WorldWideScience

Sample records for cross language plagiarism

  1. Web Based Cross Language Plagiarism Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2009-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross language and cultural border by providing different types of translation tools, cross language plagiarism, also known as translation plagiarism are bound to arise. Especially among the academic works, such issue will definitely affect the student's works including the quality of their assignments and paper works. In this paper, we propose a new approach in detecting cross language plagiarism. Our web based cross language plagiarism detection system is specially tuned to detect translation plagiarism by implementing different techniques and tools to assist the detection process. Google Translate API is used as our translation tool and Google Search API, which is used in our information retrieval process. Our system is also integrated with the fingerprint matching technique, which is a widely used plagiarism detection technique. In general, our proposed system is started by translating the input documents from Malay to English, followed by removal of stop words and stemming words, ...

  2. Citation-based plagiarism detection detecting disguised and cross-language plagiarism using citation pattern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gipp, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a problem with far-reaching consequences for the sciences. However, even today's best software-based systems can only reliably identify copy & paste plagiarism. Disguised plagiarism forms, including paraphrased text, cross-language plagiarism, as well as structural and idea plagiarism often remain undetected. This weakness of current systems results in a large percentage of scientific plagiarism going undetected. Bela Gipp provides an overview of the state-of-the art in plagiarism detection and an analysis of why these approaches fail to detect disguised plagiarism forms. The aut

  3. Cross-Language Plagiarism Detection System Using Latent Semantic Analysis and Learning Vector Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Putri Ratna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computerized cross-language plagiarism detection has recently become essential. With the scarcity of scientific publications in Bahasa Indonesia, many Indonesian authors frequently consult publications in English in order to boost the quantity of scientific publications in Bahasa Indonesia (which is currently rising. Due to the syntax disparity between Bahasa Indonesia and English, most of the existing methods for automated cross-language plagiarism detection do not provide satisfactory results. This paper analyses the probability of developing Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA for a computerized cross-language plagiarism detector for two languages with different syntax. To improve performance, various alterations in LSA are suggested. By using a linear vector quantization (LVQ classifier in the LSA and taking into account the Frobenius norm, output has reached up to 65.98% in accuracy. The results of the experiments showed that the best accuracy achieved is 87% with a document size of 6 words, and the document definition size must be kept below 10 words in order to maintain high accuracy. Additionally, based on experimental results, this paper suggests utilizing the frequency occurrence method as opposed to the binary method for the term–document matrix construction.

  4. Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-09-01

    The theft of someone's words or thoughts--plagiarism--has long been a concern in medical literature. The phenomenon applies to unreferenced published or unpublished data that belong to someone else, including applications for grants and a publication submitted in a different language. Other acts of plagiarism are paraphrasing without crediting the source, using "blanket" references, "second-generation" references, and duplicate or repetitive publication of one's own previously published work. Does incorporating a peer reviewer's ideas constitute plagiarism? The requirement of many journals for a short list of references is problematic, as is confusion about what constitutes common knowledge. What criteria should be used for detecting plagiarism? To make an accusation of plagiarism is serious and perilous. Motivations for plagiarism are considered, and 2 striking historical examples of plagiarism are summarized. We believe that with insight into its causes and effects, plagiarism can be eliminated.

  5. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  6. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  7. Plagiarism In English Language Theses In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Raskova Octaberlina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that plagiarism in Indonesia exists due to some reasons. The reasons range from the requirements on the part of the students to adhere to uniformity in terms of thesis format to failure on the part of the government to effectively enforce a regulation dealing with plagiarism. Anecdotal observations as a student in one Indonesian university will give color to the discussion throughout this article. A recommendation to subdue plagiarism in Indonesia will conclude the article.

  8. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  9. Sentence-Based Natural Language Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel R.; Joy, Mike S.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing levels of access to higher education in the United Kingdom, larger class sizes make it unrealistic for tutors to be expected to identify instances of peer-to-peer plagiarism by eye and so automated solutions to the problem are required. This document details a novel algorithm for comparison of suspect documents at a sentence…

  10. CrossCheck plagiarism screening : Experience of the Journal of Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Katsumi

    Due to technological advances in the past two decades, researchers now have unprecedented access to a tremendous amount of useful information. However, because of the extreme pressure to publish, this abundance of information can sometimes tempt researchers to commit scientific misconduct. A serious form of such misconduct is plagiarism. Editors are always concerned about the possibility of publishing plagiarized manuscripts. The plagiarism detection tool CrossCheck allows editors to scan and analyze manuscripts effectively. The Journal of Epidemiology took part in a trial of CrossCheck, and this article discusses the concerns journal editors might have regarding the use of CrossCheck and its analysis. In addition, potential problems identified by CrossCheck, including self-plagiarism, are introduced.

  11. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  12. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  13. Gauging the Effectiveness of Anti-Plagiarism Software: An Empirical Study of Second Language Graduate Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The use of anti-plagiarism services has grown very quickly in recent years to the point where over half of American universities now have a license. The most popular of these services, Turnitin, claims that it is licensed in 126 countries and available in 10 languages suggesting that the service is becoming widely used around the world. In order…

  14. Gauging the Effectiveness of Anti-Plagiarism Software: An Empirical Study of Second Language Graduate Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The use of anti-plagiarism services has grown very quickly in recent years to the point where over half of American universities now have a license. The most popular of these services, Turnitin, claims that it is licensed in 126 countries and available in 10 languages suggesting that the service is becoming widely used around the world. In order…

  15. Detecting and Preventing Plagiarism in a Foreign Language E-Learning Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Orthaber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is becoming an increasingly common if not an essential strategy in academic institutions and the Faculty of Logistics of the University of Maribor, Slovenia is no exception. However, this new teaching mode also brings about new forms of academic misconduct, which is the main topic of this paper. The first proposed methodological approach was to take into account students’ general experience, motivation and satisfaction with e-learning from previously undertaken studies. Then students’ submitted assignments from the 8-week foreign language course English in Logistics were analyzed with the objective of finding whether the perception of intellectual property rights of those students who had been warned has changed and what the reasons for plagiarism might have been: did plagiarism attempts somewhat diminish, or did students deliberately continue to copy from the internet? What reasons for plagiarizing other than stress resulting from potential problems of integrating contemporary technology into the learning process may there be?

  16. Stealing or Sharing? Cross-Cultural Issues of Plagiarism in an Open-Source Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitch, Russell

    2016-01-01

    More professors and institutions want to move from a detect-and-punish to an educate-and-prevent model for dealing with plagiarism. Understanding the causes of plagiarism, especially among international students, can aid in efforts to educate students and prevent plagiarism. Research points to a confluence of causal factors, such as time pressure,…

  17. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  18. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  19. Detecting and (not) dealing with plagiarism in an engineering paper: beyond CrossCheck-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Huo, Zhao-lin; Zhang, Yue-hong

    2014-06-01

    In papers in areas such as engineering and the physical sciences, figures, tables and formulae are the basic elements to communicate the authors' core ideas, workings and results. As a computational text-matching tool, CrossCheck cannot work on these non-textual elements to detect plagiarism. Consequently, when comparing engineering or physical sciences papers, CrossCheck may return a low similarity index even when plagiarism has in fact taken place. A case of demonstrated plagiarism involving engineering papers with a low similarity index is discussed, and editor's experiences and suggestions are given on how to tackle this problem. The case shows a lack of understanding of plagiarism by some authors or editors, and illustrates the difficulty of getting some editors and publishers to take appropriate action. Consequently, authors, journal editors, and reviewers, as well as research institutions all are duty-bound not only to recognize the differences between ethical and unethical behavior in order to protect a healthy research environment, and also to maintain consistent ethical publishing standards.

  20. Cross-language psycholinguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Cross-linguistic research can be of valaue to psycholinguistics by allowing tests of hypotheses the testing of which would be severely confounded in a single language, and by providing simple and readily available control conditions. For a long time the resources of this kind of research were virtu

  1. An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabieh, Christine

    One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

  2. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    Plagiarism Plagiarism is, we are pleased to observe, not a common occurrence in Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB); however, like those responsible for all scientific journals, we are concerned about plagiarism, and very keen to prevent it. The Publications Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) has prepared a generic editorial on plagiarism. The editorial is reproduced here (with permission of the IOMP), with slight modifications to enhance its relevance to the audience of PMB, along with our procedures for dealing with any cases of plagiarism should they ever arise. Plagiarism (from the Latin 'plagiare', 'to kidnap') is defined as 'the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work' (the Random House Dictionary of the English Language—unabridged). Plagiarism is a serious breach of research ethics that, if committed intentionally, is considered research misconduct. Plagiarism in its most serious form is the passing off of all, or large sections, of another author's published paper as one's original work. If, following appropriate confidential investigation (see below), such a plagiarism is established, this will result in heavy sanctions including retraction of the article, up to a 5 year publication ban from PMB, and informing of employers and/or professional bodies (even after one offence). This may result in loss of research funding, loss of professional stature, and even termination of employment of the plagiarizing author(s). Plagiarism undermines the authenticity of research manuscripts and the journals in which they are published, and compromises the integrity of the scientific process and the public regard for science. Plagiarism violates the literary rights of the individuals who are plagiarized, and the property rights of copyright holders. Violation of these rights may result in legal action against the individual(s) committing

  3. Local Plagiarisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  4. Local Plagiarisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  5. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...... document. Our plagiarism detection system, like many Information Retrieval systems, is evaluated with metrics of precision and recall....

  6. Research of Ch-En Cross-Lingual Plagiarism Detection Based on Translation Features%基于译文特征的中英文跨语种抄袭识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁松翔; 刘功申

    2012-01-01

    Research on anti plagiarism detection of scientific papers in single language has acquired rele- vance and a number of practical systems have been developed. However, the relevant study and achieve- ment are relatively few in cross-lingual anti-plagiarism. Targeting at scientific papers, this paper discussed the implementation of Chinese-English cross-lingual plagiarism detection. The paper locates a set of trans- lation features by digging internal laws of Chinese translation. Through these features, papers which are suspected of plagiarism can be identified by the decision tree algorithm. In open test, its recalling rate achieves 88.68% and the precision rate 79.17%.%针对科技类学术论文的跨语种反抄袭识别问题,以中英跨语种抄袭的识别为目标展开了研究,用于探讨进行跨语种抄袭识别的方法.通过挖掘中文译文的内在规律找到了一组可以表明译文风格的译文特征,并通过这些译文特征和决策树算法识别出存在抄袭嫌疑的科技论文.试验系统开放测试的准确率和召回率分别到达了88.68%和79.17%.

  7. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak-Smolcić, Vesna; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biodhemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biodchemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal.

  8. Cross-language information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Jian-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Search for information is no longer exclusively limited within the native language of the user, but is more and more extended to other languages. This gives rise to the problem of cross-language information retrieval (CLIR), whose goal is to find relevant information written in a different language to a query. In addition to the problems of monolingual information retrieval (IR), translation is the key problem in CLIR: one should translate either the query or the documents from a language to another. However, this translation problem is not identical to full-text machine translation (MT): the

  9. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  10. Plagiarism Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  11. Plagiarism Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  12. Web Plagiarism: Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Voiskounsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire measuring web plagiarism (or academic cheating, worked out by Underwood and Szabo (2003 has been adapted and applied to the population of undergraduate science students in Russia. The students at four technical universities are questioned (N=292. The study shows the students perform webplagiarizing, i.e. take materials from the Internet and hand these materials in as their own assignments. Russian students are reportedly competent in the use of the Internet; they report to have rather few moral barriers towards plagiarizing; they believe most of their mates do the same; they are not sure their tutors are able and willing to recognize cheating; finally, they are competent enough in English and are hypothetically able to plagiarize in two languages.

  13. Plagiarism Detection Based on SCAM Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzelmi, Daniele; Carlone, Domenico; Rizzello, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex problem and considered one of the biggest in publishing of scientific, engineering and other types of documents. Plagiarism has also increased with the widespread use of the Internet as large amount of digital data is available. Plagiarism is not just direct copy but also...... paraphrasing, rewording, adapting parts, missing references or wrong citations. This makes the problem more difficult to handle adequately. Plagiarism detection techniques are applied by making a distinction between natural and programming languages. Our proposed detection process is based on natural language...

  14. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  15. University Student Online Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  16. University Student Online Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  17. Detection of Plagiarism in Arabic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Bachir Menai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many language-sensitive tools for detecting plagiarism in natural language documents have been developed, particularly for English. Language-independent tools exist as well, but are considered restrictive as they usually do not take into account specific language features. Detecting plagiarism in Arabic documents is particularly a challenging task because of the complex linguistic structure of Arabic. In this paper, we present a plagiarism detection tool for comparison of Arabic documents to identify potential similarities. The tool is based on a new comparison algorithm that uses heuristics to compare suspect documents at different hierarchical levels to avoid unnecessary comparisons. We evaluate its performance in terms of precision and recall on a large data set of Arabic documents, and show its capability in identifying direct and sophisticated copying, such as sentence reordering and synonym substitution. We also demonstrate its advantages over other plagiarism detection tools, including Turnitin, the well-known language-independent tool.

  18. Rethinking Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Chynette

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism, presenting someone's words or other creative products as one's own, is a mandatory discussion and writing assignment in many undergraduate business communication courses. Class discussions about this topic tend to be lively, ranging from questions about simply omitting identified sources to different standards of ethical behaviors…

  19. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  20. Evaluation of the SHAPD2 Algorithm Efficiency in Plagiarism Detection Task Using PAN Plagiarism Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Ceglarek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of the ongoing novel research in the area of natural language processing focusing on plagiarism detection, semantic networks and semantic compression. The results demon strate that the seman tic compression is a valuable addition to the existing methods used in plagiary detection. The application of the seman tic compression boosts the efficiency of Sentence Hashing Algorithm for Plagiarism Detection2 (SHAPD2 and authors ’implementation of the w-shingling algorithm. Experiments were performed on Clough & Stephenson corpusas well as an available PAN – PC - 10plagiarism corpus used to evaluate plagiarism detection methods, so the results can be compared with other research teams.

  1. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  2. Plagiarism in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Plagiarism is a major problem for research. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the concept of "plagiarism" and discuss plagiarism normatively in relation to research. We suggest that plagiarism should be understood as "someone using someone else's intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own" and argue that this is an adequate and fruitful definition. We discuss a number of circumstances that make plagiarism more or less grave and the plagiariser more or less blameworthy. As a result of our normative analysis, we suggest that what makes plagiarism reprehensible as such is that it distorts scientific credit. In addition, intentional plagiarism involves dishonesty. There are, furthermore, a number of potentially negative consequences of plagiarism.

  3. Foreign-Educated Graduate Nursing Students and Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Mary; Collins, Shawn Bryant

    2017-04-01

    Plagiarism is a concern related to students educated in countries other than the United States, where English is not the first language spoken. The authors' experience with plagiarism by a foreign-educated nursing student prompted an investigation into this topic. This article focuses on the occurrence of unintentional plagiarism, a common focus with foreign-educated students, addressing linguistic, as well as cultural, viewpoints. The findings from the literature on plagiarism among foreign-educated students are elicited and the article discusses strategies to help foreign-educated students learn about plagiarism and how to properly cite and reference sources. A variety of proactive strategies exist that can be used by both faculty and students to mitigate the occurrence of plagiarism by foreign-educated nursing students in higher education, starting with a clearer understanding of some of the antecedents to the problem of plagiarism. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):211-214.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Exploring the attitudes of medical faculty members and students in Pakistan towards plagiarism: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach's alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum.

  5. Exploring the attitudes of medical faculty members and students in Pakistan towards plagiarism: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Azam Rathore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan.Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis.Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52% female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years. One fifth of the students (19.7% trained in medical writing (19.7%, research ethics (25.2% or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%. Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66 or assistant professors (20 with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68, research ethics (64 and were currently involved in medical writing (64. Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1 and 48.4 (5.9 respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided.Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum.

  6. Exploring the attitudes of medical faculty members and students in Pakistan towards plagiarism: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum. PMID:26157615

  7. Crossing Boundaries: Journeys into Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses two autobiographical accounts of language learning within the context of highly significant personal relationships to argue that the functional emphasis of communicative language teaching has narrowed our understanding of the potential personal and educational meaning of what it is to learn a language. The author's learning of…

  8. The confounding factors leading to plagiarism in academic writing and some suggested remedies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Guraya, Shaista Salman

    2017-05-01

    There is a staggering upsurge in the incidence of plagiarism of scientific literature. Literature shows divergent views about the factors that make plagiarism reprehensible. This review explores the causes and remedies for the perennial academic problem of plagiarism. Data sources were searched for full text English language articles published from 2000 to 2015. Data selection was done using medical subject headline (MeSH) terms plagiarism, unethical writing, academic theft, retraction, medical field, and plagiarism detection software. Data extraction was undertaken by selecting titles from retrieved references and data synthesis identified key factors leading to plagiarism such as unawareness of research ethics, poor writing skills and pressure or publish mantra. Plagiarism can be managed by a balance among its prevention, detection by plagiarism detection software, and institutional sanctions against proven plagiarists. Educating researchers about ethical principles of academic writing and institutional support in training writers about academic integrity and ethical publications can curtail plagiarism.

  9. Plagiarism – A Noble Misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-07-01

    serious misconduct, penalty depends on the severity of plagiarism. It ranges from formal disciplinary action (apology letters, retraction of the published article to criminal charges (suspension and prosecution of authors.23-27 Due to the lack of knowledge on plagiarism or awareness among the authors, editors, reviewers, and educational institutions some types of plagiarized articles are allowed to publish unknowingly. All the scientific writers must check for the text duplication unintentionally by using plagiarism detection software before submitting to any journal office. Reviewers also should use plagiarism detection tools in order to avoid false publication practice and finally the editor of the journal should finalize the fate of the article based on the extent of plagiarism by using powerful plagiarism detection software. To detect plagiarism more easily, during the 80’s of last century software started being developed to detect academic and scientific plagiarism. Academic plagiarism is more easily detected by the software as Turnitin and SafeAssign and scientific plagiarism with CrossCheck and eTBlast software. The software consists of algorithms to detect similarities, associated databases and web sites by which it compares the article. Sometimes simple Google Search also helps in detecting plagiarism.28-35 It is very easy to find information on a topic that needs to be explored, but it is not always easy to add that information to own work and not to create a plagiarism. There are several ways to avoid plagiarism:14,36 •\tParaphrasing - Important information written in own words. •\tQuote - It is literally the wording of certain authors and the sentences are always placed in quotes. •\tCitation - Citing is one of the effective ways to avoid plagiarism. This usually entails the addition of the author(s and the date of the publication or similar information. Standard document formatting guidelines i.e. APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. are used. •\tReferences must

  10. Cross-language and second language speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen

    2017-01-01

    in cross-language and second language speech perception research: The mapping issue (the perceptual relationship of sounds of the native and the nonnative language in the mind of the native listener and the L2 learner), the perceptual and learning difficulty/ease issue (how this relationship may or may...... not cause perceptual and learning difficulty), and the plasticity issue (whether and how experience with the nonnative language affects the perceptual organization of speech sounds in the mind of L2 learners). One important general conclusion from this research is that perceptual learning is possible at all......This chapter provides an overview of the main research questions and findings in the areas of second language and cross-language speech perception research, and of the most widely used models that have guided this research. The overview is structured in a way that addresses three overarching topics...

  11. Plagiarism (Coming to Terms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Darsie

    1996-01-01

    Explores the origins of the word "plagiarism" and concepts of authorship. Examines a number of current issues concerning plagiarism, for instance, how the term complicates teacher-student relationships and peer cooperation in writing. (TB)

  12. The plagiarism project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nancy R; Sorensen, Karen; Habousha, Racheline G; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a problem plaguing academia for centuries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to copy material from one electronic document and paste it into another. Many cases are unintentional, as writers are unaware of the rules regarding plagiarism. This paper provides an overview of plagiarism and describes a project in which librarians partnered with the assistant dean of a graduate science program to educate students about the perils of plagiarism and encourage ethical writing practices.

  13. Survey of Text Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaraa Abuobieda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to review and list the advantages and limitations of the significant effective techniques employed or developed in text plagiarism detection.  It was found that many of the proposed methods for plagiarism detection have a weakness and lacking for detecting some types of plagiarized text. This paper discussed several important issues in plagiarism detection such as; plagiarism detection Tasks, plagiarism detection process and some of the current plagiarism detection techniques.

  14. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  15. Plagiarism in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  16. The problem of plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa S; Steneck, Nicholas H

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a form of research misconduct and a serious violation of the norms of science. It is the misrepresentation of another's ideas or words as one's own, without proper acknowledgement of the original source. Certain aspects of plagiarism make it less straightforward than this definition suggests. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. Federal Government has developed and refined its policies on misconduct, and Federal agencies, as well as research institutions, have established approaches to responding to allegations and instances of plagiarism. At present, efforts to avert plagiarism focus on plagiarism-detection software and instructional strategies.

  17. Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6 ± 3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7 ± 0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4 ± 0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1. It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medicalresearch ethics issues such as plagiarism.

