produce the expected effects on human integration; rather, it can have the opposite effects if top management does not closely monitor the immediate results of deploying such practices. Implications for managers dealing with post...

  9. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: Mature markets vs. emerging markets—with special reference to the USA and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Rani Duppati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the differences in the merger waves across markets, the market for cross-border mergers and acquisitions by Indian companies differs in context and situations from those of the mature markets. Post-acquisition performance is critical to the success of companies involved in overseas investments. This paper uses event study methodology to analyse the long-term performance of Indian-acquiring companies by undertaking 30 outward foreign direct investment (OFDI-related deals, during 2000–2008 period. Further, it compares the empirical findings from India with the prior findings from the USA. It is evident from the empirical results that the stock markets reacted positively in the short run following the announcements of the OFDI-related mergers and acquisitions by Indian companies. The empirical findings also showed positive results in the post-acquisition period following the overseas deals.

  10. Cross-border forest disturbance and the role of natural rubber in mainland Southeast Asia using annual Landsat time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    ) are there cross border differences in frontier and non-frontier forest disturbance rates between Cambodia and Vietnam, 3) what proportion of disturbances in frontier and non-frontier forests can be accounted for by the impact of rubber plantations, and 4) is there a relationship between global market prices...... rates related to rubber plantation expansion and price fluctuations of natural rubber. This suggests links between localized land cover/use change and international market forces, irrespective of differing political and socioeconomic backgrounds. Our study underlines the value of using dense Landsat...... that this approach can provide accurate forest disturbance maps but that accuracy is affected by forest type. Highest accuracies were found in evergreen forest (90%), with lower accuracies in mixed (80%) and dry-deciduous forest types (83%). Our final map considering all forest types yielded an overall accuracy...

  11. Audit of the process of determination of available cross-border electricity transmission capacity in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubrich, H.J.; Fritz, W.

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this audit has been to analyse and to evaluate the process of determination of available cross-border electricity transmission capacity in the Netherlands as applied by the Dutch transmission system operator TenneT. In particular, the scope has been to give a survey of the corresponding responsibilities of TenneT as defined primarily by the Dutch Grid Code, to analyse the way TenneT fulfils these responsibilities, and to analyse and evaluate the decisions taken and the methods applied by TenneT for each step of this process. In addition, recommendations regarding possibilities of netting imports and exports in day-ahead capacity allocation have been requested. We have based this audit on comprehensive meetings with TenneT, on publicly available documents mainly from DTe and TenneT, and on non-public documents made available to us by TenneT. 26 refs

  12. The Right to Travel for Abortion Services: A Case Study in Irish 'Cross-border Reproductive Care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Abortion is illegal in Ireland, except in very limited circumstances, but the Irish Constitution guarantees the right of women to travel abroad to obtain abortion services. Every year, large numbers of women travel to the UK to obtain abortions. This article argues that this can be regarded as an illustration of cross-border reproductive care (CBRC). CBRC is the phenomenon whereby people travel abroad to obtain assisted reproduction services that are illegal in their country of origin. A leading commentator, Guido Pennings, argues that CBRC is to be welcomed as a means by which society might compromise on issues of profound moral disagreement. Other commentators believe CBRC is highly problematic. This article argues that the Irish abortion example, when examined as an example of CBRC, illustrates both the advantages and disadvantages of CBRC identified by Pennings and his critics.

  13. Innovative Design of Agricultural Cross-border E-commerce Management Platform Construction between Hainan and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Gao, Yanli

    2018-02-01

    The essay is based on the subject research between Hainan and Tai league, by analyzing the comparison of agricultural development between Hainan and other Chinese areas, finds that Hainan agricultural develops slowly. Meanwhile, by using the experience and technology of Taiwan agricultural development for reference, taking full advantage of modern internet technology, we try to find the complementary opportunity of agricultural technology, experience in agricultural development between Hainan and Taiwan. Therefore, by combining the existing resources of Hainan and Taiwan, following the thoughts of the “Internet+ Agriculture”, the essay tries to work out an innovative designation of agricultural cross-border e-commerce management platform, integrate the resource advantages of Hainan and Taiwan, specify the functions of newly designed management platform.

  14. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system: An agent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, Jörn C.; Chappin, Emile J.L.; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO 2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO 2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based on Great Britain, which already has introduced a price floor, and on Central Western Europe). Using an agent-based electricity market simulation with endogenous investment and a CO 2 market (including banking), we analyse the cross-border effects of national policies as well as system-wide policy options. A common, moderate CO 2 auction reserve price results in a more continuous decarbonisation pathway. This reduces CO 2 price volatility and the occurrence of carbon shortage price periods, as well as the average cost to consumers. A price ceiling can shield consumers from extreme price shocks. These price restrictions do not cause a large risk of an overall emissions overshoot in the long run. A national price floor lowers the cost to consumers in the other zone; the larger the zone with the price floor, the stronger the effect. Price floors that are too high lead to inefficiencies in investment choices and to higher consumer costs. - Highlights: • Cross-border effects of CO 2 policies were investigated with an agent-based model. • The current EU ETS might cause CO 2 price shocks and CO 2 price volatility. • A CO 2 auction reserve price does not lower welfare, but lowers CO 2 price volatility. • A national CO 2 price floor lowers consumer cost in the other countries. • A CO 2 price ceiling does not lead to an overshoot of emissions

  15. Is cascade reinforcement likely when sympatric and allopatric populations exchange migrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman; Aoki, Fumio

    2016-04-01

    When partially reproductively isolated species come back into secondary contact, these taxa may diverge in mating preferences and sexual cues to avoid maladaptive hybridization, a process known as reinforcement. This phenomenon often leads to reproductive character displacement (RCD) between sympatric and allopatric populations of reinforcing species that differ in their exposure to hybridization. Recent discussions have reinvigorated the idea that RCD may give rise to additional speciation between conspecific sympatric and allopatric populations, dubbing the concept "cascade reinforcement." Despite some empirical studies supporting cascade reinforcement, we still know very little about the conditions for its evolution. In the present article, we address this question by developing an individual-based population genetic model that explicitly simulates cascade reinforcement when one of the hybridizing species is split into sympatric and allopatric populations. Our results show that when sympatric and allopatric populations reside in the same environment and only differ in their exposure to maladaptive hybridization, migration between them generally inhibits the evolution of cascade by spreading the reinforcement alleles from sympatry into allopatry and erasing RCD. Under these conditions, cascade reinforcement only evolved when migration rate between sympatric and allopatric populations was very low. This indicates that stabilizing sexual selection in allopatry is generally ineffective in preventing the spread of reinforcement alleles. Only when sympatric and allopatric populations experienced divergent ecological selection did cascade reinforcement evolve in the presence of substantial migration. These predictions clarify the conditions for cascade reinforcement and facilitate our understanding of existing cases in nature.

