Matrix product states and variational methods applied to critical quantum field theory
Milsted, Ashley; Osborne, Tobias J
2013-01-01
We study the second-order quantum phase-transition of massive real scalar field theory with a quartic interaction in (1+1) dimensions on an infinite spatial lattice using matrix product states (MPS). We introduce and apply a naive variational conjugate gradient method, based on the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP) for imaginary time, to obtain approximate ground states, using a related ansatz for excitations to calculate the particle and soliton masses and to obtain the spectral density. We also estimate the central charge using finite-entanglement scaling. Our value for the critical parameter agrees well with recent Monte Carlo results, improving on an earlier study which used the related DMRG method, verifying that these techniques are well-suited to studying critical field systems. We also obtain critical exponents that agree, as expected, with those of the transverse Ising model. Additionally, we treat the special case of uniform product states (mean field theory) separately, showing that they ...
Critical rationalism and the state of unawareness in managers¿ theories
Faran, D.; Wijnhoven, A.B.J.M.
2012-01-01
This essay highlights the state of unawareness to which the theories held by managers are susceptible. The essay opens up the question whether the critical rationalist approach, which specifically addresses the unawareness problem in science, is indeed inadequate for organizations as commonly argued
Critical rationalism and the state of unawareness in managers¿ theories
Faran, D.; Faran, D.; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.
2012-01-01
This essay highlights the state of unawareness to which the theories held by managers are susceptible. The essay opens up the question whether the critical rationalist approach, which specifically addresses the unawareness problem in science, is indeed inadequate for organizations as commonly
Borders amidst power, State and mass media, from a critical theory standpoint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Ortiz Marín
2006-07-01
Full Text Available A conception of the power, from the glance of the Critical Theory that it allows to understand the woven complex that links the relations of power to most of the human activities. This paper also approaches to the State as a regulating element of the different forces from institutional character, that they operate in its interior like structures of power and the function as that the massive mass media in the complexity of the modern societies act.
Malthus’s theory on population as a basis for criticism of the interventionist state
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Dokić Marko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Going by ideological debates concerning (unjustifiable state intervention, protection of individual liberty, and the question of state's role, this article analyses Malthus's theory on population. It states a thesis that theory on population leads Malthus toward the idea of a minimal state and represents a basis for criticism of an interventionist state and its paternalistic role. The article consists of an introduction, four sections and a conclusion. The introduction cites goals of the work and gives basic notes on Malthus's theory on population and its socio-historical context. Special consideration is paid on reasons that lead to desertion of his ideas with a special focus on changes within liberal ideology, that lead to dissociation from classical liberalism and a merging of liberalism with socialism. The first part examines basic principles of Malthus's theory on population - primarily the idea that the population multiply faster than the food supply, and that population, when unchecked, increases in geometrical ratio, while subsistence increases only in arithmetical ratio. Afterwards, this Malthus's idea is linked to the status of the poor, and is concluded that the state intervention is useless, being that the troubles this part of the population faces are a consequence of their own actions. Therefore, the role of the state should not be care for the poor. In the second part positive and preventive checks to population are examined. Preventive checks are further analyzed because Malthus gives them more importance. The third, central part, is dedicated to Malthus's criticism of the Poor Laws and, within it, his opposition to the state's intervention is further analyzed. According to Malthus, laws that are passed in order to improve the status of the poor have an opposite effect. Even though their aim is to decrease poverty, they increase it. Their tendency is to lead to an increase in population, without the simultaneous increase in food
Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto
2011-01-01
This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments at a…
Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto
2011-01-01
This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…
Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto
2011-01-01
This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…
Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y.
2015-06-01
An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.
Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y
2015-06-01
An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.
Surveillance and Critical Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Fuchs
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.
Taddia, Luca; Ortolani, Fabio; Pálmai, Tamás
2016-09-01
We discuss the Renyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical one-dimensional systems with boundaries, that map to boundary conformal field theories in the scaling limit. We unify the previous conformal-field-theory approaches to describe primary and descendant states in systems with both open and closed boundaries. We provide universal expressions for the first two descendants in the identity family. We apply our technique to critical systems belonging to different universality classes with non-trivial boundary conditions that preserve conformal invariance, and find excellent agreement with numerical results obtained for finite spin chains. We also demonstrate that entanglement entropies are a powerful tool to resolve degeneracy of higher excited states in critical lattice models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mattedi
2000-12-01
Full Text Available A modified form of the Hicks and Young algorithm was used with the Mattedi-Tavares-Castier lattice equation of state (MTC lattice EOS to calculate critical points of binary mixtures that exhibit several types of critical behavior. Several qualitative aspects of the critical curves, such as maxima and minima in critical pressure, and minima in critical temperature, could be predicted using the MTC lattice EOS. These results were in agreement with experimental information available in the literature, illustrating the flexibility of the functional form of the MTC lattice EOS. We observed however that the MTC lattice EOS failed to predict maxima in pressure for two of the studied systems: ethane + ethanol and methane + n-hexane. We also observed that the agreement between the calculated and experimental critical properties was at most semi-quantitative in some examples. Despite these limitations, in many ways similar to those of other EOS in common use when applied to critical point calculations, we can conclude that the MTC lattice EOS has the ability to predict several types of critical curves of complex shape.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krstić Predrag
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the author is attempting to establish the relationship - or the lack of it - of the Critical Theory to the "Jewish question" and justification of perceiving signs of Jewish religious heritage in the thought of the representatives of this movement. The holocaust marked out by the name of "Auschwitz", is here tested as a point where the nature of this relationship has been decided. In this encounter with the cardinal challenge for the contemporary social theory, the particularity of the Frankfurt School reaction is here revealed through Adorno installing Auschwitz as unexpected but lawful emblem of the ending of the course that modern history has assumed. The critique of this "fascination" with Auschwitz, as well as certain theoretical pacification and measured positioning of the holocaust into discontinued plane of "unfinished" and continuation and closure of the valued project, are given through communicative-theoretical pre-orientation of Jürgen Habermas’s Critical Theory and of his followers. Finally, through the work of Detlev Claussen, it is suggested that in the youngest generation of Adorno’s students there are signs of revision to once already revised Critical Theory and a kind of defractured and differentiated return to the initial understanding of the decisiveness of the holocaust experience. This shift in the attitude of the Critical Theory thinkers to the provocation of holocaust is not, however, particularly reflected towards the status of Jews and their tradition, but more to the age old questioning and explanatory patterns for which they served as a "model". The question of validity of the enlightenment project, the nature of occidental rationalism, (nonexistence of historical theology and understanding of the identity and emancipation - describe the circle of problems around which the disagreement is concentrated in the social critical theory.
Taddia, Luca; Pálmai, Tamás
2016-01-01
We discuss the R\\'enyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical one-dimensional systems with boundaries, that map to boundary conformal field theories (CFT) in the scaling limit. We unify the previous CFT approaches to describe primary and descendant states in systems with both open and closed boundaries. We apply the technique to critical systems belonging to different universality classes with non-trivial boundary conditions that preserve conformal invariance, and compare the results to numerical data obtained on finite spin chains.
UENO, Toshiya
2015-01-01
This paper examines with a relationship between infancy and critical theory by addressing a Japanese postwar intellectual who is a kind of counterparts of Frankfurt School scholar in Euro/Am context, Fujita Shozo, and one of his texts in the details.
Criticisms of Relevance Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
尚静; 孟晔; 焦丽芳
2006-01-01
This paper briefly introduces first the notion of Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory. Then, the motivation of S & W putting forward their RT is also mentioned. Secondly, the paper gives some details about the methodology of RT, in which ostensive-inferential communication, context and optimal relevance are highlighted. Thirdly, the paper focuses on the criticisms of RT from different areas of research on human language and communication. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion on the great importance of RT in pragmatics.
Introducing Veteran Critical Theory
Phillips, Glenn A.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2017-01-01
Research on student veterans is in an infant state. As veterans continue to enroll in institutions of higher education, researchers must explore new ways of "knowing" student veterans. It is not enough to only describe and model this growing demographic, researchers must also have a tool for criticism and question. The next in an…
From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Øjvind Larsen
2014-01-01
From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes...
From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics
Øjvind Larsen
2014-01-01
From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretica...
From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øjvind Larsen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretical framework like hermeneutics. This allows the possibility of retaining the theoretical intentions of the old Frankfurt school and at the same time there will be no boundaries by specific dominant theoretical perspectives. In this paper, such a framework for a critical hermeneutics is discussed on the basis of Weber’s, Gadamer’s, and Habermas’ theories on hermeneutics within the social sciences.
Kitching, Karl
2015-01-01
This article considers the transatlantic use of Critical Race Theory (CRT) frameworks to critically interpret racism in education internationally, and the possibilities and pitfalls this has for understanding racism in Ireland. It argues for the importance of CRT's framework on a number of grounds, but echoes cautions against the assumed, or sole…
Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States
Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith
2015-01-01
As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…
Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States
Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith
2015-01-01
As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…
The Metaethics of Critical Theories
Stahl, Titus; Thompson, Michael
2017-01-01
Critical theories, from their beginning in Marx’s philosophy to the Frankfurt School with its different generations, have always been characterized by a certain ambivalence toward moral questions. They often conceive themselves as an alternative to traditional moral philosophy, which is criticized
Critical Social Theory: A Portrait
Torres, Carlos A.
2012-01-01
The term Critical Social Theory is employed in this article following the tradition of the Frankfurt School, and particularly the work of Herbert Marcuse and his interpretation of the political and social philosophy of Hegel and Marx. Discussing the contribution of G.W.F. Hegel to social theory Marcuse argued that: "Hegel's system brings to a…
Critical Social Theory: A Portrait
Torres, Carlos A.
2012-01-01
The term Critical Social Theory is employed in this article following the tradition of the Frankfurt School, and particularly the work of Herbert Marcuse and his interpretation of the political and social philosophy of Hegel and Marx. Discussing the contribution of G.W.F. Hegel to social theory Marcuse argued that: "Hegel's system brings to a…
Feminist Film Theory and Criticism.
Mayne, Judith
1985-01-01
Discusses Laura Mulvey's 1975 essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," and the ideas about feminist film theory and psychoanalysis as a critical tool which it raises. Suggests contradiction is the central issue in feminist film theory. Explores definitions of women's cinema. (SA)
Theory, Criticism and a Philosophy
Heisenberg, Werner
The following sections are included: * WHEN A GOLDEN AGE STARTED * FIRST STEPS IN PHYSICS * PHENOMENOLOGICAL THEORY * BOHR'S CONJECTURE * EINSTEIN ON THEORY AND OBSERVATION * STABILITY OF LAMINAR FLOW * SEQUEL AFTER TWENTY YEARS * FINDING A MATHEMATICAL MISTAKE * RIGOROUS AND DIRTY MATHEMATICS * ABANDONING OLD CONCEPTS * QUANTUM THEORY UNDERSTOOD * EINSTEIN'S FICTITIOUS EXPERIMENTS * ELECTRONS AND THE NUCLEUS * CHANGING THE OUTLOOK OF ATOMIC PHYSICS * PAIR CREATION * PHENOMENON ESTABLISHED * PAULI'S CRITICAL ACUMEN * MY GENERAL PHILOSOPHY
Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.
Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond
2003-01-01
Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.
Erik Erikson: critical times, critical theory.
Douvan, E
1997-01-01
The work and legacy of Erik Erikson are described in this brief outline of his career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, and the broader culture. His conception of the adolescent task-weaving internal tastes, talents, and values together with elements of one's life history and the demands of one's culture into a coherent identity-has had profound effects on developmental psychology and the way in which sophisticated youth construct and describe their lives. His extension of development through adulthood and old age established the field of life course development. His emphasis on the impact of history and culture on development was a critical element in the developing field of ego psychology. Many of his major contributions can be fruitfully understood in the context of his personal history and individual qualities.
Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues
Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.
2010-01-01
This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…
Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues
Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.
2010-01-01
This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…
On the Status of Critical Theory.
Nielsen, Kai
1992-01-01
Describes the nature and distinctiveness of critical theory and discusses it according to the viewpoints of Raymond Geuss and Jurgen Habermas. The logical status of a Habermasian critical theory is examined, defended from some traditional criticisms, and contrasted with both historical versions of critical theory and purely scientific theories.…
Izmailov, Alexander; Myerson, Allan S.
1993-01-01
A new mathematical ansatz for a solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau non-linear partial differential equation is developed for non-critical systems such as non-critical binary solutions (solute + solvent) described by the non-conserved scalar order parameter. It is demonstrated that in such systems metastability initiates heterogeneous solute redistribution which results in formation of the non-equilibrium singly-periodic spatial solute structure. It is found how the time-dependent period of this structure evolves in time. In addition, the critical radius r(sub c) for solute embryo of the new solute rich phase together with the metastable state lifetime t(sub c) are determined analytically and analyzed.
Variational Transition State Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2016-09-29
This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.
Critical Theory: Is There Still Hope?
Van Den Berg, Axel
1980-01-01
Argues that recent attempts by followers of the critical theory school (Frankfurt) to resolve dilemmas experienced by the first critical theorists to give their notions of "substantive reason" any real meaning have failed. Also suggests reasons for the interest of North American sociologists in critical theory, despite these shortcomings. (DB)
Dictionary criticism and lexicographical function theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarp, Sven
2017-01-01
This contribution discusses dictionary criticism in the light of the function theory. It starts analyzing the objective of dictionary criticism and lists eight of the most important purposes with which criticism has been made by supporters of the function theory. It then discusses the two main...... types of dictionary criticism, namely criticism of other authors’ dictionaries and self-criticism of one’s own dictionaries. Based on this discussion, it proceeds to a definition of the concept of dictionary criticism which is above all considered a theory-based activity, the outcome of which may...... be expressed in texts belonging to various genres or even kept indoors depending on the specific purpose of the criticism. Moreover, the contribution discusses the various types of knowledge required to make a comprehensive criticism, the issues which may be criticized, the overall method applied...
Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.
Peca, Kathy
The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…
Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.
Peca, Kathy
The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…
Writer, Reader, Critic: Comparing Critical Theories as Discourse.
de Beaugrande, Robert
1984-01-01
Attempts to show how each of three influential critical theories--deconstructionism, reader response criticism, and authorial intention--implies a particular view of how literary discourse is or should be processed and indicates that each view is in part justified, but not to the extent claimed by the critics themselves. (CRH)
Harrison, Walter A
2011-01-01
""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o
Quantum field theory and critical phenomena
Zinn-Justin, Jean
1996-01-01
Over the last twenty years quantum field theory has become not only the framework for the discussion of all fundamental interactions except gravity, but also for the understanding of second-order phase transitions in statistical mechanics. This advanced text is based on graduate courses and summer schools given by the author over a number of years. It approaches the subject in terms of path and functional intergrals, adopting a Euclidean metric and using the language of partition and correlation functions. Renormalization and the renormalization group are examined, as are critical phenomena and the role of instantons. Changes for this edition 1. Extensive revision to eliminate a few bugs that had survived the second edition and (mainly) to improve the pedagogical presentation, as a result of experience gathered by lecturing. 2. Additional new topics; holomorphic or coherent state path integral; functional integral and representation of the field theory S-matrix in the holomorphic formalis; non-relativistic li...
Variational transition state theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)
1993-12-01
This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.
Conceptualizing Critical Feminist Theory and Emancipatory Education
de Saxe, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This theoretical paper analyzes the relationship between critical feminist theory and emancipatory education as it relates to transformative educational practices. The first section will discuss how the author understands critical feminist theory by looking to Chela Sandoval's theoretical framework of oppositional resistance. The author discusses…
Conceptualizing Critical Feminist Theory and Emancipatory Education
de Saxe, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This theoretical paper analyzes the relationship between critical feminist theory and emancipatory education as it relates to transformative educational practices. The first section will discuss how the author understands critical feminist theory by looking to Chela Sandoval's theoretical framework of oppositional resistance. The author discusses…
Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination
Cole, Mike
2012-01-01
In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…
Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination
Cole, Mike
2012-01-01
In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…
Evolutionary game theory and criticality
Mahmoodi, Korosh; Grigolini, Paolo
2017-01-01
We study a regular two-dimensional network of individuals playing the Prisonner’s Dilemma game with their neighbors, assigning to each individual the adoption of two different criteria to make a choice between cooperation and defection. For a fraction q {{K}\\text{c}} . Intermediate values of ɛ annihilated criticality-induced cognition and, as consequence, may favor defection choice even in the case when a wise payoff consideration is expected to yield the emergence of cooperation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dewar, Roderick [Unite de Bioclimatologie, INRA Centre de Bordeaux, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France)
2003-01-24
Jaynes' information theory formalism of statistical mechanics is applied to the stationary states of open, non-equilibrium systems. First, it is shown that the probability distribution p{sub {gamma}} of the underlying microscopic phase space trajectories {gamma} over a time interval of length {tau} satisfies p{sub {gamma}} {proportional_to} exp({tau}{sigma}{sub {gamma}}/2k{sub B}) where {sigma}{sub {gamma}} is the time-averaged rate of entropy production of {gamma}. Three consequences of this result are then derived: (1) the fluctuation theorem, which describes the exponentially declining probability of deviations from the second law of thermodynamics as {tau} {yields} {infinity}; (2) the selection principle of maximum entropy production for non-equilibrium stationary states, empirical support for which has been found in studies of phenomena as diverse as the Earth's climate and crystal growth morphology; and (3) the emergence of self-organized criticality for flux-driven systems in the slowly-driven limit. The explanation of these results on general information theoretic grounds underlines their relevance to a broad class of stationary, non-equilibrium systems. In turn, the accumulating empirical evidence for these results lends support to Jaynes' formalism as a common predictive framework for equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Critical inclinations in satellite theory
Deprit, A.
1978-01-01
The main problem of satellite theory is described in polar coordinates by a Hamiltonian function. It is proposed to find a solution of the Hamiltonian function with the following properties: (1) the reference orbit is Keplerian; (2) no restriction is imposed on the eccentricity; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small eccentricities; and (3) no restriction is imposed on the inclination; in particular, it is exempt of singularities - real or apparent - for small inclinations; also it is valid even in the neighborhood of inclinations at which the perigee is stationary.
Linch, William D
2015-01-01
We present F-theories that reduce to 10D Type II Green-Schwarz superstrings. They vary in manifest U-duality according to division between spacetime and "internal" coordinates. They are defined by selfdual current superalgebras in higher worldvolume dimensions with manifest $\\mathrm G\\times \\mathrm G'$ symmetry where the spacetime symmetry $\\mathrm G=\\mathrm E_{n(n)}$ ranges over the (split form of the) exceptional groups with ranks $n=\\mathrm D+1 \\leq 7$ and the internal symmetry $\\mathrm {G'= GL(10-D)}$.
Herbert Marcuse's Critical Theory of the Media.
Daley, Patrick J.
As a member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, Herbert Marcuse believed that industrial capitalism and the bureaucratization of society stripped humans of any claims to autonomy and undermined their critical expression with a functional language. However, Marcuse did no more than point an inchoate ideological finger at the production side…
Herbert Marcuse's Critical Theory of the Media.
Daley, Patrick J.
As a member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, Herbert Marcuse believed that industrial capitalism and the bureaucratization of society stripped humans of any claims to autonomy and undermined their critical expression with a functional language. However, Marcuse did no more than point an inchoate ideological finger at the production side…
Utopia and Education in Critical Theory
Lewis, Tyson
2006-01-01
In this article the author examines the intimate connections between utopia and education in Frankfurt School critical theory. Although substantial links have been made in the critical pedagogy tradition between education, critique, and utopian dreaming, an in-depth analysis of the utopia-education matrix in the works of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor…
Utopia and Education in Critical Theory
Lewis, Tyson
2006-01-01
In this article the author examines the intimate connections between utopia and education in Frankfurt School critical theory. Although substantial links have been made in the critical pedagogy tradition between education, critique, and utopian dreaming, an in-depth analysis of the utopia-education matrix in the works of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor…
Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism
Tan, Emrullah
2014-01-01
Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…
Critical Internationalization: Moving from Theory to Practice
Vavrus, Frances; Pekol, Amy
2015-01-01
This article utilizes critical social theory to illuminate structures of inequality that undergird certain practices of internationalization in higher education institutions, particularly in U.S. institutions. We demonstrate how such theory can be productively employed to analyze three key dimensions of contemporary internationalization: 1) a…
Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism
Tan, Emrullah
2014-01-01
Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…
CRITICAL THINKING BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena NEDELCU
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The paper entitled “Critical Thinking between Theory and Practice” has primarily a theoretical character for it aims at conceptually clarifying several terms whose meaning, though different, overlaps both in common language, as well as in specialized literature. Our paper clarifies the following concepts: “critical thinking”, “critical spirit” and “criticism”. The first chapter of the paper, besides these conceptual clarifications, also identifies individual and social benefits of critical thinking - when applied in social and political spheres. The second chapter briefly analyses several “corrupted” forms of criticism as we identified them in the Romanian public space, while also pointing out the causes that generate them. The third chapter debates upon the need and strategies to educate critical thinking in Romanian society, as well as the art to protest and to accept justified critics.
Critical Point Theory for Lagrangian Systems
Mazzucchelli, Marco
2012-01-01
Lagrangian systems constitute a very important and old class in dynamics. Their origin dates back to the end of the eighteenth century, with Joseph-Louis Lagrange's reformulation of classical mechanics. The main feature of Lagrangian dynamics is its variational flavor: orbits are extremal points of an action functional. The development of critical point theory in the twentieth century provided a powerful machinery to investigate existence and multiplicity questions for orbits of Lagrangian systems. This monograph gives a modern account of the application of critical point theory, and more spec
Non-Markovian State-Dependent Networks in Critical Loading
2015-02-04
waiting times. Queueing Syst. Theory Appl. 1990, 6, 335–351. 21. Yamada, K. Diffusion approximation for open state-dependent queueing networks in the heavy...Critical Loading We establish a heavy traffic limit theorem for the queue -length process in a critically loaded single class queueing network with state...Title We establish a heavy traffic limit theorem for the queue -length process in a critically loaded single class queueing network with state
Probability state modeling theory.
Bagwell, C Bruce; Hunsberger, Benjamin C; Herbert, Donald J; Munson, Mark E; Hill, Beth L; Bray, Chris M; Preffer, Frederic I
2015-07-01
As the technology of cytometry matures, there is mounting pressure to address two major issues with data analyses. The first issue is to develop new analysis methods for high-dimensional data that can directly reveal and quantify important characteristics associated with complex cellular biology. The other issue is to replace subjective and inaccurate gating with automated methods that objectively define subpopulations and account for population overlap due to measurement uncertainty. Probability state modeling (PSM) is a technique that addresses both of these issues. The theory and important algorithms associated with PSM are presented along with simple examples and general strategies for autonomous analyses. PSM is leveraged to better understand B-cell ontogeny in bone marrow in a companion Cytometry Part B manuscript. Three short relevant videos are available in the online supporting information for both of these papers. PSM avoids the dimensionality barrier normally associated with high-dimensionality modeling by using broadened quantile functions instead of frequency functions to represent the modulation of cellular epitopes as cells differentiate. Since modeling programs ultimately minimize or maximize one or more objective functions, they are particularly amenable to automation and, therefore, represent a viable alternative to subjective and inaccurate gating approaches.
Ferroelectric relaxor as a critical state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
After revisiting models for the ferroelectric relaxors, we notice that the models can be classified into two categories. One group models are directly based upon the compositional fluctuations, such as Smolenskii’s theory and SRBRF model. The other models are experimental phenomenon oriented, such as macro-micro domain crossover and superparaelectric state. The later explanations imply that the ferroelectric relaxor is in a critical state. The unusual field induced phase transition in ferroelectric relaxor also suggests that this is a critical phenomenon with first order phase transition feature. Therefore within the framework of effective field approach and with introducing the concept of quantum temperature scale, we reproduce the diffused phase transition of the dielectric constant and the field induced phase transition. It seems that the larger quantum fluctuation at low temperature depresses the ferroelectricity in ferroelectric relaxors, and results in their unusual physical properties.
Toward a Critical Multiracial Theory in Education
Harris, Jessica C.
2016-01-01
This manuscript lays the foundation for a critical multiracial theory (MultiCrit) in education. The author uses extant literature and their own research that focused on multiraciality on the college campus to explore how CRT can move toward MultiCrit, which is well-positioned to frame multiracial students' experiences with race in education.
Critical Curriculum Theory and Slow Ecopedagogical Activism
Payne, Phillip G.
2015-01-01
Enacting a critical environmental education curriculum theory with 8- to 9-year-old children in 1978 is now "restoried" in a "history of the present/future" like "case study" for prosecuting five interrelated problems confronting progress in environmental education and its research. They are: the intense heat of the…
Critical Social Class Theory for Music Education
Bates, Vincent C.
2017-01-01
This work of critical social theory explores how formal music education in modern capitalist societies mirrors the hierarchical, means-ends, one-dimensional structures of capitalism. So, rather than consistently or reliably empowering and emancipating children musically, school music can tend to marginalize, exploit, repress, and alienate. The…
Toward a Critical Multiracial Theory in Education
Harris, Jessica C.
2016-01-01
This manuscript lays the foundation for a critical multiracial theory (MultiCrit) in education. The author uses extant literature and their own research that focused on multiraciality on the college campus to explore how CRT can move toward MultiCrit, which is well-positioned to frame multiracial students' experiences with race in education.
Critical Curriculum Theory and Slow Ecopedagogical Activism
Payne, Phillip G.
2015-01-01
Enacting a critical environmental education curriculum theory with 8- to 9-year-old children in 1978 is now "restoried" in a "history of the present/future" like "case study" for prosecuting five interrelated problems confronting progress in environmental education and its research. They are: the intense heat of the…
Critical Theory and Processual Social Ontology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renault Emmanuel
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to bridge the gap between critical theory as understood in the Frankfurt school tradition on the one hand, and social ontology understood as a reflection on the ontological presuppositions of social sciences and social theories on the other. What is at stake is the type of social ontology that critical theory needs if it wants to tackle its main social ontological issue: that of social transformation. This paper’s claim is that what is required is neither a substantial social ontology, nor a relational social ontology, but a processual one. The first part of this article elaborates the distinction between substantial, relational and processual social ontologies. The second part analyzes the various ways in which this distinction can be used in social ontological discussions. Finally, the third part focuses on the various possible social ontological approaches to the issue of social transformation.