  18. Attitude toward plagiarism among Iranian medical faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Hassanpour, Kiana; Aramesh, Kiarash; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. Eighty seven filled-up questionnaires were collected. Mean total number of correct answers was 11.6±3.1. Mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating self-plagiarism was 1.7±0.4 and mean number of correct answers to questions evaluating plagiarism acceptance was 1.4±0.2. There was no significant correlation between plagiarism acceptance and self-plagiarism (r=0.17, P=0.1). It is essential to provide materials (such as workshops, leaflets and mandatory courses) to make Iranian medical faculty members familiar with medical research ethics issues such as plagiarism.

  19. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.K. [Francis Marion Univ., Florence, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  20. Plagiarism: understanding and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Paul

    2007-08-01

    An epidemic of plagiarism is sweeping the world. A study carried out in the US suggested that 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once (Ashworth et al 1997). Alternative evidence from an American education and software company, Plagiarism.org, reported that 36% of undergraduates plagiarise written material and that 90% of students believe that cheaters are never caught or disciplined (Plagiarism.org 2005). Closer to home, research carried out in the UK by Clare (1996) suggested that 50% of students copy work and invent data. More recently the Plagiarism Advisory Service, based at Northumbria University, reported that 25% of students plagiarise, while lecturers only detect plagiarism 3% of the time (Plagiarism Advisory Service 2006).

  1. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  2. PLAGIARISM DETECTION PROBLEMS AND ANALYSIS SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR ITS SOLVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed at: 1 the definition of plagiarism in texts on formal and natural languages, building a taxonomy of plagiarism; 2 identify major problems of plagiarism detection when using automated tools to solve them; 3 Analysis and systematization of information obtained during the review, testing and analysis of existing detection systems. Methodology. To identify the requirements of the software to detect plagiarism apply methods of analysis of normative documentation (legislative base and competitive tools. To check the requirements of the testing methods used and GUI interfaces review. Findings. The paper considers the concept of plagiarism issues of proliferation and classification. A review of existing systems to identify plagiarism: desktop applications, and online resources. Highlighting their functional characteristics, determine the format of the input and output data and constraints on them, customization features and access. Drill down system requirements is made. Originality. The authors proposed schemes complement the existing hierarchical taxonomy of plagiarism. Analysis of existing systems is done in terms of functionality and possibilities for use of large amounts of data. Practical value. The practical significance is determined by the breadth of the problem of plagiarism in various fields. In Ukraine, develops the legal framework for the fight against plagiarism, which requires the active solution development tasks, improvement and delivery of relevant software (PO. This work contributes to the solution of these problems. Review of existing programs, Anti-plagiarism, as well as study and research experience in the field and update the concept of plagiarism, the strategy allows it to identify more fully articulate to the functional performance requirements, the input and output of the developed software, as well as to identify the features of such software. The article focuses on the features of solving the

  3. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  4. Research into Plagiarism Cases and Plagiarism Detection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkur, M; Paršutins, S; Borisovs, A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of information technology intellectual property becomes especially valuable. This is one of the causes why the cases of the plagiarism appear more frequently in all vital sectors. Due to that, there is a growing need for different instruments for the protection and verification of copyright for finding plagiarism. Before checking the document for plagiarism, reviewing algorithms and approaches for searching plagiarism, you must know and understand what constitutes the plagiarism. T...

  5. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  6. Plagiarism and Cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Permuth, Steve

    Plagiarism and cheating can be defined as academic dishonesty and represent policy concerns among all levels of education. Such cases involve academic versus disciplinary decisions and the need to determine the student's understanding of the definition of plagiarism or cheating. This paper analyzes six legal issues raised in court cases and…

  7. The Plagiarism Polyconundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany, Reine D.

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism hinders student success because it shortcuts genuine writing practice and incurs penalties when discovered. Although students are aware of its potential consequences, plagiarism continues. This article reflects on the polyconundrum of empathizing with the many hindrances to student writing while deploying strategies to reduce plagiarism…

  8. Academic dishonesty and misconduct: Curbing plagiarism in the Muslim world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the theft of someone’s ideas or language, and is a form of cheating which is morally and ethically unacceptable. This study analyses the nature of plagiarism from an Islamic perspective and its prevalence in institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world, especially among faculty members. It also examines the ways in which universities attempt to minimise or marginalise plagiarism. This study is warranted by the fact that there is relatively very little research on the issue of plagiarism at universities in the Muslim world and that existing research seldom addresses the issue of academics engaged in such unethical practices. Based upon existing surveys, interviews, and documentary sources, the study found that in earlier periods, standards were not inevitably lower than those that exist today and that the scope for condemning plagiarists has always existed. It also found that despite Islam’s loathing, the incidence of plagiarism has grown significantly among Muslim students and faculty members in the Muslim world. The response to plagiarism varies from country to country. Some Muslim countries tolerate plagiarism, while others are taking steps to curb it. Institutions in Malaysia approach the problem of plagiarism as a matter of morality and crime that emphasise the need to develop writing and researching skills. They resort to honour codes, emphasise law and enforcement, and teach ways to write and cite. However, the success of these methods needs to be further probed.

  9. Undergraduates’ Misconceptions Concerning Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Çakmak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In their education lives undergraduate students’ one of the most encountered difficulty is to provide citations for their research projects and term papers. This difficulty drives students to two kinds of plagiarism: intentional or unintentional plagiarism. In this context, plagiarism is a no ethical  scientific behaviour we encounter most frequently among undergraduate students. When plagiarism is investigated in national and international literature, which is considered as an important problem regarding scientific communication and ethics principles, it is seen that research focused on intentional plagiarism. In this context the present study aimed to focus on university students’ unintentional plagiarism, a nonethical academic behaviour, based on their misconceptions. Adding it is aimed to attract the attention of the researchers in librarianship and information sciences to the problem, increase their awareness and to encourage them to make in-depth research. Thus the present study includes issues of conceptions; learning concepts; misconceptions; plagiarism; misconceptions of university students regarding plagiarism and the reasoning; defining and preventing misconceptions; the roles of librarianships and teachers in correcting the misconceptions regarding plagiarism. Present study followed a comprehensive review utilizing descriptive approaches to reveal the situation. At the end of the study a short summary evaluating the situation depending on the literature analysed is also added. Adding ideas and suggestions in how to reveal probable misconceptions and how to prevent or decrease their formation are also presented.

  10. Plagiarism: words and ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' label should not be used for deeds which are very different in nature and importance.

  11. Prevalence of plagiarism in recent submissions to the Croatian Medical Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baždarić, Ksenija; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Brumini, Gordana; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of plagiarism in manuscripts submitted for publication in the Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ). All manuscripts submitted in 2009-2010 were analyzed using plagiarism detection software: eTBLAST, CrossCheck, and WCopyfind. Plagiarism was suspected in manuscripts with more than 10% of the text derived from other sources. These manuscripts were checked against the Déjà vu database and manually verified by investigators. Of 754 submitted manuscripts, 105 (14%) were identified by the software as suspicious of plagiarism. Manual verification confirmed that 85 (11%) manuscripts were plagiarized: 63 (8%) were true plagiarism and 22 (3%) were self-plagiarism. Plagiarized manuscripts were mostly submitted from China (21%), Croatia (14%), and Turkey (19%). There was no significant difference in the text similarity rate between plagiarized and self-plagiarized manuscripts (25% [95% CI 22-27%] vs. 28% [95% CI 20-33%]; U = 645.50; P = 0.634). Differences in text similarity rate were found between various sections of self-plagiarized manuscripts (H = 12.65, P = 0.013). The plagiarism rate in the Materials and Methods (61% (95% CI 41-68%) was higher than in the Results (23% [95% CI 17-36%], U = 33.50; P = 0.009) or Discussion (25.5 [95% CI 15-35%]; U = 57.50; P Plagiarism detection software combined with manual verification may be used to detect plagiarized manuscripts and prevent their publication. The prevalence of plagiarized manuscripts submitted to the CMJ, a journal dedicated to promoting research integrity, was 11% in the 2-year period 2009-2010.

  12. Plagiarism under a Magnifying-Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoytova, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This paper embodies the findings from a small part, of a larger study on plagiarism, at the School of Engineering (SOE). The study is a cross-sectional survey, conducted in an institutional setting. 15 senior academic members of staff (N = 15), from SOE were invited to complete a questionnaire. The questioner was pre-tested, to ensure its validity…

  13. Plagiarism Among Faculty Applicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    ....5 Re-education and re-emphasizing the importance of "no plagiarism" in academic work, as well as establishing standards for all present academic faculty members, including senior and administrative...

  14. Plagiarism in the Context of Education and Evolving Detection Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Seksenbayev, Bakhytzhan; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Kitas, George D

    2017-08-01

    Plagiarism may take place in any scientific journals despite currently employed anti-plagiarism tools. The absence of widely acceptable definitions of research misconduct and reliance solely on similarity checks do not allow journal editors to prevent most complex cases of recycling of scientific information and wasteful, or 'predatory,' publishing. This article analyses Scopus-based publication activity and evidence on poor writing, lack of related training, emerging anti-plagiarism strategies, and new forms of massive wasting of resources by publishing largely recycled items, which evade the 'red flags' of similarity checks. In some non-Anglophone countries 'copy-and-paste' writing still plagues pre- and postgraduate education. Poor research management, absence of courses on publication ethics, and limited access to quality sources confound plagiarism as a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary phenomenon. Over the past decade, the advent of anti-plagiarism software checks has helped uncover elementary forms of textual recycling across journals. But such a tool alone proves inefficient for preventing complex forms of plagiarism. Recent mass retractions of plagiarized articles by reputable open-access journals point to critical deficiencies of current anti-plagiarism software that do not recognize manipulative paraphrasing and editing. Manipulative editing also finds its way to predatory journals, ignoring the adherence to publication ethics and accommodating nonsense plagiarized items. The evolving preventive strategies are increasingly relying on intelligent (semantic) digital technologies, comprehensively evaluating texts, keywords, graphics, and reference lists. It is the right time to enforce adherence to global editorial guidance and implement a comprehensive anti-plagiarism strategy by helping all stakeholders of scholarly communication. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Plagiarism in the Context of Education and Evolving Detection Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Seksenbayev, Bakhytzhan

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism may take place in any scientific journals despite currently employed anti-plagiarism tools. The absence of widely acceptable definitions of research misconduct and reliance solely on similarity checks do not allow journal editors to prevent most complex cases of recycling of scientific information and wasteful, or ‘predatory,’ publishing. This article analyses Scopus-based publication activity and evidence on poor writing, lack of related training, emerging anti-plagiarism strategies, and new forms of massive wasting of resources by publishing largely recycled items, which evade the ‘red flags’ of similarity checks. In some non-Anglophone countries ‘copy-and-paste’ writing still plagues pre- and postgraduate education. Poor research management, absence of courses on publication ethics, and limited access to quality sources confound plagiarism as a cross-cultural and multidisciplinary phenomenon. Over the past decade, the advent of anti-plagiarism software checks has helped uncover elementary forms of textual recycling across journals. But such a tool alone proves inefficient for preventing complex forms of plagiarism. Recent mass retractions of plagiarized articles by reputable open-access journals point to critical deficiencies of current anti-plagiarism software that do not recognize manipulative paraphrasing and editing. Manipulative editing also finds its way to predatory journals, ignoring the adherence to publication ethics and accommodating nonsense plagiarized items. The evolving preventive strategies are increasingly relying on intelligent (semantic) digital technologies, comprehensively evaluating texts, keywords, graphics, and reference lists. It is the right time to enforce adherence to global editorial guidance and implement a comprehensive anti-plagiarism strategy by helping all stakeholders of scholarly communication. PMID:28665055

  16. A Cross-Linguistic Approach to Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Revives Eric Hawkins' idea of a language "trivium" where language awareness activities should fill the space between the learner's two languages. Draws a distinction between awareness and consciousness of language and suggests that cross-linguistic relationships are a major source of input salience strengthening, due to bilinguals' metalinguistic…

  17. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  18. How College Freshmen View Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    Classifies students' responses to a plagiarism questionnaire into six categories. Concludes that students take plagiarism seriously and that their reasons are based most often on fairness, individual responsibility, and ownership. (JAD)

  19. Journals May Soon Use Anti-Plagiarism Software on Their Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This spring, academic journals may turn the anti-plagiarism software that professors have been using against their students on the professors themselves. CrossRef, a publishing industry association, and the software company iParadigms announced a deal last week to create CrossCheck, an anti-plagiarism program for academic journals. The software…

  20. Journals May Soon Use Anti-Plagiarism Software on Their Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This spring, academic journals may turn the anti-plagiarism software that professors have been using against their students on the professors themselves. CrossRef, a publishing industry association, and the software company iParadigms announced a deal last week to create CrossCheck, an anti-plagiarism program for academic journals. The software…

  1. Chinese University EFL Teachers’ Knowledge of and Stance on Plagiarism = Conocimientos y actitudes ante el plagio del profesorado de lengua inglesa en universidades chinas

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guangwei; Sun, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has engendered increasing concern in academia in the past few decades. While previous studies have investigated student plagiarism from various perspectives, how plagiarism is understood and responded to by university teachers, especially those in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) writing contexts, has been under-researched. As academic insiders and educators of future academics, university teachers play a key role in educating students against plagiarism and upholding academic i...

  2. Chinese University EFL Teachers’ Knowledge of and Stance on Plagiarism = Conocimientos y actitudes ante el plagio del profesorado de lengua inglesa en universidades chinas

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guangwei; Sun, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has engendered increasing concern in academia in the past few decades. While previous studies have investigated student plagiarism from various perspectives, how plagiarism is understood and responded to by university teachers, especially those in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) writing contexts, has been under-researched. As academic insiders and educators of future academics, university teachers play a key role in educating students against plagiarism and upholding academic i...

  3. Plagiarism Detection Using Artificial Intelligence Technique In Multiple Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Sahu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism relates to the act of taking information or ideas of someone else and demand it as your own. Basically it reproduce the existing information in modified format. In every field of education it becomes a serious issue. Various techniques and tools are derived these days to detect plagiarism. Various types of plagiarism are there like text matching copy paste grammar based method etc.This paper proposes a new method implemented in a program where we utilise a text set to identify the copied part by comparing with some existing multiple files. Here we put the concept of a machine learning language i.e k-NN. It helps us to identify whether a paper is plagiarized or not.

  4. Cross-Language Support Mechanisms Significantly Aid Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary software systems combine many artifacts specified in various modeling and programming languages, domainspecific and general purpose as well. Since multi-language systems are so widespread, working on them calls for tools with cross-language support mechanisms such as (1) visualization...... tasks on the JTrac web application using a prototype tool implementing these mechanisms. The results speak clearly for integration of cross-language support mechanisms into software development tools, and justify research on automatic inference, manipulation and handling of cross-language relations......., (2) static checking, (3) navigation, and (4) refactoring of cross-language relations. We investigate whether these four mechanisms indeed improve efficiency and quality of development of multi-language systems. We run a controlled experiment in which 22 participants perform typical software evolution...

  5. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: Evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners o

  6. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  7. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: Evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners o

  8. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: An Analysis of Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel E.; Srinivasan, Padmini

    1998-01-01

    Investigates an automatic method for Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) that utilizes the multilingual Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to translate Spanish natural-language queries into English. Results indicate that for Spanish, the UMLS Metathesaurus-based CLIR method is at least equivalent to if not better than…

  9. The Study of Language and Communication in Cross Cultural Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽

    2016-01-01

    Language plays an important role in the contemporary business communication. Regarding to the businesspersons' choices of language, jargon, jokes and their applications in cross cultural business, suggests that language is in fact a part of a strategic discourse between diverse groups within the organization and the business scope.

  10. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  11. What is Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2012-01-01

    Manuscripts submitted to The Astrophysical Journal are required to contain "novel and significant" material and to be free of plagiarism. There is a surprising amount of confusion regarding the definition of plagiarism and what constitutes prior publication. I will discuss the definitions used by the ApJ and the procedures we follow to to support this rule. Individual members of the community frequently show a very different understanding of these standards and are surprised at the conflict. Time allowing, I will briefly discuss some of the other common ethical problems that arise during the preparation and publication of articles.

  12. Explorations in bilingual word recognition : cross-modal, cross-sectional, and cross-language effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulpen, B.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation explored different aspects of bilingual word recognition. First, bilingual auditory word recognition was examined using interlingual homophones in a cross-modal priming task. Bilinguals were found to activate word candidates in both languages, but were also sensitive to sublexical

  13. Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failures and Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟倩

    2012-01-01

      In cross-cultural communication, it is found that many communicational aims could not be successful y achieved, even if the speaker is good at using the target language. The problem may lie in the insufficient awareness of the cultural differences. This paper aims to point out the importance of cross-cultural communication in language teaching by discussing the different types of the cross-cultural prag-matic failures.

  14. Investigating Some Main Causes and Reasons of Writing Plagiarism in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zarfsaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring the causes and reasons of the EFL learners’ plagiarism. To this end, 150 females and males TEFL students from State and Azad universities in Iran, participated the study. A questionnaire developed by Rezanejad and Rezaeibased (2013 and a semi-structured interview which were piloted on a similar sample before administering were used as the instruments of the study. To triangulate the findings, for the qualitative part of the study, a semi-structured interview including 16 questions was run with 10 learners to collect the quantitative data at the end of the study. Based on the findings of this study, it was revealed that most of the students were aware of the concept of plagiarism and had the same definition of it. Moreover, their professors used the Internet and search engines to detect plagiarism and warned them about plagiarism continuously.  The students claimed inadequate information about how not to plagiarize and less command over English language to be the main reason of plagiarism. They heard of it from their university professors, then in workshops or seminars on plagiarism, and finally from their high school teachers. Moreover, they got familiar with the concept of plagiarism through university professors, friends or family members, newspapers and magazines, Internet, TV, and radio. The implications are discussed in terms of raising learners' awareness about plagiarism in EFL contexts.

  15. Plagiarism and scientific writing: a personal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Irulandy

    2012-11-01

    There have been a number of papers that have addressed the issue of plagiarism. Nevertheless, the charges of plagiarism usually merit little attention with experts, because it is still not clear what sort of copying actually constitutes plagiarism. Another problem that eludes consensus is whether plagiarism was committed with or without intention. This paper discusses certain issues relating to plagiarism and differentiates between intentional and unintentional forms of plagiarism.

  16. Students versus Plagiarism: How is Online Plagiarism Detection Service Perceived?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Affan Ramadhana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technology plays a considerable role for students in writing their theses. The positive side, it will help the students to find countless number of academic sources ranging from journal articles to complete theses written by other scholars. On the other hand, it will also create a chance for the students to commit plagiarism easier. Unoriginal writing and plagiarism in this digital era can be detected in the digital way by using plagiarism detection software. This paper elaborates how students understand the concept of plagiarism, how they avoid plagiarism, and how they perceive online plagiarism detection service. The data was taken from interviews to MA students during their period of thesis writing. This paper concludes several important outlines to be learning guidelines for the students in improving their academic writing.

  17. The Ethics of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Peggy

    Within the academy the commonly held definition of plagiarism--using another's words, ideas, or stylistic individuality without attribution--is widespread, appearing on most English course syllabi. Judicial guidelines are followed: neither stealing nor ignorance of the law is to be sanctioned. Furthermore, penalties for students can be severe: a…

  18. AST-Based Multi-Language Plagiarism Detection Method%基于AST的多语言代码抄袭检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 刘呈龙; 刘东升

    2012-01-01

    To detect plagiarism on programming course, AST-based plagiarism detection method is proposed. First, parsing the code generated the corresponding Abstract Syntax Tree (AST). Biology-sequence matching algorithms are used to calculate the similarity of the program. Find the similar part of the code,and then extract the AST feature in this part. Generated vector space model,and then find "copy cluster" by clustered the feature. Experiments show that this method has a good effect on the detection of plagiarism and can find the "copy cluster" accurate.%为了检测程序设计类课程中出现的作业抄袭行为,提出一种基于抽象语法树的抄袭检测方法.该方法根据多种语言的文法文件,用语法分析工具生成对应的抽象语法树(AST),利用计算生物学中序列匹配算法进行程序相似度计算,提取程序相似部分的AST特征,生成空间向量,通过聚类分析找出“抄袭团伙”.实验结果表明,该方法对抄袭行为具有较好的检测效果,能准确地找出“抄袭团伙”.

  19. Plagiarism Curricula May Reduce Need for Punitive Plagiarism Education

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective – To describe the development and implementation of two courses designed to help university students avoid plagiarism. Design – Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Setting – A university in the United Kingdom. Subjects – An unknown number of university students who took a Plagiarism Awareness Program (PAP) course between 2008 and 2011, and approximately 3,000 university students enrolled in a Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students (PANS) course delivered via a virt...