  16. A systematic literature review of sport and physical activity participation in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Téa; Banting, Lauren Kate; Borkoles, Erika; Eime, Rochelle; Polman, Remco

    2014-06-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrants face significant health risks as they adapt to new cultures. These risks are exacerbated by their limited participation in preventative behaviours such as sports and physical activity. The review aimed to identify studies that examined the correlates of sport and physical activity participation in migrants. The systematic review identified 72 papers, including 6 interventions, 18 qualitative and 48 quantitative studies. The 44 identified correlates highlight the complexities involved in working with migrants. The correlates were grouped in four themes using the social ecological model; acculturation, demographic, psychosocial and environmental/organisational. The social ecological model identified general correlates such as social support and safety. However, there were unique correlates relating to individuals who are facing cultural changes such as acculturation and language. Overall, there is a lack of contextualisation of CALD migrants' sport and physical activity experiences because many studies fail to consider acculturation comprehensively.

  17. Risk factors and current health seeking patterns of migrants in northeastern Mexico: healthcare needs for a socially vulnerable population

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe eStoesslé; Francisco eGonzález Salazar; Francisco eGonzález Salazar; Jesús eSantos Guzmán; Nydia eSánchez González

    2015-01-01

    This study identified risk factors for health and access to healthcare services of migrants during their journey across Mexico to the United States. Data were collected in shelters located in Monterrey, the largest city of northeastern Mexico, through a basic clinical examination and a survey completed by 75 migrants; 92% of them were undocumented Central Americans. During their transit, they are at a high risk of contracting, developing, and transmitting diseases. The need of working to surv...

  18. Risk Factors and Current Health-Seeking Patterns of Migrants in Northeastern Mexico: Healthcare Needs for a Socially Vulnerable Population

    OpenAIRE

    Stoesslé, Philippe; González-Salazar, Francisco; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Sánchez-González, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    This study identified risk factors for health and access to healthcare services of migrants during their journey across Mexico to the United States. Data were collected in shelters located in Monterrey, the largest city of northeastern Mexico, through a basic clinical examination and a survey completed by 75 migrants; 92% of them were undocumented Central Americans. During their transit, they are at a high risk of contracting, developing, and transmitting diseases. The need of working to surv...

  19. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  20. Frequency of migrants and migratory activity are genetically correlated in a bird population: Evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.; Berthold, P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most migratory bird populations are composed of individuals that migrate and individuals that remain resident, While the role of ecological factors in maintaining this behavioral dimorphism has received much attention, the importance of genetic constraints on the evolution of avian migration has not

  1. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  2. Identifying Complex Cultural Interactions in the Instructional Design Process: A Case Study of a Cross-Border, Cross-Sector Training for Innovation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. Roxanne; Kinuthia, Wanjira L.; Lokey-Vega, Anissa; Tsang-Kosma, Winnie; Madathany, Reeny

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify complex cultural dynamics in the instructional design process of a cross-sector, cross-border training environment by applying Young's (2009) Culture-Based Model (CBM) as a theoretical framework and taxonomy for description of the instructional design process under the conditions of one case. This…

  3. Some aspects of cross-border cooperation in euroregions of the Czech Republic on example of the Šumava region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cetkovský, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Zapletalová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2007), s. 43-55 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7118301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Euroregions * cross-border cooperation * Šumava * regional development * environmental protection * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  4. Morally sensitive issues and cross-border movement in the EU. The cases of reproductive matters and legal recognition of same-sex relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, Nelleke Renate

    2015-01-01

    Within the European Union there is considerable diversity in morally sensitive issues like legal recognition of same-sex relationships and reproductive matters such as abortion, assisted human reproduction and surrogacy. Cross-border movement within the EU exposes and affects this diversity, as it

  5. Cross-border acquisition abandonment and completion : The effect of institutional differences and organizational learning in the international business service industry, 1981-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; Sahib, Padma Rao; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of North's (1990) political economy of national institutions and economic behavior, we investigate how formal and informal institutional features influence the likelihood that a cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the time taken for its completion after

  6. Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W

    1992-10-01

    A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity.

  7. Perceived migrant threat among migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, Roos; Bles, Per; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a new perspective on migrant integration. It questions the extent that established migrants perceive threats from new migrants, and how that is influenced by natives’ perceived migrant threat. We hypothesized about an acculturation pattern that established migrants will be

  8. Perceived migrant threat among migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, R. van der; Bles, P.H.; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a new perspective on migrant integration. It questions the extent that established migrants perceive threats from new migrants, and how that is influenced by natives' perceived migrant threat. We hypothesized about an acculturation pattern that established migrants will be

  9. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  10. Obstacles à la prévention du VIH/SIDA chez les populations migrantes d'origine sub-saharienne: Travail de Bachelor

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, Alexandre; Rappazzo, Barbara; Salsac, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Contexte : 68% des personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA dans le monde proviennent d’Afrique sub-saharienne. En Suisse une personne migrante d’origine sub-saharienne a 20,5 fois plus de risque d’être infectée par cette maladie qu’une personne autochtone. But : l’objectif de cette revue de littérature est d’identifier les obstacles à la prévention et au dépistage du VIH/SIDA chez les populations migrantes d’origine sub-saharienne et dégager des pistes d’intervention pour la discipline infirmière. Mé...

  11. Hospitalizations for cancer in international migrants versus local population in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarte, Marcela; Delgado, Iris; Pedrero, Víctor; Agar, Lorenzo; Cabieses, Báltica

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. METHODS This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%), and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%). We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans). In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i) lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii) digestive organs, and (iii) breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level. PMID:29641660

  12. Epidemiology of psychiatric morbidity among migrants compared to native born population in Spain: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adil; Collazos, Francisco; Sobradiel, Natalia; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Febrel, Mercedes; Revollo-Escudero, Hilda Wara; Andrés, Eva; del Mar Ramos, María; Roca, Miquel; Casas, Miguel; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Escobar, Javier I; García-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in different immigrant groups in Spain. In keeping with prior studies carried out in Europe, it is expected that the immigrant population will have elevated levels of psychopathology, with some variation across immigrant groups. Multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study. Primary care settings of two Spanish regions. N=1.503 immigrants paired with the same number of Spanish controls, adjusted by gender and age. Demographic variables, MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview, somatic symptoms section. Student's t tests, ORs and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. No differences in psychiatric morbidity were found (native born 30.9%, population vs. immigrants 29.6%, OR=.942, CI=.806-1.100) when comparing immigrants to native born Spaniards. Relative to Spaniards (30.9%), Latin American immigrants had significantly higher levels of psychopathology (36.8%), Sub-Saharan Africans (24.4%) and Asians (16%) had significantly lower levels, and Eastern Europeans (31.4%) and North Africans (26.8%) showed no significant difference. The hypotheses were only partially supported. Although overall immigrants did not differ from the native born population, when analyzed by geographic origin, only Latin Americans had higher levels of psychopathology. It is concluded that multiple factors need to be taken into consideration when studying the mental health of immigrants given that different immigrant groups have different levels of psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The fertility of internal migrants to Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip; Corker, Jamaica; Kayembe, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The rapid population growth of many African cities has important implications for population health, yet little is known about factors contributing to increasing population, such as the fertility of internal migrants. We examine whether in-migrants to Kinshasa have different fertility patterns than lifetime Kinshasa residents, and identify characteristics of migrants that may explain differences in fertility. We also use detailed migration histories to examine whether fertility differs by fea...