Critical Theory in Adorno and Marcuse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruggero D’ALESSANDRO
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Critical Theory is the key-word representing all the universe of thought commonly known as „Frankfurt School”. Within it, Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno and Herbert Marcuse are not so far each other, as instead are Max Horkheimer and Marcuse – considering what I in this paper define as the conservative turn of the director of the Institut für Sozialforschung. Whereas Adorno refuses any engagement in the political and lives as an obsession the theory-praxis relation, Marcuse is closer to a certain critical Marxism and to the student movements of Sixities and Seventhies. The crucial issue of the theory-praxis relation comes back clearly in the distance between Marcuse and the other two maîtres à penser, about their judgment on the ’68 movement.
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1993-01-01
A new mathematical ansatz is developed for solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau nonlinear partial differential equation describing metastable state relaxation in binary (solute+solvent) non-critical solutions with non-conserved scalar order parameter in presence of a gravitational field. It has been demonstrated analytically that in such systems metastability initiates heterogeneous solute redistribution which results in the formation of a non-equilibrium singly-periodic spatial solute structure in the new solute-rich phase. The critical radius of nucleation and the induction time in these systems are gravity-dependent. It has also been proved that metastable state relaxation in vertical columns of supersaturated non-critical binary solutions leads to formation of the solute concentration gradient. Analytical expression for this concentration gradient is found and analysed. It is concluded that gravity can initiate phase separation (nucleation or spinodal decomposition).
"Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research
Rasmussen, Mary Lou
2015-01-01
"Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…
"Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research
Rasmussen, Mary Lou
2015-01-01
"Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…
"Cruel Optimism" and Contemporary Australian Critical Theory in Educational Research
Rasmussen, Mary Lou
2015-01-01
"Cruel optimism" is a term coined by Lauren Berlant. In conceptualizing this term, Berlant draws on the resources of critical theory to interrogate people's desires for things they think may improve their lot, but actually act as obstacles to flourishing. This notion may be useful for analysing the current state of education in…
Critical Theory in Adorno and Marcuse
Ruggero D’ALESSANDRO
2016-01-01
Critical Theory is the key-word representing all the universe of thought commonly known as „Frankfurt School”. Within it, Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno and Herbert Marcuse are not so far each other, as instead are Max Horkheimer and Marcuse – considering what I in this paper define as the conservative turn of the director of the Institut für Sozialforschung. Whereas Adorno refuses any engagement in the political and lives as an obsession the theory-praxis relation, Marcuse is closer to a certain...
Towards an Integral Critical Theory of the Present Age
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Beck Matuštík
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A new model of a critical theory that is integral is introduced. It adds a seventhstage to a six-stage model of critical theory. Building on the model’s predecessors, fromKant, Hegel, and Marx to Habermas and Wilber, this proposal is a three-pronged modelof material, socio-political, and spiritual critique of the present age. Each dimension isnon-reducible to the other. The current model echoes the attempts to bridge social andexistential perspectives by early Marcuse and Sartre, and the author’s prior work that didthis for Habermas and Kierkegaard. This model of an integral critical theory introduces aself-transformational axis, the integer or witness-self, complementing transversally thevertical stages and horizontal states of consciousness.
Towards an Integral Critical Theory of the Present Age
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Beck Matuštík
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A new model of a critical theory that is integral is introduced. It adds a seventh stage to a six-stage model of critical theory. Building on the model’s predecessors, from Kant, Hegel, and Marx to Habermas and Wilber, this proposal is a three-pronged model of material, socio-political, and spiritual critique of the present age. Each dimension is non-reducible to the other. The current model echoes the attempts to bridge social and existential perspectives by early Marcuse and Sartre, and the author’s prior work that did this for Habermas and Kierkegaard. This model of an integral critical theory introduces a self-transformational axis, the integer or witness-self, complementing transversally the vertical stages and horizontal states of consciousness.
Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Giraud
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.
Critical state of sand matrix soils.
Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong
2014-01-01
The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.
Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aminaton Marto
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.
Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær, Poul F.
2015-01-01
Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...
Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training
Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese
2015-01-01
Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.
Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training
Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese
2015-01-01
Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.
Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian
2016-06-14
Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.
Brane Physics in Non-Critical Theories
Sturla, Mauricio B
2010-01-01
In this Thesis, we focus on the study of the low energy approximation to non-critical string theories. We present an exhaustive study of their solutions, which are divided in three cases: vacuum, NSNS charged, and RR charged solutions. In the first case, we find all possible solutions, including the previously known ones, which are special cases of ours. In the second case, we present the fundamental non-critical string, doubly localized in Minkowski \\times the cigar vacuum. There are only a few known solutions doubly localized. Also, we completely solve the problem of finding NSNS solutions that fill all the Minkowski space. In the third case, we present new parametric families that contain some of the previously known solutions at particular values of the parameters. For the latter families, we have obtained the gauge duals in the context of the gauge/gravity duality, and we show that, in a particular region of the parameter space, these theories can confine. Finally, we study the obtained YM in D=3 and YM ...
Villalpando, Octavio
2004-01-01
Critical race theory requires the examination of institutional policies, programs, and practices that interfere with Latino students' rights and abilities to receive the best educational opportunities available within higher education. With attention to an ethic of caring and social justice, student services staff can work to undo the effects of…
Quantum Transition-State Theory
Hele, Timothy J H
2014-01-01
This dissertation unifies one of the central methods of classical rate calculation, `Transition-State Theory' (TST), with quantum mechanics, thereby deriving a rigorous `Quantum Transition-State Theory' (QTST). The resulting QTST is identical to ring polymer molecular dynamics transition-state theory (RPMD-TST), which was previously considered a heuristic method, and whose results we thereby validate. The key step in deriving a QTST is alignment of the flux and side dividing surfaces in path-integral space to obtain a quantum flux-side time-correlation function with a non-zero $t\\to 0_+$ limit. We then prove that this produces the exact quantum rate in the absence of recrossing by the exact quantum dynamics, fulfilling the requirements of a QTST. Furthermore, strong evidence is presented that this is the only QTST with positive-definite Boltzmann statistics and therefore the pre-eminent method for computation of thermal quantum rates in direct reactions.
Critical Test Of Gamma Ray Burst Theories
Dado, Shlomo
2016-01-01
Long and precise follow-up measurements of the X-ray afterglow (AG) of very intense gamma ray bursts (GRBs) provide a critical test of GRB afterglow theories. Here we show that the power-law decline with time of X-ray AG of GRB 130427A, the longest measured X-ray AG of an intense GRB with the Swift, Chandra and XMM Newton satellites, and of all other well measured late-time X-ray afterglow of intense GRBs, is that predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs from their measured spectral index, while it disagrees with that predicted by the widely accepted fireball (FB) models of GRBs.
Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elaine M. Walker
2003-11-01
Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.
Critical states of transient chaos
Kaufmann, Z; Szépfalusy, P
1999-01-01
One-dimensional maps exhibiting transient chaos and defined on two preimages of the unit interval [0,1] are investigated. It is shown that such maps have continuously many conditionally invariant measures $\\mu_{\\sigma}$ scaling at the fixed point at $x=0$ as $x^{\\sigma}$, but smooth elsewhere. Here $\\sigma$ should be smaller than a critical value $\\sigma_{c}$ that is related to the spectral properties of the Frobenius-Perron operator. The corresponding natural measures are proven to be entirely concentrated on the fixed point.
Application of Fuzzy theory to project scheduling with critical path ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Application of Fuzzy theory to project scheduling with critical path method. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT ... In this paper, we analyze the project scheduling problem using fuzzy theory.
Marxian Critical Theory and Educational Administration: A Criticism.
Willower, Donald J.
The critical examination of society's circumstances, institutions, and cultural predispositions and values can help detect problems and injustices and can suggest opportunities for improvement. Neo-Marxist critical theorists of the Frankfurt school are committed to work of this kind, but their perspective is informed by Marxian precepts, and their…
Responses to Sex-Bias Criticism in Cognitive Moral Theory.
Socoski, Patrick M.
This paper explores the issue of sex bias in a contemporary major theory of moral development, cognitive moral theory. It explains critical reactions by Carol Gilligan and others questioning whether cognitive moral theory adequately accounts for female moral reasoning and behavior in its theory and research procedures. Several general…
Order, disorder, and criticality advanced problems of phase transition theory
Holovatch, Yurij
2004-01-01
This book reviews some of the classic aspects in the theory of phasetransitions and critical phenomena, which has a longhistory. Recently, these aspects are attracting much attention due toessential new contributions. The topics presented in this bookinclude: mathematical theory of the Ising model; equilibrium andnon-equilibrium criticality of one-dimensional quantum spin chains;influence of structural disorder on the critical behaviour of thePotts model; criticality, fractality and multifractality of linkedpolymers; field-theoretical approaches in the superconducting phasetransitions.
Let's Be Critically Honest: Towards a Messier Counterstory in Critical Race Theory
Atwood, Erin; López, Gerardo R.
2014-01-01
This paper utilizes tools of critical race theory to interrogate the racial politics of the everyday. The authors contend that this type of critical policy analysis can yield understandings of/about the world that are too often silenced or ignored altogether. This paper argues that critical race theory does not aim to tell a "truer"…
Let's Be Critically Honest: Towards a Messier Counterstory in Critical Race Theory
Atwood, Erin; López, Gerardo R.
2014-01-01
This paper utilizes tools of critical race theory to interrogate the racial politics of the everyday. The authors contend that this type of critical policy analysis can yield understandings of/about the world that are too often silenced or ignored altogether. This paper argues that critical race theory does not aim to tell a "truer"…
A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.
Brookfield, Stephen D.
2003-01-01
Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)
A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning.
Brookfield, Stephen D.
2003-01-01
Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)
Critical Thinking in ELT: Theory and Practice
Irawati, Lulus
2014-01-01
Critical thinking may be considered as an essential substance contributing to the success of students learning a language, in this English. Some skills in English such as listening, speaking, reading and writing can be successfully achieved whenever students were critical, since critical thinking is also the ability allowing the students to express everything freely. Unfortunately, utilizing critical thinking is not as simple as seen. There should be a regular and consistent process done to e...
Critical Empiricism: Reading Data with Social Theory
Leonardo, Zeus
2010-01-01
In this article, the author reviews "Theory and Educational Research" and concludes that given some misgivings, the collection arrives at a nonfetishized appreciation for the role of theory in empirical research in education. Jean Anyon and her colleagues give theory its due, not more but also not less. In the same move, they recognize…
Critical Empiricism: Reading Data with Social Theory
Leonardo, Zeus
2010-01-01
In this article, the author reviews "Theory and Educational Research" and concludes that given some misgivings, the collection arrives at a nonfetishized appreciation for the role of theory in empirical research in education. Jean Anyon and her colleagues give theory its due, not more but also not less. In the same move, they recognize…
Goodnight, Melissa Rae
2017-01-01
This article examines ethical and philosophical considerations in "theory translation," i.e. translating a theoretical framework from its original place to another national context. Critical race theory (CRT) was developed in the United States through significant struggle in order to analyze everyday racism. Marginalized groups have…
Can a quantum critical state represent a blackbody?
Chakravarty, Sudip
2016-01-01
The blackbody theory of Planck played a seminal role in the development of quantum theory at the turn of the past century. A blackbody cavity is generally thought to be a collection of photons in thermal equilibrium; the radiation emitted is at all wavelengths, and the intensity follows a scaling law, which is Planck's characteristic distribution law. These photons arise from non-interacting normal modes. Here we suggest that certain quantum critical states when heated emit "radiation" at all wavelengths and satisfy all the criteria of a blackbody. An important difference is that the "radiation" does not necessarily consist of non-interacting photons, but also emergent relativistic bosons or fermions. The examples we provide include emergent relativistic fermions at a topological quantum critical point. This perspective on a quantum critical state may be illuminating in many unforeseen ways.
Critical Theory and Information Studies: A Marcusean Infusion
Pyati, Ajit K.
2006-01-01
In the field of library and information science, also known as information studies, critical theory is often not included in debates about the discipline's theoretical foundations. This paper argues that the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, in particular, has a significant contribution to make to the field of information studies. Marcuse's…
The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL
Liggett, Tonda
2014-01-01
In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…
Critical Theory and Information Studies: A Marcusean Infusion
Pyati, Ajit K.
2006-01-01
In the field of library and information science, also known as information studies, critical theory is often not included in debates about the discipline's theoretical foundations. This paper argues that the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, in particular, has a significant contribution to make to the field of information studies. Marcuse's…
The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL
Liggett, Tonda
2014-01-01
In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…
Performing and Resisting Scripts of Submission to Illustrate Critical Theory
Morgan, Jayne M.; Kirby, Erika L.
2004-01-01
Instructors who teach critical communication theory sometimes have difficulty explaining key concepts to students. Discussions of power, ideology, hegemony, and emancipation often bring confused expressions to students upon first exposure to these ideas. This activity provides a simple, grounded approach to examining facets of critical theory in…
Linking nursing theory and practice: a critical-feminist approach.
Georges, Jane M
2005-01-01
Situated in a critical-feminist perspective, this article describes a pedagogical approach to linking nursing theory and practice. The inclusion of the critical humanities is emphasized in creating an environment in which this linkage can be reified for learners. Implications for the future of nursing theory and its links to practice in the context of current political realities in academia are considered.
Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.
Brookfield, Stephen
2001-01-01
Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)
Echo State Condition at the Critical Point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norbert Michael Mayer
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Recurrent networks with transfer functions that fulfil the Lipschitz continuity with K = 1 may be echo state networks if certain limitations on the recurrent connectivity are applied. It has been shown that it is sufficient if the largest singular value of the recurrent connectivity is smaller than 1. The main achievement of this paper is a proof under which conditions the network is an echo state network even if the largest singular value is one. It turns out that in this critical case the exact shape of the transfer function plays a decisive role in determining whether the network still fulfills the echo state condition. In addition, several examples with one-neuron networks are outlined to illustrate effects of critical connectivity. Moreover, within the manuscript a mathematical definition for a critical echo state network is suggested.
Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.
Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E
2009-06-26
Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.
Improved renormalization group theory for critical asymmetry of fluids.
Wang, Long; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Liang; Li, Liyan; Cai, Jun
2013-09-28
We develop an improved renormalization group (RG) approach incorporating the critical vapor-liquid equilibrium asymmetry. In order to treat the critical asymmetry of vapor-liquid equilibrium, the integral measure is introduced in the Landau-Ginzbug partition function to achieve a crossover between the local order parameter in Ising model and the density of fluid systems. In the implementation of the improved RG approach, we relate the integral measure with the inhomogeneous density distribution of a fluid system and combine the developed method with SAFT-VR (statistical associating fluid theory of variable range) equation of state. The method is applied to various fluid systems including square-well fluid, square-well dimer fluid and real fluids such as methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), trifluorotrichloroethane (C2F3Cl3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The descriptions of vapor-liquid equilibria provided by the developed method are in excellent agreement with simulation and experimental data. Furthermore, the improved method predicts accurate and qualitatively correct behavior of coexistence diameter near the critical point and produces the non-classical 3D Ising criticality.
Critical Theory & Textual Arguments: Expanding Habermas's Analysis of Literary Claims.
Stroud, Scott R.
Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action has held much promise for critical theory and its examination of the structure of society. This theory, however, has been accused by some as being limited in regard to other forms of discourse, especially fictional, mythical, and religious texts. Habermas has argued that literature (i.e., fictive…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cícera Andréia de Souza
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This article is in an effort to summarize the main features of social theory, referred to as Critical Theory, theoretical approach known by the Traditional Theory critical, especially as it is situated as a critical stance against capitalist society in the rescue of the ideal of human emancipation . Taking as a starting point supports the theoretical underpinning and as a point of arrival, the relationships between its theoretical and epistemological assumptions, our purpose focuses on the possibility of contributing to the understanding of the need for a link between theory and practice in teaching practices teachers of Physical Education, from its foundation in Critical Theory and Emancipatory Teaching Communicative (Kunz, 1994, which presents as foundational theoretical element Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School.
Critical state model with anisotropic critical current density
Bhagwat, K V; Ravikumar, G
2003-01-01
Analytical solutions of Bean's critical state model with critical current density J sub c being anisotropic are obtained for superconducting cylindrical samples of arbitrary cross section in a parallel geometry. We present a method for calculating the flux fronts and magnetization curves. Results are presented for cylinders with elliptical cross section with a specific form of the anisotropy. We find that over a certain range of the anisotropy parameter the flux fronts have shapes similar to those for an isotropic sample. However, in general, the presence of anisotropy significantly modifies the shape of the flux fronts. The field for full flux penetration also depends on the anisotropy parameter. The method is extended to the case of anisotropic J sub c that also depends on the local field B, and magnetization hysteresis curves are presented for typical values of the anisotropy parameter for the case of |J sub c | that decreases exponentially with |B|.
Powerlaws and Self-Organized Criticality in Theory and Nature
Markovic, Dimitrije
2013-01-01
Powerlaws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many experimentally studied complex systems, like the distribution of the sizes of earthquakes and solar flares, or the duration of neuronal avalanches in the brain. It had been tempting to surmise that a single general concept may act as a unifying underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. On the theory side there has been, lively activity in developing new and extended models. Three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of drive and dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of approach is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-c...
The question of criticism in Marxist theory
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Fernando Forero Medina
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This article is written in the belief that a widespread view exists among social scientists that contemporary social theory needs a radical revision of the works of those writers who established the principal frames of reference of modern theory of society. In this respect, three names stand out above all others: Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim and Max Weber. The objective of this work is to examine and analyze Marx’s concept of critique regarding the concepts of praxis, critique of the political economy, critique of ideology, and critique as political action in relation to the theoretical perspective of western Marxism and, especially, in relation to Habermas’s idea of Marx’s theory.
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semisimple Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kamuk Esbensen, Jacob; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semi-simple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $M$ Dirac flavors where we gauge first an $SU(M)_L$ and then an $SU(2)_L \\subset SU(M)_L$ of the original global symmetry $SU(M)_L\\times SU......(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring...
Testing Conformal Theory:. 3-STATE Potts
Barkema, G. T.; McCabe, J.; Wydro, T.
2001-04-01
Conformal theory predictions and Monte Carlo measurements of structure constants in 3-state Potts model were reviewed. The results provide a direct confirmation of the quality of conformal theory predictions of universal 3-point amplitudes. The prediction of these type of universal amplitudes sparked much of the original interest in conformal models, but are almost untested outside of the Ising model. Structure constants, C123, are universal amplitudes that define 3-point correlations, i.e., = C123/ |X12|2(Δ1+Δ2-Δ3)·× cyclic perms. To predict the values of these universal numbers, one constructs a 4-point correlation as a sum of products of conformal blocks and then, determines coefficients that weight the sum by demanding that the 4-point correlation satisfy a bootstrap equation. The bootstrap equation imposes consistency of the 4-point correlation with operator product expansions in multiple channels. The 3-state Potts model was chosen, because this model is easy of simulate. But, this Potts model has an added complication, i.e., a discrete Z3 symmetry at criticality. The discrete symmetry had to be implemented to calculate structure constants. Conformal theory predicted that Cσσσ = 1.092 and Cɛσσ* = 0.546. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on 500 × 500 lattices on which sample configurations were generated by the cluster algorithm of Wolff. To obtain the structure constants both 2-point and 3-point correlations were measured. The 2-point correlations fixed non-universal normalizatons. The quality of the Monte-Carlo methods were tested by measuring structure constants of the Ising model-good agreement with known results was found. For 3-state Potts, the simulations found that Cσσσ = 1.116 ± 0.14 and Cɛσσ* = 0.61 ± 0.06. These results provide striking agreement with predictions and a confirmation of conformal field theory.
The contribution of Critical Theory in understanding society
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Federico SOLLAZZO
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Is Critical Theory a part of our knowledge we can access just in a kind of museum of history of ideas, or is Critical Theory a living part of our culture on which we can still rely in order to understand and (reorient our society? To answer this basic question, and many others, and also to shed some light on what seems to be a recent abuse of the term “critical”, in this issue will be addressed, under different points of view, the meaning of the expression Critical Theory. The papers here collected are divided in an English and an Italian section, to facilitate the reader who is confident, or prefers, only one of these languages. In both sections, Critical Theory is addressed in a twofold way: as regards its origins in the so-called School of Frankfurt and as concerns its further and contemporary developments, from an interdisciplinary perspective.
Formalist criticism and reader-response theory
MOHAMMAD AL FUADI
2014-01-01
The article deals with the interaction of formalism as a trend in language and literature studies, on the one hand, and a teaching method, a technique of teaching to understand and investigate literary text proceeding from its structure and content, on the other hand. One of the main principles is dialogism (M. Bakhtin) that creates the coeducation between the writer and reader. Thus the process becomes bilateral, or even multilateral and it includes criticism on both parts a teacher and a st...
Non-critical string, Liouville theory and geometric bootstrap hypothesis
Hadasz, L; Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew
2003-01-01
Basing on the standard construction of critical string amplitudes we analyze properties of the longitudinal sector of the non-critical Nambu-Goto string. We demonstrate that it cannot be described by standard (in the sense of BPZ) conformal field theory. As an alternative we propose a new version of the geometric approach to Liouville theory and formulate its basic consistency condition - the geometric bootstrap equation.
Perspectives on critical and feminist theory in developing nursing praxis.
Bent, K N
1993-01-01
Critical theory and feminist theory offer to nurses points from which to approach change as nursing struggles for autonomy, accountability, and control over the profession. Nurses need to critically examine the forces that influence the profession as well as the individual and group identities of nurses. These theoretical frameworks, together with historical inquiry, are particularly valuable tools for nurses to use to remain strong and vital participants in shaping the profession as well as the future of health care.
A Critical Theory of the Self: Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Foucault.
Marshall, James D.
2001-01-01
Argues for a Foucauldean position on the self to extend critical theory. Discusses several philosophical accounts of the self, including the work of such philosophers as Descartes, Hume, Locke, Rousseau, Schopenhauer, Wittgenstein, and Nietzsche. Concludes that Foucault's philosophy provides a powerful critical conception of the self for critical…
Memory, Critical Theory and the Argument from History.
Cox, J. Robert
1990-01-01
Explores the function of memory in critical theory, particularly in the work of Herbert Marcuse, as the basis for a critical argumentation. Argues that Marcuse's view suggests that argument is a "re-membering" of what had been split asunder--reason, imagination, and the capacity of action. Discusses other implications of Marcuse's stance. (PRA)
Memory, Critical Theory and the Argument from History.
Cox, J. Robert
1990-01-01
Explores the function of memory in critical theory, particularly in the work of Herbert Marcuse, as the basis for a critical argumentation. Argues that Marcuse's view suggests that argument is a "re-membering" of what had been split asunder--reason, imagination, and the capacity of action. Discusses other implications of Marcuse's…
A Critical Theory of the Self: Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Foucault.
Marshall, James D.
2001-01-01
Argues for a Foucauldean position on the self to extend critical theory. Discusses several philosophical accounts of the self, including the work of such philosophers as Descartes, Hume, Locke, Rousseau, Schopenhauer, Wittgenstein, and Nietzsche. Concludes that Foucault's philosophy provides a powerful critical conception of the self for critical…
Connecting Critical Theory of Technology to Educational Studies
Kruger-Ross, Matthew James
2013-01-01
In this article, I explore how transformative learning theory, an approach to educating drawn from adult education, can be used to provide access to the critical theory of technology for educators. Rather than focusing primarily on K-12 teachers and educational systems or higher education and other postsecondary instruction, I connect learning as…
Deconstructing Dispositions: Toward a Critical Ability Theory in Teacher Education
Bialka, Christa S.
2015-01-01
When attending to dispositions, or educators' assumptions and beliefs about teaching, learning, and students, teacher educators must develop a discourse that examines disability in terms of power and privilege. This article synthesizes literature related to critical race theory (CRT) and disability theory to elucidate the need for a critical…
Connecting Critical Theory of Technology to Educational Studies
Kruger-Ross, Matthew James
2013-01-01
In this article, I explore how transformative learning theory, an approach to educating drawn from adult education, can be used to provide access to the critical theory of technology for educators. Rather than focusing primarily on K-12 teachers and educational systems or higher education and other postsecondary instruction, I connect learning as…
Deconstructing Dispositions: Toward a Critical Ability Theory in Teacher Education
Bialka, Christa S.
2015-01-01
When attending to dispositions, or educators' assumptions and beliefs about teaching, learning, and students, teacher educators must develop a discourse that examines disability in terms of power and privilege. This article synthesizes literature related to critical race theory (CRT) and disability theory to elucidate the need for a critical…
Technological Mediation and Power: Postphenomenology, Critical Theory, and Autonomist Marxism
Bantwal Rao, M.; Jongerden, J.P.; Lemmens, P.C.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.
2015-01-01
This article focuses on the power of technological mediation from the point of view of autonomist Marxism (Hardt, Negri, Virno, Berardi, Lazzarrato). The first part of the article discusses the theories developed on technological mediation in postphenomenology (Ihde, Verbeek) and critical theory of
Critically Questioning the Discourse of Transformative Learning Theory
Kucukaydin, Ilhan; Cranton, Patricia
2013-01-01
In this article, the authors critically examine the way discourse enters into and becomes embedded in transformative learning theory, especially from the extrarational or depth psychology perspective. The authors begin by providing an overview of how transformative learning theory has developed in diverse directions, including the extrarational…
The Frankfurt School: Critical Theory as the Negation of Culture.
James, Beverly
In examining the Frankfurt School's critical theory of society in an effort to discover the theoretical basis for the school's inability to merge theory with praxis, this paper points out that the school's analysis of culture in the 1930s and 1940s presents a radical, penetrating critique of the role of mass communication in advanced…
Critical fluctuations in proteins native states
Tang, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Chialvo, Dante R
2016-01-01
We study a large data set of protein structure ensembles of very diverse sizes determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. By examining the distance-dependent correlations in the displacement of residues pairs and conducting finite size scaling analysis it was found that the correlations and susceptibility behave as in systems near a critical point implying that, at the native state, the motion of each amino acid residue is felt by every other residue up to the size of the protein molecule. Furthermore certain protein's shapes corresponding to maximum susceptibility were found to be more probable than others. Overall the results suggest that the protein's native state is critical, implying that despite being posed near the minimum of the energy landscape, they still preserve their dynamic flexibility.