  20. Teaching Students about Plagiarism: What It Looks Like and How It Is Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines how full-time faculty, adjunct instructors, and graduate teaching assistants teach students how to avoid plagiarism. Additionally, this case study includes a cross-section of teachers who encounter plagiarism in writing assignments across the curriculum. While many studies in the past have focused on students, this study…

  1. Teaching Students about Plagiarism: What It Looks Like and How It Is Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines how full-time faculty, adjunct instructors, and graduate teaching assistants teach students how to avoid plagiarism. Additionally, this case study includes a cross-section of teachers who encounter plagiarism in writing assignments across the curriculum. While many studies in the past have focused on students, this study…

  2. Publication misconduct and plagiarism retractions: a systematic, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Ely, Julie A; Haley, Cassandra; Woolley, Mark J; Woolley, Karen L

    2012-10-01

    To investigate whether plagiarism is more prevalent in publications retracted from the medical literature when first authors are affiliated with lower-income countries versus higher-income countries. Secondary objectives included investigating other factors associated with plagiarism (e.g., national language of the first author's country affiliation, publication type, journal ranking). Systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in MEDLINE (search filters: English, human, January 1966-February 2008). Retracted misconduct publications were classified according to the first author's country affiliation, country income level, and country national language, publication type, and ranking of the publishing journal. Standardised definitions and data collection tools were used; data were analysed (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence limits [CL], chi-squared tests) by an independent academic statistician. Of the 213 retracted misconduct publications, 41.8% (89/213) were retracted for plagiarism, 52.1% (111/213) for falsification/fabrication, 2.3% (5/213) for author disputes, 2.3% (5/213) for ethical issues, and 1.4% (3/213) for unknown reasons. The OR (95% CL) of plagiarism retractions (other misconduct retractions as reference) were higher (P 1 retraction) with publications retracted for plagiarism (11.5%, 9/78) than other types of misconduct (28.9%, 24/83). This is the first study to demonstrate that publications retracted for plagiarism are significantly associated with first authors affiliated with lower-income countries. These findings have implications for developing appropriate evidence-based strategies and allocation of resources to help mitigate plagiarism misconduct.

  3. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tanner, D.

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in

  4. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tanner, D.

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L

  5. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.

  6. Combating plagiarism: a shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sujit D

    2010-01-01

    Scientific progress depends on the free dissemination of original thinking and research. With the evidence base formed by publication, investigators develop and implement additional studies, and policy makers propose new laws and regulations. The ramifications of this evidence can affect millions of lives and reallocate considerable resources for programmes or research. As such, it is incumbent on investigators to conduct rigorous research, which precludes engaging in scientific misconduct such as falsification, fabrication and plagiarism. This article addresses the causes and consequences of plagiarism and the processes by which plagiarism is discovered. It concludes by considering the responsibilities of members of the research community in preventing and addressing plagiarism.

  7. Plagiarism Curricula May Reduce Need for Punitive Plagiarism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin E. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To describe the development and implementation of two courses designed to help university students avoid plagiarism. Design – Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Setting – A university in the United Kingdom. Subjects – An unknown number of university students who took a Plagiarism Awareness Program (PAP course between 2008 and 2011, and approximately 3,000 university students enrolled in a Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students (PANS course delivered via a virtual learning environment (VLE between October and December 2012. The authors attempted to collect rates of continued plagiarism among students who had taken plagiarism education courses. The authors also surveyed 702 university students about plagiarism in 2011. Methods – Data collected from PAP participants informed revision of the authors’ approach to plagiarism education and led to development of the second course, PANS. At the end of the course, students completed a test of their knowledge about plagiarism. Authors compared scores from students who took a course supervised by a librarian to the scores from students who took the course independently. Main Results – Students reported that many aspects of citation and attribution are challenging (p. 149. The authors discovered that 93% of students who completed the PANS course facilitated by a librarian in-person passed the final exam with a grade of 70% or higher, while 85% of students who took the same course independently, without a librarian instructor, in an online VLE scored 70% or higher (p. 155. The authors report that referrals of students who plagiarized declined significantly (p-value < 0.001 since the implementation of a plagiarism avoidance curriculum. Conclusion – As reported by the authors, first-year university students require more extensive education about plagiarism avoidance. A university plagiarism avoidance program instructed by librarians reduces the total number of students caught

  8. From Tavarod to Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gavad Mortezaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract “Plagiarism” has been one of the important subjects in the field of literary criticism and argued in the press and meetings from past till now. Today, there isn't any day and month that will go by without seeing a case in this field being presented or claimed in books, journals or newspapers. However, thanks to the expanse of operation and wide scope of the Judiciary, mentioned claims are studied in Judicial courts as well (you can just search “Plagiarism” in Google search engine, and then you will encounter with hundred different pages on this subject. In countries that they have copyright rule, this subject is taken into account seriously and if someone adapts a subject or extracts some text from another one's, without mentioning its reference, he will be punished firmly in accordance with rules and regulations. Despite the importance of this subject in literary criticism, unfortunately it is not considered as it deserves in our country. Regardless of definition and categorization of Plagiarism by rhetoricians, there is disagreement for making decision whether a Plagiarism is happened or it is some other cases such as Tavarod (occurrence of one thought in two persons' minds or Intertextuality. Considering the fact that contents and concepts are common between people in every inches of our planet, it is so hard to determine and prove that someone is innovator and creator of concept or content and if someone else uses the same content, he is copying the original creator. We know that sometimes the same word or phrase comes to the minds of two persons accidentally, so accusing somebody of plagiary should be done with care and comprehensive study and it should be provable. In other words, definition of Plagiarism boundaries based on rate of uniformity and similarity of terms and concepts of two works is very hard and the border between plagiarism and Tavarod is very narrow and skeptical. Â

  9. The Development and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisero, Cheryl A.; Royer, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Whether phonological awareness skills develop in a specific pattern and whether they transfer to another language were studied in 2 experiments with 126 English- and Spanish- speaking kindergartners and 1st graders. Results indicated that cross-language transfer can be detected in skills that are still developing. (SLD)

  10. Sign Languages: Contribution to Neurolinguistics from Cross-Modal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Using sign language research as an example, we argue that both the cross-linguistic descriptive approach to data, advocated by Evans and Levinson (2009), as well as abstract (‘formal’) analyses are necessary steps towards the development of “neurolinguistic primitives” for investigating how human languages are instantiated in the brain. PMID:20953339

  11. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  12. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  13. The Battle Against Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satendra Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is plagued by duplicate publications. The fight against plagiarism is about to take a crucial turn with the advent of a plethora of plagiarism detection software programmes. The one which is making biggest waves is the Virginia Innovation laboratory’s ‘Déjà vu’. This duplicate citation database devised by Garner utilizes eTBLAST, a text similarity-based search engine. Nature has published reports in the last few years where many duplicate citations have been detected, deposited in Déjà vu databases and editors have started retracting articles. The dual combination of freely available eTBLAST tool and Déjà vu database act as an ethical ombudsman and can very well be a deterrent against unethical practices.

  14. From Tavarod to Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gavad Mortezaei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract “Plagiarism” has been one of the important subjects in the field of literary criticism and argued in the press and meetings from past till now. Today, there isn't any day and month that will go by without seeing a case in this field being presented or claimed in books, journals or newspapers. However, thanks to the expanse of operation and wide scope of the Judiciary, mentioned claims are studied in Judicial courts as well (you can just search “Plagiarism” in Google search engine, and then you will encounter with hundred different pages on this subject. In countries that they have copyright rule, this subject is taken into account seriously and if someone adapts a subject or extracts some text from another one's, without mentioning its reference, he will be punished firmly in accordance with rules and regulations. Despite the importance of this subject in literary criticism, unfortunately it is not considered as it deserves in our country. Regardless of definition and categorization of Plagiarism by rhetoricians, there is disagreement for making decision whether a Plagiarism is happened or it is some other cases such as Tavarod (occurrence of one thought in two persons' minds or Intertextuality. Considering the fact that contents and concepts are common between people in every inches of our planet, it is so hard to determine and prove that someone is innovator and creator of concept or content and if someone else uses the same content, he is copying the original creator. We know that sometimes the same word or phrase comes to the minds of two persons accidentally, so accusing somebody of plagiary should be done with care and comprehensive study and it should be provable. In other words, definition of Plagiarism boundaries based on rate of uniformity and similarity of terms and concepts of two works is very hard and the border between plagiarism and Tavarod is very narrow and skeptical.

  15. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  16. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  17. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Illusory Dichotomy of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhmcke, Anita; Booth, Tracey; Wangmann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has been characterised as a "major problem" for universities. While tensions between students and universities are inevitable, the problem with the existing system of plagiarism management and prevention is that it operates to problematise the relationship between the university and the student, rather than address the core…

  19. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  20. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  1. A Note on Academic Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, David

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that academic plagiarism is not addressed as vigorously as needed because the university code of professional conduct is not fully evolved and does not consider plagiarism as malpractice. In treating the problem, it is suggested that one place to start is teaching proper use of citation and annotation. (MSE)

  2. Undergraduate Plagiarism: A Pedagogical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a pervasive and increasing problem at all levels of study in tertiary institutions. This study attempted explicitly and implicitly to address issues of plagiarism within the broad context of an academic writing framework in tutorials in a first-year module at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Despite these…

  3. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  4. University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an intriguing topic with many avenues for exploration. Students' perceptions of plagiarism certainly differ from their professors' and it is valuable to attempt to listen in some small measure to what those perceptions are. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of some of the ways first- and second-year university…

  5. The Illusory Dichotomy of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhmcke, Anita; Booth, Tracey; Wangmann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has been characterised as a "major problem" for universities. While tensions between students and universities are inevitable, the problem with the existing system of plagiarism management and prevention is that it operates to problematise the relationship between the university and the student, rather than address the core…

  6. Exploring Student Self-Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Student self-plagiarism is a confusing issue for both faculty and students alike. This problem is compounded because both groups perceive the concept very differently. Recent literature regarding these perceptions is reviewed and some brief preliminary results of an exploratory multi-university study of student perceptions of self-plagiarism are…

  7. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members.

  8. Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

  9. Plagiarism Detection by Online Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra

    2017-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism represents one of the burning issues of the modern scientific world. Detection of plagiarism is a problem that the Editorial Board encounters in their daily work. Software solutions represent a good solution for the detection of plagiarism. The problem of plagiarism will become most discussed topic of the modern scientific world, especially due to the development of standard measures, which rank the work of one author. Investment in education, education of young research personnel about the importance of scientific research, with paying particular attention on ethical behavior, becomes an imperative of academic staff. Editors have to invest additional effort in the development of the base of reviewers team as well as in their proper guidance, because after all, despite the software solutions, they are the best weapon to fight plagiarism. Peer review process should be a key of successful operation of each journal.

  10. Plagiarism: Problem, Behaviour and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kiran Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has been troubling academic world since long.With the invention of electronic resources like internet inrecent times, it has become easier and more accessible forstudents than ever before. Practice of plagiarism bystudents has resulted negative consequences in theacademic field, and university teachers are now facingproblems that are more challenging. This has led to theproduction and submission of assignments and researchworks that are not properly referenced and cited or, worsestill, are those that are being submitted which are partly orcompletely written by someone else. This paper examinesthe issue of plagiarism by nursing students and academicsin Indian universities and highlights how electronicdevelopments such as the internet and word processinghave made it easier. It describes the plagiarism & its types.Moreover, we have proposed a model to analyze plagiarismbehavior and we also discussed some techniques, throughwhich, one can reduce plagiarism.

  11. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from t...

  12. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2016-11-28

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  13. Cross-Language Activation Begins During Speech Planning and Extends Into Second Language Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, April; Fricke, Melinda; Kroll, Judith F.

    2016-01-01

    Three groups of native English speakers named words aloud in Spanish, their second language (L2). Intermediate proficiency learners in a classroom setting (Experiment 1) and in a domestic immersion program (Experiment 2) were compared to a group of highly proficient English–Spanish speakers. All three groups named cognate words more quickly and accurately than matched noncognates, indicating that all speakers experienced cross-language activation during speech planning. However, only the classroom learners exhibited effects of cross-language activation in their articulation: Cognate words were named with shorter overall durations, but longer (more English-like) voice onset times. Inhibition of the first language during L2 speech planning appears to impact the stages of speech production at which cross-language activation patterns can be observed. PMID:27773945

  14. An editorial on plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Keilman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In January this year, we were confronted with a case of plagiarism. One paper that had been submitted last year by a certain person turned out to be written by three other persons. It was presented by the three true authors at a conference in 2010, where they distributed copies of their paper. One of the reviewers of the paper informed us about that fact. We asked the three authors for a copy, which turned out to be identical with the submission, except for a few minor details. When confronted with these facts, the person who had submitted the paper was unable to give us a satisfactory explanation. This is a case of serious scientific misconduct. The editors and the publisher of Demographic Research cannot and will not accept any form of plagiarism. Nor will we accept any other form of misconduct in science, including fabrication, falsification, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research. With Long et al. ("Responding to possible plagiarism", Science 6 March 2009, we are of the opinion that the responsibility for research integrity ultimately lies in the hands of the scientific community: educators, students, authors, and those who provide peer reviews. Journal editors must take appropriate action and verify the originality of suspected manuscripts. The Office of Research Integrity provides useful guidelines (http://ori.dhhs.gov/. We have decided that any future submission to Demographic Research that lists the plagiarist as an author or co-author will be rejected automatically.

  15. Cross-language Similarity Modulates Effectiveness of Second Language Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instruction method and cross-language similarity during second language (L2) grammar learning. English speakers learned a subset of Swedish using contrast and color highlighting (Salience Group), contrast and highlighting with grammatical explanations (Rule & Salience Group), or neither (Control Group with…

  16. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  17. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  18. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHINGIN CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinWenhua

    2004-01-01

    Improving learners' intercultural communicativecompetence has been acknowledged to be the major goal ofcurrent English Language Teaching (ELT) in China. Yet, noconsensus has been reached even today on the definition ofIntercultural Communicative Competence (ICC). The author ofthis paper proposes her understanding of ICC and points out tha tthe key element of fostering our learners' ICC lies in improvingtheir social-cultural competence, towards which three feasiblesteps are further illustrated : getting an inside view of the targetculture; getting an outside view of the native culture; seeking athird perspective. Improving learners' intercultural communicativecompetence has been acknowledged to be the major goal ofcurrent English Language Teaching in China. Whatintercultural communicative competence is and how this may beachieved by our English learners have become issues of majorconcern. Addressing these issues, this paper proposes possiblesolutions to the problem.

  19. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  20. Did Edwin Hubble plagiarize?

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, Giora

    2011-01-01

    Recently Block published an astro-ph [arXiv:1106.3928 (2011)] insinuating that Hubble censored a prior publication of his famous and seminal discovery of the expansion of the universe. This issue was investigated by us in detail as part of the book: The Quest for Chemical Element Genesis and What the Chemical Elements Tell about the Universe (Accepted for publication, Springer Pub. Heidelberg, 2011.) Since the book is due in few months, we extract here the relevant parts. Our summary: We exonerate Hubble from the charge that he censored or ignored or plagiarized Lemaitre's earlier theoretical discovery.

  1. Development of a Rubric to Assess Academic Writing Incorporating Plagiarism Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Razı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Similarity reports of plagiarism detectors should be approached with caution as they may not be sufficient to support allegations of plagiarism. This study developed a 50-item rubric to simplify and standardize evaluation of academic papers. In the spring semester of 2011-2012 academic year, 161 freshmen’s papers at the English Language Teaching Department of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey, were assessed using the rubric. Validity and reliability were established. The results indicated citation as a particularly problematic aspect, and indicated that fairer assessment could be achieved by using the rubric along with plagiarism detectors’ similarity results.

  2. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Hussin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the euphemism for ‘academic theft’, ‘academic dishonesty’ and ‘academic misconduct in academia’; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally ‘the practitioners’ of plagiarism, be it un-intentionally or otherwise, factors contributing to the practise of plagiarism, effects and implications of plagiarism on the ‘practitioners’, and offers suggestions on how to reduce (if not eliminate any involvement in plagiarism. Knowledge and awareness about plagiarism would help academics and aspiring scholars to steer away from this act, as plagiarism would have dire and long term repercussions on their career, reputation and those who come to be associated with them.

  3. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism.

  4. Plagiarism: More than Meets the Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Hussin; Maimunah Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is the euphemism for ‘academic theft’, ‘academic dishonesty’ and ‘academic misconduct in academia’; and is the taboo word among academics in academia. This paper discusses the issue of plagiarism in terms of what constitutes plagiarism, who are normally ‘the practitioners’ of plagiarism, be it un-intentionally or otherwise, factors contributing to the practise of plagiarism, effects and implications of plagiarism on the ‘practitioners’, and offers suggestions on how to reduce (if n...

  5. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to

  6. Organic Text Authors Charge Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the recent controversy involving two organic chemistry textbooks. The charge of plagiarism and the court litigations are the object of interest in the chemical community since many prominant scientists are planned as witnesses. (SA)

  7. Plagiarism: The Worm of Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolich, Augustus M.

    1983-01-01

    Points out problems and complications of dealing with plagiarism. Argues that while teaching students to write, teachers should also try to encourage them to commit themselves to intellectual inquiry and originality. (JL)

  8. Cross-linguistic comparisons in child language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ruth A

    2014-07-01

    Major large-scale research projects in the early years of developmental psycholinguistics were English-based, yet even then numerous studies were available or under way in a range of different languages (Ferguson & Slobin, 1973). Since then, the field of cross-linguistic child language research has burgeoned in several directions. First, rich information is now available on the acquisition of dozens of languages from around the world in numerous language families, spearheaded by the five-volume series edited by Slobin (1985-1997) and complemented by in-depth examination of specific constructions - e.g. causative alternation, motion verbs, passive voice, subject elision, noun compounding - in various languages, culminating in an in-depth examination of the acquisition of ergativity in over a dozen languages (Bavin & Stoll, 2013). A second fruitful direction is the application of carefully comparable designs targeting a range of issues among children acquiring different languages, including: production of early lexico-grammatical constructions (Slobin, 1982), sentence processing comprehension (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989), expression of spatial relations (Bowerman, 2011), discourse construction of oral narratives based on short picture series (Hickmann, 2003) and longer storybooks (Berman & Slobin, 1994), and extended texts in different genres (Berman, 2008). Taken together, research motivated by the question of what is particular and what universal in child language highlights the marked, and early, impact of ambient language typology on processes of language acquisition. The challenge remains to operationalize such insights by means of psychologically sound and linguistically well-motivated measures for evaluating the interplay between the variables of developmental level, linguistic domain, and ambient language typology.

  9. Plagiarism in residency application essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Scott; Gelfand, Brian J; Hurwitz, Shelley; Berkowitz, Lori; Ashley, Stanley W; Nadel, Eric S; Katz, Joel T

    2010-07-20

    Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. Retrospective cohort study. 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. No external funding.

  10. On the economics of plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, A.; Judge, G.; Rickman, N

    2007-01-01

    Cheating and plagiarism can involve the transgression of intellectual property rights across many areas of life. When a direct financial benefit from such practices is identifiable, the opportunity to seek legal redress is available via civil court action. When it is undertaken by a public official it may constitute malfeasance. Yet in the case of breaches of university regulations (from the growing number of student cheating and plagiarism incidents) subsequent legal intervention may be char...

  11. Recruiting Languages and Lifeworlds for Border-Crossing Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison; Bomer, Randy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we show how two transnational youth, with the instructional support of their teacher, recruited their languages and lifeworlds, particularly their border-crossing experiences, as tools for engaging with school-based literacy practices. We analyze literary texts that the students composed, showing how the students' uses of…

  12. Cultural Cross-Currents in Second Language Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "cultural cross-currents," their implicit nature and the potential they have to effect second language literacy learning, teaching and curriculum reform in Hong Kong primary classrooms. Despite the substantive implications for learning, the exploration of cultural influences upon teacher and student thinking and…

  13. Reasons for Plagiarism in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šprajc Polona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The survey was performed to determine the reasons that lead students to possibly commit plagiarism during their studies. By doing so, we wanted to determine the main reason for the appearance of plagiarism and how, within this main reasons, various indicators of plagiarism are judged and, finally, how demographic data and student motivation for study are associated with the reasons for plagiarism.