  14. Mobility habits of the cross border commuters in Geneva: who uses public transport ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kouti, Rhyem; Ramirez, José

    2009-01-01

    Ce papier présente les résultats d’un sondage réalisé au printemps 2007 auprès d’une population d’environ 600 pendulaires dont une très large majorité sont des frontaliers actifs sur le marché du travail du canton de Genève, et ce afin de pouvoir décrire leurs habitudes de déplacement lorsqu’ils se rendent à leur lieu de travail. Les informations récoltées nous permettent d’identifier et de tester certaines hypothèses quant au comportement d’une population qui a quasiment doublé entre 2002 (e...

  15. Health policies for migrant populations in three European countries: England; Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; Vargas, Ingrid; Rodríguez, Dolors; Lizana, Tona

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed at providing a comparative analysis of health policies for immigrant populations in three European countries. A descriptive comparative study of health policies for immigrant population was conducted through content analysis. England, Italy and Spain were selected because they have similar national health systems and different histories of immigration. For each country national or regional plans that included health policies for immigrants or ethnic minorities were selected. The analysis was conducted along the following dimensions: policy objectives, strategies, and evaluation of results. Subsequently, strategies were categorized according to the field of action. Improvements in immigrants' health are the ultimate objectives of these policies but they differ in emphasis and strategies. Main strategies relate to: addressing specific health issues; access to healthcare - information, communication, service supply and administrative proceedings; and improving quality of healthcare provision - services adaptation, professionals training and health needs' analysis. Only in England are some results of policy evaluation available. Different models of immigrant integration in receiving countries seem to condition the health policy approach. England and Spain propose actions to address immigrants' healthcare needs, while in Italy the development of specific strategies is limited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The contribution of european projects in the cross-border management of drinking water: between hydrodynamics and vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cucchi, Franco; Turpaud, Philippe; Ravbar, Nataša; Petrič, Metka; Urbanc, Janko; Zini, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The Classical Karst Region represents an evolved binary karst hydrostructure located across NE Italy and SW Slovenia. Its deeply karstified limestones and dolomitic limestones swallow rainfall in a network of caves and fractures through the epikarst and vadose zones. In the phreatic zone, horizontal or sub-horizontal conduits quickly convey water to the springs. The aquifer is also recharged by the input of three rivers. Along its SE edge in Slovenia, the Reka River sinks entirely into the Škocjan caves. Along its NW edge, the Isonzo/Soča and Vipacco/Vipava rivers recharge the aquifer in a more diffuse manner as the input is supplied by porous aquifers alimented by riverbed leakages. The hydrostructure is drained by numerous springs situated NW of the plateau along its SE facing edge, between Monfalcone and Duino. The common average discharge of the Timavo spring is about 35.5 m3/s. The Reka-Timavo aquifer has attracted the attention of researchers for the last 200 years due to the increasing need for good quality drinking water. Water withdrawn in this area is guaranteed drinking water for the inhabitants of the Classical Karst. This water is supplied by AcegasApsAmga and Kra\\vski Vodovod delivering to more than 250.000 inhabitants. Since World War II, the Classical Karst Region has been politically divided. Consequently this area has been studied and managed separately for almost 70 years. Only recently has a collaboration between researchers of both countries begun. Within this framework is the 3-year Hydrokarst Project funded by the European Union which focussed on the joint protection and management of the cross border aquifer through the analysis of groundwater dynamics. The structuring and implementation of a shared geodatabase has allowed for the hydrochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characterisation of the aquifer. A second step consisted of the elaboration of a joint hydrogeological map. Thirdly, vulnerability mapping has allowed for the

  17. Mobility, mortality, and the middle ages: identification of migrant individuals in a 14th century black death cemetery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E J; Montgomery, J; Evans, J A; Stantis, C; Mueller, V

    2013-02-01

    Mobility and migration patterns of groups and individuals have long been a topic of interest to archaeologists, used for broad explanatory models of cultural change as well as illustrations of historical particularism. The 14th century AD was a tumultuous period of history in Britain, with severely erratic weather patterns, the Great Famine of 1315-1322, the Scottish Wars of Independence, and the Hundred Years' War providing additional migration pressures to the ordinary economic issues drawing individuals to their capital under more stable conditions. East Smithfield Black Death Cemetery (Royal Mint) had a documented use period of only 2 years (AD 1348-1350), providing a precise historical context (∼50 years) for data. Adults (n = 30) from the East Smithfield site were sampled for strontium and oxygen stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel. Five individuals were demonstrated to be statistical outliers through the combined strontium and oxygen isotope data. Potential origins for migrants ranged from London's surrounding hinterlands to distant portions of northern and western Britain. Historic food sourcing practices for London were found to be an important factor for consideration in a broader than expected (87) Sr/(86) Sr range reflected in a comparison of enamel samples from three London datasets. The pooled dataset demonstrated a high level of consistency between site data, divergent from the geologically predicted range. We argue that this supports the premise that isotope data in human populations must be approached as a complex interaction between behavior and environment and thus should be interpreted cautiously with the aid of alternate lines of evidence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2010-08-10

    Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately -0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15-65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming.

  19. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  20. Post-acquisition Changes Beyond the Dyad: Power at the Net Level in Cross-Border Acquisitions(1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fernando Loureiro Rezende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of the literature on post-acquisition changes is its dyadic feature, i.e. the emphasis is placed on the actors directly involved in the acquisition, often represented by the acquiree and the acquirer. Accordingly, actors outside the dyad, such as suppliers and buyers, are usually disregarded. There is, however, a relevant exception in this literature. Recently, some Nordic authors have claimed that if actors other than the acquiree and the acquirer are not taken into account, the existing literature may only present a partial view of changes following acquisitions. Consequently, they have suggested that changes following this type of operation can be analysed fruitfully at the network level. Our article adds to the efforts of these scholars to understand post-acquisition changes at a broader level by bringing to the fore two issues that have received scarce attention in the literature: i nets rather than the network level appears to be the locus where post-acquisition changes beyond the dyad take place; ii relational power can be regarded as an independent variable in post-acquisitionchanges beyond the dyad. These arguments are illustrated by three brief case studies of cross-border acquisitions.