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semisimple Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring...... complete asymptotic freedom and simultaneously an interacting infrared fixed point in both couplings. The analysis further reveals special renormalisation group trajectories along which one coupling displays asymptotic freedom and the other asymptotic safety, while both flowing in the infrared...... to an interacting fixed point. These are \\emph{safety free} trajectories. We briefly sketch out possible phenomenological implications, among which an independent way to generate near-conformal dynamics a l\\'a walking is investigated....
Considering Emotions in Critical English Language Teaching Theories and Praxis
Benesch, Sarah
2012-01-01
Groundbreaking in the ways it makes new connections among emotion, critical theory, and pedagogy, this book explores the role of students' and teachers' emotions in college instruction, illuminating key literacy and identity issues faced by immigrant students learning English in postsecondary institutions. Offering a rich blend of, and interplay between, theory and practice, it asks: How have emotions and affect been theorized from a critical perspective, and how might these theories be applied to English language teaching and learning? What do complex and shifting emotions, such as hope, disa
CRITICAL THEORY AND DOMINATION IN THE WORK OF MOISHE POSTONE
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Sílvio Camargo
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this article we intend to analyze central aspects of Moishe Postone’s thinking, in special some ideas of his book Time, Labor and Social Domination (1993. Postone is an original historian and thinker in critical social theory, whose researches undertake to reinterpret Karl Marx, particularly the mature Marx of the Grundrisse. According to Postone, traditional Marxism has proven historically unable to perceive the distinctions between value and wealth as well as distribution and consumption. Moreover, Postone’s critical theory proposes an understanding of domination that differs considerably from traditional Marxism’s, posing significant challenges for contemporary social theory.
Giroux, Henry
The introductory essay in this volume argues for the importance of the original critical theory developed by the Frankfurt school (The Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, Germany) in developing a critical foundation for a neo-Marxist theory of radical pedagogy. Accordingly, it begins by defining the aims of the Frankfurt school and then…
Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research
Savas, Gokhan
2014-01-01
This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…
Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research
Savas, Gokhan
2014-01-01
This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…
Hadronic density of states from string theory.
Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana
2003-09-12
We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge.
Critical droplet theory explains the glass formability of aqueous solutions.
Warkentin, Matthew; Sethna, James P; Thorne, Robert E
2013-01-04
When pure water is cooled at ~10(6) K / s, it forms an amorphous solid (glass) instead of the more familiar crystalline phase. The presence of solutes can reduce this required (or "critical") cooling rate by orders of magnitude. Here, we present critical cooling rates for a variety of solutes as a function of concentration and a theoretical framework for understanding these rates. For all solutes tested, the critical cooling rate is an exponential function of concentration. The exponential's characteristic concentration for each solute correlates with the solute's Stokes radius. A modification of critical droplet theory relates the characteristic concentration to the solute radius and the critical nucleation radius of ice in pure water. This simple theory of ice nucleation and glass formability in aqueous solutions has consequences for general glass-forming systems, and in cryobiology, cloud physics, and climate modeling.
Mass Renormalization in String Theory: General States
Pius, Roji; Sen, Ashoke
2014-01-01
In a previous paper we described a procedure for computing the renormalized masses and S-matrix elements in bosonic string theory for a special class of massive states which do not mix with unphysical states under renormalization. In this paper we extend this result to general states in bosonic string theory, and argue that only the squares of renormalized physical masses appear as the locations of the poles of the S-matrix of other physical states. We also discuss generalizations to Neveu-Schwarz sector states in heterotic and superstring theories.
Patterson, Shawna M.
2013-01-01
In this article, the author provides a model that juxtaposes leadership, critical theory, and learning to address the needs of educators, the organization, and students. This model provides educators with a foundational approach to nurture students' critical consciousness through self-awareness and to actualize transformational change within their…
Becoming Critical Again: Reconnecting Critical Social Theory with the Practice of Action Research
Hadfield, Mark
2012-01-01
This paper is a reflexive account of the use of critical social theory within my practice as an action researcher. It is set within the ongoing debates between pragmatist and critical tendencies within action research. The paper discusses how a selective deployment of key constructs from the work of Jurgen Habermas has supported my work as a…
Patterson, Shawna M.
2013-01-01
In this article, the author provides a model that juxtaposes leadership, critical theory, and learning to address the needs of educators, the organization, and students. This model provides educators with a foundational approach to nurture students' critical consciousness through self-awareness and to actualize transformational change within their…
Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
2011-01-01
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
2011-01-01
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Becoming Critical Again: Reconnecting Critical Social Theory with the Practice of Action Research
Hadfield, Mark
2012-01-01
This paper is a reflexive account of the use of critical social theory within my practice as an action researcher. It is set within the ongoing debates between pragmatist and critical tendencies within action research. The paper discusses how a selective deployment of key constructs from the work of Jurgen Habermas has supported my work as a…
Final Technical Report: Variational Transition State Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Truhlar, Donald G. [University of Minnesota; Truhlar, Donald G. [University of Minnesota
2016-09-15
Complex molecules often have many structures (conformations) of the reactants and the transition states, and these structures may be connected by coupled-mode torsions and pseudorotations; some but not all structures may have hydrogen bonds in the transition state or reagents. A quantitative theory of the reaction rates of complex molecules must take account of these structures, their coupledmode nature, their qualitatively different character, and the possibility of merging reaction paths at high temperature. We have recently developed a coupled-mode theory called multi-structural variational transition state theory (MS-VTST) and an extension, called multi-path variational transition state theory (MP-VTST), that includes a treatment of the differences in the multidimensional tunneling paths and their contributions to the reaction rate. The MP-VTST method was presented for unimolecular reactions in the original paper and has now been extended to bimolecular reactions. The MS-VTST and MPVTST formulations of variational transition state theory include multi-faceted configuration-space dividing surfaces to define the variational transition state. They occupy an intermediate position between single-conformation variational transition state theory (VTST), which has been used successfully for small molecules, and ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory (EAVTST), which has been used successfully for enzyme kinetics. The theories are illustrated and compared here by application to three thermal rate constants for reactions of ethanol with hydroxyl radical—reactions with 4, 6, and 14 saddle points.
A critical appraisal of Markov state models
Schütte, Ch.; Sarich, M.
2015-09-01
Markov State Modelling as a concept for a coarse grained description of the essential kinetics of a molecular system in equilibrium has gained a lot of attention recently. The last 10 years have seen an ever increasing publication activity on how to construct Markov State Models (MSMs) for very different molecular systems ranging from peptides to proteins, from RNA to DNA, and via molecular sensors to molecular aggregation. Simultaneously the accompanying theory behind MSM building and approximation quality has been developed well beyond the concepts and ideas used in practical applications. This article reviews the main theoretical results, provides links to crucial new developments, outlines the full power of MSM building today, and discusses the essential limitations still to overcome.
Critical theory and its contribution to the nursing discipline.
Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Vílchez-Barboza, Vivian; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Sanhueza-Alvarado, Olivia
2014-01-01
This article reflects on the Critical theory, stemming from the most important philosophical concepts and the modifications it has endured over time. Thereafter, we expose the contribution of the Critical theory to Nursing. This emphasizes on the contextual analysis of the phenomena and it is a self-critique to prevent dogmatisms and totalitarianisms. It postulates that in order to establish a truth, we must consider the historical conditions within which said truth emerges. Jürgen Habermas, with his Theory of Communicative Action, reorients the original postulates of the Critical theory, making it more coherent from the social point of view, through the Guiding Interests of Knowledge. Nursing professionals who follow the Critical theory highlight the need to improve the description of the construction of knowledge with an emancipating and liberating purpose, which permits Nursing to provide responses to approach reality through a global and dialectic vision and from a democratic position of knowledge, construct research from the social situational reality that is part of its daily experience; everything that can be unified as a "Philosophy of Nursing Care", which should be incorporated onto the professional formation of the discipline and onto the research area.
THE THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AND CRITICAL THINKING
ZOBISCH, Paula J.; PLATINE, Donald G.; SWANSON, Andree
2015-01-01
Educators believe that in order to thrive in the 21st century and the Information Age, individuals must ask questions, challenge assumptions, invent new ways of solving problems, connect new knowledge to information already known, and apply their knowledge and reasoning skills in new situations. Individuals must develop critical thinking skills. Using techniques based on Gardner’s (1983, 1993a) theory of multiple intelligences has been shown to increase student critical thinking skills
Logarithmic operator intervals in the boundary theory of critical percolation
Simmons, Jacob J. H.
2013-01-01
We consider the sub-sector of the $c=0$ logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) generated by the boundary condition changing (bcc) operator in two dimensional critical percolation. This operator is the zero weight Kac operator $\\phi_{1,2}$, identified with the growing hull of the SLE$_6$ process. We identify percolation configurations with the significant operators in the theory. We consider operators from the first four bcc operator fusions: the identity and bcc operator; the stress tensor...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurt Burch
1995-08-01
Full Text Available World system theory comprises two distinct lines of inquiry: macro-social studies of historical world-systems and ideological critique. World system theorists often shun ideological critique, but for two reasons I argue it must be foremost. First, without explicit attention to its philosophical foundations, world system theory rests upon several unexamined, uncomplementary, liberal premises. These premises pose conceptual puzzles. World system theorists frequently cast such puzzles as methodological, empirical, or theoretical problems, rather than as symptoms of ideological confusions requiring critique. Second, through explicit critique, theorists may transform implicit philosophical foundations into explicit ontological and epistemological groundings. Such groundings will enable world system theorists to better realize their critical, emancipatory goals and to resolve theoretical puzzles. One such puzzle -- the conceptual distinction between politics and economics -- recurs often, arising in the debates on the relation(s between the state system and capitalism and thwarting efforts to demonstrate the unity of the world system. I suggest that world system theorists engage in explicit ideological critique to lay equally explicit ideologicalfoundations for their histories. I suggest a critical, conceptually historicist, "constructivist" approach that builds upon postpositivist critiques and introduces constitutive principles. I illustrate the virtue of this approach by demonstrating the unity of the modern world system.
Critical behavior in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation
Chiba, T; Chiba, Takeshi; Soda, Jiro
1996-01-01
The collapse of a massless scalar field in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is studied in the analysis of both analytical solution and numerical one. By conformally transforming the Roberts's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that a continuous self-similarity continues and that the critical exponent does depend on \\omega. By conformally transforming the Choptuik's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that at the critical solution shows discrete self-similarity, however, the critical exponent depends strongly on \\omega while the echoing parameter weakly on it.
Self-criticism in therapist training: A grounded theory analysis.
Kannan, Divya; Levitt, Heidi M
2017-03-01
The primary objective of this study is to engender an understanding of how therapists-in-training experience and cope with self-criticism in the context of their clinical training and therapy experiences. In this study, trainees were interviewed about their experience of self-criticism related to psychotherapy practice and these interviews were subjected to a grounded theory analysis generating a core self-critical process. The analysis highlighted the vulnerability of self-criticism in therapists' training experiences, especially when they related to balancing the "expert" role while maintaining authentic interactions with their clients. The results also described ways in which self-criticism is mitigated by a sense of interpersonal safety and the provision of clinical freedom and flexibility in therapists' training. The implications for future psychotherapy research and clinical training within clinical training environments are discussed.
Critical Race Theory and the Whiteness of Teacher Education
Sleeter, Christine E.
2017-01-01
This article uses three tenets of critical race theory to critique the common pattern of teacher education focusing on preparing predominantly White cohorts of teacher candidates for racially and ethnically diverse students. The tenet of interest convergence asks how White interests are served through incremental steps. The tenet of color…
Introducing LangCrit: Critical Language and Race Theory
Crump, Alison
2014-01-01
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) scholars have recently drawn on critical race theory (CRT) to critique and understand the propagation of Whiteness as a norm associated with native English speakers. However, the area of language studies, more broadly defined, has yet to develop the same link with CRT. To this end, this…
Critical Race Theory and the Whiteness of Teacher Education
Sleeter, Christine E.
2017-01-01
This article uses three tenets of critical race theory to critique the common pattern of teacher education focusing on preparing predominantly White cohorts of teacher candidates for racially and ethnically diverse students. The tenet of interest convergence asks how White interests are served through incremental steps. The tenet of color…
Introducing LangCrit: Critical Language and Race Theory
Crump, Alison
2014-01-01
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) scholars have recently drawn on critical race theory (CRT) to critique and understand the propagation of Whiteness as a norm associated with native English speakers. However, the area of language studies, more broadly defined, has yet to develop the same link with CRT. To this end, this…
Toward a Critical Theory Approach to Lives Considered Emotionally Disturbed.
Danforth, Scot
1995-01-01
This article addresses issues of power residing within various special education processes that result in processes of hegemony and domination in the lives of children considered to have emotional disturbances. A critical theory approach is proposed which is explicitly political and stresses the need to value the child's personal history and…
Information richness in construction projects: A critical social theory
Adriaanse, Adriaan Maria; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Greenwood, D
2002-01-01
Two important factors influencing the communication in construction projects are the interests of the people involved and the language spoken by the people involved. The objective of the paper is to analyse these factors by using recent insights in the information richness theory. The critical
Critical Development Theory: moving out of the twilight zone
Schuurman, F.J.
2009-01-01
Since the onslaught of neoliberal triumphalism from the 1980s onwards, critical development theory increasingly found itself in a sort of academic twilight zone. With few exceptions development research became characterised by an emphasis on empiricism, quantitative methodologies and policy-oriented
Critical asymmetry in renormalization group theory for fluids.
Zhao, Wei; Wu, Liang; Wang, Long; Li, Liyan; Cai, Jun
2013-06-21
The renormalization-group (RG) approaches for fluids are employed to investigate critical asymmetry of vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of fluids. Three different approaches based on RG theory for fluids are reviewed and compared. RG approaches are applied to various fluid systems: hard-core square-well fluids of variable ranges, hard-core Yukawa fluids, and square-well dimer fluids and modelling VLE of n-alkane molecules. Phase diagrams of simple model fluids and alkanes described by RG approaches are analyzed to assess the capability of describing the VLE critical asymmetry which is suggested in complete scaling theory. Results of thermodynamic properties obtained by RG theory for fluids agree with the simulation and experimental data. Coexistence diameters, which are smaller than the critical densities, are found in the RG descriptions of critical asymmetries of several fluids. Our calculation and analysis show that the approach coupling local free energy with White's RG iteration which aims to incorporate density fluctuations into free energy is not adequate for VLE critical asymmetry due to the inadequate order parameter and the local free energy functional used in the partition function.
Hasegawa, Chika
2016-01-01
We use a compatibility between the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion to solve the one-point function in the critical $\\phi^3$-theory (a.k.a the critical Lee-Yang model) on the $d = 6 - \\epsilon$ dimensional real projective space to the first non-trivial order in the $\\epsilon$-expansion. It reproduces the conventional perturbation theory and agrees with the numerical conformal bootstrap result.
𝜖-expansion in critical ϕ3-theory on real projective space from conformal field theory
Hasegawa, Chika; Nakayama, Yu
2017-03-01
We use a compatibility between the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion to solve the one-point function in the critical ϕ3-theory (a.k.a. the critical Lee-Yang model) on the d = 6 ‑ 𝜖 dimensional real projective space to the first nontrivial order in the 𝜖-expansion. It reproduces the conventional perturbation theory and agrees with the numerical conformal bootstrap result.
Strong coupling theory of heavy fermion criticality II
Wölfle, Peter; Schmalian, Jörg; Abrahams, Elihu
2017-04-01
We present a theory of the scaling behavior of the thermodynamic, transport and dynamical properties of a three-dimensional metal governed by d-dimensional fluctuations at a quantum critical point, where the electron quasiparticle effective mass diverges. We determine how the critical bosonic order parameter fluctuations are affected by the effective mass divergence. The coupled system of fermions and bosons is found to be governed by two stable fixed points: the conventional weak-coupling fixed point and a new strong-coupling fixed point, provided the boson–boson interaction is irrelevant. The latter fixed point supports hyperscaling, characterized by fractional exponents. The theory is applied to the antiferromagnetic critical point in certain heavy fermion compounds, in which the strong-coupling regime is reached.
Critical Race Theory 20 Years Later: Where Do We Go From Here?
Howard, Tyrone C.; Navarro, Oscar
2016-01-01
As the nation's schools become increasingly diverse along ethnic and racial lines, examining and understanding the racial complexities in the United States is more germane now than ever in the nation's history. To that end, critical race theory (CRT) has been a transformative conceptual, methodological, and theoretical construct that has assisted…
Critical Race Theory 20 Years Later: Where Do We Go From Here?
Howard, Tyrone C.; Navarro, Oscar
2016-01-01
As the nation's schools become increasingly diverse along ethnic and racial lines, examining and understanding the racial complexities in the United States is more germane now than ever in the nation's history. To that end, critical race theory (CRT) has been a transformative conceptual, methodological, and theoretical construct that has assisted…
Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys
Payne, Macheo
2010-01-01
Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…
Zarefsky, David, Ed.
1979-01-01
This journal issue is devoted to the critical social theory of the German philosopher Jurgen Habermas and its implications for argumentation theory and practice. Topics discussed in the six articles are: the main themes of Habermas' research and their relevance to argumentation, Habermas and the dialectical perspective on argumentation, a…
Linearized theory of peridynamic states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silling, Stewart Andrew
2009-04-01
A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement between points, but it does not involve the deformation gradient (which would be undefined on a crack). The material properties that govern the linearized material response are expressed in terms of a new quantity called the modulus state. This determines the force in each bond resulting from an incremental deformation of itself or of other bonds. Conditions are derived for a linearized material model to be elastic, objective, and to satisfy balance of angular momentum. If the material is elastic, then the modulus state is obtainable from the second Frechet derivative of the strain energy density function. The equation of equilibrium with a linearized material model is a linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. An analogue of Poincare's theorem is proved that applies to the infinite dimensional space of all peridynamic vector states, providing a condition similar to irrotationality in vector calculus.
Linearized theory of peridynamic states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silling, Stewart Andrew
2009-04-01
A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement between points, but it does not involve the deformation gradient (which would be undefined on a crack). The material properties that govern the linearized material response are expressed in terms of a new quantity called the modulus state. This determines the force in each bond resulting from an incremental deformation of itself or of other bonds. Conditions are derived for a linearized material model to be elastic, objective, and to satisfy balance of angular momentum. If the material is elastic, then the modulus state is obtainable from the second Frechet derivative of the strain energy density function. The equation of equilibrium with a linearized material model is a linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. An analogue of Poincare's theorem is proved that applies to the infinite dimensional space of all peridynamic vector states, providing a condition similar to irrotationality in vector calculus.
Critical Analysis of the Bogoliubov Theory of Superfluidity
Adams, S
2003-01-01
The microscopic theory of superfluidity [1-3] was proposed by Bogoliubov in 1947 to explain the Landau-type excitation spectrum of helium 4. An analysis of the Bogoliubov theory has already been performed in the recent review [4]. Here we add some new critical analyses of this theory. This leads us to consider the superstable Bogoliubov model [5]. It gives rise to an improvement of the previous theory which will be explained with more details in a next paper [6]: coexistence in the superfluid liquid of particles inside and outside the Bose condensate (even at zero temperature), Bose/Bogoliubov statistics, ``Cooper pairs'' in the Bose condensate, Landau-type excitation spectrum...
Closed And Open String Theories In Non-critical Backgrounds
Murthy, S
2004-01-01
This thesis is a study of closed and open string theories in low dimensional spacetimes, and the various relations between these theories. In particular, we focus on the theory of the two-dimensional black hole. We first study closed strings in the background of the Euclidean two-dimensional black hole (SL2( R )/U(1)) tensored with flat space, using the duality relating these theories to non-critical superstrings described by the supersymmetric sine-Liouville interaction on the worldsheet. We point out a subtlety in their geometric interpretation, and clarify the symmetry structure of the theories based on the understanding of these theories as near horizon limits of wrapped NS5-branes. In one such example (cigar × R6 ), we use the brave description to understand the enhancement of the global symmetry in the coset theory from U(1) to SO(3) under which the sine-Liouville and cigar interactions are related. In the same example, a worldsheet description of the moduli space R4/Z2 is presented. W...
In defense of psychosomatic theory: A critical analysis of Allison and Heshkas critical analysis
Strien, T. van
1995-01-01
This article analyses Allison and Heshka's (International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13, 289–295, 1993.) critical analysis of studies supporting psychosomatic theory. Questionned first is, Allison and Heshka's contention that the obese overreport emotional eating as a result of effects of demand c
Critical theory as a framework for academic nursing practice.
Swartz, Martha K
2014-05-01
In academic centers of nursing, faculty or academic practice has become more widespread and integrated into the expectations and criteria for appointment and promotion. Yet, the concept of academic practice is not fully embraced among all schools of nursing. Numerous models of academic nursing practice have evolved and vary widely according to the clinical site, the roles of the practitioners, and the systems for generating revenue. Although most models are related to the mission statements of the schools of nursing, few seem to be based on a distinct philosophy of practice. In this article, a consideration of critical theory that provides a framework for practice-based nursing education is presented. By applying the philosophical underpinnings and assumptions of practice that are guided by critical theory, educators may begin to better identify the values of academic nursing practice and incorporate this activity more fully into the educational environment.
Nurses' views on empowerment: a critical social theory perspective.
Fulton, Y
1997-09-01
This is the first study which describes British nurses' views on the concept of empowerment. Despite the frequent call for nurses to empower patients there was no evidence in the literature about British nurses' views. The study was carried out prior to a course exploring empowerment for practice. Focus groups were used to gather the data. Critical social theory and the work of Paulo Freire (1972) and Jurgen Habermas (1971, 1979) was used as a theoretical framework to underpin the enquiry. Taped interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Four categories emerged from the data to provide the framework for the themes: 'empowerment', 'having personal power', 'relationships within the multidisciplinary team', and 'feeling right about oneself'. It is suggested that the nurses in this study manifested signs of being oppressed and striving for liberation. The limitations of the study are identified, but the overall conclusion is that the teaching of critical social theories as an empowerment paradigm is relevant in nurse education today.
Critical social theory approach to disclosure of genomic incidental findings.
Bevan, Jeffrey L; Senn-Reeves, Julia N; Inventor, Ben R; Greiner, Shawna M; Mayer, Karen M; Rivard, Mary T; Hamilton, Rebekah J
2012-11-01
Technology has expanded genomic research and the complexity of extracted gene-related information. Health-related genomic incidental findings pose new dilemmas for nurse researchers regarding the ethical application of disclosure to participants. Consequently, informed consent specific to incidental findings is recommended. Critical Social Theory is used as a guide in recognition of the changing meaning of informed consent and to serve as a framework to inform nursing of the ethical application of disclosure consent in genomic nursing research practices.
Towards a critical theory of disability in social work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder
2005-01-01
The dominant discourse on disability in social work has been that of an individual/medical model, which largely relegates the ‘problem’ of disability to a deficit within the individual. This paper calls for re-visioning disability: notions of disability in social work are contrasted with alternat...... the foundation of a dynamic critical theory of disability that questions impairment as necessarily a personal tragedy, and asserts that the notion of individual inadequacy is socially reproduced....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. J. Du Plessis
1981-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.
Theory and practice in health communication campaigns: a critical interrogation.
Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J
2005-01-01
In recent reviews of the body of work on health campaigns, communication scholars discussed the importance of reflective thinking about the capacity of campaigns to effect change; this reflective thinking is especially important in the realm of the increasing gaps in society between the health rich and the health poor and the increasing marginalization of the poorer sections of society. This article critically reviews 3 central theories of health communication campaigns that represent the dominant cognitive approach: theory of reasoned action, health belief model, and the extended parallel process model. After articulating the limitations of these theoretical approaches, the article summarizes new directions in theory, methodology, and application of health communication campaigns targeting marginalized populations.
Fan, Chunyan; Zeng, Yonghong; Do, D D; Nicholson, D
2014-06-28
A new theory of condensation in an open end slit pore, based on the concept of temperature dependent undulation, at the interface separating the adsorbed phase and the gas-like region, is presented. The theory, describes, for the first time, the microscopic origin of the critical hysteresis temperature and the critical hysteresis pore size, properties which are not accessible to any classical theories.
Transition-state theory and dynamical corrections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing
2002-01-01
. The correction factor due to non-adiabatic dynamics is considered in relation to the non-activated dissociative sticking of N-2 on Fe(111). For this process, conventional transition-state theory gives a sticking probability which is about 10 times too large (at T = 300 K). We estimate that the sticking......We consider conventional transition-state theory, and show how quantum dynamical correction factors can be incorporated in a simple fashion, as a natural extension of the fundamental formulation. Corrections due to tunneling and non-adiabatic dynamics are discussed, with emphasis on the latter...
Nambu-Goldstone Effective Theory of Information at Quantum Criticality
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico
2015-01-01
We establish a fundamental connection between quantum criticality of a many-body system, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, and its capacity of information-storage and processing. For deriving the effective theory of modes in the vicinity of the quantum critical point we develop a new method by mapping a Bose-Einstein condensate of $N$-particles onto a sigma model with a continuous global (pseudo)symmetry that mixes bosons of different momenta. The Bogolyubov modes of the condensate are mapped onto the Goldstone modes of the sigma model, which become gapless at the critical point. These gapless Goldstone modes are the quantum carriers of information and entropy. Analyzing their effective theory, we observe the information-processing properties strikingly similar to the ones predicted by the black hole portrait. The energy cost per qubit of information-storage vanishes in the large-$N$ limit and the total information-storage capacity increases with $N$ either exponentially or as a power law. The longevity of i...
In defense of psychosomatic theory: a critical analysis of Allison and Heshka's critical analysis.
Van Strien, T
1995-04-01
This article analyses Allison and Heshka's (Internal Journal of Eating Disorders, 13, 289-295, 1993.) critical analysis of studies supporting psychosomatic theory. Questionned first is, Allison and Heshka's contention that the obese overreport emotional eating as a result of effects of demand characteristics, social desirability, and interpersonal expectancies. These effects, however, indicate that a more plausible response would be an underreport of emotional eating. Also addressed is Allison and Heshka's (Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 1, 31-38, 1993.) contention that a high correlation between a measurement instrument and a measure of social desirability invalidates that measurement instrument. Finally, in a rebuttal of Allison and Heshka's critical analysis of studies supporting psychosomatic theory, it is elaborated why emotional eating explains so little variance in weight gain and obesity.