  14. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  15. Plagiarism: Moving from Punitive to Proactive Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Guglielmin, Melanie; Otoo, Benedict Kojo

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be an issue in postsecondary contexts. This paper discusses how educators can take a proactive stance to prevent plagiarism and cultivate students' sense of honour and academic integrity, rather than focusing on punitive consequences after plagiarism has already occurred. Strategies include assessment design, formative…

  16. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  17. Student Online Plagiarism: How Do We Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    The perception that Internet plagiarism by university students is on the rise has alarmed college teachers, leading to the adoption of electronic plagiarism checkers, among other responses. Although some recent studies suggest that estimates of online plagiarism may be exaggerated, cause for concern remains. This article reviews quantitative…

  18. Sexuality, Textuality: The Cultural Work of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    2000-01-01

    Considers how plagiarism continues to elude definition because teachers cannot possibly formulate and act on a definition of plagiarism that articulates both its textual and sexual work. Discusses linking sexual property to textual transgression and rejecting metaphors in relationship to rejecting plagiarism. Suggests educators stop using the term…

  19. Editors, Teachers Disagree about Definition of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Jerry; Duncan, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of plagiarism policies in journalism schools and newsrooms. Concludes that instructors felt educating students about plagiarism was one of the most important services journalism schools offer, but editors felt that plagiarism standards must be set in the real world of the newsroom. (HTH)

  20. Shameless! Reconceiving the Problem of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a moralistic approach to plagiarism is not likely to make the problem disappear. New thinking about plagiarism and pedagogy must take its complexity into account, since plagiarism is not always the result of a willful desire to deceive, but may reflect a misunderstanding of the nature of work in the discipline. (SLD)

  1. Plagiarism: Quite a Rather Bad Little Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skom, Edith

    1986-01-01

    Perspectives on plagiarism are offered by a university writing teacher, who also gives examples from students' papers. A number of plagiarists genuinely do not understand that they are plagiarizing; they do not understand the basics of footnoting or when it is required. While identifying a piece of writing as plagiarism may be easy, finding the…

  2. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  3. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  4. Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  5. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  6. Cross-Language Poetics: Proposal for an Interdisciplinary Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For creative writers and for readers, opportunities to work with language in ways that engage two linguistic systems and/or two writing systems continue to expand with the growing influence of international and regional lingua francas. At the same time, we have witnessed the continuing development of literary creation in languages with fewer speakers, even in communities facing the outright erosion and replacement of their language. Alongside the tendencies of globalization, literature has also become more diverse, a new recognition of multilingualism and multiculturalism emerging among writers and readers alike. The special circumstances of composition and understanding that the different kinds of language and cultural interaction highlight also present us with an opportunity to study what it is that is fundamental in verbal art. After reviewing three historical examples of European origin (in Section 2 we will turn our attention to problems of language, writing system and poetry in East Asia (in Section 3. The examples from history will help us to put the current situation of multilingual and multicultural contexts for literature into a broader perspective. This is will allow us to return to consider a proposal for research on cross-language poetics.

  7. Prevalence of plagiarism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Frković, Vedran; Turk, Tamara; Azman, Josip; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2005-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of plagiarism among medical students in writing essays. During two academic years, 198 second year medical students attending Medical Informatics course wrote an essay on one of four offered articles. Two of the source articles were available in an electronic form and two in printed form. Two (one electronic and one paper article) were considered less complex and the other two more complex. The essays were examined using plagiarism detection software "WCopyfind," which counted the number of matching phrases with six or more words. Plagiarism rate, expressed as the percentage of the plagiarized text, was calculated as a ratio of the absolute number of matching words and the total number of words in the essay. Only 17 (9%) of students did not plagiarize at all and 68 (34%) plagiarized less than 10% of the text. The average plagiarism rate (% of plagiarized text) was 19% (5-95% percentile=0-88). Students who were strictly warned not to plagiarize had a higher total word count in their essays than students who were not warned (P=0.002) but there was no difference between them in the rate of plagiarism. Students with higher grades in Medical Informatics exam plagiarized less than those with lower grades (P=0.015). Gender, subject source, and complexity had no influence on the plagiarism rate. Plagiarism in writing essays is common among medical students. An explicit warning is not enough to deter students from plagiarism. Detection software can be used to trace and evaluate the rate of plagiarism in written student assays.

  8. AWARENESS AND MOTIVATION IN CROSS-CULTURAL LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SAVU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus in language education in the twenty-first century does no longer fall on grammar, memorization and learning from rote, but rather on using language alongside with cultural knowledge as a means to communicate and connect to other people all over the world. Our learners are going to become part of today’s intercultural communication network and they will need to use both their language and cultural skills for real life communication. Therefore, teachers themselves should be ready to assume the responsibility of teaching their learners how to become culturally competent. To do this properly and successfully, practitioners need to build and develop their own awareness of and motivation for an intercultural approach. The current paper will present and analyze some recent research findings on higher education practitioners’ motivation to adopt a cross-cultural approach in their classrooms.

  9. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate.

  10. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.

  11. Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

  12. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  13. Plagiarism: An egregious form of misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Juyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another′s publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as "fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person′s ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being "theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another′s work." Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders.

  14. Plagiarism: an egregious form of misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as "fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being "theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work." Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders.

  15. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 6, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "An Experience with CLL" by Earl Stevick; "Accuracy vs. Fluency in the English Language Classroom" by Kenton Sutherland; "Predicate Markers: A New Look at the English Predicate System" by Phillip L. Knowles; "'Let Your TV do the Talking':…

  16. The basics of CrossRef extensible markup language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lammey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CrossRef is an association of scholarly publishers that develops shared infrastructure to support more effective scholarly communications. Launched in 2000, CrossRef’s citation-linking network today covers over 68 million journal articles and other content items (books chapters, data, theses, and technical reports from thousands of scholarly and professional publishers around the globe. CrossRef has over 4,000 member publishers who join as members in order to avail of a number of CrossRef services, reference linking via the Digital Object Identifier (DOI being the core service. To deposit CrossRef DOIs, publishers and editors need to become familiar with the basics of extensible markup language (XML. This article will give an introduction to CrossRef XML and what publishers need to do in order to start to deposit DOIs with CrossRef and thus ensure their publications are discoverable and can be linked to consistently in an online environment.

  17. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German-English-Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese-English-Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur-Chinese-English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages.

  18. Cross Language Information Retrieval Model for Discovering WSDL Documents Using Arabic Language Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Torkey I.Sultan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Web service discovery is the process of finding a suitable Web service for a given user’s query through analyzing the web service‘s WSDL content and finding the best match for the user’s query. The service query should be written in the same language of the WSDL, for example English. Cross Language Information Retrieval techniques does not exist in the web service discovery process. The absence of CLIR methods limits the search language to the English language keywords only, which raises the following question “How do people that do not know the English Language find a web service, This paper proposes the application of CLIR techniques and IR methods to support Bilingual Web service discovery process the second language that proposed here is Arabic. Text mining techniques were applied on WSDL content and user’s query to be ready for CLIR methods. The proposed model was tested on a curated catalogue of Life Science Web Services http://www.biocatalogue.org/ and used for solving the research problem with 99.87 % accuracy and 95.06 precision

  19. A Review on Anti-Plagiarism Approach Using Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Sudhir D. Salunkhe

    2013-01-01

    Now a days Plagiarism becomes serious problem, especially in academics and education and detecting plagiarism is a challenging task, particularly text plagiarism in student’s documents. Students or any other author makes plagiarism of original document and puts it as own document without giving credit to original author. To detect such dishonesty in document writing an anti-plagiarism system is proposed. In which reinforcement learning is can be used to get fast response of plagiarism in susp...

  20. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  1. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  2. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  3. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  4. The influence of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop effects in trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Conklin, K.; Coderre, E.L.; Guo, T.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two simil

  5. An Analysis of Body Language between China and Western Countries in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy,cross-cultural communication has become increasingly frequent.In human communication,people use nonverbal language to communicate as well as verbal language.Body language,like verbal language,is also part of culture which exerts significant influence on cross-culture communication.However,body language varies due to different regions,race and culture customs and it is restricted by different cultural connotations.Therefore,in order to e nsure the cross-cultural communication goes smoothly,understanding body language connotation in different culture backgrounds is desperately necessary.

  6. An Analysis of Body Language between China and Western Countries in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy,cross-cultural communication has become increasingly frequent.In human communication,people use nonverbal language to communicate as well as verbal language.Body language,like verbal language,is also part of culture which exerts significant influence on cross-culture communication.However,body language varies due to different regions,race and culture customs and it is restricted by different cultural connotations.Therefore,in order to ensure the cross-cultural communication goes smoothly,understanding body language connotation in different culture backgrounds is desperately necessary.

  7. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  8. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  9. Plagiarism in solutions of programming tasks in distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Barteczko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Source code plagiarism in students solutions of programming tasks is a serious problem, especially important in distance learning. Naturally, it should be prevented, but publicly available code plagiarism detection tools are not fully adjusted to this purpose. This paper proposes the specific approach to detecting code duplicates. This approach is based on adapting of detection process to characteristics of programming tasks and comprise of freshly developed detecting tools, which could be configured and tuned to fit individual features of the programming task. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of an automatic elimination of duplicate codes from the set of all solutions. As a minimum, this requires the rejection of false-positive duplicates, even for simple, schematic tasks. The case in the use of tools is presented in this context. The discussion is illustrated by applying of proposed tools to duplicates detection in the set of actual, real-life, codes written in Java programming language.

  10. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  11. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  12. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  13. Academic plagiarism prevalence among Spanish undergraduate students: an exploratory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present research article is an exploratory study on academic plagiarism practices among Spanish university students. Materials and methods: To answer the main research questions, we based our work on a cross-sectional survey of the targeted population. The sample consisted of a total of 560 students and the procedure was non-probability sampling. Results and conclusions: The research findings show that the Internet has become the students’ main source for the plagiaris...

  14. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  15. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  16. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  17. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  18. Uncovering highly obfuscated plagiarism cases using fuzzy semantic-based similarity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salha M. Alzahrani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly obfuscated plagiarism cases contain unseen and obfuscated texts, which pose difficulties when using existing plagiarism detection methods. A fuzzy semantic-based similarity model for uncovering obfuscated plagiarism is presented and compared with five state-of-the-art baselines. Semantic relatedness between words is studied based on the part-of-speech (POS tags and WordNet-based similarity measures. Fuzzy-based rules are introduced to assess the semantic distance between source and suspicious texts of short lengths, which implement the semantic relatedness between words as a membership function to a fuzzy set. In order to minimize the number of false positives and false negatives, a learning method that combines a permission threshold and a variation threshold is used to decide true plagiarism cases. The proposed model and the baselines are evaluated on 99,033 ground-truth annotated cases extracted from different datasets, including 11,621 (11.7% handmade paraphrases, 54,815 (55.4% artificial plagiarism cases, and 32,578 (32.9% plagiarism-free cases. We conduct extensive experimental verifications, including the study of the effects of different segmentations schemes and parameter settings. Results are assessed using precision, recall, F-measure and granularity on stratified 10-fold cross-validation data. The statistical analysis using paired t-tests shows that the proposed approach is statistically significant in comparison with the baselines, which demonstrates the competence of fuzzy semantic-based model to detect plagiarism cases beyond the literal plagiarism. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical test shows the effectiveness of different segmentation schemes used with the proposed approach.

  19. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. ...

  20. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  1. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  2. Plagiarism challenges at Ukrainian science and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Svyrydenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the types and severity of plagiarism violations at the modern educational and scientific spheres using the philosophic methodological approaches. The author analyzes Ukrainian context as well as global one and tries to formulate "order of the day" of plagiarism challenges. The plagiarism phenomenon is intuitively comprehensible for academicians but in reality it has a very complex nature and a lot of manifestation. Using approaches of ethics, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of science and education author formulates the series of recommendation for overcoming of plagiarism challenges at Ukrainian science and education.

  3. Methodological challenges in cross-language qualitative research: a research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2009-02-01

    Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this analysis of cross-language qualitative research was threefold: (1) review the methods literature addressing cross-language research; (2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; (3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant's language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter invisible during the research process supports studies completed by other

  4. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action.

  5. JOURNAL CLUB: Plagiarism in Manuscripts Submitted to the AJR: Development of an Optimal Screening Algorithm and Management Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donna B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of plagiarism in a sample of manuscripts submitted to the AJR using CrossCheck, develop an algorithm to identify significant plagiarism, and formulate management pathways. A sample of 110 of 1610 (6.8%) manuscripts submitted to AJR in 2014 in the categories of Original Research or Review were analyzed using CrossCheck and manual assessment. The overall similarity index (OSI), highest similarity score from a single source, whether duplication was from single or multiple origins, journal section, and presence or absence of referencing the source were recorded. The criteria outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors were the reference standard for identifying manuscripts containing plagiarism. Statistical analysis was used to develop a screening algorithm to maximize sensitivity and specificity for the detection of plagiarism. Criteria for defining the severity of plagiarism and management pathways based on the severity of the plagiarism were determined. Twelve manuscripts (10.9%) contained plagiarism. Nine had an OSI excluding quotations and references of less than 20%. In seven, the highest similarity score from a single source was less than 10%. The highest similarity score from a single source was the work of the same author or authors in nine. Common sections for duplication were the Materials and Methods, Discussion, and abstract. Referencing the original source was lacking in 11. Plagiarism was undetected at submission in five of these 12 articles; two had been accepted for publication. The most effective screening algorithm was to average the OSI including quotations and references and the highest similarity score from a single source and to submit manuscripts with an average value of more than 12% for further review. The current methods for detecting plagiarism are suboptimal. A new screening algorithm is proposed.

  6. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes.

  7. Plagiarism in nursing education: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joan; Everett, Bronwyn; Ramjan, Lucie M; Callins, Renee; Glew, Paul; Salamonson, Yenna

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence and antecedents of plagiarism within nursing education and approaches to prevention and management. There has been growing media attention highlighting the prevalence of plagiarism in universities, including the academic integrity of undergraduate nursing students. A breach of academic integrity among nursing students also raises further concern with the potential transfer of this dishonest behaviour to the clinical setting. Integrative review. A systematic search of five electronic databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, and ERIC was undertaken. Only primary studies related to plagiarism and nursing students (undergraduate or postgraduate) studying at a tertiary education institution or nursing faculty were included. Both qualitative and quantitative study designs were included. Twenty studies were included in this review with six key themes identified: (1) prevalence; (2) knowledge, understanding and attitudes; (3) types of plagiarism; (4) antecedents to plagiarism; (5) interventions to reduce or prevent plagiarism; and (6) the relationship between academic honesty and professional integrity. Plagiarism is common among university nursing students, with a difference in perception of this behaviour between students and academics. The review also highlighted the importance of distinguishing between inadvertent and deliberate plagiarism, with differing strategies suggested to address this behaviour. Nevertheless, interventions to reduce plagiarism have not been shown to be effective. The current punitive approach to plagiarism within nursing faculties has not reduced its occurrence. There is a need to promote awareness, knowledge and provide students with the appropriate referencing skills, to reduce the significant amount of inadvertent plagiarism. The importance of promoting honesty and academic integrity in nursing education is highlighted. Cheating within the academic setting has been

  8. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  9. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  10. Judging Plagiarism: A Problem of Morality and Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of plagiarism as an issue of morality. Outrage about student plagiarism in universities positions it as dishonesty and a transgression of standards. Despite this, there has been little work analysing the implications of positioning plagiarism as a moral matter in the making of judgments about plagiarism and…

  11. Plagiarism: Presenting Someone Else's Creation as One's Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Explains that "plagiarism" does not have a commonly agreed-upon definition. Claims that plagiarism is not a legal term. Describes plagiarism as a term for an academic crime, for which each institution has its own definition. Notes that copyright law (a crime with a specific legal definition) is a cousin of plagiarism. (PA)

  12. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  13. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  14. The Experience of Detecting a Case of Plagiarism in Hepatitis Monthly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Goodarzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work (1. The National Library of Medicine (NLM defines a duplicate publication as one that 'substantially duplicates another article without acknowledgement' (2. Scientific misconduct may take place simply out of reasons of reputation - academic scientists are under pressure to produce publications in peer-reviewed journals. Alternatively, there may be commercial or political motivations where the financial or political success of a project depends on publishing evidence of efficacy (1, 3. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier, simply by copying and pasting text from one web page to another (1, 2. The ease with which electronic text can be reproduced from online sources has lured a number of reporters into acts of plagiarism: Journalists have been caught "copying-and-pasting" articles and text from a number of websites (1, 4, 5. Although detecting the cases of plagiarism is very complex and challenging, we have to consider plagiarism as the first part of the manuscript review process (6. In Iran, we have neither an online tool for detecting suspicious and doubtful articles, nor a national database for including cases of plagiarism. So what can we do?We introduce a case of plagiarism in Hepatitis Monthly and present some valuable ways to tackle this complicated problem since we believe that prevention of duplicate publication can be achieved through increasing editors' awareness and reviewers' knowledge.

  15. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  16. Viewpoint of Undergraduate Engineering Students on Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoytova, Diana; Namango, Saul Sitati

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, plagiarism has been a global concern, especially so, in institutions of higher learning. Furthermore, over the past decades, cases of student plagiarism, in higher education, have increased, substantially. This issue cannot be taken, without due consideration, and it is crucial for educators, and universities, at large, to find the…

  17. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  18. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  19. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  20. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  1. False feathers a perspective on academic plagiarism

    CERN Document Server

    Weber-Wulff, Debora

    2014-01-01

    With plagiarism a growing problem on university campuses, this book explains a range of strategies to identify instances of the offence. Written by an activist in the VroniPlag Wiki group, it shows how members find and document plagiarism in dissertations.

  2. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  3. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  4. Decreasing Plagiarism Using Critical Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ann W.

    A practicum project emphasizing critical thinking skills was undertaken in an eighth grade history class to make students aware of the nature and seriousness of plagiarism. The 10-week unit was preceded by a reading comprehension test and an essay assignment on a major Civil War battle. Plagiarized portions of the essays were highlighted and the…

  5. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López Puga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from the first practical assessment to the second one, t(16=2.5, p=.02, d=0.83, 1-?=.63, unilateral contrast. Additionally, a survey was developed to analyse students’ opinions and attitudes about plagiarism. A sample of 64 students (15 boys and 49 girls with an average age of 22.69 (SD=2.8 filled in an electronic questionnaire. More than a half of the sample (56.92% admitted that they had plagiarised before but most of the students (83.08% agreed they would not like someone else plagiarising their reports. A preliminary short scale to measure attitude towards plagiarism in undergraduate students at university is provided. Finally, a set of recommendations are given based on this experience to prevent and to reduce the level of plagiarism in the university contex.

  6. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  7. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  8. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  9. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  10. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  11. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  12. Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Within and Cross-Language Effects on Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Kiefer, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated within and cross-language effects of morphological awareness on word reading among Spanish-speaking children who were English Language Learners. Participants were 97 Spanish-speaking children in grade 4 and grade 7. Morphological awareness in Spanish and in English was evaluated with two measures of derivational morphology.…

  13. Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana eGrossi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.

  14. How do master level students in Computer Science perceive plagiarism?

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Anders; Thota, Neena

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a serious problem in computer science.This paper reports the analyses of data about plagiarism that wasgathered from master level students in computing. We haveidentified how students perceive plagiarism, how they choose torespond when faced by a scenario involving plagiarism, and whatdrives them to take a particular stance or adopt an action. Thedata-driven analyses show complex understanding of plagiarismand a range of motives that could lead students to plagiarize. Wehave fou...

  15. Event Categorisation and Language: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Selimis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that languages differ in how they encode motion. Languages such as English use verbs that communicate the manner of motion (e.g., "slide", "skip"), while languages such as Greek regularly encode motion paths in verbs (e.g., "enter", "ascend"). Here we ask how such cross-linguistic encoding…

  16. Acquisition of compound words in Chinese-English bilingual children: Decomposition and cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, C.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese–English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both langua

  17. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  18. Simulating Cross-Language Priming with a Dynamic Computational Model of the Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language priming is a widely used experimental paradigm in psycholinguistics to study how bilinguals' two languages are represented and organized. Researchers have observed a number of interesting patterns from the priming effects of both translation equivalents and semantically related word pairs across languages. In this study, we…

  19. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone, Ed.; Hufeisen, Britta, Ed.; Jessner, Ulrike, Ed.

    This volume focuses on the psycholinguistic aspects of language transfer when three languages are in contact, and provides an overview of the state of the art in cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition. This edited volume contains, in addition to an introduction, ten chapters. Chapter titles include the following: "The Effect of…

  20. Cross-Linguistic Influence on Referent Introduction and Tracking in Japanese as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahama, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates cross-linguistic influence (CLI)--also known as first language (L1) transfer--on referent introduction and tracking in oral narratives in Japanese as a second language (L2) within the framework of functional approaches to language learning. Narrative discourse produced by two groups of learners of Japanese, one whose L1 is…

  1. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone, Ed.; Hufeisen, Britta, Ed.; Jessner, Ulrike, Ed.