  1. Alcohol consumption, sex, and use of psychotropic substances among male Hong Kong-mainland China cross-border substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the prevalence and associated factors for co-occurrence of psychotropic substance use, alcohol consumption and sexual activities among substance users. Totally, 1167 Hong Kong Chinese males aged 18-30 having used substances in mainland China in the last year were identified. Of them, 72.5% and 42.7% respectively reported having consumed alcohol and engaged in sexual activities in conjunction with the last episode of substance use. Among those using substances exclusively in mainland China, multivariate analyses showed that having friends who frequently used substances in China (OR=3.18) and being accompanied by friends in the last episode of substance use (OR=2.31) were associated with alcohol consumption; older age (OR=2.01), higher education level (OR=2.31), alcohol consumption (OR=2.72), belief that substance use increased sexual potency (OR=2.81) and use of multiple types of psychotropic substances in China (OR=2.94) were significantly associated with having sex in conjunction with the last episode of using psychotropic substances. Cross-border psychoactive substance use often co-occurs with alcohol and sex. High levels of risk are involved. Different types of preventive programs need to be integrated.

  2. Malaria and the mobile and migrant population in Cambodia: a population movement framework to inform strategies for malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, Philippe; Canavati, Sara E; Chea, Nguon; Ly, Po; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Yeung, Shunmay

    2015-06-20

    The relationships between human population movement (HPM) and health are a concern at global level. In the case of malaria, those links are crucial in relation to the spread of drug resistant parasites and to the elimination of malaria in the Greater Mekong sub-Region (GMS) and beyond. The mobile and migrant populations (MMP) who are involved in forest related activities are both at high risk of being infected with malaria and at risk of receiving late and sub-standard treatment due to poor access to health services. In Cambodia, in 2012, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) identified, as a key objective, the development of a specific strategy for MMPs in order to address these challenges. A population movement framework (PMF) for malaria was developed and operationalized in order to contribute to this strategy. A review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Based on a synthesis of the results, information was presented and discussed with experienced researchers and programme managers in the Cambodian NMCP and led to the development and refinement of a PMF for malaria. The framework was "tested" for face and content validity with national experts through a workshop approach. In the literature, HPM has been described using various spatial and temporal dimensions both in the context of the spread of anti-malarial drug resistance, and in the context of malaria elimination and previous classifications have categorized MMPs in Cambodia and the GMS through using a number of different criteria. Building on these previous models, the PMF was developed and then refined and populated with in-depth information relevant to Cambodia collected from social science research and field experiences in Cambodia. The framework comprises of the PMF itself, MMP activity profiles and a Malaria Risk Index which is a summation of three related indices: a vulnerability index, an exposure index and an access index which allow a qualitative ranking of malaria

  3. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  4. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  5. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration Among Former Soviet States. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of cross-border freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  6. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control.We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO.A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries.Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies. The under-fives and the school going children were the most

  7. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S E; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the school going children were the most affected age

  8. Recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in special population groups (migrants, intravenous drug users and prison inmates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasio, Piero L; Babudieri, Sergio; Barbarini, Giorgio; Brunetto, Maurizia; Conte, Dario; Dentico, Pietro; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Leonardi, Claudio; Levrero, Massimo; Mazzotta, Francesco; Morrone, Aldo; Nosotti, Lorenzo; Prati, Daniele; Rapicetta, Maria; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Scotto, Gaetano; Starnini, Giulio

    2011-08-01

    The global spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), their high chronicity rates and their progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are major public health problems. Research and intervention programmes for special population groups are needed in order to assess their infection risk and set up suitable prevention and control strategies. Aim of this paper is to give health care professionals information on HBV and HCV infections amongst migrants, drug users and prison inmates. The manuscript is an official Position Paper on behalf of the following Scientific Societies: Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (A.I.S.F.), Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (S.I.M.I.T.), Italian Federation Department's Operators and Addiction Services (FederSerD), Italian Prison Medicine and Healthcare Society (S.I.M.S.Pe.). The considered population groups, having a high prevalence HBV and HCV infections, require specific interventions. In this context, the expression "special population" refers to specific vulnerable groups at risk of social exclusion, such as migrants, prison inmates, and intravenous drug users. When dealing with special population groups, social, environmental and clinical factors should be considered when selecting candidates for therapy as indicated by national and international guidelines. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marketization of Care and Gendered Cross-Border Migration from Indonesia to Malaysia: The Case of Indonesian Female Migrant Domestic Workers in/to Malaysia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kimura (Kenji)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction For the last two decades, the rights of domestic workers have drawn attention from academia, policy makers, NGO workers and human rights activists. The International Labour Organization (ILO) (2011) estimates that there are currently 53 to 100 million domestic

  10. Missed hepatitis b/c or syphilis diagnosis among Kurdish, Russian, and Somali origin migrants in Finland: linking a population-based survey to the national infectious disease register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiittala, Paula; Ristola, Matti; Liitsola, Kirsi; Ollgren, Jukka; Koponen, Päivikki; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Davidkin, Irja; Kivelä, Pia

    2018-03-20

    Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010-2012. Participants in the health examination were offered screening for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis. Notification prevalence in the National Infectious Diseases Register (NIDR) was compared between participants and non-participants to assess non-participation. Missed diagnosis was defined as test-positive case in the survey without previous notification in NIDR. Inverse probability weighting was used to correct for non-participation. Altogether 1000 migrants were screened for infectious diseases. No difference in the notification prevalence among participants and non-participants was observed. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 2.3%, hepatitis C antibodies 1.7%, and Treponema pallidum antibodies 1.3%. No cases of HIV were identified. Of all test-positive cases, 61% (34/56) had no previous notification in NIDR. 48% of HBsAg, 62.5% of anti-HCV and 84.6% of anti-Trpa positive cases had been missed. Among the Somali population (n = 261), prevalence of missed hepatitis B diagnosis was 3.0%. Of the 324 Russian migrants, 3.0% had not been previously diagnosed with hepatitis C and 2.4% had a missed syphilis diagnosis. In multivariable regression model missed diagnosis was associated with migrant origin, living alone, poor self-perceived health, daily smoking, and previous diagnosis of another blood-borne infection. More than half of chronic hepatitis and syphilis diagnoses

  11. New times for migrants' health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  12. New times for migrants' health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Reyes-Uruena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  13. Peer-support groups for cross-border victims of terrorism: Lessons learnt in the UK after the 9/11 and Paris attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When people become victims of terrorism in a country other than their own, they often face diverse legal, financial, cultural and political difficulties. This paper addresses peer support groups in their various forms (e.g. therapeutic support groups, victim association gatherings, online forums, etc., as an effective way of helping people affected by cross-border terrorist attacks to deal with the complex problems they face, thus alleviating some of their suffering. It focuses on two major international incidents affecting British nationals: the attacks of 11 September 2001 and the Paris attacks of 13 November 2015. The author was an initiator of peer-support systems for the UK-based bereaved and survivors following both atrocities. Here, she draws on her experience to highlight the benefits and identify potential challenges of such peer-support groups in tackling some of the complex problems individuals affected by cross-border terrorist attacks encounter.