[Continuous damage mechanics: Critical states: Technical progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krajcinovic, D.
1992-06-01
Failure can occur in many distinctly different ways depending on the material, stress and strain fields, temperature field, environmental effects, strain rate, etc. The proposed research program will focus on a single well defined class of failure modes common to many structures and machine elements. This class of problems is characterized by a gradually evolving microscale process which at a certain point triggers a discontinuous or singular (qualitative) change of macroscale response. Consideration of critical states of cooperative processes requires radical departure from the well traveled paths. Recently developing methods of statistical physics seem to be applicable to the class of problems under consideration. These models are generally formulated as discrete enabling consideration of spatial-temporal complexities as they raise from the microstructural disorder. However, in many cases these models in the limit do not converge to the traditional continuum theories.
(Continuous damage mechanics: Critical states: Technical progress report)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krajcinovic, D.
1992-01-01
Failure can occur in many distinctly different ways depending on the material, stress and strain fields, temperature field, environmental effects, strain rate, etc. The proposed research program will focus on a single well defined class of failure modes common to many structures and machine elements. This class of problems is characterized by a gradually evolving microscale process which at a certain point triggers a discontinuous or singular (qualitative) change of macroscale response. Consideration of critical states of cooperative processes requires radical departure from the well traveled paths. Recently developing methods of statistical physics seem to be applicable to the class of problems under consideration. These models are generally formulated as discrete enabling consideration of spatial-temporal complexities as they raise from the microstructural disorder. However, in many cases these models in the limit do not converge to the traditional continuum theories.
In defense of psychosomatic theory: A critical analysis of Allison and Heshkas critical analysis
van Strien, T.
1995-01-01
This article analyses Allison and Heshka's (International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13, 289–295, 1993.) critical analysis of studies supporting psychosomatic theory. Questionned first is, Allison and Heshka's contention that the obese overreport emotional eating as a result of effects of demand characteristics, social desirability, and interpersonal expectancies. These effects, however, indicate that a more plausible response would be an underreport of emotional eating. Also addressed is A...
Thermodynamic Properties from Corresponding States Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mollerup, Jørgen
1980-01-01
—Leland corresponding-states theory. Different fluid approximations for mixtures have been applied to the various corresponding states approaches. The resulting computation methods have been applied to calculate saturation properties of pure fluids and separation factors in binary mixtures for some fluids commonly...... encountered in natural gas and petroleum refining operations. Finally it is shown that the binary interaction parameters depend only on the fluid approximation and not on the specific form of the potential....
Non-critical string theory formulation of microtubule dynamics and quantum aspects of brain function
Mavromatos, Nikolaos E
1995-01-01
Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytosceletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a 1+1-dimensional non-critical string theory, thus enabling us to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including enviromental {\\em friction} effects. We suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the {\\em preconscious states}. Quantum space-time effects, as described by non-critical string theory, trigger then an {\\em organized collapse} of the coherent states down to a specific or {\\em conscious state}. The whole process we estimate to take {\\cal O}(1\\,{\\rm sec}), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The {\\em microscopic arrow of time}, endemic in non-critical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age...
Parallel Critical Field in Thin Niobium Films: Comparison to Theory
Broussard, P. R.
2017-10-01
For the first time, a comparison to the predicted behavior for parallel critical field is carried out for the model of Kogan and the model of Hara and Nagai. In this study, thin niobium films in the moderately dirty regime were considered. Experimental values of the -C2 term are seen to be lower than those from the model of Hara and Nagai. A possible reason for this could be not including the non-spherical Fermi surface of niobium into the model. There is clearly disagreement with the model of Kogan as the films get cleaner and thinner, and two films which should be below his critical thickness still show positive values of -C2, in disagreement with his theory.
A new sexual revolution? Critical theory, pornography, and the Internet.
Garlick, Steve
2011-08-01
The "sexual revolution" was a central element of North American culture in the 1960s. Today, sex is increasingly central to mainstream culture, in large part due to the Internet, and we might wonder whether we are living through a comparable period of sexual history. In this article, I revisit the work of Herbert Marcuse-the original theorist of the sexual revolution-to ask whether it can contribute to a critical theory of sexuality in the era of digital technology. After outlining Marcuse's theory of the role of Eros in social life, I discuss two pornographic Web sites that combine eroticism and social critique. I argue that Marcuse's work is valuable for its emphasis on the intersection of sex, technology, and capitalist economy, but that it needs to be supplemented by a focus on masculinity and the male body in Internet pornography.
Business strategy and dominant economic theories under critics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar Aktouf
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this essay, the author analyses, or more precisely “deconstructs” the essence of thinking about “strategy” and the overall governance of “US type” organizations/dominant neoliberal economic thinking, predominating the current both academic management and applied economics scene. By drawing on a simultaneously historical, heuristic, epistemological, and methodological reading of the dominant work and system on this subject, which he refers to as “Porterism”, the author presents a resolutely critical review of the full range theories of managerial “strategy” as well as those of the most notable author in the field, namely, Michael Porter.
Random matrix theory and critical phenomena in quantum spin chains.
Hutchinson, J; Keating, J P; Mezzadri, F
2015-09-01
We compute critical properties of a general class of quantum spin chains which are quadratic in the Fermi operators and can be solved exactly under certain symmetry constraints related to the classical compact groups U(N),O(N), and Sp(2N). In particular we calculate critical exponents s,ν, and z, corresponding to the energy gap, correlation length, and dynamic exponent, respectively. We also compute the ground state correlators 〈σ_{i}^{x}σ_{i+n}^{x}〉_{g},〈σ_{i}^{y}σ_{i+n}^{y}〉_{g}, and 〈∏_{i=1}^{n}σ_{i}^{z}〉_{g}, all of which display quasi-long-range order with a critical exponent dependent upon system parameters. Our approach establishes universality of the exponents for the class of systems in question.
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Hackett, Ryan; Klapes, Bryan
2017-03-31
Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery, Soto, and McDowell, 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory.
Effective Theory of Higgs Sector Vacuum States
Egana-Ugrinovic, Daniel
2015-01-01
The effective field theory description for modifications of Standard Model-like Higgs boson interactions arising from tree-level mixing with heavy Higgs sector vacuum states without conserved quantum numbers is presented. An expansion in terms of effective operator dimension based on powers of the heavy mass scale rather than operator dimension is utilized to systematically organize interactions within the effective theory. Vacuum states arising from electroweak singlet extensions of the Higgs sector yield at leading order only two effective dimension-six operators. One of these uniformly dilutes all the interactions of a single physical Higgs boson as compared with Standard Model expectations, while the combination of the two operators give more general modifications of all remaining interactions with two or more physical Higgs bosons. Vacuum states arising from an additional electroweak doublet yield three types of effective dimension-six operators that modify physical Higgs boson couplings to fermion pairs...
Matrix product states for lattice field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences
2013-10-15
The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ansaetze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used testbench for lattice techniques. Using finite-size, open boundary MPS, we are able to determine the low energy states of the model in a fully non-perturbativemanner. The precision achieved by the method allows for accurate finite size and continuum limit extrapolations of the ground state energy, but also of the chiral condensate and the mass gaps, thus showing the feasibility of these techniques for gauge theory problems.
About the capitalist revolution of the juridical. Lacanian left and critical theory of law
2016-01-01
This article proposes an approach to contemporary transformations of the legal, from the articulation between critical theory of law and the Lacanian left. On the one hand, it is stated that in contemporary times, under the dominance of the capitalist discourse, the legal has undergone a metamorphosis that can be characterized as the passage from bourgeois legal form to the right to jouissance. On the other hand, this paper claims that the law of populism can become, as residue of that discou...
Freeman, Robert; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Silverman, Elizabeth; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Reed, Jennifer; Martinez, Belkis Y
2017-03-24
African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors. Participants were adult AABH-PLWH in New York City who were not taking antiretroviral therapy nor well engaged in HIV care (N = 37). Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation from a larger study, and engaged in semi-structured in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach. We found AABH-PLWH experienced HIV care and medication decisions through a historical and cultural lens incorporating knowledge of past and present structural racism. This contextual knowledge included awareness of past maltreatment of people of color in medical research. Further, these understandings were linked to the history of HIV antiretroviral therapy itself, including awareness of the first HIV antiretroviral regimen; namely, AZT (zidovudine) mono-therapy, which was initially prescribed in unacceptably high doses, causing serious side effects, but with only modest efficacy. In this historical/cultural context, aspects of structural racism negatively influenced health care decisions and behavior in four main ways: 1) via the extent to which healthcare settings were experienced as overly institutionalized and, therefore, dehumanizing; 2) distrust of medical institutions and healthcare providers, which led AABH-PLWH to feel pressured to take HIV antiretroviral therapy when it was offered; 3) perceptions that patients are excluded from the health
Theory of First Order Chemical Kinetics at the Critical Point of Solution.
Baird, James Kern; Lang, Joshua R
2017-09-27
Liquid mixtures, which have a phase diagram exhibiting a miscibility gap ending in a critical point of solution, have been used as solvents for chemical reactions. The reaction rate in the forward direction has often been observed to slow down as a function of temperature in the critical region. Theories based upon the Gibbs free energy of reaction as the driving force for chemical change have been invoked to explain this behavior. With the assumption that the reaction is proceeding under relaxation conditions, these theories expand the free energy in a Taylor series about the position of equilibrium. Since the free energy is zero at equilibrium, the leading term in the Taylor series is proportional to the first derivative of the free energy with respect to the extent of reaction. To analyze the critical behavior of this derivative, the theories invoke the principle of critical point isomorphism, which is thought to govern all critical phenomena. They find that the derivative goes to zero in the critical region, which accounts for the slowing down observed in the reaction rate. As has been pointed out, however, most experimental rate investigations have been carried out under irreversible conditions as opposed to relaxation conditions [Shen et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 8784 - 8791]. Below, we consider a reaction governed by first order kinetics and invoke transition state theory to take into account the irreversible conditions. We express the apparent activation energy in terms of thermodynamic derivatives evaluated under standard conditions as well as the pseudo-equilibrium conditions associated with the reactant and the activated complex. We show that these derivatives approach infinity in the critical region. The apparent activation energy follows this behavior, and its divergence accounts for the slowing down of the reaction rate.
Campbell penetration in the critical state of type-II superconductors
Willa, R.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G.
2015-10-01
The penetration of an ac magnetic signal into a type-II superconductor residing in the Shubnikov phase depends on the pinning properties of Abrikosov vortices. Within a phenomenological theory, the so-called Campbell penetration depth λC is determined by the curvature α at the bottom of the effective pinning potential. Preparing the sample into a critical state, this curvature vanishes and the Campbell length formally diverges. We make use of the microscopic expression for the pinning force density derived within strong pinning theory and show how flux penetration on top of a critical state proceeds in a regular way.
Phase structure and critical properties of an abelian gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mo, Sjur
2001-12-01
The main new results are presented in the form of three papers at the end of this thesis. The main topic is Monte-Carlo studies of the phase structure and critical properties of the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau model, i.e. an abelian gauge theory. However, the first paper is totally different and deals with microscopic theory for lattice-fermions in a magnetic field. Paper I is about ''Fermion-pairing on a square lattice in extreme magnetic fields''. We consider the Cooper-problem on a two-dimensional, square lattice with a uniform, perpendicular magnetic field. Only rational flux fractions are considered. An extended (real-space) Hubbard model including nearest and next nearest neighbor interactions is transformed to ''k-space'', or more precisely, to the space of eigenfunctions of Harper's equation, which constitute basis functions of the magnetic translation group for the lattice. A BCS-like truncation of the interaction term is performed. Expanding the interactions in the basis functions of the irreducible representations of the point group C{sub 4{nu}} of the square lattice simplify calculations. The numerical results indicate enhanced binding compared to zero magnetic field, and thus re-entrant superconducting pairing at extreme magnetic fields, well beyond the point where the usual semi-classical treatment of the magnetic field breaks down. Paper II is about the ''Hausdorff dimension of critical fluctuations in abelian gauge theories''. Here we analyze the geometric properties of the line-like critical fluctuations (vortex loops) in the Ginzburg-Landau model in zero magnetic background field. By using a dual description, we obtain scaling relations between exponents of geometric arid thermodynamic nature. In particular we connect the anomalous scaling dimension {eta} of the dual matter field to the Hausdorff or fractal dimension D{sub H} of the critical fluctuations, in the original model
Theory of the decision/problem state
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
A theory of the decision-problem state was introduced and elaborated. Starting with the basic model of a decision-problem condition, an attempt was made to explain how a major decision-problem may consist of subsets of decision-problem conditions composing different condition sequences. In addition, the basic classical decision-tree model was modified to allow for the introduction of a series of characteristics that may be encountered in an analysis of a decision-problem state. The resulting hierarchical model reflects the unique attributes of the decision-problem state. The basic model of a decision-problem condition was used as a base to evolve a more complex model that is more representative of the decision-problem state and may be used to initiate research on decision-problem states.
Northcut, Kathryn M.
2007-01-01
Andrew Feenberg's critical theory of technology is an underutilized, relatively unknown resource in technical communication which could be exploited not only for its potential clarification of large social issues that involve our discipline, but also specifically toward the development of a critical theory of illustrations. Applications of…
Northcut, Kathryn M.
2007-01-01
Andrew Feenberg's critical theory of technology is an underutilized, relatively unknown resource in technical communication which could be exploited not only for its potential clarification of large social issues that involve our discipline, but also specifically toward the development of a critical theory of illustrations. Applications of…
Throw the bathwater out but save the baby: new perspectives in Critical Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giacomo PEZZANO
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the status of critical theory and thinking, claiming that we should not throw the baby out with the bathwater: if a certain way of conceiving and practicing it has nowadays become partial and unfit, then it’s not true that it is qua tale useless, old-fashioned, or dead. I start stressing that, in general, Critical Theory highlights that there is a problematic relation between individuals and social structure, which has to be pointed out, to indicate actual and possible transformations. Then, I propose a heuristic distinction between two main paradigms of Critical Theory and thinking (the modern Critical Theory and the postmodern Critical Theory, discussing three main aspects, separated but intertwined. The first is more strictly philosophical, involving the problem of the transcendent or immanent position of the critique: on the one hand, we have the external condemnation of the society, in the name of some kind of superior truth; on the other hand, we have the inner problematization of a given social field, according to criteria that have been posited by itself or that are implicit in it (§ 1. The second is more strictly anthropological, dealing with the problem of human nature and alienation: on the one hand, we have the hope for the restoration of a lost state of originary plenitude; on the other hand, we have the effort of learning the better way to deal with human openness and relationality (§ 2. The third is more strictly sociological, posing the question of ways and forms of life: on the one hand, we have an ironical attitude, aiming to elaborate a true counter-society that should take the place of the false present one; on the other hand, we have a humoristic attitude, that attempts to make the problem that a society both poses and tries to answer a problem that reemerges, so that it can be again for the first time seen as a problem (§ 3.
Critical State Sedimentation Line of Soft Marine Clays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HONG Zhen-shun(洪振舜); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); CHANG Nien-yin
2003-01-01
The compression behavior responsible for unity sensitivity is very valuable in quantitative assessment of the effects of soil structure on the compression behavior of soft marine sediments. However, the quantitative assessment of such effects is not possible because of unavailability of the formula for the compression curve of marine sediments responsible for unit sensitivity. In this study, the relationship between the remolded state and the conventional critical state line is presented in the deviator stress versus mean effective stress plot. The analysis indicates that the remolded state is on the conventional critical state line obtained at a relatively small strain. Thus, a unique critical state sedimentation line for marine sediments of unit sensitivity is proposed. The comparison between the critical state sedimentation line proposed in this study and the existing normalized consolidation curves obtained from conventional oedometer tests on remolded soils or reconstituted soils explains well the effects of initial water content on the oedometer consolidation curves for remolded soils.
Qualitative inquiry and the debate between hermeneutics and critical theory.
Shaw, James A; DeForge, Ryan T
2014-11-01
Two issues have been central to ongoing disputes about judgments of quality in qualitative inquiry: (a) the ways in which paradigmatic orientations are understood to guide procedural decisions and (b) the meaning and intelligibility of paradigmatic incommensurability. In this article, we address these two key issues through an exploration of the debates between hermeneutics and critical social theory, including the exchanges between Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jurgen Habermas, and between Richard Rorty and Thomas McCarthy. We suggest that the key epistemological issue addressed in these debates is the nature of interpretation, separating the two philosophical camps based on beliefs about whether foundational knowledge is possible to achieve. We conclude the article by discussing the implications of these different positions for beliefs about quality in qualitative inquiry, and comment on the role of judgment in assessments of the value and quality of different approaches to qualitative research.
Theory of sampling: four critical success factors before analysis.
Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim H
2015-01-01
Food and feed materials characterization, risk assessment, and safety evaluations can only be ensured if QC measures are based on valid analytical data, stemming from representative samples. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) is the only comprehensive theoretical framework that fully defines all requirements to ensure sampling correctness and representativity, and to provide the guiding principles for sampling in practice. TOS also defines the concept of material heterogeneity and its impact on the sampling process, including the effects from all potential sampling errors. TOS's primary task is to eliminate bias-generating errors and to minimize sampling variability. Quantitative measures are provided to characterize material heterogeneity, on which an optimal sampling strategy should be based. Four critical success factors preceding analysis to ensure a representative sampling process are presented here.
Gradient terms in quantum-critical theories of itinerant fermions
Maslov, Dmitrii L.; Sharma, Prachi; Torbunov, Dmitrii; Chubukov, Andrey V.
2017-08-01
We investigate the origin and renormalization of the gradient (Q2) term in the propagator of soft bosonic fluctuations in theories of itinerant fermions near a quantum critical point (QCP) with ordering wavevector Q0=0 . A common belief is that (i) the Q2 term comes from fermions with high energies (roughly of order of the bandwidth) and, as such, should be included into the bare bosonic propagator of the effective low-energy model, and (ii) fluctuations within the low-energy model generate Landau damping of soft bosons, but affect the Q2 term only weakly. We argue that the situation is in fact more complex. First, we found that the high- and low-energy contributions to the Q2 term are of the same order. Second, we computed the high-energy contributions to the Q2 term in two microscopic models (a Fermi gas with Coulomb interaction and the Hubbard model) and found that in all cases these contributions are numerically much smaller than the low-energy ones, especially in 2D. This last result is relevant for the behavior of observables at low energies, because the low-energy part of the Q2 term is expected to flow when the effective mass diverges near QCP. If this term is the dominant one, its flow has to be computed self-consistently, which gives rise to a novel quantum-critical behavior. Following up on these results, we discuss two possible ways of formulating the theory of a QCP with Q0=0 .
Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.
Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela
2015-01-01
The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.
Low Critical Micelle Concentration Discrepancy between Theory and Experiment.
García Daza, Fabián A; Mackie, Allan D
2014-06-05
Experimental measurements for a variety of surfactants unexpectedly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) becomes constant with respect to increasing the size of the hydrophobic tail. This observation disagrees with theoretical models where it is expected to continue to decrease exponentially. Because of the lack of a satisfactory explanation for such a discrepancy from theory, we have studied these systems using a coarse-grained model within the single-chain mean field (SCMF) theory combined with relevant micellar kinetic effects. In particular, a microscopic model for poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl ether was applied to describe a series of nonionic gemini surfactants. When kinetic effects are used to correct the equilibrium CMC values from the SCMF scheme together with the loss of surfactants due to adsorption on the experimental recipient, it is possible to reproduce the correct order of magnitude of the experimental CMC results. Hence it appears that the experimental values disagree with the theoretical predictions because they are not true equilibrium values due to the fact that the time scales for these low CMC values become astronomically large.
A steady state theory for processive cellulases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil;
2013-01-01
. This has significant kinetic implications, for example the maximal specific rate (Vmax/E0) for processive cellulases is much lower than the catalytic rate constant (kcat). We discuss how relationships based on this theory may be used in both comparative and mechanistic analyses of cellulases....... remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady......-state rate, and only requires data from standard assay techniques as experimental input. Specifically, it is shown that the processive reaction rate at steady state may be expressed by a hyperbolic function related to the conventional Michaelis–Menten equation. The main difference is a ‘kinetic processivity...
Topological Field Theory and Matrix Product States
Kapustin, Anton; You, Minyoung
2016-01-01
It is believed that most (perhaps all) gapped phases of matter can be described at long distances by Topological Quantum Field Theory (TQFT). On the other hand, it has been rigorously established that in 1+1d ground states of gapped Hamiltonians can be approximated by Matrix Product States (MPS). We show that the state-sum construction of 2d TQFT naturally leads to MPS in their standard form. In the case of systems with a global symmetry G, this leads to a classification of gapped phases in 1+1d in terms of Morita-equivalence classes of G-equivariant algebras. Non-uniqueness of the MPS representation is traced to the freedom of choosing an algebra in a particular Morita class. In the case of Short-Range Entangled phases, we recover the group cohomology classification of SPT phases.
Matrix product states for gauge field theories.
Buyens, Boye; Haegeman, Jutho; Van Acoleyen, Karel; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank
2014-08-29
The matrix product state formalism is used to simulate Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. To this end, we define matrix product state manifolds which are manifestly gauge invariant. As an application, we study (1+1)-dimensional one flavor quantum electrodynamics, also known as the massive Schwinger model, and are able to determine very accurately the ground-state properties and elementary one-particle excitations in the continuum limit. In particular, a novel particle excitation in the form of a heavy vector boson is uncovered, compatible with the strong coupling expansion in the continuum. We also study full quantum nonequilibrium dynamics by simulating the real-time evolution of the system induced by a quench in the form of a uniform background electric field.
Topological field theory and matrix product states
Kapustin, Anton; Turzillo, Alex; You, Minyoung
2017-08-01
It is believed that most (perhaps all) gapped phases of matter can be described at long distances by topological quantum field theory (TQFT). On the other hand, it has been rigorously established that in 1+1d ground states of gapped Hamiltonians can be approximated by matrix product states (MPS). We show that the state-sum construction of 2d TQFT naturally leads to MPS in their standard form. In the case of systems with a global symmetry G , this leads to a classification of gapped phases in 1+1d in terms of Morita-equivalence classes of G -equivariant algebras. Nonuniqueness of the MPS representation is traced to the freedom of choosing an algebra in a particular Morita class. In the case of short-range entangled phases, we recover the group cohomology classification of SPT phases.
Fry, P. S.
1992-01-01
Discusses counseling implications and applications of several social theories of aging. Explores effects of some rather distinct perspectives on aging, beginning with conceptualizations, research studies, and criticisms of disengagement theory, activity theory, and role theory, leading up to continuity theory and liberation perspective. Focuses on…
Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England
Gillborn, David
2014-01-01
Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…
Density functional theory in the solid state.
Hasnip, Philip J; Refson, Keith; Probert, Matt I J; Yates, Jonathan R; Clark, Stewart J; Pickard, Chris J
2014-03-13
Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in many fields of the physical sciences, but none so successfully as in the solid state. From its origins in condensed matter physics, it has expanded into materials science, high-pressure physics and mineralogy, solid-state chemistry and more, powering entire computational subdisciplines. Modern DFT simulation codes can calculate a vast range of structural, chemical, optical, spectroscopic, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic phenomena. The ability to predict structure-property relationships has revolutionized experimental fields, such as vibrational and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where it is the primary method to analyse and interpret experimental spectra. In semiconductor physics, great progress has been made in the electronic structure of bulk and defect states despite the severe challenges presented by the description of excited states. Studies are no longer restricted to known crystallographic structures. DFT is increasingly used as an exploratory tool for materials discovery and computational experiments, culminating in ex nihilo crystal structure prediction, which addresses the long-standing difficult problem of how to predict crystal structure polymorphs from nothing but a specified chemical composition. We present an overview of the capabilities of solid-state DFT simulations in all of these topics, illustrated with recent examples using the CASTEP computer program.
Confinement in the q-state Potts field theory
Delfino, Gesualdo
2007-01-01
The q-state Potts field theory describes the universality class associated to the spontaneous breaking of the permutation symmetry of q colors. In two dimensions it is defined up to q=4 and exhibits duality and integrability away from critical temperature in absence of magnetic field. We show how, when a magnetic field is switched on, it provides the simplest model of confinement allowing for both mesons and baryons. Deconfined quarks (kinks) exist in a phase bounded by a first order transition on one side, and a second order transition on the other. The evolution of the mass spectrum with temperature and magnetic field is discussed.
Critical state soil constitutive model for methane hydrate soil
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
S. Uchida; K. Soga; K. Yamamoto
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new constitutive model that simulates the mechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing soil based on the concept of critical state soil mechanics, referred to as the Methane...
Images and Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Racial Stereotyping, and Teacher Education.
Solorzano, Daniel G.
1997-01-01
This paper considers the legacy of racism that marks our society, arguing that critical race theory provides a framework for challenging the genetic and cultural deficit theories. Specific recommendations, based on critical race theory, to help teacher educators challenge racism and stereotyping in the classroom are presented. (SM)
Matrix Product States for Lattice Field Theories
Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana
2013-01-01
The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ans\\"atze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used ...
Superconducting quantum criticality of topological surface states at three loops
Zerf, Nikolai; Lin, Chien-Hung; Maciejko, Joseph
2016-11-01
The semimetal-superconductor quantum phase transition on the two-dimensional (2D) surface of a 3D topological insulator is conjectured to exhibit an emergent N =2 supersymmetry, based on a one-loop renormalization group (RG) analysis in the ɛ expansion. We provide additional support for this conjecture by performing a three-loop RG analysis and showing that the supersymmetric fixed point found at this order survives the extrapolation to 2D. We compute critical exponents to order ɛ3, obtaining the more accurate value ν ≈0.985 for the correlation length exponent and confirming that the fermion and boson anomalous dimensions remain unchanged beyond one loop, as expected from non-renormalization theorems in supersymmetric theories. We further couple the system to a dynamical U(1) gauge field, and argue that the transition becomes fluctuation-induced first order in an appropriate type-I regime. We discuss implications of this result for quantum phase transitions between certain symmetry-preserving correlated surface states of 3D topological insulators.