    This volume focuses on the psycholinguistic aspects of language transfer when three languages are in contact, and provides an overview of the state of the art in cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition. This edited volume contains, in addition to an introduction, ten chapters. Chapter titles include the following: "The Effect of…

  2. Receptive Vocabulary and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Gorin, Joanna S.; Burstein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of language proficiency on the cross-language transfer (CLT) of phonemic awareness in Spanish-speaking kindergarten students and assessed Spanish and English receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness abilities. Correlation results indicated positive correlations between phonemic awareness across languages;…

  3. Is There Cross-Language Modulation when Bilinguals Process Number Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Paolieri, Daniela; Roman, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of cross-language activation when bilinguals process number words in their first language (Italian) and their second language (German). Italian monolinguals (Experiment 1), German monolinguals (Experiment 2), and Italian/German bilinguals (Experiment 3) were required to decide the larger of two number words…

  4. Simulating Cross-Language Priming with a Dynamic Computational Model of the Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language priming is a widely used experimental paradigm in psycholinguistics to study how bilinguals' two languages are represented and organized. Researchers have observed a number of interesting patterns from the priming effects of both translation equivalents and semantically related word pairs across languages. In this study, we…

  5. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot, Bert Weltens);…

  6. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Experiments Based on CLEF 2000 Corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Discusses cross-language, multilingual, and bilingual information retrieval on the Web; evaluates retrieval effectiveness of indexing and search strategies based on test collections from CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) in English, French, German, and Italian; and suggests and evaluates database merging strategies. Appendices include…

  7. Cross-language Activation and the Phonetics of Code-switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Page Elizabeth

    It is now well established that bilinguals have both languages activated to some degree at all times. This cross-language activation has been documented in several research paradigms, including picture naming, reading, and electrophysiological studies. What is less well understood is how the degree a language is activated can vary in different language environments or contexts. Furthermore, when investigating effects of order of acquisition and language dominance, past research has been mixed, as the two variables are often conflated. In this dissertation, I test how degree of cross-language activation can vary according to context by examining phonetic productions in code-switching speech. Both spontaneous speech and scripted speech are analyzed. Follow-up perception experiments are conducted to see if listeners are able to anticipate language switches, potentially due to the phonetic cues in the signal. Additionally, by focusing on early bilinguals who are L1 Spanish but English dominant, I am able to see what plays a greater role in cross-language activation, order of acquisition or language dominance. I find that speakers do have intermediate phonetic productions in code-switching contexts relative to monolingual contexts. Effects are larger and more consistent in English than Spanish. Similar effects are found in speech perception. Listeners are able to anticipate language switches from English to Spanish but not Spanish to English. Together these results suggest that language dominance is a more important factor than order of acquisition in cross-language activation for early bilinguals. Future models on bilingual language organization and access should take into account both context and language dominance when modeling degrees of cross-language activation.

  8. Film Cross-culture Research under the Perspective of Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Language as an important tool of cultural transmission, it can achieve the cross-culture development of film. With the strength of globalization, film cross-culture communication are increasing, and how to enhance the communication of film through language and culture and let more people enjoy the thought expressed in film is one of the most important content for cross-culture development of mant films. Different cultural backgrounds will produce large diversities in watching a same film, so it is helpful for the cross-culture development of film when making good use of culture and language, on the contrary, it will become a hindrance. This article do research on cross-culture development of film under the perspective of language and culture to find out the existing problems in present cross-culture development of film and put forward effective resolution strategy in order to promote certain reference for the internationalization of China’s film industry.

  9. The plagiarism euphemism parade continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its founding in 2010 the American blog “Retraction Watch” collects reasons (and excuses for academic misconduct appearing during the peer review and editing process of submitted publications to international scientific journals. For this short contribution both founding fathers of the blog present us with an euphemism parade on plagiarism. Many of the rather grotesque paraphrases for simple copy&paste were provided by the authors of the retracted publications themselves. A serious question remains – why don't we all just call a spade a spade?

  10. Social influences on unconscious plagiarism and anti-plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Timothy J; Lange, Nicholas; Dennis, Ian; Longmore, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    People are more likely to unconsciously plagiarise ideas from a same-sex partner than a different-sex partner, and more likely to unconsciously plagiarise if recalling alone rather than in the presence of their partner [Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Calvini, G. (1999). Contexts of cryptomnesia: May the source be with you. Social Cognition, 17, 273-297. doi: 10.1521/soco.1999.17.3.273 ]. Two sets of experiments explore these phenomena, using extensions of the standard unconscious plagiarism paradigm. In Experiment 1A participants worked together in same- or different-sex dyads before trying to recall their own ideas or their partner's ideas. More source errors were evident for same-sex dyads (Experiment 1A), but this effect was absent when participants recalled from both sources simultaneously (Experiment 1B). In Experiment 2A, participants recalled ideas from a single source either alone or in the presence of the partner, using an extended-recall task. Partner presence did not affect the availability of ideas, but did reduce the propensity to report them as task compliant, relative to a partner-present condition. Simultaneous recall from both sources removed this social effect (Experiment 2B). Thus social influences on unconscious plagiarism are apparent, but are influenced by the salience of the alternate source at retrieval.

  11. Why Do Students Plagiarize? Efl Undergraduates’ Views on the Reasons Behind Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doró Katalin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheating and plagiarism spread like pandemics in many educational contexts and are difficulty to detect, fight and also to understand. The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate what first-year students of English at a large Hungarian university believe to be the main reasons for plagiarism. Twenty-five students were asked to express their views in a free opinion essay. Perceived reasons were categorized into twelve main groups based on the literature and the reasons for plagiarism provided by faculty members at the same university. The most often mentioned reasons included saving time and effort and unintentional plagiarism.

  12. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  13. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  14. Developing Cross-Cultural Awareness in Foreign Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen jiliang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the view that linguistic competence isn’t equal to communicative competence.language and culture are closely related to each other.Language learning is not only the process of improving the learners’ linguistic ability, but also the process of developing the learners’ awareness of the target culture.Based on the above view, this paper analyzes the different levels of cross—cultural awareness that the foreign language learners should achieve and provides some methods to develop the foreign language learners’ cross—cultural awareness in the process of foreign language learning and teaching.

  15. Student plagiarism and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    With the ever-increasing availability and accessibility of the Internet, students are able to access a multitude of resources in support of their studies. However, this has also led to an increase in their ability to cheat through plagiarising text and claiming it as their own. Increased pressures of balancing work and study have contributed to this rise. Not only confined to the student population, some academics are also guilty of engaging in this practice providing a less than favourable role model for their students. Of increasing concern is the links of this practice to professionalism or indeed in this case unprofessionalism. Both pre- and post-registration nursing students who plagiarise risk bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There are a number of methods that may be used to detect plagiarism but often the penalties are menial and inconsistently applied. Overall it is essential that academic institutions foster a culture of honesty and integrity amongst its academic community. A culture that clearly emphasises that plagiarism in any form is unacceptable.

  16. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

  17. Source Code Plagiarism Detection Method Using Protégé Built Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SMEUREANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software plagiarism is a growing and serious problem that affects computer science universities in particular and the quality of education in general. More and more students tend to copy their thesis’s software from older theses or internet databases. Checking source codes manually, to detect if they are similar or the same, is a laborious and time consuming job, maybe even impossible due to existence of large digital repositories. Ontology is a way of describing a document’s semantic, so it can be easily used for source code files too. OWL Web Ontology Language could find its applicability in describing both vocabulary and taxonomy of a programming language source code. SPARQL is a query language based on SQL that extracts saved or deducted information from ontologies. Our paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection method, based on ontologies created using Protégé editor, which can be applied in scanning students' theses' software source code.

  18. Plagiarism: the Internet makes it easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Roger

    This article examines the issue of plagiarism by nursing students and academics in British universities and highlights how electronic developments such as the Internet and word processing have made it easier. It describes how some websites support plagiarism and how, for a price, a qualification up to and including higher degree level may be gained without the recipient of the award having to do any coursework.

  19. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates how listeners of Finnish and Japanese, languages with very similar contrasts in plosive quantity (short vs.long), use language-specific phonetic knowledge of acoustic attributes which covary with closure duration. A fully-crossed perceptual experiment on consonant...... of the language of the listeners or talkers, suggesting a strong influence of cues besides closure duration that are shared by the two languages. However, Japanese listeners were more heavily affected by the acoustic cues concomitant to the quantity contrast in their native language, likely due to robust language......-specific vowel duration effects in the Japanese productions. Word prosody, besides creating subtle shifts in category boundary for both language groups, created confusions in the listener responses, especially when the language-specific word-level prosodic effect is localized in the vowel preceding the target...

  20. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  1. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service (etblast.org) which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644

  2. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  3. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tshepo Batane

    2010-01-01

      This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students...

  4. None-Native University Students’ Perception of Plagiarism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ummul Khair Ahmad; Kobra Mansourizadeh; Grace Koh Ming Ai

    2012-01-01

    .... This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of postgraduate students in a Malaysian university were asked to categorize ten cases of plagiarism instances...

  5. Awareness and Incidence of Plagiarism among Undergraduates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and Incidence of Plagiarism among Undergraduates in a Nigerian Private ... A significant positive relationship was found between levels awareness and ... that academic institutions should discourage unintentional plagiarism by ...

  6. Shape-Based Plagiarism Detection for Flowchart Figures in Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senosy Arrish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection is well known phenomenon in the academic arena. Copying other people is considered as serious offence that needs to be checked. There are many plagiarism detection systems such as turn-it-in that has been developed to provide this checks. Most, if not all, discard the figures and charts before checking for plagiarism. Discarding the figures and charts results in look holes that people can take advantage. That means people can plagiarized figures and charts easily without the current plagiarism systems detecting it. There are very few papers which talks about flowcharts plagiarism detection. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system that will detect plagiarism in figures and charts. This paper presents a method for detecting flow chart figure plagiarism based on shape-based image processing and multimedia retrieval. The method managed to retrieve flowcharts with ranked similarity according to different matching sets.

  7. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools.

  8. The Cat-and-Mouse Game of Plagiarism Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how colleges, frustrated by students who use the Internet to plagiarize, are going online to enable professors to fight back. Explains that plagiarism-detection software, available for several years, is increasing in use. (EV)

  9. Plagiarism: A plaque to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gowri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The virus of scientific dishonesty has spread across the globe and in all age groups, students as well as faculties. Copying text, figures, tables from other published material without giving due credit are rampant. This kind of act will not only defame the individual, but also puts forth a question mark on the integrity of practitioners in general. The concept of plagiarism is by no means simple or an unambiguous one, yet unless we are clear on this, we cannot begin to make any kind of progress on the practical measures that need to be taken to reduce it. In what follows, we will attempt to explore the confusions and contradictions in the way the term is currently used, and an attempt is made to relocate its meaning such that at least some information and knowledge can be imbibed.

  10. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  11. A Cross-Curricular Approach to "Learning to Learn" Languages: Government Policy and School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Vee

    2008-01-01

    This article connects two fields of research: "learning to learn" and school-based teacher development. The context is a cross-curricular project between English and modern languages teachers. Carried out in two London schools, the study aimed to encourage students to transfer common language learning strategies across the two subjects. Findings…

  12. Beyond Cross-Language Transfer: Reconceptualizing the Impact of Early Bilingualism on Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates effects of early bilingualism on phonological awareness that are abstract and beyond cross-language transfer. It extends the scope of previous research by systematically examining hypotheses derived from "structural sensitivity theory." The theory postulates that having access to two languages renders structural…

  13. Cross-Language Transfer of Insight into the Structure of Compound Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Hong; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xinchun; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Cross-language transfer of awareness of the structure of compound words was investigated among native speakers of Chinese who were learning English as a second language. Chinese fifth graders received instruction in the morphology of four types of compound words in either Chinese or English. They then completed both the Chinese and English…

  14. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since

  15. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since cur

  16. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of English Language Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ismail; Yasin, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the language teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge and to examine their competency levels in terms of gender, length of service, and workplace. This cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted with 124 language teachers in Eskisehir, Turkey. Participants were administered Technological…

  17. Cross-Language Transfer of Insight into the Structure of Compound Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Hong; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xinchun; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Cross-language transfer of awareness of the structure of compound words was investigated among native speakers of Chinese who were learning English as a second language. Chinese fifth graders received instruction in the morphology of four types of compound words in either Chinese or English. They then completed both the Chinese and English…

  18. Beyond Cross-Language Transfer: Reconceptualizing the Impact of Early Bilingualism on Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates effects of early bilingualism on phonological awareness that are abstract and beyond cross-language transfer. It extends the scope of previous research by systematically examining hypotheses derived from "structural sensitivity theory." The theory postulates that having access to two languages renders structural…

  19. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of English Language Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ismail; Yasin, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the language teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge and to examine their competency levels in terms of gender, length of service, and workplace. This cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted with 124 language teachers in Eskisehir, Turkey. Participants were administered Technological…

  20. Discovering Clusters of Plagiarism in Students’ Source Codes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Moussiades

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism in students’ source codes constitutes an important drawback for the educational process. In addition, plagiarism detection in source codes is time consuming and tiresome task. Therefore, many approaches for plagiarism detection have been proposed. Most of the aforementioned approaches receive as input a set of source files and calculate a similarity between each pair of the input set. However, the tutor often needs to detect the clusters of plagiarism, i.e. clusters of students’ as...

  1. None-Native University Students’ Perception of Plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of postgraduate students in a Malaysian university were asked to categorize ten cases of plagiarism instances. They were also asked to identify plagiar...

  2. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    OpenAIRE

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms ...

  3. Cross-linguistic differences in the neural representation of human language: evidence from users of signed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Lawyer, Laurel A; Cates, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language, core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language.

  4. Cross-linguistic differences in the neural representation of human language: evidence from users of signed languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eCorina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language,; core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language.

  5. Cross-language distributions of high frequency and phonetically similar cognates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Schepens

    Full Text Available The coinciding form and meaning similarity of cognates, e.g. 'flamme' (French, 'Flamme' (German, 'vlam' (Dutch, meaning 'flame' in English, facilitates learning of additional languages. The cross-language frequency and similarity distributions of cognates vary according to evolutionary change and language contact. We compare frequency and orthographic (O, phonetic (P, and semantic similarity of cognates, automatically identified in semi-complete lexicons of six widely spoken languages. Comparisons of P and O similarity reveal inconsistent mappings in language pairs with deep orthographies. The frequency distributions show that cognate frequency is reduced in less closely related language pairs as compared to more closely related languages (e.g., French-English vs. German-English. These frequency and similarity patterns may support a better understanding of cognate processing in natural and experimental settings. The automatically identified cognates are available in the supplementary materials, including the frequency and similarity measurements.

  6. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  7. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  8. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  9. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  10. The Crime of Plagiarism: A Critique of Literary Property Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    Understanding the history of plagiarism may put scholars in a position to define plagiarism more precisely and to decide plagiarism disputes involving students and scholars more fairly. The origins of literary property are found in ritual and religious drama. In classical Greece and Rome, literary property began to hold some value for the author.…

  11. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  12. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  13. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  14. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  15. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  16. Failure To Teach: Due Process and Law School Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClercq, Terri

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 177 law schools which identified widespread institutional indifference to plagiarism and large disparities in law schools' definitions of and punishments for plagiarism. Finds law schools have failed to teach students the rudiments of proper attribution and offers a definition of plagiarism, suggested disciplinary sanctions,…

  17. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  18. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  19. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  20. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  1. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  2. Semantic annotation for concept-based cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Martin; Ripplinger, Bärbel; Vintar, Spela; Buitelaar, Paul; Raileanu, Diana; Sacaleanu, Bogdan

    2002-12-04

    We present a framework for concept-based cross-language information retrieval in the medical domain, which is under development in the MUCHMORE project. Our approach is based on using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as the primary source of semantic data. Documents and queries are annotated with multiple layers of linguistic information. Linguistic processing includes part-of-speech tagging, morphological analysis, phrase recognition and the identification of medical terms and semantic relations between them. The paper describes experiments in monolingual and cross-language document retrieval, performed on a corpus of medical abstracts. Results show that linguistic processing, especially lemmatization and compound analysis for German, is a crucial step in achieving a good baseline performance. On the other hand, they show that semantic information, specifically the combined use of concepts and relations, increases the performance in monolingual and cross-language retrieval.

  3. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  4. Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linguistic transfer studies began from linguistic aspects of language learning and moved to non-linguistic aspects. The intriguing question is whether students are aware of the nature of these cross-linguistic interactions in their minds. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was conducted with four Iranian university students. It…

  5. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linguistic transfer studies began from linguistic aspects of language learning and moved to non-linguistic aspects. The intriguing question is whether students are aware of the nature of these cross-linguistic interactions in their minds. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was conducted with four Iranian university students. It…

  7. Cross-Validating Chinese Language Mental Health Recovery Measures in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Chan, Tiffany Hill Ching; Chen, Eric HY; Ng, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting recovery in mental health services is hampered by a shortage of reliable and valid measures, particularly in Hong Kong. We seek to cross validate two Chinese language measures of recovery and one of recovery-promoting environments. Method: A cross-sectional survey of people recovering from early episode psychosis (n = 121)…

  8. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  10. Plagiarism, Intertextuality and Emergent Authorship in University Students' Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Helen Thompson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Issues of plagiarism, intertextuality and authorial presence in academic writing are fundamental to the teaching and learning activities of all university lecturers and their students. Knowing how to assist students, particularly those who speak English as an additional language (EAL, to develop a sense of text/knowledge ownership and authorial presence in the creation of discipline-based scholarly texts can be especially challenging. Clarifying what is encompassed by the notion of ‘common knowledge’ is also central to this process. The aim of this paper is to explore the political and intertextual nature of text/knowledge construction and emergent student authorship through the analysis of interviews and written assignments from two EAL students, together with interview data from lecturers from relevant disciplinary fields. Drawing on the work of Bakhtin, Kristeva and Penrose and Geisler, I conclude by suggesting that it is by engaging with, rather than fearing, intertextual connections, that we can create a dialogic pedagogy for academic writing that will enable students to articulate an authoritative authorial identity of their own. The importance of lecturer intervention during the drafting stages of text production is also emphasised. Keywords: plagiarism; intertextuality; emergent authorship; academic writing

  11. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  12. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  13. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  14. Cross-language differences in cue use for speech segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Michael D; Cutler, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Two artificial-language learning experiments directly compared English, French, and Dutch listeners' use of suprasegmental cues for continuous-speech segmentation. In both experiments, listeners heard unbroken sequences of consonant-vowel syllables, composed of recurring three- and four-syllable "words." These words were demarcated by (a) no cue other than transitional probabilities induced by their recurrence, (b) a consistent left-edge cue, or (c) a consistent right-edge cue. Experiment 1 examined a vowel lengthening cue. All three listener groups benefited from this cue in right-edge position; none benefited from it in left-edge position. Experiment 2 examined a pitch-movement cue. English listeners used this cue in left-edge position, French listeners used it in right-edge position, and Dutch listeners used it in both positions. These findings are interpreted as evidence of both language-universal and language-specific effects. Final lengthening is a language-universal effect expressing a more general (non-linguistic) mechanism. Pitch movement expresses prominence which has characteristically different placements across languages: typically at right edges in French, but at left edges in English and Dutch. Finally, stress realization in English versus Dutch encourages greater attention to suprasegmental variation by Dutch than by English listeners, allowing Dutch listeners to benefit from an informative pitch-movement cue even in an uncharacteristic position.

  15. Attitude to plagiarism in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.

  16. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  17. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Perception: L2 and L3 Perception of Japanese Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the possible influence of language learners' second language (L2) on their perception of phonological contrasts in their third language (L3). Previous studies on Third Language Acquisition (TLA) suggest various factors as possible sources of cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of an L3. This dissertation…

  18. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Perception: L2 and L3 Perception of Japanese Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the possible influence of language learners' second language (L2) on their perception of phonological contrasts in their third language (L3). Previous studies on Third Language Acquisition (TLA) suggest various factors as possible sources of cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of an L3. This dissertation…

  19. Use of Scan Forms to Cross Language Barriers in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    One of the many problems confronting today's physician is the need to communicate with patients of many different cultural backgrounds and different languages. In psychiatry, as in many other medical specialties, the initial assessment depends on the ability of the clinician to communicate with the patient. Currently, if the doctor and the patient do not speak the same language, a sometimes clumsy translation process impedes the patient-physician relationship and frequently hampers or minimizes this crucial first evaluation. A new system to translate patient information to the clinician is being explored. Using scan forms to ask patients important clinical questions in their own language, offers a unique way to begin to gather necessary medical information.

  20. Patchwork plagiarism – a jigsaw of stolen puzzle pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolčić, Vesna Šupak; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism remains at the top in terms of interest to the scientific community. In its many vicious forms, patchwork plagiarism is characterized by numerous unresolved issues and often passes “below the radar” of editors and reviewers. The problem of detecting the complexity of misconduct has been partially resolved by plagiarism detection software. However, interpretation of relevant reports is not always obvious or easy. This article deals with plagiarism in general and patchwork plagiarism in particular, as well as related problems that editors must deal with to maintain the integrity of scientific journals. PMID:23457762

  1. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patchwork plagiarism--a jigsaw of stolen puzzle pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak Smolcić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism remains at the top in terms of interest to the scientific community. In its many vicious forms, patchwork plagiarism is characterized by numerous unresolved issues and often passes "below the radar" of editors and reviewers. The problem of detecting the complexity of misconduct has been partially resolved by plagiarism detection software. However, interpretation of relevant reports is not always obvious or easy. This article deals with plagiarism in general and patchwork plagiarism in particular, as well as related problems that editors must deal with to maintain the integrity of scientific journals.

  3. Anti-plagiarism certification be an academic mandate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.

    Letter to the Editor Anti-PlagiarismCertificationbean AcademicMandate Sir, Plagiarism in scientific writing is inviting bigger issues than just contemplating unethical behavior of the individual (Gretchen, 2008). Altogether in the past, Science Journal has... plagiarism is not a disciplinary offence.This argues to stem plagiarism at a greater scale (Martin, 2007).With the advent of technology, the scope for pla- giarism become higher and a successful anti-plagiarism system is yet to be concocted. We analyzed 4...