  14. Migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very

  15. Do we need cross border education?: A Case of Pilot Course Multi-professional Approaches to Substance Abuse Care and Working with Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Orjasniemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine studentsʼ experiences of cross-border education based on a single course carried out in collaboration between two networks, Barents Cross-Border University (BCBU and the Thematic Network of Social Work (TNSWUA, as well as the experiences of teachers in the course. The course was a part of the curriculum for the Master’s Degree Programme (BCBU in Comparative Social Work. Most of the students were studying in this Master’s Programme, some of them were exchange students at the University of Lapland (UL and the rest were social work students at UL and the University of Iceland (UI.  The course ran for two weeks in April 2015, and included lectures, discussions and workshops; parts of the course were delivered electronically, while other sections were delivered by teachers on-site. This course provided a broad multi-professional introduction to the field of addiction and substance abuse care. Students learned about screening the alcohol culture and the relationship between society, addiction, gender, family, life phases, ageing, maternity and substance use. The data for this study was collected through focus group discussion, with students reflecting on one question: ‘Do we need cross-border education?’ Data from instructors was collected through discussions during the planning and post-course discussions. Overall, the experiences of students and instructors were positive. The collaboration did not face insuperable challenges. The findings highlighted four main themes: globalization, networking, comparing theory and practice, and using technology. Globalization has set new demands for social work and its professionals. Experts in cultural diversity and international social issues, as well as people with a comparative approach to different societies, are needed the world over. Regarding implications for cross-border education, we would recommend collaboration in the particular field of social work

  16. Oversight of EU medical data transfers - an administrative law perspective on cross-border biomedical research administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The notion of privacy has long had a central role in human rights law, not least in connection to health and medicine. International, regional and national bodies have enacted a number of binding and non-binding document for physicians and researchers to adhere to, in order to protect the autonomy, dignity and privacy of patients and research subjects. With the development of new technologies, the right to privacy has gained a new perspective; the right to protection of personal data within information and communication technologies. The right to data protection has been attributed an increasing importance within EU law. Accordingly, the use of health data in medical research in general and in biobank-related medical research in particular, has made data protection law highly relevant. In medical research involving biobanks, transferring human biological samples and/or individual health data is taking place on a daily basis. These transfers involve several oversight bodies, institutional review boards (IRBs), research ethics committees, or even data protection authorities. This article investigates the role of these national oversight bodies in the transfer of health data in cross-border research, from an EU law point of view. A special focus is laid on transfer of health data for research purposes from the EU to the US, in the light of the recently enacted EU-US Privacy Shield. The main question posed is how American oversight bodies for medical research can be expected to handle the increasingly strict EU requirements for the processing of health data in medical research review.

  17. Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC in Southern Europe—An Iberian Case Study. The Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Castanho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiences of cross-border cooperation (CBC, undertaken not only in Europe but throughout the world, have enabled areas to gain greater importance in recent decades at an international level, showing potential for integrative functions and joint development as exemplified by several CBC projects. The present paper assesses the impact of CBC projects by analyzing a protocol established in 2013 between the cities of Elvas and Badajoz, which induced the creation of the Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz. The paper kicks off with a critical review on territorial factors for success in CBC areas, considering the analysis of several case studies throughout Europe. The lessons learned, taken from the analyzed case studies, and the identified territorial success factors were used as assessment points for the investigation of the target study area, the Eurocity ElvasBadajoz. The investigation explores public participation perceptions towards the identification of what changes with respect to standards of life with the CBC project, providing the current state of affairs and identifying where to place efforts in order to reach sustainable development for the region. While being a transition area, it presents several opportunities for growth. These opportunities have not yet been object of analysis and debate with respect to lasting, sustainable successful growth. The present research enables the identification of several territorial factors for success in the study area, such as the connectivity/movement between cities and strong political commitment. From the identified critical factors, it was possible to highlight the importance of public transportation as a priority for achieving success in this CBC project.

  18. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  19. Cross Border Claims Handling Co-operation between Nuclear Insurance Pools in a Case of Transboundary Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaruba, P.

    2006-01-01

    Paper deals with matters concerning the core reason for insurance of nuclear third party liability - registration, handling, organizing and settling of claims in case of a major nuclear incident, underlining claims handling co-operation between national nuclear insurance pools when damage to health or property becomes international. Commercial insurance companies have gained extensive experience with handling large scale claims (e.g. after floods and other natural disasters) and are capable in gathering and organizing a high number of professional loss surveyors and adjusters in a very short period of time. In case of nuclear insurance pools co-operation between members (commercial insurance companies) is an added value and can be used practically all over the country bringing into action the network of branches and offices of all the pool members. This advantage is also used in case of cross border claims when it is necessary to gather information and claims advises from a large number of subjects and from many countries, sometimes very far apart. The international network of nuclear insurance pools is an ideal tool for this task and can be mobilized practically at once. Operators of nuclear installations, especially nuclear power plants, do not have the possibility to put aside hundreds of workers to handle claims and are also usually not sufficiently equipped with the necessary know-how. The same goes for governments and government agencies which in many countries guarantee the payments of claims to victims. Nuclear insurance pools are just the answer to these problems and considerations and co-operation agreements between the national insurance pool, operator of a nuclear installation and national government are strongly recommended. Such co-operation agreements should be prepared and signed beforehand as it will most probably be a problem to look for a solution when a major nuclear incident occurs. Similar agreements are the basis of international co

  20. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Tiemann, Tassilo T; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart D; Okello, Walter O; Allen, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective Lao PDR’s recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Methods Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses—including hepatitis E virus (HEV), Taenia solium (T. solium) and trichinella—to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Results Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Conclusion The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector. PMID:28423884

  1. A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.; Andersson, G.

    2001-01-01

    Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

  2. Cross-border spread, lineage displacement and evolutionary rate estimation of rabies virus in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Vrancken, Bram; Feng, Yun; Dellicour, Simon; Yang, Qiqi; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yunzhi; Dong, Lu; Pybus, Oliver G; Zhang, Hailin; Tian, Huaiyu

    2017-06-03

    Rabies is an important but underestimated threat to public health, with most cases reported in Asia. Since 2000, a new epidemic wave of rabies has emerged in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which borders three countries in Southeast Asia. We estimated gene-specific evolutionary rates for rabies virus using available data in GenBank, then used this information to calibrate the timescale of rabies virus (RABV) spread in Asia. We used 452 publicly available geo-referenced complete nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences, including 52 RABV sequences that were recently generated from samples collected in Yunnan between 2008 and 2012. The RABV N gene evolutionary rate was estimated to be 1.88 × 10 -4 (1.37-2.41 × 10 -4 , 95% Bayesian credible interval, BCI) substitutions per site per year. Phylogenetic reconstructions show that the currently circulating RABV lineages in Yunnan result from at least seven independent introductions (95% BCI: 6-9 introductions) and represent each of the three main Asian RABV lineages, SEA-1, -2 and -3. We find that Yunnan is a sink location for the domestic spread of RABV and connects RABV epidemics in North China, South China, and Southeast Asia. Cross-border spread from southeast Asia (SEA) into South China, and intermixing of the North and South China epidemics is also well supported. The influx of RABV into Yunnan from SEA was not well-supported, likely due to the poor sampling of SEA RABV diversity. We found evidence for a lineage displacement of the Yunnan SEA-2 and -3 lineages by Yunnan SEA-1 strains, and considered whether this could be attributed to fitness differences. Overall, our study contributes to a better understanding of the spread of RABV that could facilitate future rabies virus control and prevention efforts.