A critical review on the scaling theory of dispersion
Zech, Alraune; Mai, Juliane; Attinger, Sabine; Dietrich, Peter; Teutsch, Georg; Fiori, Aldo; Rubin, Yoram
2014-05-01
The phenomenon of dispersive mixing of solutes in aquifers is subject of research since decades. The characterization of dispersivity at a particular field site is a prerequisite to predict the movement and spreading of a contaminant plume. Experimental investigations have shown, that field-scale dispersivities vary over orders of magnitude, which apparently depends on the scale of measurement. Gelhar et al. [1992] and Schulze-Makuch [2005] have reviewed a large number of transport experiments reported in the literature. Based on that data Schulze-Makuch [2005] performed a trend analysis of longitudinal dispersivity, fostering the empirical relationship of a power law between dispersivities and the scale of measurement without an upper bound. The goal of our study is to critically revisit not only the data used for the trend analysis but the power-law scale dependence of longitudinal dispersivity (e.g. Neuman [1990], Xu and Eckstein [1995]). Our particular focus is on the reported dispersivities of large amount (larger than 100m) and large measurement scales (in the order of kilometers). We aim to evaluate current theories of transport against a critical "mass" of field experiments and to bracket the conditions of their applicability. We further aim to evaluate the adequacy of the field sampling techniques that were employed from the perspective of more than 30 years development in modeling and field characterization. Given the tremendous progress in field data acquisition techniques and new insights gained, it is reasonable to expect that interpretations of past experiments may be flawed due to the limitations or inadequacy of field sampling techniques. Gelhar, L.W., C. Welty, and K.R. Rehfeldt, 1992, A critical review of data on field-scale dispersion in aquifers, Water Resources Research 28, No. 7: 1955-1974. Schulze-Makuch, D., 2005, Longitudinal dispersivity data and implications for scaling behavior, Ground Water, Vol. 43, No. 3, 443-456. Neuman, S.P., 1990
Critical Casimir forces from the equation of state of quantum critical systems
Rançon, Adam; Henry, Louis-Paul; Rose, Félix; Cardozo, David Lopes; Dupuis, Nicolas; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Roscilde, Tommaso
2016-10-01
The mapping between a classical length and inverse temperature as imaginary time provides a direct equivalence between the Casimir force of a classical system in D dimensions and internal energy of a quantum system in d =D -1 dimensions. The scaling functions of the critical Casimir force of the classical system with periodic boundaries thus emerge from the analysis of the symmetry related quantum critical point. We show that both nonperturbative renormalization group and quantum Monte Carlo analysis of quantum critical points provide quantitative estimates for the critical Casimir force in the corresponding classical model, giving access to widely different aspect ratios for the geometry of confined systems. In light of these results, we propose protocols for the realization of critical Casimir forces for periodic boundaries through state-of-the-art cold-atom and solid-state experiments.
Of Syntheses and Surprises:Toward a Critical Integral Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Gustav Anderson
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.
Of Syntheses and Surprises: Toward a Critical Integral Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Gustav Anderson
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.
Critical non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions and little string theory
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2017-08-01
As was shown recently, non-Abelian vortex strings supported in four-dimensional N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group and Nf=4 quark multiplets (flavors) become critical superstrings. In addition to the translational moduli, non-Abelian strings under consideration carry six orientational and size moduli. Together, they form a ten-dimensional target space required for a superstring to be critical. The target space of the string sigma model is a product of the flat four-dimensional space and a Calabi-Yau noncompact threefold, namely, the conifold. We study closed string states which emerge in four dimensions and identify them with hadrons of four-dimensional N =2 QCD. One massless state was found previously; it emerges as a massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold. In this paper, we find a number of massive states. To this end, we exploit the approach used in LST little string theory, namely, the equivalence between the critical string on the conifold and noncritical c =1 string with the Liouville field and a compact scalar at the self-dual radius. The states we find carry "baryonic" charge (its definition differs from standard). We interpret them as "monopole necklaces" formed (at strong coupling) by the closed string with confined monopoles attached.
Critical Points in Nuclei and Interacting Boson Model Intrinsic States
Ginocchio, J N; Ginocchio, Joseph N.
2003-01-01
We consider properties of critical points in the interacting boson model, corresponding to flat-bottomed potentials as encountered in a second-order phase transition between spherical and deformed $\\gamma$-unstable nuclei. We show that intrinsic states with an effective $\\beta$-deformation reproduce the dynamics of the underlying non-rigid shapes. The effective deformation can be determined from the the global minimum of the energy surface after projection onto the appropriate symmetry. States of fixed $N$ and good O(5) symmetry projected from these intrinsic states provide good analytic estimates to the exact eigenstates, energies and quadrupole transition rates at the critical point.
Zeller-Berkman, Sarah
2010-01-01
A critical theory lens is used to explore the role of evaluation in youth development, a field aimed at recognizing youth as assets. A theory of change in the field is questioned for its emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. A review of 209 evaluations of 131 programs in the Harvard Family Research Project's…
Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter
2012-02-28
We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh(2)Si(2), for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results.
Critical quasienergy states in driven many-body systems
Bastidas Valencia, Victor Manuel; Engelhardt, Georg; Perez-Fernandez, Pedro; Vogl, Malte; Brandes, Tobias
2015-03-01
A quantum phase transition (QPT) is characterized by non-analyticities of ground-state properties at the critical points. Recently it has been shown that quantum criticality emerges also in excited states of the system, which is referred to as an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). This kind of quantum criticality is intimately related to a level clustering at critical energies, which results in a logarithmic singularity in the density of states. Most of the previous studies on quantum criticality in excited states have been focused on time independent systems. Here we study spectral singularities that appear in periodically-driven many-body systems and show how the external control allows one to engineer geometrical features of the quasienergy landscape. In particular, we study singularities in the quasienergy spectrum of a fully-connected network consisting of two-level systems with time-dependent interactions. We discuss the characteristic signatures of these singularities in observables like the magnetization, which should be measurable with current technology. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support by the DFG via grants BRA 1528/7, BRA 1528/8, SFB 910 (V.M.B., T.B.), the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Grants No. FIS2011-28738-C02-01) and Junta de Andalucia (Grants No. FQM160).
Grounded theory and leadership research: A critical realist perspective
2011-01-01
The methodology of grounded theory has great potential to contribute to our understanding of leadership within particular substantive contexts. However, our notions of good science might constrain these contributions. We argue that for grounded theorists a tension might exist between a desire to create a contextualised theory of leadership and a desire for scientifically justified issues of validity and generalizable theory. We also explore how the outcome of grounded theory research can crea...
Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review
Alexa Smith-Osborne
2007-01-01
Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006). Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limi...
Non-Markovian State-Dependent Networks in Critical Loading
2013-01-23
Stochastics Rep., 40(1-2):43–76, 1992. [11] T. G. Kurtz. Strong approximation theorems for density dependent Markov chains . Stochastic Processes Appl., 6(3...for queue -length processes in critically loaded single class queueing networks with state-dependent arrival and service rates. A distinguishing...loading Report Title ABSTRACT We establish heavy traffic limit theorems for queue -length processes in critically loaded single class queueing networks
The collectively-tuned critical state underlies "collective minds"
Hu, Collin Feng
2013-01-01
Collective animal groups, the starling flocks particularly, may work at a critical state in which the efficiency of information propagation through the group is greatly increased. Here, we propose a minimum individual-based model to explore how the critical state can be reached. "`Quorum response", a type of social interaction in which an individual's chance of making one option is very likely if the number of its local neighbors committing to this option exceeds a threshold, is introduced as the local interaction. We highlight the potential for the enhanced ability of information transfer in the group at a critical state which endows each individual the ability to access information maximally to respond to environmental perturbations. The correlation function in 3D shows a scale free correlation which is supported by the observations in field experiments.
Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning.
Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto
2015-03-10
In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an "auto-blocking", which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning.
Ekstrom, David N; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli
2002-07-01
Critical social theory, including the work of Jurgen Habermas, provides a valuable lens for viewing phenomena within their sociopolitical contexts. According to Habermas, the lives and experiences of individuals, groups, and societies in the western world are strongly influenced by the forces of economics and power. These influences may interfere with communication and, therefore, the transmission and regeneration of culture and its meaning. This article describes the experience of initiating an international exchange program at a university school of nursing in the eastern United States. Examined through the lens of Habermas' theory, constraints and obstacles encountered in this process are revealed. Specifically, the inhibiting influence that politics and economics may have on active communication and the potential benefits of shared meaning and understanding achieved by interaction and discourse are examined.
Framing effects are robust to linguistic disambiguation: A critical test of contemporary theory.
Chick, Christina F; Reyna, Valerie F; Corbin, Jonathan C
2016-02-01
Theoretical accounts of risky choice framing effects assume that decision makers interpret framing options as extensionally equivalent, such that if 600 lives are at stake, saving 200 implies that 400 die. However, many scholars have argued that framing effects are caused, instead, by filling in pragmatically implied information. This linguistic ambiguity hypothesis is grounded in neo-Gricean pragmatics, information leakage, and schema theory. In 2 experiments, we conducted critical tests of the linguistic ambiguity hypothesis and its relation to framing. We controlled for this crucial implied information by disambiguating it using instructions and detailed examples, followed by multiple quizzes. After disambiguating missing information, we presented standard framing problems plus truncated versions, varying types of missing information. Truncations were also critical tests of prospect theory and fuzzy trace theory. Participants were not only college students, but also middle-age adults (who showed similar results). Contrary to the ambiguity hypothesis, participants who interpreted missing information as complementary to stated information nonetheless showed robust framing effects. Although adding words like "at least" can change interpretations of framing information, this form of linguistic ambiguity is not necessary to observe risky choice framing effects.
MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance
Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…
Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform
Gillborn, David
2005-01-01
The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…
MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance
Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…
Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices
Nolan, Emily
2013-01-01
Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…
In Defense of Piaget's Theory: A Reply to 10 Common Criticisms.
Lourenco, Orlando; Machado, Armando
1996-01-01
This study attempts to rebut criticisms of the developmental theories of Jean Piaget by showing that most criticisms derive from misinterpretation and forget the dialectical, constructivist, and developmental nature of Piaget's work. Important aspects of Piaget's theory have not been assimilated by developmental psychologists. (SLD)
In Defense of Piaget's Theory: A Reply to 10 Common Criticisms.
Lourenco, Orlando; Machado, Armando
1996-01-01
This study attempts to rebut criticisms of the developmental theories of Jean Piaget by showing that most criticisms derive from misinterpretation and forget the dialectical, constructivist, and developmental nature of Piaget's work. Important aspects of Piaget's theory have not been assimilated by developmental psychologists. (SLD)
Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices
Nolan, Emily
2013-01-01
Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…
Complexity theory and geographies of health: a critical assessment.
Gatrell, Anthony C
2005-06-01
The interest of social scientists in complexity theory has developed rapidly in recent years. Here, I consider briefly the primary characteristics of complexity theory, with particular emphasis given to relations and networks, non-linearity, emergence, and hybrids. I assess the 'added value' compared with other, existing perspectives that emphasise relationality and connectedness. I also consider the philosophical underpinnings of complexity theory and its reliance on metaphor. As a vehicle for moving away from reductionist accounts, complexity theory potentially has much to say to those interested in research on health inequalities, spatial diffusion, emerging and resurgent infections, and risk. These and other applications in health geography that have invoked complexity theory are examined in the paper. Finally, I consider some of the missing elements in complexity theory and argue that while it is refreshing to see a fruitful line of theoretical debate in health geography, we need good empirical work to illuminate it.
Critical analysis of leadership theory in “American Sniper”
Brad C. Wedlock
2016-01-01
This analysis examined the film “American Sniper” and identified five leadership theories/approaches that were represented by the leading actor. These theories and approaches were classified as the following: trait approach, skills approach, style approach, situational approach, and path-goal theory. Being military themed, this film falls into the areas of dedication, sacrifice, and moral ethics, which are considered major capacities of the leadership paradigm.
Critical analysis of leadership theory in “American Sniper”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brad C. Wedlock
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This analysis examined the film “American Sniper” and identified five leadership theories/approaches that were represented by the leading actor. These theories and approaches were classified as the following: trait approach, skills approach, style approach, situational approach, and path-goal theory. Being military themed, this film falls into the areas of dedication, sacrifice, and moral ethics, which are considered major capacities of the leadership paradigm.
RECENT THEORIES OF THE FIRM: A CRITICAL APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pacala Anca
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Besides the classical theories of the firms as complete or incomplete contract theories, in the last decades there were developed some new theories bringing new perspectives and approaches. Among these new perspectives we are presenting in this paper the evolutionary theory of the firm, the importance of resources and knowledge, and game theory. According to evolutionary theory the most important element for a firm is the company itself and its specific assets (physical and human. Evolutionist theories, in their diversity, are interested in issues such as the effects of changes in the long run within the firms, in terms of products, processes, decisions, analysis of the determinants of success. Resource and knowledge -based theories try to find a common point between transactions and organizational management analysis, focusing on development issues within companies, the importance of business strategy and achieving competitive advantages. Finally, cooperative game theory sees the firm as a coalition of various parts that compose it, emphasizing the importance of cooperative relations between employees and shareholders, risk sharing and effective collective skills, knowledge and funds using.
Venkatapuram's Capability theory of Health: A Critical Discussion.
Tengland, Per-Anders
2016-01-01
The discussion about theories of health has recently had an important new input through the work of Sridhar Venkatapuram. He proposes a combination of Lennart Nordenfelt's holistic theory of health and Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. The aim of the present article is to discuss and evaluate this proposal. The article starts with a discussion of Nordenfelt's theory and evaluates Venkatapuram' critique of it, that is, of its relativism, both regarding goals and environment, and of the subjectivist theory of happiness used. Then the article explains why Nordenfelt's idea of a reasonable environment is not a problem for the theory, and it critiques Venkatapuram's own incorporation of the environment into the concept of health, suggesting that this makes the concept too wide. It contends, moreover, that Venkatapuram's alternative theory retains a problem inherent in Nordenfelt's theory, namely, that health is conceived of as a second-order ability. It is argued that health should, instead, be defined as first-order abilities. This means that health cannot be seen as a capability, and also that health cannot be seen as a meta-capability of the kind envisioned by Venkatapuram. It is, furthermore, argued that the theory lacks one crucial aspect of health, namely, subjective wellbeing. Finally, the article tries to illustrate how health, in the suggested alternative sense, as first-order abilities, fits into Nussbaum's capability theory, since health as an 'actuality' is part of all the 'combined capabilities' suggested by Nussbaum.
Critical Race Theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis.
Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O
2010-04-01
Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and research. Critical Race Theory is an emerging transdisciplinary, race-equity methodology that originated in legal studies and is grounded in social justice. Critical Race Theory's tools for conducting research and practice are intended to elucidate contemporary racial phenomena, expand the vocabulary with which to discuss complex racial concepts, and challenge racial hierarchies. We introduce Critical Race Theory to the public health community, highlight key Critical Race Theory characteristics (race consciousness, emphases on contemporary societal dynamics and socially marginalized groups, and praxis between research and practice) and describe Critical Race Theory's contribution to a study on racism and HIV testing among African Americans.
Random matrix theory and critical phenomena in quantum spin chains
Hutchinson, J.; Keating, J. P.; Mezzadri, F.
2015-09-01
We compute critical properties of a general class of quantum spin chains which are quadratic in the Fermi operators and can be solved exactly under certain symmetry constraints related to the classical compact groups $U(N)$, $O(N)$ and $Sp(2N)$. In particular we calculate critical exponents $s$, $\
Multiple Intelligence Theory for Gifted Education: Criticisms and Implications
Calik, Basak; Birgili, Bengi
2013-01-01
This paper scrutinizes giftedness and gifted learners under the implications of multiple intelligence theory with regard to coaching young scientists. It is one of the pluralistic theories toward intelligence while supporting to view individuals as active participants during teaching and learning processes which correspond with the applications of…
Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
2016-06-01
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.
Theory of Mind and Sensitivity to Teacher and Peer Criticism among Japanese Children
Mizokawa, Ai
2015-01-01
This study investigated sensitivity to teacher and peer criticism among 89 Japanese 6-year-olds and examined the connection between sensitivity to criticism and first-order and second-order theory of mind separately. Participants completed a common test battery that included tasks assessing sensitivity to criticism (teacher or peer condition), the…
Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve
2014-01-01
This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…
Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches
Langemeyer, Ines
2011-01-01
Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…
Theory of Mind and Sensitivity to Teacher and Peer Criticism among Japanese Children
Mizokawa, Ai
2015-01-01
This study investigated sensitivity to teacher and peer criticism among 89 Japanese 6-year-olds and examined the connection between sensitivity to criticism and first-order and second-order theory of mind separately. Participants completed a common test battery that included tasks assessing sensitivity to criticism (teacher or peer condition), the…
Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches
Langemeyer, Ines
2011-01-01
Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…
Literary Fiction as a Tool for Teaching Social Theory and Critical Consciousness
Weber, Christina D.
2010-01-01
In this paper, I discuss the possibilities that emerge from using literary fiction as a tool for teaching social theory and critical consciousness. Focusing on data from a social theory course I taught in fall 2007, along with my experiences teaching social theory, I evaluate the utility of utilizing literary fiction in the social theory…
Literary Fiction as a Tool for Teaching Social Theory and Critical Consciousness
Weber, Christina D.
2010-01-01
In this paper, I discuss the possibilities that emerge from using literary fiction as a tool for teaching social theory and critical consciousness. Focusing on data from a social theory course I taught in fall 2007, along with my experiences teaching social theory, I evaluate the utility of utilizing literary fiction in the social theory…
Yeaman, Andrew R. J.; And Others
1994-01-01
Provides an overview of this special issue that addresses the ethical position of educational technology in a society. Topics discussed include critical theory; an invisible college, i.e., a scholarly communication network; the humanistic approach to developing an ethical conscience; feminist theory; and postmodern and poststructural theory.…
A Critical Comparison of Transformation and Deep Approach Theories of Learning
Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard
2015-01-01
This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning…
Modified Transition State Theory for Evaporation and Condensation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王遵敬; 陈民; 过增元
2002-01-01
A modification of the transition state theory for evaporation and condensation is presented by analysing the kinetic characteristics of liquid-vapour interphase transport. In the modified transition state theory, the moving orientation of molecules is introduced into the calculation of the free volume of the activated complex. The condensation coefficients of argon at different temperatures are calculated with the modified transition state theory. The results agree well with those from molecular dynamics simulations.
Precision Study of Positronium: Testing Bound State QED Theory
Karshenboim, Savely G.
2003-01-01
As an unstable light pure leptonic system, positronium is a very specific probe atom to test bound state QED. In contrast to ordinary QED for free leptons, the bound state QED theory is not so well understood and bound state approaches deserve highly accurate tests. We present a brief overview of precision studies of positronium paying special attention to uncertainties of theory as well as comparison of theory and experiment. We also consider in detail advantages and disadvantages of positro...
Transition State Theory for dissipative systems without a dividing surface
Revuelta, F; Benito, R M; Borondo, F
2015-01-01
Transition State Theory is a central cornerstone in reaction dynamics. Its key step is the identification of a dividing surface that is crossed only once by all reactive trajectories. This assumption is often badly violated, especially when the reactive system is coupled to an environment. The calculations made in this way then overestimate the reaction rate and the results depend critically on the choice of the dividing surface. In this Letter, we study the phase space of a stochastically driven system close to an energetic barrier in order to identify the geometric structure unambiguously determining the reactive trajectories, which is then incorporated in a simple rate formula for reactions in condensed phase that is both independent of the dividing surface and exact.
Rusanov, Anatoly I
2004-07-22
A novel theory of an equation of state based on excluded volume and formulated in two preceding papers for gases and gaseous mixtures is extended to the entire density range by considering higher (beginning from the third) approximations of the theory. The algorithm of constructing higher approximations is elaborated. Equations of state are deduced using the requirement of maximum simplicity and contain a single free parameter to be chosen by reason of convenience or simplicity or to be used as a fitting parameter with respect to the computer simulation database. In this way, precise equations of state are derived for the hard-sphere fluid in the entire density range. On the side, the theory reproduces most known earlier equations of state for hard spheres and determines their place in the hierarchy of approximations. Equations of state for van der Waals fluids are also presented, and their critical parameters are estimated.
A critical look at the theories of sociology of education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Sever
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper sets out to discuss major theories of sociology of education in an attempt to reveal why we need to extend analysis beyond their current forms. It provides both a brief historical account for each theory and fundamental critiques directed towards them. Sociology of education has taken a historical turn by breaking away from the dominant understandings of functionalist theories of 1950s. The matters of history, social class, race and gender and their intimate links to the education began to occupy a prestigious position in sociological analysis of education. However, the new sociology of education also could not escape from creating its own field specific orthodoxies
[Critical overview of theories of development in Latin America].
Ominami, C
1979-01-01
The author reviews the 3 principal theoretical orientations of thought regarding the economic development of Latin America: the theory of evolution of development, the theory expounded by CEPAL (Economic Commission for Latin America), and the theory of dependent economy. The article is obviously directed to the specialist in Latin American economics, and quotes at length from published work on the subject. One of the problems involved seems to be the contradictions between the various economic propositions, and the existence of a social and political environment favorable to their realization. Countries such as Brazil and Mexico still maintain their superior position in terms of capital and manpower, but countries such as Ecuador, Colombia, and Costa Rica have already enormously improved their position as capitalistic nations. At the present time there is no economic theory capable of explaining the complex phenomenon of Latin American development and underdevelopment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Muktish Acharyya; Ajanta Bhowal Acharyya
2011-01-01
We solve the equilibrium meanfield equation of state of Ising ferromagnet (obtained from Bragg-Williams theory) by Newton-Raphson method.The number of iterations required to get a convergent solution (within a specified accuracy) of equilibrium magnetisation, at any particular temperature, is observed to diverge in a power law fashion as the temperature approaches the critical value.This is identified as the critical slowing down.The exponent is also estimated.This value of the exponent is compared with that obtained from analytic solution.Besides this, the numerical results are also compared with some experimental results exhibiting satisfactory degree of agreement.It is observed from this study that the information of the invariance of time scale at the critical point is present in the meanfield equilibrium equation of state of Ising ferromagnet.
The Theory of the Firm and Its Critics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
2005-01-01
Ever since its emergence in the 1970s the modern economic or Coasian theory of the firm has beendiscussed and challenged by sociologists, heterodox economists, management scholars, and othercritics. This chapter reviews and assesses these critiques, focusing on behavioral issues (boundedrationality...... and motivation), process (including path dependence and the selection argument), entrepreneurship,and the challenge from knowledge-based theories of the firm.JEL Codes: B4, D23, L14, L22...
Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexa Smith-Osborne
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.
Critical State in Thin Anisotropic Superconductors of Arbitrary Shape
Mikitik, Grigorii P.; Brandt, Ernst Helmut
2000-01-01
A thin flat superconductor of arbitrary shape and with arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy of flux-line pinning is considered, in an external magnetic field normal to its plane. It is shown that the general three-dimensional critical state problem for this superconductor reduces to the two-dimensional problem of an infinitely thin sample of the same shape but with a modified induction dependence of the critical sheet current. The methods of solving the latter problem are well known...
Ko, William L.; Chen, Tony
2006-01-01
The previously developed Ko closed-form aging theory has been reformulated into a more compact mathematical form for easier application. A new equivalent loading theory and empirical loading theories have also been developed and incorporated into the revised Ko aging theory for the prediction of a safe operational life of airborne failure-critical structural components. The new set of aging and loading theories were applied to predict the safe number of flights for the B-52B aircraft to carry a launch vehicle, the structural life of critical components consumed by load excursion to proof load value, and the ground-sitting life of B-52B pylon failure-critical structural components. A special life prediction method was developed for the preflight predictions of operational life of failure-critical structural components of the B-52H pylon system, for which no flight data are available.
Nakamura, Shin
2012-09-21
We find novel phase transitions and critical phenomena that occur only outside the linear-response regime of current-driven nonequilibrium states. We consider the strongly interacting (3+1)-dimensional N = 4 large-N(c) SU(N(c)) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a single flavor of fundamental N = 2 hypermultiplet as a microscopic theory. We compute its nonlinear nonballistic quark-charge conductivity by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We find that the system exhibits a novel nonequilibrium first-order phase transition where the conductivity jumps and the sign of the differential conductivity flips at finite current density. A nonequilibrium critical point is discovered at the end point of the first-order regime. We propose a nonequilibrium steady-state analogue of thermodynamic potential in terms of the gravity-dual theory in order to define the transition point. Nonequilibrium analogues of critical exponents are proposed as well. The critical behavior of the conductivity is numerically confirmed on the basis of these proposals. The present work provides a new example of nonequilibrium phase transitions and nonequilibrium critical points.
Universal crossover from ground-state to excited-state quantum criticality
Kang, Byungmin; Potter, Andrew C.; Vasseur, Romain
2017-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium properties of a nonergodic random quantum chain in which highly excited eigenstates exhibit critical properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states. The ground state and excited states of this system belong to different universality classes, characterized by infinite-randomness quantum critical behavior. Using strong-disorder renormalization group techniques, we show that the crossover between the zero and finite energy density regimes is universal. We analytically derive a flow equation describing the unitary dynamics of this isolated system at finite energy density from which we obtain universal scaling functions along the crossover.
Theory, Computation and Experiment on Criticality and Stability of Vortices Separating from Edges
2016-08-15
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0313 Theory, computation and experiment on criticality and stability of vortices separating from edges Ashok Gopalarathnam...computation and experiment on criticality and stability of vortices separating from edges 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER - 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0179...leading-edge suction on a finite wing reaches a critical value, LEV initiation takes place. The critical value is the same as that for the corresponding
Temperature of critical clusters in nucleation theory: generalized Gibbs' approach.