  4. Using Nearest Neighbor Information to Improve Cross-Language Text Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Acevedo, Adelina; Montes-Y-Gómez, Manuel; Villaseñor-Pineda, Luis

    Cross-language text classification (CLTC) aims to take advantage of existing training data from one language to construct a classifier for another language. In addition to the expected translation issues, CLTC is also complicated by the cultural distance between both languages, which causes that documents belonging to the same category concern very different topics. This paper proposes a re-classification method which purpose is to reduce the errors caused by this phenomenon by considering information from the own target language documents. Experimental results in a news corpus considering three pairs of languages and four categories demonstrated the appropriateness of the proposed method, which could improve the initial classification accuracy by up to 11%.

  5. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-09-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously.

  6. Is there an effective approach to deterring students from plagiarizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Azman, Josip; Frkovic, Vedran; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software and penalty for plagiarizing in detecting and deterring plagiarism among medical students. The study was a continuation of previously published research in which second-year medical students from 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 school years were required to write an essay based on one of the four scientific articles offered by the instructor. Students from 2004/2005 (N = 92) included in present study were given the same task. Topics of two of the four articles were considered less complex, and two were more complex. One less and one more complex articles were available only as hardcopies, whereas the other two were available in electronic format. The students from 2001/2002 (N = 111) were only told to write an original essay, whereas the students from 2002/2003 (N = 87) were additionally warned against plagiarism, explained what plagiarism was, and how to avoid it. The students from 2004/2005 were warned that their essays would be examined by plagiarism detection software and that those who had plagiarized would be penalized. Students from 2004/2005 plagiarized significantly less of their essays than students from the previous two groups (2% vs. 17% vs. 21%, respectively, P students more frequently choose articles with more complex subjects (P plagiarism. Use of plagiarism detection software in evaluation of essays and consequent penalties had effectively deterred students from plagiarizing.

  7. QUERY TRANSLATION USING CONCEPTS SIMILARITY BASED ON QURAN ONTOLOGY FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaini Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR process, the translation effects have a direct impact on the accuracy of follow-up retrieval results. In dictionary-based approach, we are dealing with the words that have more than one meaning which can decrease the retrieval performance if the query translation return an incorrect translations. These issues need to be overcome using efficient technique. In this study we proposed a Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR method based on domain ontology using Quran concepts for disambiguating translation of the query and to improve the dictionary-based query translation. For experimentation, we use Quran ontology written in English and Malay languages as a bilingual parallel-corpora and Quran concepts as a resource for cross-language query translation along with dictionary-based translation. For evaluation, we measure the performance of three IR systems. IR1 is natural language query IR, IR2 is natural language query CLIR based on dictionary (as a Baseline and IR3 is the retrieval of this research proposed method using Mean Average Precision (MAP and average precision at 11 points of recall. The experimental result shows that our proposed method brings significant improvement in retrieval accuracy for English document collections, but deficient for Malay document collections. The proposed CLIR method can obtain query expansion effect and improve retrieval performance in certain language.

  8. Cross-language differences in cue use for speech segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler, M.D.; Cutler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two artificial-language learning experiments directly compared English, French, and Dutch listeners' use of suprasegmental cues for continuous-speech segmentation. In both experiments, listeners heard unbroken sequences of consonant-vowel syllables, composed of recurring three- and four-syllable "wo

  9. Negotiating Second-Language Identities in and through Border Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe the ways in which two British university students negotiated their identity as second language learners during a year abroad in Italy and the extent to which their struggles helped them to "fit in" into the new social and cultural contexts. Building upon the lived experiences of the two participants, I follow…

  10. Negotiating Second-Language Identities in and through Border Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe the ways in which two British university students negotiated their identity as second language learners during a year abroad in Italy and the extent to which their struggles helped them to "fit in" into the new social and cultural contexts. Building upon the lived experiences of the two participants, I follow…

  11. Cross-Pollination -- An Experiment in Language Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment with a second-year class of about 35 pupils in teaching English, French and Indonesian in an interconnected way, involving art and social studies as well as language and literature. Although the experiment is as yet unevaluated, the general effect was considered encouraging. (KM)

  12. Cross-Pollination -- An Experiment in Language Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment with a second-year class of about 35 pupils in teaching English, French and Indonesian in an interconnected way, involving art and social studies as well as language and literature. Although the experiment is as yet unevaluated, the general effect was considered encouraging. (KM)

  13. Plagiarism in South African management journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism by academics has been relatively unexplored thus far. However, there has been a growing awareness of this problem in recent years. We submitted 371 published academic articles appearing in 19 South African management journals in 2011 through the plagiarism detection software program Turnitin. High and excessive levels of plagiarism were detected. The cost to government of subsidising unoriginal work in these journals was calculated to approximate ZAR7 million for the period under review. As academics are expected to role model ethical behaviour to students, such a finding is disturbing and has implications for the reputations of the institutions to which the authors are affiliated as well as that of the journals that publish articles that contain plagiarised material.

  14. The academic plagiarism and its punishments - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. S. Berlinck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is an increase in the occurrence of plagiarism in varied types of academic texts. Therefore, in agreement with the Brazilian Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES policies, Brazilian higher education institutions should establish guidelines for the detection and inhibition of academic plagiarism. However, the notion of plagiarism is extremely complex, since the ability of textual construction acquired during education is also developed using others' words. Thus, it is necessary to better know the concept of plagiarism and its implications, as well as the consequences of plagiarism and the punishments that may result from it. Consequently, rules and policies to be established will be better founded in order to address the problem of plagiarism in academic texts in a comprehensive and consistent way, not only to inhibit plagiarism but also to promote education on how is possible to create texts in an original fashion.

  15. Pervasiveness of scholastic duplicity and plagiarism among the pharmacy students in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Shakeel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim to identify pharmacy students’ attitude towards the plagiarism and scholastic duplicity in Pakistan. This cross sectional study was conducted from Aug till Oct 2013. A pretested 17 items questionnaire was administered to first to fifth professional pharmacy undergraduate students of different private and public sector universities of Karachi. The questionnaire sought the demographics of the students, their attitude towards the plagiarism and scholastic duplicity in Pakistan. Descriptive statistics on the sample characteristics including percentages were computed. One way ANOVA was used to determine the influence of gender, institute and professional year on their responses. More than 75% of the students copy another student’s work without their knowledge. More that 60% of the students submit the assignment that has already been assessed. More than 55% utilize the efforts of their colleagues to write assignment or part of the assignment and considered to pass off other ideas/ images/design as their own. On the other hand, more than 55 % of the pharmacy undergraduate students did not used concealed information in examination and only 1.82% invents references themselves. Pharmacy is a noble profession in which the students are trained to be an ethical health care professional .There is a great need of time to properly educate students about the policy regarding plagiarism to cut down the trend of increased rate of cheating and plagiarism. Specific procedures should be developed to become more vigilant about the cheating behaviors of students.

  16. Language-Specific Developmental Differences in Speech Production: A Cross-Language Acoustic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English…

  17. Border Crossings? Exploring the Intersection of Second Language Acquisition, Conversation Analysis, and Foreign Language Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Junko

    2007-01-01

    This article explores recent changes in the landscape of second language acquisition (SLA) and foreign language pedagogical (FLP) research. Firth and Wagner's (1997) proposal for the reconceptualization of SLA has been supported by SLA and FLP researchers who share the sentiment concerning the need for increased attention to social and contextual…

  18. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  19. FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE IN THE INFORMATIONAL FIELD OF CROSS CULTURAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Tomin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of foreign languages is becoming an integral feature of competitive persona-lity, ability to engage in cross-cultural communication and productive cross-cultural inte-raction, characterized by an adequate degree of tolerance and multi-ethnic competence, the ability for cross-cultural adaptation, critical thinking and creativity. However, the concept of foreign language competence has so far no clear, unambiguous definitions, thereby indicating the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon, which is an integrative, practice-oriented outcome of the wish and ability for intercultural communication. There have been mentioned a variety of requirements, conditions, principles, objectives, means and forms of foreign language competence forming, among which special attention is paid to non-traditional forms of practical training and information field in a cross-cultural interaction. There have been explained the feasibility of their application, which allows solving a complex of series of educational and teaching tasks more efficiently. There have been clarified the term «information field» in cross-cultural interaction, which is a cross-section of internally inherent in every individual «sections» of knowledge, skills, and experience, arising in certain given educational frameworks and forming a communication channel. The resultative indicators of the formation of foreign language competence and ways to improve its effectiveness are presented.

  20. Exchange students crossing language boundaries in clinical nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, K

    2011-12-01

    This article examines challenges and learning outcomes for nursing students from a Central European university of applied sciences who completed 3 months of clinical practice in Norway. The clinical practice was supervised in English by Norwegian nurses and nursing teachers. English is not the primary language in any of the countries. Increases in global migration have contributed to the need for an international dimension in nursing education. Personal mobility is a crucial part of the European Union's goal of becoming a knowledge society. Clinically based experiences pose challenges that are additional to and often more complex than traditional course-based experiences. Students who come from a non-English-speaking country for clinical practice in Norway face challenges regarding language. Accepting incoming students is a way of achieving higher quality and more relevant education in nursing. The study shows that clinical practice in a foreign country gives added value compared with clinical practice at home. Greater self-confidence and understanding of core concepts in nursing is described by the participants. Language differences are not regarded as a problem but as a way of developing personal and professional competence. The ability to compare healthcare systems in the two counties is important in developing competencies in nursing. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Cross-language spoken document retrieval experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.

    2004-01-01

    Cross-Language Spoken Document Retrieval (CLSDR) combines both the complexities of retrieval from collections characterized by speech transcription errors and language translation issues between search requests and documents. Thus achieving effective retrieval in this domain is potentially very challenging. For the CLEF 2003 SDR task we adopted a standard query translation strategy using commercial machine translation tools and explored pseudo-relevance feedback using a small contemporaneous ...

  2. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere.

  3. The Distribution of Words in Chinese and Laos Based on Cross Language Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yuquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Word representation is the basic research content of natural language processing. At present, distributed representation of monolingual words has shown satisfactory application effect in some Neural Probabilistic Language (NPL research, while as for distributed representation of cross-lingual words, there is little research both at home and abroad. Aiming at this problem given distribution similarity of nouns and verbs in these two languages, we embed mutual translated words, synonyms, super-ordinates into Chinese corpus by the weakly supervised learning extension approach and other methods, thus Laos word distribution in cross-lingual environment of Chinese and Laos is learned. We applied the distributed representation of the cross-lingual words learned before to compute similarities of bilingual texts and classify the mixed text corpus of Chinese and Laos, Experimental results show that the proposal has a satisfactory effect on the two tasks.

  4. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  5. ALLTALK™- A Windows Phone Messenger With Cross Language Communication For Customer Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In day to day life, messengers or chatting applications provide facility for instant messaging over the internet. Exchange of messages takes place in universally used languages like English, French, etc. where both the users know how to communicate in a common language. Thus chatting on mobile phones is a luxury when both the parties involved know a common language. When any company wants to provide customer care services to its customer they use mediums like talking to the customers over the telephone which requires employees that are proficient in speaking various languages and set up large numbers of call centers to serve the customers worldwide. Hence we have implemented ALLTALK™ which is a Windows 8 phone based chatting application which makes cross language communication possible using mobile programming and networking technology. This application will enable the communication between two persons irrespective of the language each user wishes to use individually. The various modes of communication available in this messenger are through text and voice. Due to the best processing power provided among the available smartphones and high battery life we choose to work on windows 8 platform. This application provides a facility which enables service providers companies to provide customer care services to their customers in their native languages without the need of employees being skilled in various languages. Thus we have successfully eliminated the language barrier and enabled ease of communication through this application.

  6. Designing and Implementing a Cross-Language Information Retrieval System Using Linguistic Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nezarat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is a crucial area of natural language processing (NLP and can be defined as finding documents whose content is relevant to the query need of a user. Cross-language information retrieval (CLIR refers to a kind of information retrieval in which the language of the query and that of searched document are different. In fact, it is a retrieval process where the user presents queries in one language to retrieve documents in another language. This paper tried to construct a bilingual lexicon of parallel chunks of English and Persian from two very large monolingual corpora an English-Persian parallel corpus which could be directly applied to cross-language information retrieval tasks. For this purpose, a statistical measure known as Association Score (AS was used to compute the association value between every two corresponding chunks in the corpus using a couple of complicated algorithms. Once the CLIR system was developed using this bilingual lexicon, an experiment was performed on a set of one hundred English and Persian phrases and collocations to see to what extend this system was effective in assisting the users find the most relevant and suitable equivalents of their queries in either language.

  7. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  8. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  9. CYBER-DIGITAL PLAGIARISM: AN AWARENESS APPROACH*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lehobye

    Plagiarism within the cyber-digital environment is a significant problem amongst first- time authors and ..... in the physical presence of one another. Ethics. 31 forms a ... and University of Texas System sa http://bit.ly/39Nkq9. 31 Gregory Ethics ...

  10. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  11. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  12. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  13. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  14. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  15. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  16. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  17. Classrooms that Discourage Plagiarism and Welcome Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Nancy Guillot

    2011-01-01

    The key to establishing a defense against plagiarism is understanding the reasons that students engage in the process in the first place. Many students enter new grade levels academically unprepared for new challenges. When students encounter gaps between knowledge and the expectations of the classroom, some engage in unethical practices to propel…

  18. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  19. Three treatments for bilingual children with primary language impairment: Examining cross-linguistic and cross-domain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the absolute and relative effects of three different treatment programs for school-aged bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition in bilinguals with PLI. Method Fifty-nine school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI were assigned to receive nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, bilingual (Spanish-English), or deferred treatment. Participants in each of the three active treatments received treatment administered by nationally certified speech-language pathologists. Pre- and post-treatment assessments measured change in nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, and Spanish skills, and analyses examined change within and across both treatment groups and skill domains. Results All active treatment groups made significant pre- to post-treatment improvement on multiple outcome measures. There were fewer significant changes in Spanish than in English across groups. Between group comparisons indicate that the active treatment groups generally outperformed the deferred treatment control, reaching statistical significance for two tasks. Conclusions Results provide insight into cross-language transfer in bilingual children and advance understanding of the general PLI profile with respect to relationships between basic cognitive processing and higher level language skills. PMID:23900032

  20. Cross-language differences in phonological acquisition: Swedish and American /t/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel-Gammon, C; Williams, K; Buder, E

    1994-01-01

    Our understanding of phonological acquisition has benefited immensely from cross-linguistic investigations which allow researchers to separate biological and learned factors. To date, most cross-linguistic studies have focused either on differences in phonetic inventories or on differences in frequency of occurrence of particular phonetic and phonological properties in the adult language. This paper describes a third type of study: comparisons of segments that occur in two (or more) languages but differ in their phonetic properties. We present perceptual and acoustic analyses of adult and child productions of word-initial alveolar /t/ in American English and dental /t/ in Swedish. Results showed that listeners' perception of place of articulation was strongly associated with language (alveolar: American English, dental: Swedish) for both adult and child tokens, and was effective in assigning individual speakers to language groups. Three acoustic measures, voice onset time, burst intensity and burst spectral diffuseness correlated with language for both child and adult tokens; the latter two measures correlated with perception as well. The findings suggest that American and Swedish children at 30 months of age have acquired some language-specific phonetic aspects of /t/ phonemes.

  1. A Review on Anti-Plagiarism Approach Using Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sudhir D. Salunkhe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a days Plagiarism becomes serious problem, especially in academics and education and detecting plagiarism is a challenging task, particularly text plagiarism in student’s documents. Students or any other author makes plagiarism of original document and puts it as own document without giving credit to original author. To detect such dishonesty in document writing an anti-plagiarism system is proposed. In which reinforcement learning is can be used to get fast response of plagiarism in suspected document. The suspected document is compared with local as well as global database over the web. And then the final result will be calculated in terms of percentage for the suspected document

  2. Discovering Clusters of Plagiarism in Students’ Source Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moussiades

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism in students’ source codes constitutes an important drawback for the educational process. In addition, plagiarism detection in source codes is time consuming and tiresome task. Therefore, many approaches for plagiarism detection have been proposed. Most of the aforementioned approaches receive as input a set of source files and calculate a similarity between each pair of the input set. However, the tutor often needs to detect the clusters of plagiarism, i.e. clusters of students’ assignments such as all assignments in a cluster derive from a common original. In this paper, we propose a novel plagiarism detection algorithm that receives as input a set of source codes and calculates the clusters of plagiarism. Experimental results show the efficiency of our approach and encourage us to further research.

  3. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). PMID:23894861

  4. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak-Smocić, Vesna; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Self-plagiarism is a controversial issue in scientific writing and presentation of research data. Unlike plagiarism, self-plagiarism is difficult to interpret as intellectual theft under the justification that one cannot steal from oneself. However, academics are concerned, as self-plagiarized papers mislead readers, do not contribute to science, and bring undeserved credit to authors. As such, it should be considered a form of scientific misconduct. In this paper, we explain different forms of self-plagiarism in scientific writing and then present good editorial policy toward questionable material. The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

  5. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  6. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  7. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  8. A Domain Specific Lexicon Acquisition Tool for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de Franciska; Kraaij, Wessel

    1997-01-01

    With the recent enormous increase of information dissemination via the web as incentive there is a growing interest in supporting tools for cross-language retrieval. In this paper we describe a disclosure and retrieval approach that fulfils the needs of both information providers and users by offeri

  9. Man & the Media II: Media and Cross-Cultural Communication in Foreign Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Hans-Wilhelm; Niedzielski, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes presentations given at the second annual symposium "Man and the Media" at the Institute for Romance Languages at the University of Saarbrucken, West Germany in September 1986. Includes comparisons between French and German news coverage on TV, teaching French using TV, and cross-cultural problems in using instructional videos.…

  10. Cross-language activation in same-script and different-script trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    In a picture naming study, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in three groups of trilinguals: L3-immersed German-English-Dutch, non-L3-immersed Dutch-English-German, and L3-immersed Russian-English-German trilinguals. All trilinguals named pictures with cognate and

  11. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  12. Cross-Language Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Lam, Katie; Luo, Yang C.; Ramirez, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of morphological awareness in Chinese-English bilingual children. One hundred and thirty-seven first to fourth graders participated in the study. The children were tested on parallel measures of compound awareness, vocabulary, word reading and reading comprehension in Chinese and English. They also…

  13. Conquering the Babel: Cross-Language Information Retrieval on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts of a session that discussed cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) on the World Wide Web. Topics include CLIR research in Chinese-English, German-English, and Japanese-English involving machine translation, semantic indexing, domain concepts, integrating new technologies, large-scale multilingual lexicons, and international…

  14. Man & the Media II: Media and Cross-Cultural Communication in Foreign Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Hans-Wilhelm; Niedzielski, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes presentations given at the second annual symposium "Man and the Media" at the Institute for Romance Languages at the University of Saarbrucken, West Germany in September 1986. Includes comparisons between French and German news coverage on TV, teaching French using TV, and cross-cultural problems in using instructional videos.…

  15. Cross-Language Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Lam, Katie; Luo, Yang C.; Ramirez, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of morphological awareness in Chinese-English bilingual children. One hundred and thirty-seven first to fourth graders participated in the study. The children were tested on parallel measures of compound awareness, vocabulary, word reading and reading comprehension in Chinese and English. They also…

  16. The Potential of Dual-Language Cross-Cultural Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…

  17. Language Reflects "Core" Cognition: A New Theory About the Origin of Cross-Linguistic Regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Brent

    2017-01-01

    The underlying structures that are common to the world's languages bear an intriguing connection with early emerging forms of "core knowledge" (Spelke & Kinzler, 2007), which are frequently studied by infant researchers. In particular, grammatical systems often incorporate distinctions (e.g., the mass/count distinction) that reflect those made in core knowledge (e.g., the non-verbal distinction between an object and a substance). Here, I argue that this connection occurs because non-verbal core knowledge systematically biases processes of language evolution. This account potentially explains a wide range of cross-linguistic grammatical phenomena that currently lack an adequate explanation. Second, I suggest that developmental researchers and cognitive scientists interested in (non-verbal) knowledge representation can exploit this connection to language by using observations about cross-linguistic grammatical tendencies to inspire hypotheses about core knowledge.

  18. Perceptions of Plagiarism by STEM Graduate Students: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Michelle; Schwieder, David; Buhler, Amy; Bennett, Denise Beaubien; Royster, Melody

    2015-12-01

    Issues of academic integrity, specifically knowledge of, perceptions and attitudes toward plagiarism, are well documented in post-secondary settings using case studies for specific courses, recording discourse with focus groups, analyzing cross-cultural education philosophies, and reviewing the current literature. In this paper, the authors examine the perceptions of graduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at the University of Florida regarding misconduct and integrity issues. Results revealed students' perceptions of the definition and seriousness of potential academic misconduct, knowledge of institutional procedures, and views on faculty actions, all with a focus on divergences between U.S. and internationally-educated students. The open-ended questions provide anecdotal evidence to highlight personal experiences, positive and negative, aimed at the faculty, international students and undergraduates. Combined, these findings outline an important part of the campus academic integrity culture at a major American university. Recommendations for local actions also are discussed.