  3. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Okello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Lao PDR’s recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Methods Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses—including hepatitis E virus (HEV, Taenia solium (T. solium and trichinella—to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Results Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Conclusion The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector.

  4. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Tiemann, Tassilo T; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart D; Okello, Walter O; Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    Lao PDR's recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses-including hepatitis E virus (HEV), Taenia solium (T. solium) and trichinella-to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector.

  5. Cross-Border Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor Kelly, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    In the autumn of 2013, the nursing educations at Klaipeda University, Gdansk Medical University and University College Zealand held a joint semester course, financed and developed as part of the Co-ordination and integration of higher education and the labour market around the South Baltic Sea...

  6. Parasitology crossing borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, P

    1999-02-25

    In veterinary parasitology it is important to further strengthen international collaboration and interactions. On the one hand, there is a strong and promising trend towards growth in large international programmes. However, we, as researchers, should make more serious attempts to influence the targets and structures of these programmes. On the other hand, let us not forget to fully exploit the possibilities for support to even small projects and visiting researchers' arrangements, preferably in a flexible way. The paper emphasizes the obvious need for research capacity building in the least developed countries, and advocates a partnership approach in research for development. The presentation suggests more operative initiatives in international veterinary parasitology. Finally, how language barriers can hamper international contacts and exchange of information is discussed. Ways to possibly avert this are indicated.

  7. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the case of shipments of containers with avocados from farmers in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European Union. We find 3 predominant challenges to containerized shipping that effectively become trade barriers: international trade cost, lead time uncertainty...

  8. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European...

  9. Crossing Borders, Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a story of applied linguistics from my personal vantage point as a multilingual scholar whose career began outside the centers of research and scholarship. The article explains the assumptions and practices characterizing the foundation of the discipline in modernist discourses, and delineates the changes resulting from…

  10. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration among Former Soviet States. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of crossborder freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  11. Diabetes among migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin....... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Information was obtained from linkage of the National Diabetes Register with mortality statistics and information from the Central Personal Register on country of origin. Age- and sex-specific estimates of prevalence, incidence rates, mortality rates and SMRs relative...

  12. Cross-border sexual transmission of the newly emerging HIV-1 clade CRF51_01B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ting Cheong

    the cross-border transmission of HIV-1 involving sexual networks is crucial for effective intervention strategies in the region.

  13. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Ha, Hoang; Thanh, Le; Marchand, Ron P; Nonaka, Daisuke; Tojo, Bumpei; Phongmany, Panom; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun

    2012-08-03

    promotion of insect repellent use in the early evening as additional vector interventions. Conducting joint malaria surveys by staff of two countries proved to be effective in stimulating better collaboration and improve cross-border malaria control.

  14. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    recommended to test focal indoor residual spraying and the promotion of insect repellent use in the early evening as additional vector interventions. Conducting joint malaria surveys by staff of two countries proved to be effective in stimulating better collaboration and improve cross-border malaria control.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = -0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = -0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child’s facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%. In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%. Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p<0.001, but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p=0.077. Age and clinical trachoma (r=-0.014; p<0.001 or OCTI (r=-0.026; p=0.031 prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p<0.001. Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools.

  17. Maternal mortality among migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population...

  18. Proyectos de Educacion Migrante (Migrant Education Projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.

    Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…

  19. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  20. Preservation of natural values along the cross-border area of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at emphasizing the importance of cross-border cooperation in protecting the natural values along the Romanian-Hungarian border and the way in which these resources can be exploited for tourism. The analysed area comprises the two adjacent counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, with focus on the rich natural heritage and the shared effort made in order to ensure its conservation. The anthropic activities (agriculture, development of settlements, infrastructure investment have gradually led to habitat reduction, having a negative impact on biodiversity. The Natura 2000 network, initiated by the European Union, is a program launched with the objective to preserve natural habitat, plant species and wildlife in a unitary system. A number of ten Natura 2000 sites (Special Protection Areas for birds, Special Areas of Conservation and Sites of Community Importance are located in the cross-border region of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties. In the present case, a study upon the natural values of the area cannot be limited by borderline. Moreover, a cross-border approach is being preferred in order to highlight the sites of special interest, the necessity to elaborate and implement joined strategies. Natural values can become a part of the touristic offer but only to a certain extent, according to which only those forms of tourism should be developed which have a less impact on the environment, namely the practice of sustainable tourism, with emphasis on ecotourism. This type becomes viable in the context of a stricter organization of the tourist flow, the existence of a process with informative and training role for visitors regarding the importance of preserving biodiversity. To conclude, the paper draws attention to the fact that recreational activities can be developed in special protection areas provided that the sustainable aspect is always kept in sight

  1. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON THE CHOICE OF LAW REGARDING CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCIES OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS – SUGGESTIONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Weideman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in economic globalisation and international trade has amounted to an increase in the number of multinational enterprises that have debt, own assets and conduct business in various jurisdictions around the world. This, coupled with the recent worldwide economic recession, has inevitably caused the increased occurrence of multinational financial default, also known as cross-border insolvency (CBI. The legal response to this trend has, inter alia, produced two important international instruments that were designed to address key issues associated with CBI. Firstly, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (the Model Law in 1997, which has been adopted by nineteen countries including the United States of America and South Africa. Secondly, the European Union (EU adopted the European Council Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings (EC Regulation in 2000. Both the EC Regulation and Chapter 15 adopt a “modified universalist” approach towards CBI matters. Europe and the United States of America are currently the world leaders in the area of CBI and the CBI legislation adopted and applied in these jurisdictions seems to be effective. As South Africa’s Cross-Border Insolvency Act is not yet effective, there is no local policy guidance available to insolvency practitioners with regard to the application of the Model Law. At the basis of this article is the view that an analysis of the European and American approaches to CBI matters will provide South African practitioners with valuable insight, knowledge and lessons that could be used to understand and apply the principles adopted and applied in terms of the EC Regulation and Chapter 15, specifically the COMI concept, the “establishment” concept in the case of integrated multinational enterprises and related aspects.

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE POLISH BANKING SECTOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZBIGNIEW KORZEB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the implications of the global financial crisis upon the Polish banking sector, formed under the influence of cross-border mergers and acquisitions. It illustrates the consequences of financial problems of foreign strategic shareholders in banks operating in Poland upon the stability of the entire banking system. It presents the proposed future directions of action to protect the stability of the banking system. It seems that in the case of a banking system as special as the Polish one, the key role will belong to the quality of the three main pillars of control over the work of banks: supervisory institutions, market discipline an corporate governance.

  3. The role of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Cross Border Cooperation (CBC) as strategic practice in the EU Policies and cooperation tools for 2014-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Lussi, Manoela

    2014-01-01

    2012/2013 There is an increasingly widespread acknowledgement among all active actors in the development co-operation sector that the Public Private Partnership (PPP) can be a new important tool, not only to build important infrastructure (public works) but also to provide services to the citizens at central and local level as well as to have a strategic value in the Cross-Border Co-operation (CBC) in the next future. The European Commission defines PPPs in a rather broad and general wa...