Schmelzer, Jürn W P; Boltachev, Grey Sh; Abyzov, Alexander S
2013-07-21
According to the classical Gibbs' approach to the description of thermodynamically heterogeneous systems, the temperature of the critical clusters in nucleation is the same as the temperature of the ambient phase, i.e., with respect to temperature the conventional macroscopic equilibrium conditions are assumed to be fulfilled. In contrast, the generalized Gibbs' approach [J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6166 (2003); and ibid. 124, 194503 (2006)] predicts that critical clusters (having commonly spatial dimensions in the nanometer range) have, as a rule, a different temperature as compared with the ambient phase. The existence of a curved interface may lead, consequently, to an equilibrium coexistence of different phases with different temperatures similar to differences in pressure as expressed by the well-known Laplace equation. Employing the generalized Gibbs' approach, it is demonstrated that, for the case of formation of droplets in a one-component vapor, the temperature of the critical droplets can be shown to be higher as compared to the vapor. In this way, temperature differences between critically sized droplets and ambient vapor phase, observed in recent molecular dynamics simulations of argon condensation by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)], can be given a straightforward theoretical interpretation. It is shown as well that - employing the same model assumptions concerning bulk and interfacial properties of the system under consideration - the temperature of critical bubbles in boiling is lower as compared to the bulk liquid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smiseth, Jo
2005-07-01
The critical properties of three-dimensional U(1)-symmetric lattice gauge theories have been studied. The models apply to various physical systems such as insulating phases of strongly correlated electron systems as well as superconducting and superfluid states of liquid metallic hydrogen under extreme pressures. The thesis contains an introductory part and a collection of research papers of which seven are published works and one is submitted for publication. The outline of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 2 the theory of phase transitions is discussed with emphasis on continuous phase transitions, critical phenomena and phase transitions in gauge theories. In the next chapter the phases of the abelian Higgs model are presented, and the critical phenomena are discussed. Furthermore, the multicomponent Ginzburg-Landau theory and the applications to liquid metallic hydrogen are presented. Chapter 4 contains an overview of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, including the Metropolis algorithm, error estimates, and re weighting techniques. This chapter is followed by the papers I-VIII. Paper I: Criticality in the (2+1)-Dimensional Compact Higgs Model and Fractionalized Insulators. Paper II: Phase structure of (2+1)-dimensional compact lattice gauge theories and the transition from Mott insulator to fractionalized insulator. Paper III: Compact U(1) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions and the physics of low dimensional insulating materials. Paper IV: Phase structure of Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theories. Paper V: Critical Properties of the N-Color London Model. Paper VI: Field- and temperature induced topological phase transitions in the three-dimensional N-component London superconductor. Paper VII: Vortex Sublattice Melting in a Two-Component Superconductor. Paper VIII: Observation of a metallic superfluid in a numerical experiment (ml)
Quantum criticality at the Anderson transition: A typical medium theory perspective
Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir
2015-10-01
We present a complete analytical and numerical solution of the typical medium theory (TMT) for the Anderson metal-insulator transition. This approach self-consistently calculates the typical amplitude of the electronic wave functions, thus representing the conceptually simplest order-parameter theory for the Anderson transition. We identify all possible universality classes for the critical behavior, which can be found within such a mean-field approach. This provides insights into how interaction-induced renormalizations of the disorder potential may produce qualitative modifications of the critical behavior. We also formulate a simplified description of the leading critical behavior, thus obtaining an effective Landau theory for Anderson localization.
Applying critical chain buffer management theory in location-based management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf
2014-01-01
Guidelines for prioritizing buffers on location-based management (LBM) projects are established through the use of critical chain theory (CCT). Buffer management theory in LBM has gained little attention from the research community. CCT builds on the assumption that each task is, either consciously...... or unconsciously, given a certain time buffer with which to cope with unpredicted events, and that these buffers become a large part of the project lead time. However, CCT suggests that these buffers entail inherent waste within schedules and fail to protect both critical activities and projects. CCT assumes...... that are based on critical chain buffer management theory....
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semi-Simple Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semi-simple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $M$ Dirac flavors where we gauge first an $SU(M)_L$ and then an $SU(2)_L \\subset SU(M)_L$ of the original global symmetry $SU(M)_L\\times SU......(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring...
The Theory of the Firm and Its Critics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
2005-01-01
Ever since its emergence in the 1970s the modern economic or Coasian theory of the firm has beendiscussed and challenged by sociologists, heterodox economists, management scholars, and othercritics. This chapter reviews and assesses these critiques, focusing on behavioral issues (boundedrationali...... and motivation), process (including path dependence and the selection argument), entrepreneurship,and the challenge from knowledge-based theories of the firm.JEL Codes: B4, D23, L14, L22......Ever since its emergence in the 1970s the modern economic or Coasian theory of the firm has beendiscussed and challenged by sociologists, heterodox economists, management scholars, and othercritics. This chapter reviews and assesses these critiques, focusing on behavioral issues (boundedrationality...
Maximizing Sensory Dynamic Range by Tuning the Cortical State to Criticality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shree Hari Gautam
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Modulation of interactions among neurons can manifest as dramatic changes in the state of population dynamics in cerebral cortex. How such transitions in cortical state impact the information processing performed by cortical circuits is not clear. Here we performed experiments and computational modeling to determine how somatosensory dynamic range depends on cortical state. We used microelectrode arrays to record ongoing and whisker stimulus-evoked population spiking activity in somatosensory cortex of urethane anesthetized rats. We observed a continuum of different cortical states; at one extreme population activity exhibited small scale variability and was weakly correlated, the other extreme had large scale fluctuations and strong correlations. In experiments, shifts along the continuum often occurred naturally, without direct manipulation. In addition, in both the experiment and the model we directly tuned the cortical state by manipulating inhibitory synaptic interactions. Our principal finding was that somatosensory dynamic range was maximized in a specific cortical state, called criticality, near the tipping point midway between the ends of the continuum. The optimal cortical state was uniquely characterized by scale-free ongoing population dynamics and moderate correlations, in line with theoretical predictions about criticality. However, to reproduce our experimental findings, we found that existing theory required modifications which account for activity-dependent depression. In conclusion, our experiments indicate that in vivo sensory dynamic range is maximized near criticality and our model revealed an unanticipated role for activity-dependent depression in this basic principle of cortical function.
Maximizing Sensory Dynamic Range by Tuning the Cortical State to Criticality
Gautam, Shree Hari; Hoang, Thanh T.; McClanahan, Kylie; Grady, Stephen K.; Shew, Woodrow L.
2015-01-01
Modulation of interactions among neurons can manifest as dramatic changes in the state of population dynamics in cerebral cortex. How such transitions in cortical state impact the information processing performed by cortical circuits is not clear. Here we performed experiments and computational modeling to determine how somatosensory dynamic range depends on cortical state. We used microelectrode arrays to record ongoing and whisker stimulus-evoked population spiking activity in somatosensory cortex of urethane anesthetized rats. We observed a continuum of different cortical states; at one extreme population activity exhibited small scale variability and was weakly correlated, the other extreme had large scale fluctuations and strong correlations. In experiments, shifts along the continuum often occurred naturally, without direct manipulation. In addition, in both the experiment and the model we directly tuned the cortical state by manipulating inhibitory synaptic interactions. Our principal finding was that somatosensory dynamic range was maximized in a specific cortical state, called criticality, near the tipping point midway between the ends of the continuum. The optimal cortical state was uniquely characterized by scale-free ongoing population dynamics and moderate correlations, in line with theoretical predictions about criticality. However, to reproduce our experimental findings, we found that existing theory required modifications which account for activity-dependent depression. In conclusion, our experiments indicate that in vivo sensory dynamic range is maximized near criticality and our model revealed an unanticipated role for activity-dependent depression in this basic principle of cortical function. PMID:26623645
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Meitang; MU Bozhong
2005-01-01
The critical adsorbing properties in slits and three-dimension (3D) phase transitions can be predicted by either Freed theory or Flory-Huggins theory. The mean field approximation in Flory-Huggins theory may cause apparent system errors, from which one can observe two-dimension (2D) phase transitions although it is not true. Monte Carlo simulation has demonstrated that Freed theory is more suitable for predicting adsorbing properties of fluids in slits than Flory-Huggins theory. It was found that from Freed theory prediction multilevel adsorption occurs in slits and the spreading pressure curves exhibit binodal points.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farah Qamar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.
Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids.
Montes, J; Robles, M; López de Haro, M
2016-02-28
A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.
Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids
Montes, J.; Robles, M.; López de Haro, M.
2016-02-01
A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.
A Quantum Version of Wigner's Transition State Theory
Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.
2009-01-01
A quantum version of a recent realization of Wigner's transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed builds on a quantum normal form which locally decouples the quantum dynamics near the transition state to any desired order in (h) over bar. This leads to an explicit algor
A Quantum Version of Wigner’s Transition State Theory
Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.
2009-01-01
A quantum version of a recent realization of Wigner’s transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed builds on a quantum normal form which locally decouples the quantum dynamics near the transition state to any desired order in ħ. This leads to an explicit algorithm to com
Modified Critical State Two-Surface Plasticity Model for Sands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Shajarati, Amir
This article describes the outline of a numerical integration scheme for a critical state two-surface plasticity model for sands. The model is slightly modified by LeBlanc (2008) compared to the original formulation presented by Manzari and Dafalias (1997) and has the ability to correctly model...... calculations can be performed with the Forward Euler integration scheme. Furthermore, the model is formulated for a single point....
Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.
2011-01-01
"Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…
The Argument in Film: Applying Rhetorical Theory to Film Criticism.
Behrens, Laurence
1979-01-01
Approaches film criticism using classical and modern rhetorical concepts. Discusses the nature and effectiveness of the filmmaker's modes of appeal--to logos, pathos, and ethos, and the appropriateness of his/her rhetorical stance--the balance of attitudes toward subject, audience, and his/her creative self. (JMF)
A Critical Review of Prominent Theories of Politeness
Al-Duleimi, Hutheifa Y.; Rashid, Sabariah Md.; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah
2016-01-01
Politeness plays a crucial role in all cultures and societies for maintaining relationships and for face saving. Although politeness is common to all cultures and languages, how it functions and is realised varies from one culture to another. Different theories have been proposed to examine the strategies with which politeness is expressed. Each…
Theory, Research, and Application: Some Critical Issues for Thanatology.
Kastenbaum, Robert
1988-01-01
Illustrates current status of thanatological research by examining the most popular line of empirical investigation (death anxiety as assessed by self-report scales) and the most sweeping theoretical approach yet proposed (Freud's death instinct). Notes that the most popular vein of research and most spectacular theory have almost no relationship…
Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach
Burgoyne, John G.
2010-01-01
This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…
Whatever Happened to Curriculum Theory? Critical Realism and Curriculum Change
Priestley, Mark
2011-01-01
In the face of what has been characterised by some as a "crisis" in curriculum--an apparent decline of some aspects of curriculum studies combined with the emergence of new types of national curricula which downgrade knowledge--some writers have been arguing for the use of realist theory to address these issues. This article offers a…
A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2010-02-15
The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)
Resource Theory of Quantum States Out of Thermal Equilibrium
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M.; Spekkens, Robert W.
2013-01-01
The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource t...
The Resource Theory of Quantum States Out of Thermal Equilibrium
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M.; Spekkens, Robert W.
2011-01-01
The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource th...
Temperature of critical clusters in nucleation theory: Generalized Gibbs' approach
Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Boltachev, Grey Sh.; Abyzov, Alexander S.
2013-07-01
According to the classical Gibbs' approach to the description of thermodynamically heterogeneous systems, the temperature of the critical clusters in nucleation is the same as the temperature of the ambient phase, i.e., with respect to temperature the conventional macroscopic equilibrium conditions are assumed to be fulfilled. In contrast, the generalized Gibbs' approach [J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6166 (2003), 10.1063/1.1602066; J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 194503 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2196412 predicts that critical clusters (having commonly spatial dimensions in the nanometer range) have, as a rule, a different temperature as compared with the ambient phase. The existence of a curved interface may lead, consequently, to an equilibrium coexistence of different phases with different temperatures similar to differences in pressure as expressed by the well-known Laplace equation. Employing the generalized Gibbs' approach, it is demonstrated that, for the case of formation of droplets in a one-component vapor, the temperature of the critical droplets can be shown to be higher as compared to the vapor. In this way, temperature differences between critically sized droplets and ambient vapor phase, observed in recent molecular dynamics simulations of argon condensation by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)], 10.1063/1.2752154, can be given a straightforward theoretical interpretation. It is shown as well that - employing the same model assumptions concerning bulk and interfacial properties of the system under consideration - the temperature of critical bubbles in boiling is lower as compared to the bulk liquid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishchenko, Yuriy [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2004-12-01
MISHCHENKO, YURIY. Applications of Canonical Transformations and Nontrivial Vacuum Solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. (Under the direction of Chueng-Ryong Ji.) In this dissertation we consider two recent applications of Bogoliubov Transformation to the phenomenology of quantum mixing and the theory of critical phenomena. In recent years quantum mixing got in the focus of the searches for New Physics due to its unparalleled sensitivity to SM parameters and indications of neutrino mixing. It was recently suggested that Bogoliubov Transformation may be important in proper definition of the flavor states that otherwise results in problems in perturbative treatment. As first part of this dissertation we investigate this conjecture and develop a complete formulation of such a mixing field theory involving introduction of general formalism, analysis of space-time conversion and phenomenological implications. As second part of this dissertati
Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira
2012-03-21
We investigate the critical behavior of a near-critical fluid confined between two parallel plates in contact with a reservoir by calculating the order parameter profile and the Casimir amplitudes (for the force density and for the grand potential). Our results are applicable to one-component fluids and binary mixtures. We assume that the walls absorb one of the fluid components selectively for binary mixtures. We propose a renormalized local functional theory accounting for the fluctuation effects. Analysis is performed in the plane of the temperature T and the order parameter in the reservoir ψ(∞). Our theory is universal if the physical quantities are scaled appropriately. If the component favored by the walls is slightly poor in the reservoir, there appears a line of first-order phase transition of capillary condensation outside the bulk coexistence curve. The excess adsorption changes discontinuously between condensed and noncondensed states at the transition. With increasing T, the transition line ends at a capillary critical point T=T(c) (ca) slightly lower than the bulk critical temperature T(c) for the upper critical solution temperature. The Casimir amplitudes are larger than their critical point values by 10-100 times at off-critical compositions near the capillary condensation line.
Critical theory as an approach to the ethics of information security.
Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Doherty, Neil F; Shaw, Mark; Janicke, Helge
2014-09-01
Information security can be of high moral value. It can equally be used for immoral purposes and have undesirable consequences. In this paper we suggest that critical theory can facilitate a better understanding of possible ethical issues and can provide support when finding ways of addressing them. The paper argues that critical theory has intrinsic links to ethics and that it is possible to identify concepts frequently used in critical theory to pinpoint ethical concerns. Using the example of UK electronic medical records the paper demonstrates that a critical lens can highlight issues that traditional ethical theories tend to overlook. These are often linked to collective issues such as social and organisational structures, which philosophical ethics with its typical focus on the individual does not tend to emphasise. The paper suggests that this insight can help in developing ways of researching and innovating responsibly in the area of information security.
Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.
2007-01-01
This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.
Howarth, Caroline
2006-03-01
Following Moscovici (1972), this paper addresses the questions: What is the aim of research within a social representations perspective? Is it to support or to criticize the social order? Is it to consolidate or transform it? After a brief overview of social representations theory, I argue that while the theory appears to have the conceptual tools to begin this critical task, there are serious criticisms and points of underdevelopment that need addressing. In order for social representations theory to develop into a rigorously critical theory there are three controversial issues that require clarification. These are (a) the relationship between psychological processes and social practices, (b) the reification and legitimization of different knowledge systems, and (c) agency and resistance in the co-construction of self-identity. After discussing each issue in turn, with illustrations from research on racializing representations, I conclude the paper with a discussion of the role of representations in the ideological construction and contestation of reality.
Broughton, John M.
1981-01-01
This final essay in a five-part series examining Piaget's structural developmental psychology suggests that a psychological theory which integrates aspects of developmental structuralism within a critical social framework can be developed. (Author/RH)
Cognitive continuum theory in interprofessional healthcare: A critical analysis.
Parker-Tomlin, Michelle; Boschen, Mark; Morrissey, Shirley; Glendon, Ian
2017-07-01
Effective clinical decision making is among the most important skills required by healthcare practitioners. Making sound decisions while working collaboratively in interprofessional healthcare teams is essential for modern healthcare planning, successful interventions, and patient care. The cognitive continuum theory (CCT) is a model of human judgement and decision making aimed at orienting decision-making processes. CCT has the potential to improve both individual health practitioner, and interprofessional team understanding about, and communication of, clinical decision-making processes. Examination of the current application of CCT indicates that this theory could strengthen interprofessional team clinical decision making (CDM). However, further research is needed before extending the use of this theoretical framework to a wider range of interprofessional healthcare team processes. Implications for research, education, practice, and policy are addressed.
On the third critical field in Ginzburg-Landau theory
Fournais, S.; Helffer, B.
2005-01-01
Using recent results by the authors on the spectral asymptotics of the Neumann Laplacian with magnetic field, we give precise estimates on the critical field, $H_{C_3}$, describing the appearance of superconductivity in superconductors of type II. Furthermore, we prove that the local and global definitions of this field coincide. Near $H_{C_3}$ only a small part, near the boundary points where the curvature is maximal, of the sample carries superconductivity. We give precise estimates on the ...
Critical reflections for understanding the complexity of psychodramatic theory.
Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević
2014-03-01
While being best known as a method of group psychotherapy, classical psychodrama takes on much broader and more complex meanings associated with: theory of roles, education, interactive improvisation theatre and many other contextual frameworks. The meta-theoretical context in which psychodrama is analysed in this work is first of all clinical, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic. In the past ninety years the development of psychodrama in the world has been influenced by many social events and sundry psychology movements. In her work the author describes and analyses the theory of psychodrama in the context of a behavioural and psychoanalytic perspective. She illustrates its origin and connects it with the influence of ancient drama and the developmental concept of modern European theatre in the first half of the last century, the magic/religious tradition of Indian tribes, constructivism and postmodernism, and the deterministic chaos theory. All the mentioned theoretical backgrounds have in their different ways co-created and contributed to the flexibility, integrity and universality of the psychodramatic method and are mutually intertwined in both the theoretical and the practical, clinical sense.
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semi-Simple Gauge Theories
Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semi-simple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $M$ Dirac flavors where we gauge first an $SU(M)_L$ and then an $SU(2)_L \\subset SU(M)_L$ of the original global symmetry $SU(M)_L\\times SU(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring complete asymptotic freedom and simultaneously an interacting infrared fixed point in both couplings. The analysis further reveals special renormalisation group trajectories along which one coupling displays asymptotic freedom and the other asymptotic safety, while both flowing in the infrared to an interacting fixed point. These are \\emph{safety free} trajectories. We briefly sketch out possible phenomenological implicati...
Is a Marxist Theory of State Possible?
G. van Benthem van den Bergh (Godfried)
1977-01-01
textabstractNation-states have become, for better or for worse, the basic units into which humanity in a more and more interdependent world is divided. Notwithstanding what the predominant mode of production in the states of the present world may be, states all over the world are organised in a rema
Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S
Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.
A state-dependent noncontextuality inequality in algebraic quantum theory
Kitajima, Yuichiro
2017-08-01
The noncontextuality condition states that a value of any observable is independent of which other compatible observable is measured jointly with it. Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu, and Shumovsky have introduced an inequality which holds if there is a noncontextual hidden variable theory. It is called KCBS inequality, which is state-dependent. Its violation shows a contradiction between predictions of quantum theory and noncontextual hidden variable theories. In the present paper, it is shown that there is a state which does not violate KCBS inequality in the case of quantum mechanics of finite degrees of freedom, and that any normal state violates it in the case of algebraic quantum field theory. It is a difference between quantum mechanics of finite degrees of freedom and algebraic quantum field theory from a point of view of KCBS inequality.
Culture, needs and nursing: a critical theory approach.
Holmes, C A; Warelow, P J
1997-03-01
This paper will bring the critique of culture, notably that undertaken by the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Science, to bear on the problem of needs, and expose its significance for the practice and discipline of nursing. The paper begins by reviewing ways in which the idea of 'needs' has been depicted in nursing literature, and it is suggested that this depiction is inadequate in fundamental ways. The critique of existing culture is then outlined and the implications for nursing are suggested in terms of the dissolution of hegemonic practices and the development of a concept of need built around the notion of 'praxis'.
Young, Michael
2007-01-01
This paper is part of the ongoing work of the author and others in developing a social realist theory of knowledge for educational studies. It contrasts Durkheim and Vygotsky's theories and why both are important for educational theory. It begins by emphasizing the similarities between them; that knowledge has to be understood in terms of its…
Young, Michael
2007-01-01
This paper is part of the ongoing work of the author and others in developing a social realist theory of knowledge for educational studies. It contrasts Durkheim and Vygotsky's theories and why both are important for educational theory. It begins by emphasizing the similarities between them; that knowledge has to be understood in terms of its…
Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.
2014-01-01
Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…
Albury, Nathan John
2015-01-01
Indigenous language revitalization is a popular focus of critical theorists. From the perspective of sociolinguists, critical theory interrogates language policies to name and shame inequalities and propose solutions to correct injustices and emancipate the disadvantaged. From a broader perspective, language revitalization policy also resides…
Hughes, Conrad
2014-01-01
This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…
What Critical Media Studies Should Not Take from Actor-Network Theory
Teurlings, J.; Spöhrer, M.; Ochsner, B.
2017-01-01
While supportive towards a certain rapprochement between media studies and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) this chapter identi es three main characteristics of the Latourian enterprise that critical media studies should avoid if it wants to remain its critical edge: 1. a methodological descriptivism that
Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.
2014-01-01
Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…
Albury, Nathan John
2015-01-01
Indigenous language revitalization is a popular focus of critical theorists. From the perspective of sociolinguists, critical theory interrogates language policies to name and shame inequalities and propose solutions to correct injustices and emancipate the disadvantaged. From a broader perspective, language revitalization policy also resides…
On the accuracy of the Timoshenko beam theory above the critical frequency: best shear coefficient
Franco-Villafañe, J A
2014-01-01
We obtain values for the shear coefficient both below and above the critical frequency, by comparing the results of the Timoshenko beam theory with experimental results published very recently. The best results are obtained when different values of the shear coefficient are used below and above the critical frequency.
Critical Media Literacy in Action: Uniting Theory, Practice and Politics in Media Education
Thevenin, Benjamin Joseph
2012-01-01
As media literacy is a growing field, there exist a number of distinct approaches to media education with varied political significance. Approaches such as protectionism, media arts education, and critical media literacy draw upon diverse theoretical traditions. Often overlooked in these traditions is the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School.…
Lecce, Serena; Caputi, Marcella; Hughes, Claire
2011-01-01
This study adds to the growing research on school outcomes associated with individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind skills by considering whether "costs" of theory of mind (e.g., sensitivity to criticism) actually help to foster children's academic achievement. A group of 60 Italian children was tested during the last year…
Peariso, Jamon F.
2008-01-01
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory has been widely accepted in the field of education for the past two decades. Most educators have been subjugated to the MI theory and to the many issues that its implementation in the classroom brings. This is often done without ever looking at or being presented the critic's view or research on…
Lecce, Serena; Caputi, Marcella; Hughes, Claire
2011-01-01
This study adds to the growing research on school outcomes associated with individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind skills by considering whether "costs" of theory of mind (e.g., sensitivity to criticism) actually help to foster children's academic achievement. A group of 60 Italian children was tested during the last year…
Strong-Coupling $\\phi^4$-Theory in $4- \\epsilon$ Dimensions and Critical Exponents
Kleinert, Hagen
1998-01-01
With the help of variational perturbation theory we continue the renormalization constants $\\phi^4$-theories in $4- \\epsilon$ dimensions to strong bare couplings $g_0$ and find their power behavior in $g_0$, thereby determining all critical exponents without renormalization group techniques.
Using Game Theory and the Bible to Build Critical Thinking Skills
McCannon, Bryan C.
2007-01-01
The author describes a course designed to build the critical thinking skills of undergraduate economics students. The course introduces and uses game theory to study the Bible. Students gain experience using game theory to formalize events and, by drawing parallels between the Bible and common economic concepts, illustrate the pervasiveness of…
A theory of states and traits--revised.
Steyer, Rolf; Mayer, Axel; Geiser, Christian; Cole, David A
2015-01-01
We present a revision of latent state-trait (LST-R) theory with new definitions of states and traits. This theory applies whenever we study the consistency of behavior, its variability, and its change over time. States and traits are defined in terms of probability theory. This allows for a seamless transition from theory to statistical modeling of empirical data. LST-R theory not only gives insights into the nature of latent variables but it also takes into account four fundamental facts: Observations are fallible, they never happen in a situational vacuum, they are always made using a specific method of observations, and there is no person without a past. Although the first fact necessitates considering measurement error, the second fact requires allowances for situational fluctuations. The third fact implies that, in the first place, states and traits are method specific. Furthermore, compared to the previous version of LST theory (see, e.g., Steyer et al. 1992 , 1999 ), our revision is based on the notion of a person-at-time-t. The new definitions in LST-R theory have far-reaching implications that not only concern the properties of states, traits, and the associated concepts of measurement errors and state residuals, but also are related to the analysis of states and traits in longitudinal observational and intervention studies.
Critical behaviour of the compact 3d U(1) gauge theory at finite temperature
Borisenko, Oleg; Gravina, Mario; Papa, Alessandro
2010-01-01
Critical properties of the compact three-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory are explored at finite temperatures. The critical point of the deconfinement phase transition, critical indices and the string tension are studied numerically on lattices with temporal extension N_t = 8 and spatial extension ranging from L = 32 to L = 256. The critical indices, which govern the behaviour across the deconfinement phase transition, are generally expected to coincide with the critical indices of the two-dimensional XY model. It is found that the determination of the infinite volume critical point differs from the pseudo-critical coupling at L = 32, found earlier in the literature and implicitly assumed as the onset value of the deconfined phase. The critical index $\
Quantum theory of the solid state part B
Callaway, Joseph
1974-01-01
Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed
The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging: a critical view.