  19. Student's plagiarism--a challenge for paramedic educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Bandurski, Tomasz; Swietlik, Dariusz; Tomczak, Hanna; Wengler, Lubomira

    2006-01-01

    Student's plagiarism is a growing problem not only in the writing of controlling essays, but above all in the writing in BSc./MSc. diploma theses, which sometimes can be simply bought from ghost-writers. This is a major challenge for medical educators, particularly in paramedic professions. The aim of this paper is to overview the frequency of plagiarism among students, the factors influencing plagiarism, the ways of detecting it and potential countermeasures.

  20. Plagiarism as the Moral Problem of the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaeva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: plagiarism, moral, traditional creation, contemporary creativity, informa- tion society. The problem of plagiarism in the information society is specified by the opened nature of social communication, by changing author’s status in contemporary culture, by the distribution of contemporary creativity – not traditional creation. From a moral point of view a plagiarism is an insult to the moral dignity of man, capable of creative activity. Copyright is the juridic...

  1. Digital plagiarism - The web giveth and the web shall taketh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, David E

    2000-01-01

    Publishing students' and researchers' papers on the World Wide Web (WWW) facilitates the sharing of information within and between academic communities. However, the ease of copying and transporting digital information leaves these authors' ideas open to plagiarism. Using tools such as the Plagiarism.org database, which compares submissions to reports and papers available on the Internet, could discover instances of plagiarism, revolutionize the peer review process, and raise the quality of published research everywhere. PMID:11720925

  2. The academic plagiarism and its punishments - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Berlinck,Roberto G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is an increase in the occurrence of plagiarism in varied types of academic texts. Therefore, in agreement with the Brazilian Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) policies, Brazilian higher education institutions should establish guidelines for the detection and inhibition of academic plagiarism. However, the notion of plagiarism is extremely complex, since the ability of textual construction acquired during education is also developed using others'...

  3. Plagiarism as the Moral Problem of the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaeva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: plagiarism, moral, traditional creation, contemporary creativity, informa- tion society. The problem of plagiarism in the information society is specified by the opened nature of social communication, by changing author’s status in contemporary culture, by the distribution of contemporary creativity – not traditional creation. From a moral point of view a plagiarism is an insult to the moral dignity of man, capable of creative activity. Copyright is the juridic...

  4. Plagiarism Detection: Keeping Check on Misuse of Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Iti; Joshi, Nisheeth

    2012-01-01

    Today, Plagiarism has become a menace. Every journal editor or conference organizers has to deal with this problem. Simply Copying or rephrasing of text without giving due credit to the original author has become more common. This is considered to be an Intellectual Property Theft. We are developing a Plagiarism Detection Tool which would deal with this problem. In this paper we discuss the common tools available to detect plagiarism and their short comings and the advantages of our tool over...

  5. Cross-Language Activation Begins during Speech Planning and Extends into Second Language Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, April; Fricke, Melinda; Kroll, Judith F.

    2016-01-01

    Three groups of native English speakers named words aloud in Spanish, their second language (L2). Intermediate proficiency learners in a classroom setting (Experiment 1) and in a domestic immersion program (Experiment 2) were compared to a group of highly proficient English-Spanish speakers. All three groups named cognate words more quickly and…

  6. Morphological learning in a novel language: A cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Waris, Otto; Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Being able to extract and interpret the internal structure of complex word forms such as the English word dance+r+s is crucial for successful language learning. We examined whether the ability to extract morphological information during word learning is affected by the morphological features of one's native tongue. Spanish and Finnish adult participants performed a word-picture associative learning task in an artificial language where the target words included a suffix marking the gender of the corresponding animate object. The short exposure phase was followed by a word recognition task and a generalization task for the suffix. The participants' native tongues vary greatly in terms of morphological structure, leading to two opposing hypotheses. On the one hand, Spanish speakers may be more effective in identifying gender in a novel language because this feature is present in Spanish but not in Finnish. On the other hand, Finnish speakers may have an advantage as the abundance of bound morphemes in their language calls for continuous morphological decomposition. The results support the latter alternative, suggesting that lifelong experience on morphological decomposition provides an advantage in novel morphological learning.

  7. One World, Two Languages: Cross-Language Semantic Priming in Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher

    2014-01-01

    The interconnectedness of bilingual memory remains a topic of great debate. Semantic priming provides a powerful methodological tool with which to investigate this issue in early bilingual toddlers. Semantic priming effects were investigated in 21 bilingual toddlers (2.5 years) within and across each of their languages. Results revealed the first…

  8. Overcoming terminology barrier using Web resources for cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons inverted exclamation mark| terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work address language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, while this study presents an approach to overcome terminology barriers based on Web resources. Two techniques were utilized in our approach: monolingual concept mapping using approximate string matching and crosslingual concept mapping using Web resources. The evaluation shows that our approach can significantly improve the performance on MeSH concept mapping and cross-language medical information retrieval.

  9. Research of Anti-Plagiarism Monitoring System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yang; YUAN Zhongshang; LIU Lu; DONG Hui

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a flexible anti-plagiarism system model based on user-defined plagiarism standards. We also proposed PlagLazy and format-legacy phenomena that plagiarist will remain format-legacy such as soft-enter symbol in his DOC document after plagiarizing material from web and corresponding optimized algorithm which improves the speed of comparison. Our model is suitable for the anti-plagiarism and monitoring of large document collections, and it can also be used in digital library, E-learning and other fields.

  10. Simple steps to avoid plagiarism and improve scientific writing

    OpenAIRE

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Peeran, Syed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Dear Sir, Plagiarism is defined by the Oxford dictionary as ‘the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own’. Plagiarism can be defined simply as literary theft. Historically, it used to take place when one tried to steal other’s work to gain recognition. In the recent times, plagiarism includes literary theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another’s work. Plagiarism encompasses either pla...

  11. Translation Events in Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Lexical Ambiguity, Lexical Holes, Vocabulary Mismatch, and Correct Translations

    OpenAIRE

    Diekema, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) systems enable users to formulate queries in their native language to retrieve documents in foreign languages. Because queries and documents in CLIR do not necessarily share the same language, translation is needed before matching can take place. This translation step tends to cause a reduction in the retrieval performance of CLIR as compared to monolingual information retrieval. The prevailing CLIR approach and the focus of this study is quer...

  12. Monitoring source in an unconscious plagiarism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, J D; Marsh, R L

    1997-06-01

    Current laboratory paradigms used to assess unconscious plagiarism consist of three tasks. First, participants generate solutions to a puzzle task with a partner (initial generation task); second, they recall their individual contribution (recall-own task); and third, they attempt to create new solutions that were not offered previously (generate-new task). An analysis of these tasks indicated that they differ in terms of the source monitoring they require. The two generative tasks require less differentiated information (e.g., familiarity) and relatively lax decision criteria. The recall-own task, however, demands more differentiated information and more extended decision criteria. In two experiments, factors known to influence source monitoring were manipulated. Consistent with the analysis, no effects were associated with the generative tasks. Recall-own plagiarisms increased when self- and other-generated solutions were difficult to distinguish (Experiment 1) and decreased when the two sources were easier to distinguish (Experiment 2).

  13. CULTURAL CAPSULES AND READING TEXTS: TRIGGERS TO CROSS-CULTURAL LANGUAGE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in the international setting is based on cultural presuppositions about the kinds of language performance that are appropriate for specific situations. Culture capsules are useful teaching techniques to teach English, as learners would be able to bring in their own cultural insights into learning the pragmatics of English through the various combinations of word choice, prosodic and paralinguistic features. This paper will provide examples of capsules which focus on a range of speech acts (greetings, directives, requests, etc and demonstrate how they can be used as a stimulus to cross-cultural language awareness.

  14. The Theory & Application of Cross- language Information Retrieval%跨语言信息检索的理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏

    2003-01-01

    With the development of the Intemet, cross-language information retrieval has become a hot research field. This article describes the progress of cross-language information retrieval from two aspects, i. e. from theory and practice.

  15. Cross-Language Competition is Modulated by Individual Differences in Executive Function: An Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Sudarshan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence from empirical and clinical studies has shown evidence suggesting that lexical selection is more difficult when there is greater cross-language competition. These studies further suggest that higher cognitive mechanisms, particularly inhibitory control, may play a crucial role in the regulation of languages in the bilingual brain. An important implication of this finding is that the process of lexical selection in a bilingual context may be particularly difficult for older adults for whom a vast body of literature has demonstrated a decline in cognitive functions required for language processing and production. However, benefits in executive functions (EF conferred by life-long bilingualism may protect against age-related difficulties in language skills (1. Here, we sought to investigate whether older adults resolved within- and cross-language lexical competition differently from younger adults and whether factors such as word status (cognate and non-cognate word processing and individual differences in domain-general executive control modulated cross-language interference resolution. Methods: In a picture-word interference paradigm, French-English bilingual younger and older adults named cognate and non-cognate pictures in English while ignoring within- and cross-language auditory distractor words (at varying SOAs. The distractors exhibited three different relations to the cognate target picture (Cactus: semantic (Thorn or Épine, phonological (Canvas or Cahier (notebook and unrelated control (Soap or Meuble (furniture. An additional target-distractor relation was included for the non-cognate target pictures: phonological relation to the translation (Gâteau of the target (Cake – (Garden or Garçon (boy. Additionally, to evaluate whether cross-language interference is modulated by individual differences in executive control, a battery of EF tests was administered. To further imply causality to EF and

  16. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  17. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Juyal; Vijay Thawani; Shweta Thaledi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intelle...

  18. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  19. Plagiarism Continues to Affect Scholarly Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Tae

    2017-02-01

    I have encountered 3 cases of plagiarism as editor of the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS). The first one was copying figures from a JKMS article without citation, the second was submission of a copied manuscript of a published article to JKMS, and the third was publishing a copied JKMS article in another journal. The first and third cases violated copyrights of JKMS, but the violating journals made no action on the misconduct. The second and third cases were slightly modified copies of the source articles but similarity check by the Crosscheck could not identify the text overlap initially and after one year reported 96% overlap for the second case. The similarity of the third case was reported 3%. The Crosscheck must upgrade its system for better reliable screening of text plagiarism. The copy of the second case was committed by a corrupt Chinese editing company and also by some unethical researchers. In conclusion, plagiarism still threatens the trustworthiness of the publishing enterprises and is a cumbersome burden for editors of scholarly journals. We require a better system to increase the vigilance and to prevent the misconduct.

  20. Plagiarism Continues to Affect Scholarly Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    I have encountered 3 cases of plagiarism as editor of the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS). The first one was copying figures from a JKMS article without citation, the second was submission of a copied manuscript of a published article to JKMS, and the third was publishing a copied JKMS article in another journal. The first and third cases violated copyrights of JKMS, but the violating journals made no action on the misconduct. The second and third cases were slightly modified copies of the source articles but similarity check by the Crosscheck could not identify the text overlap initially and after one year reported 96% overlap for the second case. The similarity of the third case was reported 3%. The Crosscheck must upgrade its system for better reliable screening of text plagiarism. The copy of the second case was committed by a corrupt Chinese editing company and also by some unethical researchers. In conclusion, plagiarism still threatens the trustworthiness of the publishing enterprises and is a cumbersome burden for editors of scholarly journals. We require a better system to increase the vigilance and to prevent the misconduct. PMID:28049227

  1. Plagiarism Detection Using Graph-Based Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Ahmed Hamza; Binwahlan, Mohammed Salem

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism of material from the Internet is a widespread and growing problem. Several methods used to detect the plagiarism and similarity between the source document and suspected documents such as fingerprint based on character or n-gram. In this paper, we discussed a new method to detect the plagiarism based on graph representation; however, Preprocessing for each document is required such as breaking down the document into its constituent sentences. Segmentation of each sentence into separated terms and stop word removal. We build the graph by grouping each sentence terms in one node, the resulted nodes are connected to each other based on order of sentence within the document, all nodes in graph are also connected to top level node "Topic Signature". Topic signature node is formed by extracting the concepts of each sentence terms and grouping them in such node. The main advantage of the proposed method is the topic signature which is main entry for the graph is used as quick guide to the relevant nodes. ...

  2. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume X, Number 1, Spring 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasky, Andrew, Ed.; Brooks, Lori B., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The tenth anniversary issue of this journal contains eight articles on English teaching approaches and cross cultural communication. The articles address the following topics: textual cohesion devices, English negation, reading instruction, discourse intonation as an approach to teaching pronunciation, interpretive oral reading as a learning…

  3. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  4. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  5. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  6. A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches for Reducing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-An; Wilhelm, William J.; Neureuther, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and…

  7. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  8. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  9. Plagiarism Charges against a Scholar Can Divide Experts, Perplex Scholarly Societies, and Raise Intractable Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carolyn J.

    1992-01-01

    A case of suspected scholarly plagiarism by Charles P. Gallmeier is reported and used to illustrate issues in plagiarism, including the definition of plagiarism, the role of motive in defining plagiarism, the appropriate investigative body, appropriate due process and punishment, and the academic community's responsibility to inform members of…

  10. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  11. Peers and Plagiarism: The Role of Student Judicial Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    After reading Kathryn Valentine's article that talked about her interaction with a Chinese student accused of plagiarism, the author was reminded of the effectiveness of student judicial boards. In this article, the author describes the benefits of having a student judicial board in fighting off plagiarism among students. She relates that although…

  12. Teaching Students about Plagiarism Using a Web-Based Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Maria Earman

    2013-01-01

    The following research delivered a web-based module about plagiarism and paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism in both a blended method, with live instruction paired with web presentation for 105 students, and a separate web-only method for 22 other students. Participants were graduates and undergraduates preparing to become teachers, the majority of…

  13. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  14. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  15. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  16. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  17. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  18. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  19. Online plagiarism training falls short in biology classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students' ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time.

  20. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  1. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  2. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  3. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  4. Students' Perceptions of Cheating and Plagiarism in Higher Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owunwanne, Daniel; Rustagi, Narendra; Dada, Remi

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that cheating and plagiarism are prominent problems in many universities. In informal conversations, it seems that different students perceive plagiarism differently. In this paper, we conducted a survey at Howard University to examine or to follow up with this growing trend. Specifically, team leaders in school…

  5. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  6. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  7. Plagiarism in the Japanese Universities: Truly a Cultural Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Although plagiarism is considered among western academic circles as one of the worst "crimes" a student can commit, many scholars suggest that these attitudes do not apply to students from areas outside this sphere. They believe that in many countries, plagiarism is considered culturally acceptable. As such, ESL or EFL instructors in…

  8. Non-Native University Students' Perception of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ummul Khair; Mansourizadeh, Kobra; Ai, Grace Koh Ming

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of…

  9. None-Native University Students’ Perception of Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummul Khair Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of postgraduate students in a Malaysian university were asked to categorize ten cases of plagiarism instances. They were also asked to identify plagiarized paraphrased versions of five excerpts of different source texts provided. The findings showed that students had misconceptions about different aspect of plagiarism including citation conventions, collusion, using another writer’s idea, and style of writing. Further analysis has shown that students were aware that plagiarism is wrong but they could not correctly identify the multiple forms in which plagiarism could happen. These findings indicate that students need to be taught and exposed to various forms and layers of plagiarism so that they would know how best to avoid it in their own writing.

  10. Personalized Assessment as a Means to Mitigate Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sathiamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    Although every educational institution has a code of academic honesty, they still encounter incidents of plagiarism. These are difficult and time-consuming to detect and deal with. This paper explores the use of personalized assessments with the goal of reducing incidents of plagiarism, proposing a personalized assessment software framework…

  11. Borrowing Others' Words: Text, Ownership, Memory, and Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    1996-01-01

    Considers some of the complexities of text, ownership, memorization, and plagiarism. The article suggests that plagiarism needs to be understood in terms of complex relationships between text, memory, and learning as part of an undertaking to explore different relationships between learning, literacy, and cultural difference. (49 references)…

  12. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  13. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  14. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  15. Plagiarism in the Japanese Universities: Truly a Cultural Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Although plagiarism is considered among western academic circles as one of the worst "crimes" a student can commit, many scholars suggest that these attitudes do not apply to students from areas outside this sphere. They believe that in many countries, plagiarism is considered culturally acceptable. As such, ESL or EFL instructors in…

  16. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  17. A Strategy to Reduce Plagiarism in an Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Ronald W.; du Pre, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated how effective an online academic integrity module was at reducing the occurrence of plagiarism in a written assignment for a university course. In a preintervention comparison group, plagiarism was detected in 25.8% of papers submitted, compared with only 6.5% in the group that completed the academic integrity module. The…

  18. Plagiarism, Enclosure, and the Commons of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurrah, William L.

    When discussing plagiarism and cheating these days, college faculty seem to find themselves using the rhetoric of crime and punishment ("It's easier to steal from the Internet") on their students rather than a rhetoric more attuned to their actual mission. A short overview in this paper of the history of plagiarism and the development of the…

  19. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  20. The Anatomy of a Plagiarism Initiative: One Library's Campus Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madray, Amrita

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism in media and print continues to be a major issue for professors, librarians, and students. Through initiatives and outreach from the B. Davis Memorial Library at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University, plagiarism Web sites have been created and workshops and programs continually provided for faculty and students to detect,…

  1. Good intentions: providing students with skills to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafron, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop.

  2. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls.

  3. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  4. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  5. Reducing Plagiarism by Using Online Software: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Ozgur; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    This action research attempts to explore the perceptions of Turkish university students on plagiarism while evaluating the effectiveness of an online application used to deter plagiarism. The participants were 40 first year university students studying in two different sections of an academic writing class. The findings show that the participants…

  6. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  7. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  8. Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fersch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

  9. Plagiarism: Why is it such a big issue for medical writers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Natasha; Panjabi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is the wrongful presentation of somebody else‘s work or idea as one’s own without adequately attributing it to the source. Most authors know that plagiarism is an unethical publication practice. Yet, it is a serious problem in the medical writing arena. Plagiarism is perhaps the commonest ethical issue plaguing medical writing. In this article, we highlight the different types of plagiarism and address the issues of plagiarism of text, plagiarism of ideas, mosaic plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and duplicate publication. An act of plagiarism can have several repercussions for the author, the journal in question and the publication house as a whole. Sometimes, strict disciplinary action is also taken against the plagiarist. The article cites examples of retraction of articles, suspension of authors, apology letters from journal editors, and other such actions against plagiarism. PMID:21731858

  10. Cross-language message- and word-level transfer effects in bilingual text processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C; Jared, Debra

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined the nature of the mental representations bilinguals form when reading a text and to what extent they are language specific. English-French bilinguals read five pairs of passages in succession while their eye movements were tracked. Dependent measures were overall reading times on second passages and fixation latencies on target cognates embeddedin second passages. The first passage w as (1) identical tothe second passage in the pair, (2) related in content only (i.e., a translation), (3) related in content and some words (i.e., translation with cognates), (4) related in words only (i.e., different content with the same cognates), or (5) unrelated. There was substantial cross-language facilitation for passages that shared meaning, but the amount of transfer was less than that for identical passages, indicating that memory representations are largely meaning based but do contain some information about surface form. Cross-language transfer for cognates was observed but depended on the skill of the bilinguals in their second language, the direction of transfer, and whether the passages shared meaning. These results are discussed in relation to Raney's (2003) model of text representation.

  11. Influences of listeners' native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners' native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels large...

  12. Influences of listeners’ native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners’ native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels large...

  13. Influences of listeners’ native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eWilliams

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners’ native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels largely predicted Southern listeners’ perceptual assimilation patterns, this was not the case for Northern listeners, whose assimilation patterns resembled those of Southern listeners for all but three Dutch vowels. The cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to Northern English vowels was re-examined by incorporating Southern English tokens, which resulted in considerable improvements in the predicting power of cross-language acoustic similarity. This suggests that Northern listeners’ assimilation of Dutch vowels to English vowels was influenced by knowledge of both native Northern and non-native Southern English vowel categories. The implications of these findings for theories of non-native speech perception are discussed.

  14. Influences of listeners' native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners' native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels largely predicted Southern listeners' perceptual assimilation patterns, this was not the case for Northern listeners, whose assimilation patterns resembled those of Southern listeners for all but three Dutch vowels. The cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to Northern English vowels was re-examined by incorporating Southern English tokens, which resulted in considerable improvements in the predicting power of cross-language acoustic similarity. This suggests that Northern listeners' assimilation of Dutch vowels to English vowels was influenced by knowledge of both native Northern and non-native Southern English vowel categories. The implications of these findings for theories of non-native speech perception are discussed.

  15. Influences of listeners' native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners' native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels largely predicted Southern listeners' perceptual assimilation patterns, this was not the case for Northern listeners, whose assimilation patterns resembled those of Southern listeners for all but three Dutch vowels. The cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to Northern English vowels was re-examined by incorporating Southern English tokens, which resulted in considerable improvements in the predicting power of cross-language acoustic similarity. This suggests that Northern listeners' assimilation of Dutch vowels to English vowels was influenced by knowledge of both native Northern and non-native Southern English vowel categories. The implications of these findings for theories of non-native speech perception are discussed. PMID:25339921

  16. On academic plagiarism in Europe. An analytical approach based on four studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Pupovac; Lidija Bilic-Zulle; Mladen Petrovecki

    2008-01-01

    With the development of information and communication technology (ICT), plagiarism becomes an ever more serious problem in the academic community. According to the studies on academic plagiarism conducted at universities in four different European countries, plagiarism rates among students are quite high and students mostly ignore or allow plagiarism because of a lack of knowledge, lack of consequences, or simply because ICT makes plagiarism easy to commit. The findings of the studies present...