  4. Acculturation and use of health care services by Turkish and Moroccan migrants: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesselink Arlette E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is insufficient empirical evidence which shows if and how there is an interrelation between acculturation and health care utilisation. The present study seeks to establish this evidence within first generation Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest migrant groups in present-day Western Europe. Methods Data were derived from the Amsterdam Health Monitor 2004, and were complete for 358 Turkish and 288 Moroccan foreign-born migrants. Use of health services (general practitioner, outpatient specialist and health care for mental health problems was measured by means of self-report. Acculturation was measured by a structured questionnaire grading (i ethnic self-identification, (ii social interaction with ethnic Dutch, (iii communication in Dutch within one's private social network, (iv emancipation, and (v cultural orientation towards the public domain. Results Acculturation was hardly associated with the use of general practitioner care. However, in case of higher adaptation to the host culture there was less uptake of outpatient specialist care among Turkish respondents (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-0.99 and Moroccan male respondents (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.71-0.93. Conversely, there was a higher uptake of mental health care among Turkish men (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.71-0.93 and women (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.71-0.93. Uptake of mental health care among Moroccan respondents again appeared lower (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.55-0.99. Language ability appeared to play a central role in the uptake of health care. Conclusion Some results were in accordance with the popular view that an increased participation in the host society is concomitant to an increased use of health services. However, there was heterogeneity across ethnic and gender groups, and across the domains of acculturation. Language ability appeared to play a central role. Further research needs to explore this heterogeneity into more

  5. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  6. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    -migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all...

  7. The converging burdens of infectious and non-communicable diseases in rural-to-urban migrant Sub-Saharan African populations: a focus on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and cardio-metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Nasheeta

    2015-01-01

    Africa has the unenviable challenge of dealing with a double burden of disease: infectious diseases (IDs) such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are high while non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly rising in the region. Populations with increased susceptibility to both include migrants. This review highlights the susceptibility of rural-to-urban migrants in Sub-Saharan Africa to the IDs of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and to NCDs, particularly cardiovascular diseases. The disruption that occurs with migration is often accompanied by unhealthy exposures and environments. These include partaking in risky sexual practices and a subsequent greater risk for HIV infection in migrants than the general populations which contributes to the spread of the disease. Migrants frequently work and live in conditions that are poorly ventilated and overcrowded with suboptimal sanitation which increases their risk for tuberculosis. Considering that migrants have an increased risk of acquiring both HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and in view of the interaction between these diseases, they are likely to be at high risk for co-infection. They are also likely to facilitate the geographical spread of these infections and serve as conduits of disease dissemination to rural areas. Changes in lifestyle behaviours that accompany migration and urbanisation are exemplified primarily by shifts in physical activity and dietary patterns which promote the development of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Urban living and employment is generally less physically exerting than rural routines; when migrants relocate from their rural residence they adapt to their new environment by significantly reducing their physical activity levels. Also, nutritional patterns among migrants in urban centres change rapidly with a shift to diets higher in fat, sugar and salt. Consequently, increases in weight, blood pressure and glucose levels have been reported within a year of migration

  8. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina

    2012-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR......) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all...... mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations...

  9. Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the local children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiyun; Tan, Hui; Peng, Aiping; Jiang, Hong; Wu, Jianmei; Guo, Sufang; Qian, Xu

    2014-06-14

    Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in China increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of local permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of China. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and local children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in China, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, China, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 locals) aged 6-23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Anemia prevalence among the migrant and local children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among local ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among local ones. Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6-11 months. Dislike their local counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods. Future strategies to

  10. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R.; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC

  11. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Lorenzo Luis R. Guinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design: A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results: In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as

  12. Health care system change and the cross-border transfer of ideas: influence of the Dutch model on the 2007 German health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, Simone; Gress, Stefan; Manouguian, Maral-Sonja

    2010-08-01

    To increase understanding of the cross-border transfer of ideas through a case study of the 2007 German health reform, this article draws on Kingdon's approach of streams and follows two main objectives: first, to understand the extent to which the German health reform was actually influenced by the Dutch model and, second, in theoretical terms, to inform inductively on how ideas from abroad enter government agendas. The results show that the streams of problem recognition and policy proposals have not been predominantly influenced by the cross-border transfer of ideas from the Netherlands to Germany. The Dutch experience was taken into consideration only after a policy window opened by a shift in politics in the third, the political, stream: the change of government in 2005. In many respects, the way Germany learned from the Netherlands in this case sharply contrasts with an image of solving policy problems by either lesson drawing or transnational deliberation. Instead, the process was dominated by problem solving in the sphere of politics, that is, finding a way to prove the grand coalition was capable of acting.

  13. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  14. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: should physicians be allowed to help infertility patients evade the law of their own country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-07-01

    There are fundamental differences between countries with regard to legislation on assisted reproduction. Many infertility patients are looking to evade the law of their own country and make use of reproductive services abroad. The role of the local physician in cross-border reproductive care for law evasion has been characterized as "channeling local patients to foreign medical establishments" and "against the spirit and essence of the law". The logical view is that by supporting CBRC for law evasion, physicians are essentially supporting immoral behavior. We will tackle this position on two levels. First, we will argue that governments should generally be tolerant toward people with different positions on assisted reproduction. Second, we will show that contributing to cross-border reproductive care for law evasion is not necessarily immoral, because the prima facie wrongness of complicity in law evasion can be outweighed by the fact that physicians should act in the best interest of the patient. Several countries have tried to prevent local physicians from helping patients to make use of reproductive services abroad, but they should rather leave it up to the individual physicians to decide whether or not to support a particular patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HERCA-WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlholt, Jette; Constantinou, Costas; Janssens, Augustin; ); Djounova, Jana; Fueloep, Nandor; Gering, Florian; Lieser, Joachim; Halldorsson, Oskar; Haywood, Stephanie; Hofer, Peter; Isnard, Olivier; Kuhlen, Johannes; Rother, Wolfram; Majerus, Patrick; Murith, Christophe; Nizamska, Marina; Rauber, Dominique; Rusch, Ronald; Stahl, Thorsten; Stephen, Patrick; Tkavc, Marjan; Van Gelder, Iris; Degueldre, Didier; Vandecasteele, Christian; Fuchsova, Dagmar; Genthon, Benedicte; Jamet, Philippe; Gilli, Ludivine; Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Marie-Line; Xicluna, Delphine; Goerts, Peter; Greipl, Christian; Kuhlen, Johannes; Gurgui, Antoni; Mozas, Alfredo; Calvaro, Jose-Manuel Martin; Hohl, Harry; Rauber, Dominique; Hubbard, Lynn; Lindh, Karin; Majerus, Patrick; McMahon, Ciara; Metke, Eduard; Sokolikova, Adriana; Piller, Georges; Reiman, Lasse; Aaltonen, Hannele; Kuusi, Antero; Senior, David; Temple, Charles; Ugletveit, Finn; Holo, Eldri; Vandecasteele, Christian; Guzman, Olvido; Mueller-Ecker, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The HERCA-WENRA Approach is an incentive approach that comprises the necessary mechanisms for countries to exchange adequate information and to achieve practical and operational solutions on a voluntary basis during an emergency leading to a uniform way of dealing with any serious radiological emergency situation, regardless of national border line, hence allowing for coherent and coordinated protective actions. The HERCA-WENRA Approach has the potential to improve the coherence of the response in case of a nuclear accident with impact on territories of other countries and to be used as guidance to implement Article 99.11 and 99.22 of the Euratom-BSS. It also fulfils recommendation No. 12.7.b of the so-known ENCO study and it further addresses some of the other recommendations. Content: General presentation of the HERCA WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident. Part I - HERCA-WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident. - General Mechanism. Part II - HERCA-WENRA Approach in case of a Severe Accident requiring Rapid Decisions for Protective Actions, while very little is known about the Situation