Sanz, Alberto; Stefanatos, Rhoda K A
2008-03-01
The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (MFRTA) proposes that mitochondrial free radicals, produced as by-products during normal metabolism, cause oxidative damage. According to MFRTA, the accumulation of this oxidative damage is the main driving force in the aging process. Although widely accepted, this theory remains unproven, because the evidence supporting it is largely correlative. For example, long-lived animals produce fewer free radicals and have lower oxidative damage levels in their tissues. However, this does not prove that free radical generation determines life span. In fact, the longest-living rodent -Heterocephalus glaber- produces high levels of free radicals and has significant oxidative damage levels in proteins, lipids and DNA. At its most orthodox MFRTA proposes that these free radicals damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in turn provoke mutations that alter mitochondrial function (e.g. ATP production). According to this, oxidative damage to mtDNA negatively correlates with maximum life span in mammals. However, in contrast to MFRTA predictions, high levels of oxidative damage in mtDNA do not decrease longevity in mice. Moreover, mice with alterations in polymerase gamma (the mitochondrial DNA polymerase) accumulate 500 times higher levels of point mutations in mtDNA without suffering from accelerated aging. Dietary restriction (DR) is the only non-genetic treatment that clearly increases mean and maximum life span. According to MFRTA caloric restricted animals produce fewer mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). However, DR alters more than free radical production (e.g. it decreases insulin signalling) and therefore the increase in longevity cannot be exclusively attributed to a decrease in mtROS generation. Thus, moderate exercise produces similar changes in free radical production and oxidative damage without increasing maximum life span. In summary, available data concerning the role of free radicals in longevity control are
Correlation Functions in non critical (super) string theory
Abdalla, Elcio; Dalmazi, D; Harada, K
1992-01-01
We consider the correlation functions of the tachyon vertex operator of the super Liouville theory coupled to matter fields in the super Coulomb gas formulation, on world sheets with spherical topology. After integrating over the zero mode and assuming that the $s$ parameter takes an integer value, we subsequently continue it to an arbitrary real number and compute the correlators in a closed form. We also included an arbitrary number of screening charges and, as a result, after renormalizing them, as well as the external legs and the cosmological constant, the form of the final amplitudes do not modify. The result is remarkably parallel to the bosonic case. For completeness, we discussed the calculation of bosonic correlators including arbitrary screening charges.
Queuing theory accurately models the need for critical care resources.
McManus, Michael L; Long, Michael C; Cooper, Abbot; Litvak, Eugene
2004-05-01
Allocation of scarce resources presents an increasing challenge to hospital administrators and health policy makers. Intensive care units can present bottlenecks within busy hospitals, but their expansion is costly and difficult to gauge. Although mathematical tools have been suggested for determining the proper number of intensive care beds necessary to serve a given demand, the performance of such models has not been prospectively evaluated over significant periods. The authors prospectively collected 2 years' admission, discharge, and turn-away data in a busy, urban intensive care unit. Using queuing theory, they then constructed a mathematical model of patient flow, compared predictions from the model to observed performance of the unit, and explored the sensitivity of the model to changes in unit size. The queuing model proved to be very accurate, with predicted admission turn-away rates correlating highly with those actually observed (correlation coefficient = 0.89). The model was useful in predicting both monthly responsiveness to changing demand (mean monthly difference between observed and predicted values, 0.4+/-2.3%; range, 0-13%) and the overall 2-yr turn-away rate for the unit (21%vs. 22%). Both in practice and in simulation, turn-away rates increased exponentially when utilization exceeded 80-85%. Sensitivity analysis using the model revealed rapid and severe degradation of system performance with even the small changes in bed availability that might result from sudden staffing shortages or admission of patients with very long stays. The stochastic nature of patient flow may falsely lead health planners to underestimate resource needs in busy intensive care units. Although the nature of arrivals for intensive care deserves further study, when demand is random, queuing theory provides an accurate means of determining the appropriate supply of beds.
Noor, Ahmed K.; Burton, Scott
1992-01-01
An assessment is made of the accuracy of the critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients of multilayered plates predicted by different modeling approaches, based on two-dimensional shear-deformation theories. The sensitivity coefficients considered measure the sensitivity of the critical temperatures to variations in different lamination and material parameters of the plate. The standard of comparison is taken to be the sensitivity coefficients obtained by the three-dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Numerical studies are presented showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters of the plate on the accuracy of both the sensitivity coefficients and the critical temperatures predicted by the different modeling approaches.
Voices and paradigms: perspectives on critical and feminist theory in nursing.
Campbell, J C; Bunting, S
1991-03-01
Nurse scientists have explored a variety of research methods and a number of philosophic approaches to expand the discipline's ability to describe and investigate nursing's phenomena of interest. This article discusses the similarities and differences in world views, epistemologies, methodologies, and methods of two of these paradigms: critical theory and feminist theory. Attributes of these two stances are contrasted, and the relationship between the methods of analysis and the philosophic point of view are explored. An example of nursing research is given, with discussion of how the approach would differ if the nurse scientist were using critical versus feminist theory as a frame of reference.
Critical Bifocality and Circuits of Privilege: Expanding Critical Ethnographic Theory and Design
Weis, Lois; Fine, Michelle
2012-01-01
In this article, Lois Weis and Michelle Fine introduce critical bifocality as a way to render visible the relations between groups to structures of power, to social policies, to history, and to large sociopolitical formations. In this collaboration, the authors draw upon ethnographic examples highlighting the macro-level structural dynamics…
A Critical Caring Theory of Protection for Migrants and Seasonal Farmworkers.
Shearer, Jennifer E
2016-11-14
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides. The key concepts are risk exposure, community assessment, transpersonal health promotion, community competence, and controllability. Protection from exposure involves raising awareness, critically assessing communities, educating for empowerment, building capacity, and advocating to ensure social justice. Critical caring protection is provided in a mutually respectful relationship that promotes responsibility at the individual and population levels.
Hernández, Ebelia
2016-01-01
Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…
Hernández, Ebelia
2016-01-01
Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…
Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marković, Dimitrije, E-mail: markovic@cbs.mpg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Biomagnetic Center, Hans Berger Clinic for Neurology, University Hospital Jena, Jena (Germany); Gros, Claudius, E-mail: gros@itp.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)
2014-03-01
Power laws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many complex systems. Examples are the distribution of earthquake magnitudes, solar flare intensities and the sizes of neuronal avalanches. Previously, researchers surmised that a single general concept may act as an underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. The power-law scaling observed in the primary statistical analysis is an important, but by far not the only feature characterizing experimental data. The scaling function, the distribution of energy fluctuations, the distribution of inter-event waiting times, and other higher order spatial and temporal correlations, have seen increased consideration over the last years. Leading to realization that basic models, like the original sandpile model, are often insufficient to adequately describe the complexity of real-world systems with power-law distribution. Consequently, a substantial amount of effort has gone into developing new and extended models and, hitherto, three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of an external drive and an internal dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of models is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-critical steady state characterized by heavy-tailed distributions. The third line of models proposes a non-critical self-organizing state, being guided by an optimization principle, such as the concept of highly optimized tolerance. We present a comparative overview regarding distinct modeling approaches together with a discussion of their potential relevance as underlying generative models for real
Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory
Patterson, James D
2007-01-01
Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...
Resilience Theory and Praxis: a Critical Framework for Architecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle Laboy
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The growing use of resilience as a goal of architectural practice presents a new challenge in architects’ responsibility to health, safety, welfare and poetic expression of human-building interaction. With roots in disaster response, resilience in the building industry emphasizes the preservation and rapid restoration of the physical environment’s normal function in the face of shocks and disturbances of limited duration. The focus on maintaining function, and/or rapidly returning to the status quo ante necessarily affords a narrow understanding of architecture and a limited view of the concept of resilience. While useful at certain scales of time and inquiry, this so-called engineering resilience approach is only one among many within the broad discourse across diverse disciplines such as psychology, economics, and ecology. Drawing on the academic and professional literature of resilience outside the discipline, this paper explores the multiple competing frameworks represented, considers their influences and implications for architecture and the built environment at multiple scales, and examines the overlaps with existing discourse on change, architecture and time. The analysis of alternative concepts enables a critical perspective to move beyond the circumscribed, functionalist approach afforded by engineering resilience currently guiding architecture practice, towards a framework of social- ecological resilience that can fully embrace the richness of architecture, and results in a necessary and clear theoretical basis for the resilience of architecture over time in a climate of increasing uncertainty.
Semi-local quantum criticality in string/M-theory
Donos, Aristomenis; Pantelidou, Christiana
2012-01-01
Semi-local quantum critical behaviour in $D-1$ spacetime dimensions can be holographically described by metrics that are conformal to $AdS_2\\times\\mathbb{R}^{D-2}$, with the conformal factor characterised by a parameter $\\eta$. We analyse such "$\\eta$-geometries" in a top-down setting by focussing on the $U(1)^4$ truncation of D=4 N=8 gauged supergravity. The model has extremal black hole solutions carrying three non-zero electric or magnetic charges which approach $AdS_4$ in the UV and an $\\eta=1$ geometry in the IR. Adding a fourth charge provides a mechanism to resolve the singularity of the $\\eta$-geometry, replacing it with an $AdS_2\\times\\mathbb{R}^2$ factor in the IR, while maintaining a large region where the $\\eta$-geometry scaling is approximately valid. Some of the magnetically charged black hole solutions preserve supersymmetry while others just preserve it in the IR. Finally, we show that $\\eta$-geometries, with various values of $\\eta$, can be obtained from the dimensional reduction of geometrie...
de Sitter Space in Non-Critical String Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silverstein, Eva M
2002-08-13
Supercritical string theories in D > 10 dimensions with no moduli are described, generalizing the asymmetric orientifold construction of one of the authors [1]. By taking the number of dimensions to be large and turning on fluxes, dilaton potentials are generated with nontrivial minima at arbitrarily small cosmological constant and D-dimensional string coupling, separated by a barrier from a flat-space linear dilaton region, but possibly suffering from strong coupling problems. The general issue of the decay of a de Sitter vacuum to flat space is discussed. For relatively small barriers, such decays are described by gravitational instantons. It is shown that for a sufficiently large potential barrier, the bubble wall crosses the horizon. At the same time the instanton decay time exceeds the Poincare recurrence time. It is argued that the inclusion of such instantons is neither physically meaningful nor consistent with basic principles such as causality. This raises the possibility that such de Sitter vacua are effectively stable. In the case of the supercritical flux models, decays to the linear dilaton region can be forbidden by such large barriers, but decays to lower flux vacua including AdS minima nevertheless proceed consistently with this criterion. These models provide concrete examples in which cosmological constant reduction by flux relaxation can be explored.
Student autonomy in classroom context: A critical perspective of the self-determination theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadić Aleksandar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper stresses that in the field of pedagogic theory it is necessary to develop an interpretational framework for analysing basic pedagogic processes based on the assumptions of critical pedagogy and the theory of self-determination. Analyzed were the definitions of the idea of autonomy and control in the works of Michael Apple, John Dewey, Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, and Alfie Kohn. The starting standpoints that control, limitations and requirements are constitutive elements of education and that autonomy is the result of internalized control are argued. The student's autonomy is not linked exclusively with their engagement in the activities accompanied with pleasant feelings. Even an extrinsically motivated student feels that he is behaving autonomously in the cases of internalization and integration of the value of such behaviour when he internalizes classroom rules and teaching requirements as his own values and regulators of his own behaviour. Among the conclusions it is stated that the teacher expecting a certain behaviour and participation in the activities which his students do not perceive as helpful or important, will tend to support the feeling of autonomous acting in the students by making an effort to explain to them the value of such behaviour or potentional personal benefit it can bring them.
Action-State Orientation and the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Study of Job Search in China
Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie; Niu, Xiongying; Xie, Yizhong
2006-01-01
Job search is an important element of people's careers and is especially critical for unemployed individuals. The current study surveyed a sample of 328 unemployed job seekers in China to test hypotheses related to the theory of planned behavior and action-state orientation theory. Results of the three-wave longitudinal study demonstrated that the…
Action-State Orientation and the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Study of Job Search in China
Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie; Niu, Xiongying; Xie, Yizhong
2006-01-01
Job search is an important element of people's careers and is especially critical for unemployed individuals. The current study surveyed a sample of 328 unemployed job seekers in China to test hypotheses related to the theory of planned behavior and action-state orientation theory. Results of the three-wave longitudinal study demonstrated that the…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chernov, S. V., E-mail: chernov@lpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astrospace Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
We consider the magnetohydrodynamic theory of spherically symmetric accretion of a perfect fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole with an ultrahard equation of state, p = μ ∼ ρ{sup 2}, where p is the pressure, μ is the total energy density, and ρ is the fluid density. An approximate analytical solution is written out. We show that one critical sonic surface that coincides with the black hole event horizon is formed instead of two critical surfaces (fast and slow magnetosonic surfaces) for a degenerate ultrahard equation of state of matter.
Liberalism and capabilities: Theories of justice and the neutral state
P.B. Lehning (Percy)
1990-01-01
textabstractModern liberal theories share the idea that the state and its laws should remain neutral with respect to the varying conceptions of the good life held by individuals. This article discusses the way in which this notion of neutrality is defined and justified. Rawls's theory of justice is
The Kodama state for topological quantum field theory beyond instantons
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R
2005-01-01
Constructing a symplectic structure that preserves the ordinary symmetries and the topological invariance for topological Yang-Mills theory, it is shown that the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state traditionally associated with a topological phase of unbroken diffeomorphism invariance for instantons, exists actually for the complete topological sector of the theory. The case of gravity is briefly discussed.
Liberalism and capabilities: Theories of justice and the neutral state
P.B. Lehning (Percy)
1990-01-01
textabstractModern liberal theories share the idea that the state and its laws should remain neutral with respect to the varying conceptions of the good life held by individuals. This article discusses the way in which this notion of neutrality is defined and justified. Rawls's theory of justice is
Towards a Physical Theory of Subjective Mental States
Lee, Sean
2007-01-01
Any complete theory of physical reality must allow for the ubiquitous phenomenon of subjective experience at some level, or risk being conceptually incoherent. However, as long as the ontological status of subjectivity itself remains unresolved, the topic will be seen as more within the purview of philosophy than of physics. Towards a resolution of this issue within empirically motivated physical theory, this article introduces an operational definition that ultilizes the general consensus that subjective mental states, whatever else is controversial about them, at least correlate in some way to physical states. It is shown here that implementing this underappreciated assumption within the framework of a physical theory in fact leads to wide-ranging consequences. In particular, a correlation requires there exist a well-defined mapping from a space of subjective mental states onto a space of information-bearing elements of some physical theory. Given the peculiar nature of subjective states as inherently priva...
Functional approach to coherent states in non commutative theories
Lubo, M
2003-01-01
In many high dimensional noncommutative theories, no state saturates simultaneously all the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. This differs from the usual theory where the squeezed states possess this property. The important role played by these states when recovering classical mechanics as a limit of quantum theory makes necessary the investigation of the possible generalizations in the noncommutative context. We propose an extension based on a variational principle. The action considered is the sum of the squares of the terms associated to the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We first verify that our proposal works in the usual theory: we find the known gaussian functions and, besides them, other states which can be expressed as products of gaussians with specific hypergeometrics. We illustrate our construction in three models defined on a four dimensional phase space: two models endowed with a minimal length uncertainty and the popular case in which the commutators of the positions ...
Transition state theory and the dynamics of hard disks.
Barnett-Jones, M; Dickinson, P A; Godfrey, M J; Grundy, T; Moore, M A
2013-11-01
The dynamics of two- and five-disk systems confined in a square has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations and compared with the predictions of transition state theory. We determine the partition functions Z and Z(‡) of transition state theory using a procedure first used by Salsburg and Wood for the pressure. Our simulations show this procedure and transition state theory are in excellent agreement with the simulations. A generalization of the transition state theory to the case of a large number of disks N is made and shown to be in full agreement with simulations of disks moving in a narrow channel. The same procedure for hard spheres in three dimensions leads to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann formula for their alpha relaxation time.
Quantum theory of the solid state
Callaway, Joseph
1991-01-01
This new edition presents a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the concepts and methods in contemporary condensed matter physics, emphasizing topics that can be treated by quantum mechanical methods. The book features tutorial discussions of a number of current research topics.Also included are updated treatments of topics that have developed significantly within the past several years, such as superconductivity, magnetic impurities in metals, methods for electronic structure calculations, magnetic ordering in insulators and metals, and linear response theory. Advanced level graduate students
Determination of deuterium–tritium critical burn-up parameter by four temperature theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazirzadeh, M.; Ghasemizad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, 41335-1914 Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanbabei, B. [School of Physics, Damghan University, 36716-41167 Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-12-15
Conditions for thermonuclear burn-up of an equimolar mixture of deuterium-tritium in non-equilibrium plasma have been investigated by four temperature theory. The photon distribution shape significantly affects the nature of thermonuclear burn. In three temperature model, the photon distribution is Planckian but in four temperature theory the photon distribution has a pure Planck form below a certain cut-off energy and then for photon energy above this cut-off energy makes a transition to Bose-Einstein distribution with a finite chemical potential. The objective was to develop four temperature theory in a plasma to calculate the critical burn up parameter which depends upon initial density, the plasma components initial temperatures, and hot spot size. All the obtained results from four temperature theory model are compared with 3 temperature model. It is shown that the values of critical burn-up parameter calculated by four temperature theory are smaller than those of three temperature model.
Full Quantum Theory of Transient-State Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KUANGLe-Man; ZENGAi-Hua; KUANGZhen-Hua
2004-01-01
We develop a full quantum theory of transient-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the vapor of three-level A-type atoms interacting with probe and coupling lasers. As applications of the full quantum theory, we show that transient-state EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion and find that group velocities of both coupling and probe lasers are greatly reduced. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe laser in the transient-state EIT case is equal to that in the adiabatic EIT case and that the coupling laser group velocity in the transient-state EIT is generally less than that in the adiabatic EIT.
Full Quantum Theory of Transient-State Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KUANG Le-Man; ZENG Ai-Hua; KUANG Zhen-Hua
2004-01-01
We develop a full quantum theory of transient-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in thevapor of three-level A-type atoms interacting with probe and coupling lasers. As applications of the full quantum theory,we show that transient-state EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion and find that group velocities of both coupling andprobe lasers are greatly reduced. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe laser in the transient-state EIT case isequal to that in the adiabatic EIT case and that the coupling laser group velocity in the transient-state EIT is generallyless than that in the adiabatic EIT.
Spin Topological Field Theory and Fermionic Matrix Product States
Kapustin, Anton; You, Minyoung
2016-01-01
We study state-sum constructions of G-equivariant spin-TQFTs and their relationship to Matrix Product States. We show that in the Neveu-Schwarz, Ramond, and twisted sectors, the states of the theory are generalized Matrix Product States. We apply our results to revisit the classification of fermionic Short-Range-Entangled phases with a unitary symmetry G. Interesting subtleties appear when the total symmetry group is a nontrivial extension of G by fermion parity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirić Jovan
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a modern theory of emotional development - the Holodynski and Friedlmeyer's theory, as well as the criticism pointed at this theory. The author presents the key tenets of the theory: that emotional expressions of an infant are nonfocused, that the caregiver interprets and mirrors infant expressions, that an infant then imitates the expressions mirrored in such a way, that before speech occurs the expressions are transformed into signs, that those signs become internalized around the age of six, that auto-regulation later originates from social regulation of emotions. The author points out to similarities of this theory to the L. S. Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development. The critical commentary of the theory focuses on some of its shortcomings. First, the theory does not offer sufficient evidence in favor of the claim about the internalization of expressive signs. Second, some research findings contradict the assumption of caregiver's mirroring of infant's emotional expressions. Third, the internalization assumption implies that the (internalized sign does not only refer to, but even creates emotional feelings. Finally, the paper points out the various inconsistencies present in Holodynski and Friedlmeyer's text. The advantageous aspects of this theory are reflected in encompassing the whole life span and carrying important educational implications.
Magnetostriction of a Superconductor Results from the Critical-State Model
Koziol, Z
1995-01-01
In many cases, the critical-state theory can be treated as a suffi ciently accurate approximation for the modelling of the magnetic properties of superconductors. In the present work, the magnetostrictive hysteresis is computed for a quite general case of the modified Kim-Anderson model. The results obtained reproduce many features of the giant magnetostriction (butterfly-shaped curves) reported in the literature for measurements made on single-crystal samples of the high-temperature superconductor $Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8$. It is shown that addition of a contribution to the magnetostriction in the superconducting state which is of similar origin as in the normal state, offers a broader phenomenological interpretation of the complex magnetostriction hysteresis found in such heavy-fermion compounds as $UPt_3$, $URu_2Si_2$ or $UBe_{13}$.
A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medina Leonel E
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance
Searching for pathways involving dressed states in optimal control theory.
von den Hoff, Philipp; Kowalewski, Markus; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2011-01-01
Selective population of dressed states has been proposed as an alternative control pathway in molecular reaction dynamics [Wollenhaupt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem., 2006, 180, 248]. In this article we investigate if, and under which conditions, this strong field pathway is included in the search space of optimal control theory. For our calculations we used the proposed example of the potassium dimer, in which the different target states can be reached via dressed states by resonant transition. Especially, we investigate whether the optimization algorithm is able to find the route involving the dressed states although the target state lies out of resonance in the bare state picture.
Bohner, Katja
2016-10-03
Transitions Theory (TT) states that change and transition are phenomena that make humans more vulnerable to health risks. Transitions Theory was evaluated through a text analysis of 4 publications, 3 nursing expert focus group interviews in Switzerland, and a mapping review of the transition literature of the last 5 years. Although the implementation of TT into Swiss nursing practice seems problematic due to conceptual deficiencies, transition is a meaningful nursing topic. The connection between TT, research, and practice is weak. Yet guidelines for theory description, theory analysis, and theory actualization could enhance and strengthen the body of knowledge in nursing.
Lifespan method as a tool to study criticality in absorbing-state phase transitions
Mata, Angélica S.; Boguñá, Marian; Castellano, Claudio; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo
2015-05-01
In a recent work, a new numerical method (the lifespan method) has been introduced to study the critical properties of epidemic processes on complex networks [M. Boguñá, C. Castellano, and R. Pastor-Satorras, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 068701 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.068701]. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the viability of this method for the study of the critical properties of generic absorbing-state phase transitions in lattices. Focusing on the well-understood case of the contact process, we develop a finite-size scaling theory to measure the critical point and its associated critical exponents. We show the validity of the method by studying numerically the contact process on a one-dimensional lattice and comparing the findings of the lifespan method with the standard quasistationary method. We find that the lifespan method gives results that are perfectly compatible with those of quasistationary simulations and with analytical results. Our observations confirm that the lifespan method is a fully legitimate tool for the study of the critical properties of absorbing phase transitions in regular lattices.
Shelter strategies, humanitarian praxis and critical urban theory in post-crisis reconstruction.
Fan, Lilianne
2012-07-01
The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer.
Aging Theories for Establishing Safe Life Spans of Airborne Critical Structural Components
Ko, William L.
2003-01-01
New aging theories have been developed to establish the safe life span of airborne critical structural components such as B-52B aircraft pylon hooks for carrying air-launch drop-test vehicles. The new aging theories use the equivalent-constant-amplitude loading spectrum to represent the actual random loading spectrum with the same damaging effect. The crack growth due to random loading cycling of the first flight is calculated using the half-cycle theory, and then extrapolated to all the crack growths of the subsequent flights. The predictions of the new aging theories (finite difference aging theory and closed-form aging theory) are compared with the classical flight-test life theory and the previously developed Ko first- and Ko second-order aging theories. The new aging theories predict the number of safe flights as considerably lower than that predicted by the classical aging theory, and slightly lower than those predicted by the Ko first- and Ko second-order aging theories due to the inclusion of all the higher order terms.
Usefulness of the comfort theory in the clinical nursing care of new mothers: critical analysis.
Lima, Juliana Vieira Figueiredo; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; Silva, Lúcia de Fátima da; Freitas, Maria Célia de; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo
2017-02-23
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the comfort theory for the clinical nursing care of new mothers. This is a reflexive-theoretical study conducted in November and December 2014, based on the usefulness criterion proposed in the critical analysis of the Barnum nursing theory. The comfort theory in nursing care for new mothers applied to study analysis revealed that this theory meets the criteria of usefulness because it provides applicable concepts that facilitated the clinical nursing care of women in the postpartum period and helped increase their comfort level. The verification of these concepts showed that the theory can be applied in different settings of clinical care for new mothers. The theory can be used to support and improve clinical nursing care for postpartum women, and help improve puerperal comfort.
Exact ensemble density-functional theory for excited states
Yang, Zeng-hui; Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron; Needs, Richard J; Ullrich, Carsten A
2014-01-01
We construct exact Kohn-Sham potentials for the ensemble density-functional theory (EDFT) of excited states from the ground and excited states of helium. The exchange-correlation potential is compared with current approximations, which miss prominent features. The ensemble derivative discontinuity is tested, and the virial theorem is proven and illustrated.
Transport coefficients of O(N) scalar field theories close to the critical point
Nakano, Eiji; Friman, Bengt
2011-01-01
We investigate the critical dynamics of O(N)-symmetric scalar field theories to determine the critical exponents of transport coefficients as a second-order phase transition is approached from the symmetric phase. A set of stochastic equations of motion for the slow modes is formulated, and the long wavelength dynamics is examined for an arbitrary number of field components, $N$, in the framework of the dynamical renormalization group within the $\\epsilon$ expansion. We find that for a single component scalar field theory, N=1, the system reduces to the model C of critical dynamics, whereas for $N>1$ the model G is effectively restored owing to dominance of O(N)-symmetric charge fluctuations. In both cases, the shear viscosity remains finite in the critical region. On the other hand, we find that the bulk viscosity diverges as the correlation length squared, for N=1, whereas it remains finite for $N>1$.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe Damasio
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Researchers in science teaching have advocated concomitant education about and of science. To approach the nature and history of science in basic education is necessary to have an epistemological approach that can go between of rationalism of Bunge and relativism of Feyerabend. In this paper, it is argued that Feyerabend's epistemological stance is that more can help promote meaningful learning critical, so as to form inquiring, flexible, creative, innovative, tolerant and liberal people. In addition, the suggestions Feyerabend's epistemology also complement the Theory of Meaningful Learning Critical to propose a curriculum and a context for the principles of the theory are in science classrooms.
The structure of states and maps in quantum theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sudhavathani Simon; S P Rajagopalan; R Simon
2009-09-01
The structure of statistical state spaces in the classical and quantum theories are compared in an interesting and novel manner. Quantum state spaces and maps on them have rich convex structures arising from the superposition principle and consequent entanglement. Communication channels (physical processes) in the quantum scheme of things are in one-to-one correspondence with completely positive maps. Positive maps which are not completely positive do not correspond to physical processes. Nevertheless they prove to be invaluable mathematical tools in establishing or witnessing entanglement of mixed states. We consider some of the recent developments in our understanding of the convex structure of states and maps in quantum theory, particularly in the context of quantum information theory.