  17. On academic plagiarism in Europe. An analytical approach based on four studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Pupovac; Lidija Bilic-Zulle; Mladen Petrovecki

    2008-01-01

    With the development of information and communication technology (ICT), plagiarism becomes an ever more serious problem in the academic community. According to the studies on academic plagiarism conducted at universities in four different European countries, plagiarism rates among students are quite high and students mostly ignore or allow plagiarism because of a lack of knowledge, lack of consequences, or simply because ICT makes plagiarism easy to commit. The findings of the studies present...

  18. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.

  19. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.

  20. Assessing prosodic skills in five European languages: cross-linguistic differences in typical and atypical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppé, Sue J E; Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Coene, Martine; Hesling, Isabelle; Moen, Inger; Gibbon, Fiona E

    2010-02-01

    Following demand for a prosody assessment procedure, the test Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), has been translated from English into Spanish, French, Flemish and Norwegian. This provides scope to examine receptive and expressive prosodic ability in Romance (Spanish and French) as well as Germanic (English and Flemish) languages, and includes the possibility of assessing these skills with regard to lexical tone (Norwegian). Cross-linguistic similarities and differences relevant to the translation are considered. Preliminary findings concerning 8-year-old neurotypical children speaking the five languages are reported. The appropriateness of investigating contrastive stress in Romance as well as Germanic languages is considered: results are reported for assessing this skill in Spanish and English speakers and suggest that in Spanish it is acquired much later than in English. We also examine the feasibility of assessing and comparing prosodic disorder in the five languages, using assessments of prosody in Spanish and English speakers with Williams syndrome as an example. We conclude that, with caveats, the original design of the UK test may indicate comparable stages of prosodic development in neurotypical children and is appropriate for the evaluation of prosodic skills for adults and children, both neurotypical and with impairment, in all five languages.

  1. Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early english-welsh bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giordana; Savill, Nicola; Thomas, Enlli; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density (ND) effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1) or second (L2) language. Words with many cross-language (CL) neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs) than words with few CL neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008); the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of CL activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high CLND elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low CLND starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that CL activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals' learning experience of the two languages.

  2. Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T

    2006-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p contexts, and (4) language of choice for therapy, evaluation, and educational services. The findings are discussed in the context of clinical and conceptual implications and future research needs.

  3. Student Plagiarism and the Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Bradley H.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with…

  4. Where Does Originality End and Plagiarism Start? Discussing Plagiarism in Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne; Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Jiang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    no longer be considered to be original and starts to be considered self-plagiarism. Parts of the discussion will center on the question of whether information science researchers can actually avoid repeating the same words when today they have to publish results from research projects in as many...

  5. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  6. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  7. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  8. Non-English speakers consulting with the GP in their own language: a cross-sectional survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, George K; Rai, Harbinder; Walker, Jeremy J; Howie, John G R; Heaney, David J; Maxwell, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    The Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) gives counterintuitive results with patients who normally speak non-English languages at home. The aim of this study was to find out more about why patients speaking languages other than English were more enabled in a shorter time than English-speaking patients. A cross-sectional consultation-based questionnaire survey was conducted of 2052 adult patients speaking languages other than English compared with 23790 English-speaking patients in four contras...

  9. Ecology and the Environment. Language Arts around the World, Volume V. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of ecology and the environment. The units in the book reach diverse…

  10. Who Transfers More...and What? Cross-linguistic Influence in Relation to School Grade and Language Dominance in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Teresa; Miralpeix, Immaculada; Celaya, M. Luz

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) is receiving increasing attention in multilingual learners (Cenoz "et al.", 2001). Research with bilingual learners has analysed CLI in relation to language dominance (see, for instance, Hulk & Muller, 2000; Yip & Stephen, 2000) and to language dominance and grade in school settings (Cenoz, 2003; Lasagabaster,…

  11. Cross-language perception of Japanese vowel length contrasts: comparison of listeners from different first language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukari; Roengpitya, Rungpat

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the perception of Japanese vowel length contrasts by 4 groups of listeners who differed in their familiarity with length contrasts in their first language (L1; i.e., American English, Italian, Japanese, and Thai). Of the 3 nonnative groups, native Thai listeners were expected to outperform American English and Italian listeners, because vowel length is contrastive in their L1. Native Italian listeners were expected to demonstrate a higher level of accuracy for length contrasts than American English listeners, because the former are familiar with consonant (but not vowel) length contrasts (i.e., singleton vs. geminate) in their L1. A 2-alternative forced-choice AXB discrimination test that included 125 trials was administered to all the participants, and the listeners' discrimination accuracy (d') was reported. As expected, Japanese listeners were more accurate than all 3 nonnative groups in their discrimination of Japanese vowel length contrasts. The 3 nonnative groups did not differ from one another in their discrimination accuracy despite varying experience with length contrasts in their L1. Only Thai listeners were more accurate in their length discrimination when the target vowel was long than when it was short. Being familiar with vowel length contrasts in L1 may affect the listeners' cross-language perception, but it does not guarantee that their L1 experience automatically results in efficient processing of length contrasts in unfamiliar languages. The extent of success may be related to how length contrasts are phonetically implemented in listeners' L1.

  12. Crossing Language Barriers: Using Crossed Random Effects Modelling in Psycholinguistics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn J. Carson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of multilevel modelling (MLM, also called hierarchical linear modelling (HLM, and to present a step-by-step tutorial on how to perform a crossed random effects model (CREM analysis. The first part provides an overview of how hierarchical data have been analyzed in the past and how they are being analyzed presently. It then focuses on how these types of data have been dealt with in psycholinguistic research. It concludes with an overview of the steps involved in CREM, a form of MLM used for psycholinguistics data. The second part includes a tutorial demonstrating how to conduct a CREM analysis in SPSS, using the following steps: 1 clarify your research question, 2 determine if CREM is necessary, 3 choose an estimation method, 4 build your model, and 5 estimate the model’s effect size. A short example on how to report CREM results in a scholarly article is also included.

  13. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  14. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  15. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  16. [Scientific stealing (Plagiarism) in medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enöz, Murat

    2007-01-01

    The obligation to publish academic papers in order to get academic rank has made medical doctors more ambitious to publish faster and more papers. According to the ethical and legal rules in our country and in the world, if an idea or technical methods of another person is used in a medical journal, the owner of the method or idea and its publication has to be cited. If an idea, information or a technical method of another scientist is published without citation as if it was one's own idea it's called "Plagiarism". Despite the prohibitive laws and rules, this scientific stealing has become an increasing problem for medical journals worldwide.

  17. Plagiarism issues in post-1998 Indonesian film posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekky Imanjaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are online articles, with visual materials, stating that some post-1998 Indonesian film posters were accused as plagiarism by common people. However, academically speaking, it needs deeper skills and knowledge to prove acts of plagiarism. This paper will discuss the issues around Indonesian film posters and plagiarism, including the possibility of citing in graphic design. The research will treat film posters not only as marketing tools to promote the movies, as many people consider, but also as graphic design materials. Some terms such as appropriation, homage, and pastiche will be discussed to analyze the phenomenon.

  18. The dictatorship of plagiarism and the obsession with quotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Krokoscz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, plagiarism has become a concern in the national academic realm, although internationally this subject has been debated for decades. Considering some of these aspects may be important not to repeat mistakes already made ​​and overcome in relation to plagiarism and at the same time represent an opportunity to deal with the problem at a national level from what is already consolidated globally. In this sense, the aim of this text is to present some of these perspectives without intending to indicate immediate solutions to exterminate plagiarism, but rather contribute to a debate on the subject.

  19. Detecting plagiarism in program code and free text

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelj, Anej

    2014-01-01

    Lately we often hear allegations that a certain work is a plagiarism, hence I decided to describe this area in detail in my diploma thesis. First I define what precisely the term plagiarism means, in which areas it is present, how to limit it, and how to utilize software for its detection. I delve into the utility of software which detects details in source code and text documents. Such software does not determine plagiarism itself, but rather indicates the percentage of text or source code s...

  20. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vietnamese and English with Implications for Vietnamese Language Acquisition and Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Tang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two overall goals of this paper are a to provide a linguistic basis for promoting first language maintenance of Vietnamese in a larger United States context and b to stimulate future research in language acquisition of Vietnamese-English speakers. This paper is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses previous studies on first language (L1 maintenance among Vietnamese Americans. Section 2 presents a cross-linguistic comparison of Vietnamese and English across speech-sound, word, and grammatical language levels. A cross-linguistic analysis may help educators better understand speaking patterns of Vietnamese American students. Based on this cross-linguistic comparison, Section 3 presents potential bi-directional interactions between Vietnamese and English within an individual speaker. These predictions are intended to provide a framework for future empirical studies related to bilingual development.

  1. Automatic lexicon acquisition for a medical cross-language information retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Kornél; Schulz, Stefan; Hahn, Udo

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for the automated acquisition of a multilingual medical lexicon (for Spanish and Swedish) to be used within the framework of a medical cross-language text retrieval system. We incorporate seed lexicons and parallel corpora derived from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The seed lexicons for Spanish and Swedish are automatically generated from (previously manually constructed) Portuguese, German and English sources. Lexical and semantic hypotheses are then validated making iterative use of co-occurrence patterns of hypothesized translation synonyms in the parallel corpora.

  2. Cross-linguistic transfer effects after phonologically based cognate therapy in a case of multilingual specific language impairment (SLI).

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    Kambanaros, Maria; Michaelides, Michalis; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2017-05-01

    Clinicians globally recognize as exceptionally challenging the development of effective intervention practices for bi- or multilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Therapy in both or all of an impaired child's languages is rarely possible. An alternative is to develop treatment protocols that facilitate the transfer of therapy effects from a treated language to an untreated language. To explore whether cognates, words that share meaning and phonological features across languages, could be used to boost lexical retrieval in the context of multilingual SLI. This is dependent on exploiting the phonological information in the one, trained language as a mechanism for (phonological) language transfer to the other, untrained languages. The participant is an 8.5-year-old girl diagnosed with SLI who showed a severe naming deficit in her three spoken languages (Bulgarian, English and Greek). She received training on cognates (n = 20) using a picture-based naming task in English only, three times a week, over a 4-week period for 20 min each time. Phonological-based naming therapy was carried out using form-based strategies. There was a significant improvement during therapy and immediately after intervention on cognate performance in English which was maintained 1 month after intervention. Cognate production in Bulgarian and Greek also improved during all stages of the intervention. Improvement in the non-treated languages was slightly more than half of the improvement recorded in English. The findings reflected some degree of cross-linguistic transfer effects. Cross-linguistic transfer effects were evident during therapy and after therapy had finished and the effects were maintained 1 month post-treatment. Both the native language (Bulgarian) and the dominant language (Greek) benefitted equally from the treatment of cognates in English. Generalization to non-treatment words was evident, predominantly for English. The results suggest that cognates can

  3. Spatial metaphor in language can promote the development of cross-modal mappings in children.

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    Shayan, Shakila; Ozturk, Ozge; Bowerman, Melissa; Majid, Asifa

    2014-07-01

    Pitch is often described metaphorically: for example, Farsi and Turkish speakers use a 'thickness' metaphor (low sounds are 'thick' and high sounds are 'thin'), while German and English speakers use a height metaphor ('low', 'high'). This study examines how child and adult speakers of Farsi, Turkish, and German map pitch and thickness using a cross-modal association task. All groups, except for German children, performed significantly better than chance. German-speaking adults' success suggests the pitch-to-thickness association can be learned by experience. But the fact that German children were at chance indicates that this learning takes time. Intriguingly, Farsi and Turkish children's performance suggests that learning cross-modal associations can be boosted through experience with consistent metaphorical mappings in the input language.

  4. An Analysis of Language Code Used by the Cross-Married Couples, Banjarese-Javanese Ethnics: A Case Study in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

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    Supiani

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe the use of language code applied by the participants and to find out the factors influencing the choice of language codes. This research is qualitative research that describe the use of language code in the cross married couples. The data are taken from the discourses about language code phenomena dealing with the…

  5. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

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    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  6. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  7. Writing a research paper at the university: authorship vs plagiarism

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    Maria Fátima Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the need of producing academic texts at the university, many undergraduate students do it by copying texts that were already published. In this study we discuss the presence of plagiarism versus authorship marks in the introduction of academic articles produced by freshmen in a licenciateship degree. Therefore, we emphasize the issue of plagiarism and authorship, particularly from the perspective of the enunciative bakhtinian studies and then present the theoretical basis of Literacies, with the most recent studies on Literacies and Socio-Rhetorics. Data analysis revealed and confirmed the academic writing as a complex activity, given the practice of plagiarism found in the analyzed productions. The lack of knowledge of academic writing together not the theme domain contributed to the practice of plagiarism.

  8. The effects of repeated idea elaboration on unconscious plagiarism.

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    Stark, Louisa-Jayne; Perfect, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs in a recall task when someone presents someone else's idea as his or her own. Recent research has shown that the likelihood of such an error is inflated if the idea is improved during the retention interval, but not if it is imagined. Here, we explore the effects of repeating the elaboration phase during the retention interval. Participants in a group first generated alternate uses to common objects before elaborating the ideas either by imagining them or by improving them. This elaboration phase occurred once, twice, or not at all. Later, they attempted to recall their original ideas and generate new ideas. Repeated imagery did not inflate unconscious plagiarism on either task. In contrast, repeating the improvement phase increased plagiarism to dramatically high levels in the recall task. The latter effect might be particularly pertinent to real-world cases of plagiarism in which the ideas under dispute have been the subject of creative development over many occasions.

  9. Plagiarism Detection using ROUGE and WordNet

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    Chen, Chien-Ying; Ke, Hao-Ren

    2010-01-01

    With the arrival of digital era and Internet, the lack of information control provides an incentive for people to freely use any content available to them. Plagiarism occurs when users fail to credit the original owner for the content referred to, and such behavior leads to violation of intellectual property. Two main approaches to plagiarism detection are fingerprinting and term occurrence; however, one common weakness shared by both approaches, especially fingerprinting, is the incapability to detect modified text plagiarism. This study proposes adoption of ROUGE and WordNet to plagiarism detection. The former includes ngram co-occurrence statistics, skip-bigram, and longest common subsequence (LCS), while the latter acts as a thesaurus and provides semantic information. N-gram co-occurrence statistics can detect verbatim copy and certain sentence modification, skip-bigram and LCS are immune from text modification such as simple addition or deletion of words, and WordNet may handle the problem of word subst...

  10. Cross-linguistic universals in reading acquisition with applications to English-language learners with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Brenda K

    2009-11-01

    There is a considerable gap in English reading achievement between English-language learners and native speakers in the United States. Differentiation of whether English language learners' struggles are symptomatic of reading disability or related to second language acquisition is often challenging. These issues highlight the need for increased insight into reading development and disability in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of cross-linguistic universals in reading acquisition, how reading disabilities manifest in various languages, and whether diagnostic and instructional approaches that are effective for native English speakers are also appropriate for English-language learners. Recommendations for assessment and intervention practices for at-risk and reading-disabled English-language learners are provided.

  11. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

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    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  12. Deterring digital plagiarism, how effective is the digital detection process?

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    Jayati Chaudhuri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic dishonesty or plagiarism is a growing problem in today's digital world. Use of plagiarism detection tools can assist faculty to combat this form of academic dishonesty. In this article, a special emphasis is given to text-matching software called SafeAssignmentTM. The advantages and disadvantages of using automated text matching software's are discussed and analyzed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of using automated text matching software's are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  13. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

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    M Mirfakhraei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  14. Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: cross-language and writing system transfer.

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    Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A; Liu, Ying

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated cross-language and writing system relationship in biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read two different writing systems-Chinese and English. Forty-six Mandarin-speaking children were tested for their first language (Chinese-L1) and second language (English-L2) reading skills. Comparable experiments in Chinese and English were designed focusing on two reading processes-phonological and orthographic processing. Word reading skills in both writing systems were tested. Results revealed that Chinese onset matching skill was significantly correlated with English onset and rime matching skills. Pinyin, an alphabetic phonetic system used to assist children in learning to read Chinese characters, was highly correlated with English pseudoword reading. Furthermore, Chinese tone processing skill contributed a moderate but significant amount of variance in predicting English pseudoword reading even when English phonemic-level processing skill was taken into consideration. Orthographic processing skill in the two writing systems, on the other hand, did not predict each other's word reading. These findings suggest that bilingual reading acquisition is a joint function of shared phonological processes and orthographic specific skills.

  15. Construction and validation of attitudes toward plagiarism questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-06-01

    To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students (128 women and 99 men) from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I - positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II - negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III - subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach alpha was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I - alpha=0.83; factor II - alpha=0.79; and factor III - alpha=0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism.

  16. Plagiarism governance in nurse education; dispositions, dimensions and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Marion

    2017-08-08

    The reality of managing plagiarism in nurse education is indicative of multilayered and cumulative governance processes, which exist to fit with the needs of both the higher education institution and that of the Professional Statutory and Regulatory Body. However, the relationship between these entities is diffuse, particularly when this involves major plagiarism by post-qualified learners. This study sought to explore the strategic governance of plagiarism in Scottish higher education institutions offering nurse education and its articulation with the professional requirements of nurse education. The design involved a retrospective quantitative documentary analysis of plagiarism policies within 11 Scottish higher education institutions and a national on-line survey involving nurse educators with an active teaching role (n = 187). The documentary analysis demonstrated deficits and variations in how Scottish higher education institutions communicated the dimensions of plagiarism, and its subsequent management. Statistically significant findings from the on-line survey provided a clear mandate for educational providers to make visible the connectivity between organisational and professional governance processes to support responsive and proportional approaches to managing plagiarism by nurse learners. Significant findings also confirmed role implications and responsibilities, which nurse educators in this study, viewed as primarily pedagogical but crucially remain professionally centric. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Bilingualism and Phonological Awareness: Re-examining Theories of Cross-Language Transfer and Structural Sensitivity

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    Kuo, Li-Jen; Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bilingualism and phonological awareness by re-evaluating structural sensitivity theory and expanding cross-language transfer theory. The study was conducted with three groups of 1st and 2nd graders matched in age, SES and non-verbal IQ: a) monolingual English-speaking children from a general education program, b) native Japanese-speaking children from a Japanese-English two-way immersion bilingual program and c) native English-speaking children from the same bilingual program. An odd-man-out task that took into account the phonological and orthographical contrasts between English and Japanese was developed to assess onset awareness. The results showed that the bilingual children outperformed their monolingual peers in processing onsets that are shared between the two languages, which provided empirical support for the first hypothesis derived from structural sensitivity theory and highlighted the importance of contextual variability in bilingual metalinguistic processing. The second hypothesis derived from structural sensitivity theory, which predicated that bilingual advantage would be more evident in processing novel stimuli, was not confirmed in the present study. The absence of the predicted group difference may be attributed to the disparity in the extent of novelty of the stimuli and the difference in the comparability of participants’ degrees of bilingualism between the present study and previous research. Finally, expanding existing research, results from this study showed that cross-language transfer can occur at a phonetic featural level. Future research and theoretical implications were discussed. PMID:28025589

  18. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  19. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  20. The Plagiarism in the Theses of English Education Students at Kabupaten Bone

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    Rizkariani Sulaiman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this study is “Plagiarism in the Theses of English Education Students: Forms and Causes. In this study, the researcher limits the discussion by the following research questions: “what are the forms of students’ plagiarism in theses? and what are the causes that make students engage in the plagiarism?”. The objective of the study is specifically to know the forms of students’ plagiarism in theses; and to know the causes that make students engage in the plagiarism. In order to achieve the objective of this study, the researcher applied descriptive quantitative research. The population of this study was the theses of English education students that were submitted in 2011 and lecturers from two colleges. As instrument of the research, plagiarism forms according to government rule No. 17, 2010 and duplichecker application used to investigate the first research question; and questionnaire used to investigate the second research question. The result of the study revealed that plagiarism type 1 was the dominant type occurred in students theses, followed by plagiarism type 2, 3 and 4; chapter 1 and 2 of most of the theses are the most frequent place for plagiarism types occurred; another type of plagiarism found was chained plagiarism; and the causes of students engage in plagiarism can be divided into four main causes: a lack of knowledge in referencing and quoting; b limited access of literature; c attitude; and d plagiarism is not managed yet administratively. In line with the result, the researcher suggests that plagiarism in colleges should be familiarized, socialized and actively founded; the students also should enrich the knowledge of referencing and paraphrasing; and colleges should try to organize the standard rule clearly and firmly and introduce plagiarism detectors to reduce the plagiarism action.