  16. STUDY REGARDING THE POSSIBILITY TO DEVELOP TOURISM AND CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION THROUGH A BUSINESS INCUBATOR AT VADUL CRIªULUI (BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Ambrus

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I have presented the results of a research realized at the end of the year 2011, within the framework of the cross-border project entitled n#8222;Business incubator for cross-border tourist developmentn#8221;. This incubator will be constructed in Vadu Criºului Community, Bihor County, while the realized study intended to demonstrate the fact that such initiative on one hand will attract investors, respectively companies with activities linked directly or indirectly to tourism n#8211; because the area offers them all the necessary conditions for business development-, while on the other hand this initiative can encourage and support cross-border tourist co-operation, especially with the balneary spa resort in Hajdúszoboszló, Hungary. For this reason a questionnaire was realized, which was applied not just in the micro-region of Vadu Criºului but in Hajdúszoboszló as well, especially distributed among the economical agents that have tourism linked to their activity. The study showed not just the resources and the modalities of existing advertising but also the possibilities of cross-border co-operation as a chance to develop tourism from the two regions. In this way, the study shows the fact that in the case of the macro-region of Vadu Criºului, the extension of the tourism services must be based on the natural characteristics of the region and on highly emphasized own initiatives, rather than the initiatives and the support or the administrative authorities. In the case of the Hajdúszoboszló resort, a tendency outlines among those who consider the tourism development in the resort essential, tourism services must be diversified, and more emphasis must be put on the implication of local authorities, a chance seen in cooperation with the tourist area without similar characteristics (namely, direct non-competitor, but from the cross-border region (the opening towards the Romanian side is relevant

  17. Migration and hypertension: a cross-sectional study among neo-migrants and settled-migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pandav, Chandrakant

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the blood pressure (BP) distribution within populations is fundamental to an understanding of the etiology of cardiovascular diseases and to develop effective preventive strategies. This study focuses on whether the BP levels and hypertension prevalence differ between neo-migrants and settled-migrants in the city of Delhi. Data on BP, anthropometry, social variables, and demographic variables were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 226 settled-migrants and 227 neo-migrants. Men possessed significantly higher BP levels than women. Settled-migrants possessed higher BP levels, except diastolic BP in males. The prevalence of hypertension ranges from 15% (neo-migrant women) to 25% (settled-migrant men), with no significant gender differences. Group differences were significant for men. Hypertension was more prevalent in older settled-migrants and younger neo-migrants. Recent migration was found to be a significant contributor to hypertension prevalence. Age contributed significantly to BP variation in both groups except in neo-migrant men. Pulse rate also contributed to systolic BP among neo-migrant women and settled-migrant men. Thus, urban residence and migration to urban areas can be a leading cause of increased prevalence of hypertension. Neo-migrants were subjected to more lifestyle insults and the stress generated during the adjustment process may be contributing to rise of BP even at younger ages.

  18. Osobennosti prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva Varmin'sko-Mazurskogo voevodstva i Kaliningradskoj oblasti v sfere turizma [Cross-border cooperation in tourism between the War-mian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyk Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The border location of the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region is a prerequisite for active cooperation at different institutional levels. The development of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship was launched in 1992, when the first agreements on international cooperation were signed. As of today, a high emphasis is placed on cross-border cooperation between the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region, which is manifested in a series of partner agreements and contracts. The local border traffic agreement between the Kaliningrad region and selected areas of the Republic of Poland should give an additional impetus for the developmentof the economies, services sectors, and tourism industries of the border territories and facilitate the development of these regions. The article makes an attempt to identify the determinants of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship that contribute to the development of tourism between the regions, as well as to outline the barriers to their cooperation. The results of the survey presented in the article indicate that the current activities aimed at the development of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the border regions of Poland are not sufficient. On the basis of the survey the authors identify the major barriers to cross-border cooperation as seen by the regions’ residents and authorities. The removal of these barriers can form the basis for developmental measures to improve the situation.

  19. Combining genetic markers and stable isotopes to reveal population connectivity and migration patterns in a neotropical migrant, Wilson's warbler (Wilsonia pusilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Sonya M; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Kimura, Mari; Smith, Thomas B

    2003-04-01

    We used results from the analysis of microsatellite DNA variation and hydrogen stable-isotope ratios to characterize the population structure of a neotropical migrant passerine, the Wilson's warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The resulting information was then used to infer migration patterns and population connectivity between breeding grounds in North America and overwintering areas in Mexico and Central America. The microsatellite data revealed genetic structure across the North American continent; populations in the west were found to significantly differ from the east. Minimal genetic structure was observed among western sites. The lack of isolation by distance and low variance in FST values suggests that gene flow could play an ongoing role in limiting genetic differentiation among sites in the western part of the distribution. However, additional information including estimates of effective population size and the proximity of the population to equilibrium is required before the role of gene flow can be assessed fully. Analysis of isotope data showed a negative relationship between latitude and hydrogen isotope ratios in breeding ground individuals. There was a positive relationship between wintering ground latitude and hydrogen isotope ratios for individuals that were genetically western in origin. This is consistent with a leapfrog pattern of migration, in which genetically western birds from the northernmost breeding areas overwinter at the most southerly locations in Central America. Additionally, isotopic ratios of western birds suggest that coastal breeders overwinter in western Mexico, while western birds from further inland and at high elevations overwinter in eastern Mexico. Using information from both genetic an isotopic approaches will probably be useful for identifying patterns of migration and population connectivity between breeding and overwintering areas, both important issues for conservation efforts, and may also contribute to investigation of the

  20. Crossing Borders without Leaving Town: The Impact of Cultural Immersion on the Perceptions of Teacher Education Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The racial/ethnic populations in public schools have changed dramatically in recent years and will continue to shift to a majority non-White population. The National Center for Education Statistics (2010) reports 67.3% of the student population in urban districts is composed of students of color. Yet, the population of teachers in the United…