Local Thermal Equilibrium States in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory
Gransee, Michael
2016-01-01
It is well-known that thermal equilibrium states in quantum statistical mechanics and quantum field theory can be described in a mathematically rigorous manner by means of the so-called Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) condition, which is based on certain analyticity and periodicity properties of correlation functions. On the other hand, the characterization of non-equilibrium states which only locally have thermal properties still constitutes a challenge in quantum field theory. We discuss a recent proposal for characterization of such states by a generalized KMS condition. The connection of this proposal to a proposal by D. Buchholz, I. Ojima and H.-J. Roos for characterizing local thermal equilibrium states in quantum field theory is discussed.
Willis, Jerry
2011-01-01
This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…
Willis, Jerry
2011-01-01
This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…
Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K
2016-01-01
The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care.
Nicholson, John; Brennan, Ross; Midgley, Gerald
2014-01-01
This article is concerned with gaining greater insight into the interplay between agency and structure in industrial marketing (IM) scholarship. The article’s intent is to embed Midgley’s notion of critical pluralism within this endeavour. The article commends the movement towards increased deployment of critical realism, but cautions against the dangers of creating further atomism in marketing theory by generating another paradigm of thought with strongly defended boundaries, impervious to o...
A Case for Rhetorical Method: Criticism, Theory, and the Exchange of Jean Baudrillard
Gogan, Brian James
2011-01-01
This dissertation uses the case of Jean Baudrillard to argue that successful critics must consider rhetorical method as it relates to theory. Throughout this dissertation, I follow Edwin Black in using the term rhetorical method to describe the procedures a rhetor uses to guide composition. The project's two main goals are, first, to demonstrate how rhetorical method can serve as a foundation for worthwhile criticism, and, second, to outline a Baudrillardian rhetoric. In order to meet these g...
Liu, Jie; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus
2011-01-01
Percolation theory provides a tool for linking microstructure and macroscopic material properties. In this paper, percolation theory is applied to the analysis of microtomographic images for the purpose of deriving scaling laws for upscaling of properties. We have tested the acquisition of quantities such as percolation threshold, crossover length, fractal dimension, and critical exponent of correlation length from microtomography. By inflating or deflating the target phase and percolation analysis, we can get a critical model and an estimation of the percolation threshold. The crossover length is determined from the critical model by numerical simulation. The fractal dimension can be obtained either from the critical model or from the relative size distribution of clusters. Local probabilities of percolation are used to extract the critical exponent of the correlation length. For near-isotropic samples such as sandstone and bread, the approach works very well. For strongly anisotropic samples, such as highly deformed rock (mylonite) and a tree branch, the percolation threshold and fractal dimension can be assessed with accuracy. However, the uncertainty of the correlation length makes it difficult to accurately extract its critical exponents. Therefore, this aspect of percolation theory cannot be reliably used for upscaling properties of strongly anisotropic media. Other methods of upscaling have to be used for such media.
Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira
2017-09-01
We study universal critical adsorption on a solid sphere and a solid cylinder in a fluid at bulk criticality, where preferential adsorption occurs. We use a local functional theory proposed by Fisher et al. [M. E. Fisher and P. G. de Gennes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 287, 207 (1978); M. E. Fisher and H. Au-Yang, Physica A 101, 255 (1980), 10.1016/0378-4371(80)90112-0]. We calculate the mean order parameter profile ψ (r ) , where r is the distance from the sphere center and the cylinder axis, respectively. The resultant differential equation for ψ (r ) is solved exactly around a sphere and numerically around a cylinder. A strong adsorption regime is realized except for very small surface field h1, where the surface order parameter ψ (a ) is determined by h1 and is independent of the radius a . If r considerably exceeds a , ψ (r ) decays as r-(1 +η ) for a sphere and r-(1 +η )/2 for a cylinder in three dimensions, where η is the critical exponent in the order parameter correlation at bulk criticality.
Possible States Theory and Human Destiny in the Cosmos
Thomson, Shelley; Brandenburg, John
Possible States Theory posits a universe of unique objects and unique collections of interactions between them. The interactions are designated the possible states. The states include past, future and possible interactions. The theory concerns the propagation of change in the collections of possible states. Using a few simple assumptions, it becomes possible to generalize about the occurrence of change. The theory is consistent with quantum electrodynamics in a finite and discrete environment; however, in the possible states universe, an interaction does not cause alternative possibilities to disappear. The picture of the universe yielded by the theory differs from the conventional viewpoint in important ways. Past, future and possible states may interact with one another; interactions occur without reference to location in space-time. Given that all possibilities are present, the possible states universe is complete. Per Gšdel's incompleteness theorems, the universe cannot be unambiguously described as information. Many truths, some contradicting each other, can simultaneously exist. The human future already participates in the present, opening possibilities never previously envisaged. To imagine the future, therefore, is to quantum mechanically assemble it. Accordingly, humanity prepares its path to the stars by dreaming of it.
Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory
Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Lee, Jen-Chi; Yi-Yang
2005-04-01
We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice Di Vecchia Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive σ-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross.
State variable theories based on Hart's formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korhonen, M.A.; Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.
1985-01-01
In this paper a review of the development of a state variable theory for nonelastic deformation is given. The physical and phenomenological basis of the theory and the constitutive equations describing macroplastic, microplastic, anelastic and grain boundary sliding enhanced deformation are presented. The experimental and analytical evaluation of different parameters in the constitutive equations are described in detail followed by a review of the extensive experimental work on different materials. The technological aspects of the state variable approach are highlighted by examples of the simulative and predictive capabilities of the theory. Finally, a discussion of general capabilities, limitations and future developments of the theory and particularly the possible extensions to cover an even wider range of deformation or deformation-related phenomena is presented.
Towards state locality in quantum field theory: free fermions
Oeckl, Robert
2013-01-01
We provide a restricted solution to the state locality problem in quantum field theory for the case of free fermions. Concretely, we present a functorial quantization scheme that takes as input a classical free fermionic field theory. Crucially, no data is needed beyond the classical structures evident from a Lagrangian setting. The output is a quantum field theory encoded in a weakened version of the positive formalism of the general boundary formulation. When the classical data is augmented with complex structures on hypersurfaces, the quantum data correspondingly augment to the full positive formalism and the standard quantization of free fermionic field theory is recovered. This augmentation can be performed selectively, i.e., it may be limited to a subcollection of hypersurfaces. The state locality problem arises from the fact that suitable complex structures only exist on a very restricted class of unbounded hypersurfaces. But standard quantization requires them on all hypersurfaces and is thus only abl...
Schroeder, Krista; Kulage, Kristine M; Lucero, Robert
2015-10-01
We apply Critical Theory to examine menu labeling with the aim of uncovering important implications for nursing practice, research, and policy. Our critical analysis uncovers barriers to menu labeling's effectiveness, particularly for vulnerable populations. Nurses must work to minimize the impact of these barriers and optimize the effectiveness of menu labeling, in order to strengthen the fight against obesity. We suggest changes, guided by this critical analysis, which can be implemented by nurses working in clinical practice, research, and policy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Critical Reflection on the Reception of Vygotsky’s Theory in the International Academic Communities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dafermos M.,
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze various types of the reception of Vygotsky’s theory in the international academic communities. The paper develops a critical analysis of three widespread theoretical frameworks of interpretation of Vygotsky’s theory: cognitivism, culturalism, cultural-historical activity theory. It is argues that fragmented readings of particular ideas of Vygotsky, without enough understanding of the theoretical programme in which these ideas have been included dominates in North-Atlantic research. The paper proposes the reconstruction of the theoretical programme of cultural-historical psychology in the social and scientific context of its formation.
Continuum theory of critical phenomena in polymer solutions: Formalism and mean field approximation
Goldstein, Raymond E.; Cherayil, Binny J.
1989-06-01
A theoretical description of the critical point of a polymer solution is formulated directly from the Edwards continuum model of polymers with two- and three-body excluded-volume interactions. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation analogous to that used in recent work on the liquid-vapor critical point of simple fluids is used to recast the grand partition function of the polymer solution as a functional integral over continuous fields. The resulting Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) Hamiltonian is of the form of a generalized nonsymmetric n=1 component vector model, with operators directly related to certain connected correlation functions of a reference system. The latter is taken to be an ensemble of Gaussian chains with three-body excluded-volume repulsions, and the operators are computed in three dimensions by means of a perturbation theory that is rapidly convergent for long chains. A mean field theory of the functional integral yields a description of the critical point in which the power-law variations of the critical polymer volume fraction φc, critical temperature Tc, and critical amplitudes on polymerization index N are essentially identical to those found in the Flory-Huggins theory. In particular, we find φc ˜N-1/2, Tθ-Tc˜N-1/2 with (Tθ the theta temperature), and that the composition difference between coexisting phases varies with reduced temperature t as N-1/4t1/2. The mean field theory of the interfacial tension σ between coexisting phases near the critical point, developed by considering the LGW Hamiltonian for a weakly inhomogeneous solution, yields σ˜N-1/4t3/2, with the correlation length diverging as ξ˜N1/4t-1/2 within the same approximation, consistent with the mean field limit of de Gennes' scaling form. Generalizations to polydisperse systems are discussed.
Anthropic-principle arguments against steady-state cosmological theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipler, F.J. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))
1982-04-01
Steady-state theories are very difficult to rule out on observational grounds, particularly if they are adjusted to contain a three-degree isotropic thermal-background radiation. However, anthropic-principle arguments can be used to rule out virtually any cosmological theory which has the universe stationary in the large. For example, anthropic considerations show that the perfect cosmological principle is self-contradictory.
The products of the imagination: psychoanalytic theory and postmodern literary criticism.
Souter, K T
2000-12-01
This article considers some of the affinities between postmodern literary theory and the psychoanalytic theories concerned with intersubjective phenomena. Postmodern literary theory is described briefly, and it is argued that one of its major concerns is the nature of, and the political and cultural influences on, subjectivity and identity. Despite that, postmodernism generally, and literary postmodernism in particular, can be said to lack a theory of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of the experience of self. This article contends that the more relational schools of psychoanalytic theory can provide an example of the construction of selfhood that is of importance to contemporary and postmodern literary criticism. The academy has, to a considerable extent identified 'psychoanalysis' with the work of Jacques Lacan, but since the 1980s the work of such theorists as Jane Flax and Jessica Benjamin, building on the work of Nancy Chodorow, have increasingly opened up the possibilities of relational and object relations theory for literary studies. The relational psychoanalytic theories operate in the same epistemological universe as postmodern literary criticism, congruent with the postmodern idea of 'truth' as constructed and relational, and selfhood as shifting, contingent, and always-in-process. Particular attention is paid to the work of Wilfred Bion, whose understanding of self provides an account both of the failure of meaning, and of the development of mind. Some examples of a relational approach to literary analysis are provided.
A critical review of theory in breast cancer screening promotion across cultures.
Pasick, Rena J; Burke, Nancy J
2008-01-01
This article reviews the contribution and potential of widely used health behavior theories in research designed to understand and redress the disproportionate burden of breast cancer borne by diverse race/ethnic, immigrant, and low-income groups associated with unequal use of mammography. We review the strengths and limitations of widely used theories and the extent to which theory contributes to the understanding of screening disparities and informs effective intervention. The dominant focus of most theories on individual cognition is critically assessed as the abstraction of behavior from its social context. Proposed alternatives emphasize multilevel ecological approaches and the use of anthropologic theory and methods for more culturally grounded understandings of screening behavior. Common and alternative treatments of fatalism exemplify this approach, and descriptive and intervention research exemplars further highlight the integration of screening behavior and sociocultural context.
Resource theory of quantum states out of thermal equilibrium.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M; Spekkens, Robert W
2013-12-20
The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.
Resource Theory of Quantum States Out of Thermal Equilibrium
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M.; Spekkens, Robert W.
2013-12-01
The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.
Functional approach to squeezed states in non commutative theories
Lubo, M
2004-01-01
We review some noncommutative theories in which no state saturates simultaneously all the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We show how the difference of structure between the Poisson brackets and the commutators in these theories generically leads to a harmonic oscillator whose position mean value is not strictly equal to the one predicted by classical mechanics. This raises the question of the nature of quasi classical states in these models. We propose an extension based on a variational principle. The action considered is the sum of the squares of the terms associated to the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We first verify that our proposal works in the usual theory: we recover the known gaussian functions and, besides them, other states which can be expressed as products of gaussians with specific hypergeometrics. We illustrate our construction in three models defined on a four dimensional phase space: two models endowed with a minimal length uncertainty and the non commutative p...
The Avant-Garde Film: A Reader of Theory and Criticism. Anthology Film Archives Series: 3.
Sitney, P. Adams, Ed.
This anthology is both a history of the avant-garde film genre and a compendium of theories of cinema articulated by major filmmakers. The 33 selections include several previously unpublished theoretical and critical articles and many articles that were especially translated into English for this collection. Other selections were drawn from…
Hilton, Adriel A.; Gasman, Marybeth; Wood, J. Luke
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the One Florida Initiative (OFI) on racial diversity in Florida's public law schools and legal profession using the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT). This study seeks to determine what, if any, impact this event has had on recruitment, admissions, and enrollment of Florida's public schools of…
The Race for Class: Reflections on a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education
Leonardo, Zeus
2012-01-01
This article is intended to appraise the insights gained from Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education. It is particularly interested in CRT's relationship with Marxist discourse, which falls under two questions. One, how does CRT understand Marxist concepts, such as "capital," which show up in the way CRT appropriates them? The article argues that…
Dávila, Brianne
2015-01-01
This research draws upon critical race theory (CRT) to explore the experiences of Latina/o students in special education. It seeks to extend the theoretical construct of racial microaggressions and illustrate the additional layer of disability as I present data that are particular to the context of special education and the assigned label of…
Disrupting Postsecondary Prose: Toward a Critical Race Theory of Higher Education
Patton, Lori D.
2016-01-01
Ladson-Billings and Tate ushered critical race theory (CRT) into education and challenged racial inequities in schooling contexts. In this article, I consider the role CRT can play in disrupting postsecondary prose, or the ordinary, predictable, and taken for granted ways in which the academy has functioned for centuries as a bastion of racism and…
Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.
2016-01-01
This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…
Analysis of critical neutron- scattering data from iron and dynamical scaling theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1970-01-01
Experimental three- axis spectrometer data of critical neutron- scattering data from Fe are reanalyzed and compared with the recent theoretical prediction by P. Resibois and C. Piette. The reason why the spin- diffusion parameter did not obey the prediction of dynamical scaling theory is indicated...
Critical Race Theory, Hip Hop, and "Huck Finn": Narrative Inquiry in a High School English Classroom
Martin, Jennifer L.
2014-01-01
This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…
Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens
Aviles de Bradley, Ann
2015-01-01
A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…
Dávila, Brianne
2015-01-01
This research draws upon critical race theory (CRT) to explore the experiences of Latina/o students in special education. It seeks to extend the theoretical construct of racial microaggressions and illustrate the additional layer of disability as I present data that are particular to the context of special education and the assigned label of…
Stovall, David
2016-01-01
In commemoration of the germinal 1995 critical race theory (CRT) in education manuscript offered by Gloria Ladson-Billings and William Tate IV, the following account seeks to perform several tasks. As CRT has traveled throughout the myriad of disciplinary foci in education (curriculum, foundations, special education, educational psychology, youth…
Examining Outcomes-Based Educational Evaluation through a Critical Theory Lens
Segerholm, Christina
2010-01-01
Contemporary educational evaluation policy and practice can be challenged by applying critical theory and hermeneutics perspectives in evaluation and by asking whose interests are being served through evaluation. Using educational evaluation in Sweden as the context, the author argues for an explanation-oriented evaluation approach that assumes…
Examining Instruction in MIDI-based Composition through a Critical Theory Lens
Louth, Paul
2013-01-01
This paper considers the issue of computer-assisted composition in formal music education settings from the perspective of critical theory. The author examines the case of MIDI-based software applications and suggests that the greatest danger from the standpoint of ideology critique is not the potential for circumventing a traditional…
Woodward, Jennifer R.
2011-01-01
This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…
Bondi, Stephanie
2012-01-01
This study is based on interviews with White students graduating from a student affairs preparation program as well as a literature review of whiteness in education. Applying "critical race theory," the author examined the ways that students and institutions protected whiteness. Institutions and those within them concerned with equity must have…
Looking in from the Edges: A Journal Analysis of "Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education"
Stark, Jody
2014-01-01
This paper is a reflection on the stance, concerns, and rhetorical style of the MayDay Group (MDG) and its journal, "Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education." The theoretical assumption is that MDG constitutes a community of practice (Wenger 1998) with collective histories, agendas, and discursive practices. After discussing…
Crowley, Ryan M.
2013-01-01
The author utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the passage of the US Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965 in an effort to disrupt the simplistic, uncritical understandings of the US Civil Rights Movement common to school texts while also arguing for the ongoing importance of the VRA in a time when voting rights for people of color are under…
Milner, H. Richard, IV
2008-01-01
In "The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education," Cochran-Smith and Zeichner's (2005) review of studies in the field of teacher education revealed that many studies lacked theoretical and conceptual grounding. The author argues that Derrick Bell's (1980) interest convergence, a principle of critical race theory, can be used as…
Teach for America's Long Arc: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Wendy Kopp's Works
Barnes, Michael C.; Germain, Emily K.; Valenzuela, Angela
2016-01-01
We read and analyzed 165,000 words and uncover a series of counter-stories buried within a textual corpus, authored by Teach For America (TFA) founder Wendy Kopp (Kopp, 1989, 2001; Kopp & Farr, 2011), that offers insight into the forms of racism endemic to Teach For America. All three counter-stories align with a critical race theory (CRT)…
Weiler, Angela
2005-01-01
Research in information-seeking behavior, motivation, critical thinking, and learning theory was explored and compared in a search for possible motivating factors behind students' dependence on television and the Internet for their information needs. The research indicates that only a very small percentage of the general population prefer to learn…
Examining Outcomes-Based Educational Evaluation through a Critical Theory Lens
Segerholm, Christina
2010-01-01
Contemporary educational evaluation policy and practice can be challenged by applying critical theory and hermeneutics perspectives in evaluation and by asking whose interests are being served through evaluation. Using educational evaluation in Sweden as the context, the author argues for an explanation-oriented evaluation approach that assumes…
Woodward, Jennifer R.
2011-01-01
This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…
Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne
2017-01-01
While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…
Disrupting Postsecondary Prose: Toward a Critical Race Theory of Higher Education
Patton, Lori D.
2016-01-01
Ladson-Billings and Tate ushered critical race theory (CRT) into education and challenged racial inequities in schooling contexts. In this article, I consider the role CRT can play in disrupting postsecondary prose, or the ordinary, predictable, and taken for granted ways in which the academy has functioned for centuries as a bastion of racism and…
Hook, Genine
2012-01-01
This article explores student and teacher engagement with Australian Indigenous Studies. In this article I identify key themes in the film "September" (2007) that demonstrate how the film can be used as a catalyst for student learning and discussion. Critical whiteness theory provides a framework to explore three themes, the invisibility…
Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens
Aviles de Bradley, Ann
2015-01-01
A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…
Stovall, David
2016-01-01
In commemoration of the germinal 1995 critical race theory (CRT) in education manuscript offered by Gloria Ladson-Billings and William Tate IV, the following account seeks to perform several tasks. As CRT has traveled throughout the myriad of disciplinary foci in education (curriculum, foundations, special education, educational psychology, youth…
Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.
2016-01-01
This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…
Examining Instruction in MIDI-based Composition through a Critical Theory Lens
Louth, Paul
2013-01-01
This paper considers the issue of computer-assisted composition in formal music education settings from the perspective of critical theory. The author examines the case of MIDI-based software applications and suggests that the greatest danger from the standpoint of ideology critique is not the potential for circumventing a traditional…
Applying the Critical Theory of Library Technology to Distance Library Services
Brumfield, Elizabeth Jean
2010-01-01
The re-envisioning of libraries as information leaders in higher education requires an examination of the decisions made in the acquisition and adoption of library technology. The Critical Theory of Library Technology offers a framework for viewing technology decisions through a social, economic and political perspective. This paper uses the…
Surviving a critical illness through mutually being there with each other: a grounded theory study.
Chiang, Vico C L
2011-12-01
The objectives of this study were to conduct a theoretical analysis of the critically ill patients' perceptions of the impact of informal support and care from their main family carer (MFC) during the time of their stay in the hospital (ICU) and thereafter (and vice versa). RESEARCH DESIGN AND SETTING: The grounded theory method was used to investigate the target phenomenon in the ICU of a large general hospital, and three months later in the community after the patients were discharged. Qualitative data were collected through participant observation and interviews for constant comparative analysis until theoretical saturation. A substantive theory emerged and it illustrated and described the dynamic actions and interactions between critically ill patients and their MFC during the process of recovery. Three categories, 1) being there with, 2) coping and 3) self-relying, comprise the essential components of this theory. The theory represents the core process of 'surviving a critical illness through mutually being there with each other' in which both the patients and their MFC are involved. Implications and recommendations were proposed to provide a basis for further research and nursing practice on the phenomenon of informal support and care of critically ill patients and their recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whose Culture Has Capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth
Yosso, Tara J.
2005-01-01
This article conceptualizes community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital. CRT shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge,…
Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler
Chadderton, Charlotte
2013-01-01
There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…
A critical rationalist approach to organizational learning: testing the theories held by managers
Faran, Doron; Wijnhoven, Fons
2011-01-01
The common wisdom is that Popper's critical rationalism, a method aimed at knowledge validation through falsification of theories, is inadequate for managers in organizations. This study falsifies this argument in three phases: first, it specifies the obstructers that prevent the method from being e
Crossover model for the work of critical cluster formation in nucleation theory
Kalikmanov, V.I.
2004-01-01
We propose a relation for the work of critical cluster formation in nucleation theory W for the systems with long-range interparticle interactions. The method of bridge functions is used to combine the system behavior at sufficiently small quenches, adequately predicted by the classical nucleation t
Analyzing Poverty, Learning, and Teaching through a Critical Race Theory Lens
Milner, H. Richard, IV
2013-01-01
In this article, the author explores poverty as an outside-of-school factor and its influence on the inside-of-school experiences and outcome of students. He considers the interconnected space of learning, instructional practices, and poverty. In particular, he uses critical race theory as an analytic tool to unpack, shed light on, problematize,…
Applying the Critical Theory of Library Technology to Distance Library Services
Brumfield, Elizabeth Jean
2010-01-01
The re-envisioning of libraries as information leaders in higher education requires an examination of the decisions made in the acquisition and adoption of library technology. The Critical Theory of Library Technology offers a framework for viewing technology decisions through a social, economic and political perspective. This paper uses the…
How Do Virtual World Experiences Bring about Learning? A Critical Review of Theories
Loke, Swee-Kin
2015-01-01
While students do learn real-world knowledge and skills in virtual worlds, educators have yet to adequately theorise how students' virtual world experiences bring about this learning. This paper critically reviewed theories currently used to underpin empirical work in virtual worlds for education. In particular, it evaluated how applicable these…
From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.
Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.
2001-01-01
Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…
Critical Race Theory and the Meaning of "Community" in District Partnerships
LeChasseur, Kimberly
2014-01-01
This article uses a critical race theory lens to explore how members of one community-district partnership understand "community." Engaging the community through full service schools (Dryfoos & Maguire, 2002), parent engagement programs (Comer & Emmons, 2006), lab schools through universities (Goldring & Sims, 2005), and…
"A Tradition in Ceaseless Motion": Critical Race Theory and Black British Intellectual Spaces
Warmington, Paul
2012-01-01
In the USA, where Critical Race Theory (CRT) first emerged, black public intellectuals are a longstanding, if embattled, feature of national life. However, while often marginalized in public debate, the UK has its own robust tradition of black intellectual creation. The field of education, both as a site of intellectual production and as the site…
Critical Race Theory and the Transfer Function: Introducing a Transfer Receptive Culture
Jain, Dimpal; Herrera, Alfred; Bernal, Santiago; Solorzano, Daniel
2011-01-01
In California, the majority of students of color who enter postsecondary education do so in the community colleges. However large numbers of them leave and do not transfer to four-year institutions; in particular to highly selective pubic four-year colleges and universities. By using the theoretical perspective of critical race theory, transfer…
Farmer, Kevin; Meisel, Steven I.; Seltzer, Joe; Kane, Kathleen
2013-01-01
The Mock Trial is an experiential exercise adapted from a law school process that encourages students to think critically about theories, topics, and the practice of management in an innovative classroom experience. Playing the role of attorneys and witnesses, learners ask questions and challenge assumptions by playing roles in a trial with…
A critical rationalist approach to organizational learning: testing the theories held by managers
Faran, Doron; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.
2011-01-01
The common wisdom is that Popper's critical rationalism, a method aimed at knowledge validation through falsification of theories, is inadequate for managers in organizations. This study falsifies this argument in three phases: first, it specifies the obstructers that prevent the method from being
Critical Race Theories, Colorism, and the Decade's Research on Families of Color
Burton, Linda M.; Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo; Ray, Victor; Buckelew, Rose; Freeman, Elizabeth Hordge
2010-01-01
In the millennium's inaugural decade, 2 interrelated trends influenced research on America's families of color: the need for new knowledge about America's growing ethnic/racial minority and immigrant populations and conceptual advances in critical race theories and perspectives on colorism. Three substantive areas reflecting researchers' interests…
Crowley, Ryan M.
2013-01-01
The author utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the passage of the US Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965 in an effort to disrupt the simplistic, uncritical understandings of the US Civil Rights Movement common to school texts while also arguing for the ongoing importance of the VRA in a time when voting rights for people of color are under…
Nogawa, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Nemoto, Koji
2012-06-22
We propose a generic scaling theory for critical phenomena that includes power-law and essential singularities in finite and infinite dimensional systems. In addition, we clarify its validity by analyzing the Potts model in a simple hierarchical network, where a saddle-node bifurcation of the renormalization-group fixed point governs the essential singularity.
Hook, Genine
2012-01-01
This article explores student and teacher engagement with Australian Indigenous Studies. In this article I identify key themes in the film "September" (2007) that demonstrate how the film can be used as a catalyst for student learning and discussion. Critical whiteness theory provides a framework to explore three themes, the invisibility…
Yeh, Chen-Pin; Lee, Da-Shin
2013-01-01
We employ the holographic method to study fluctuations and dissipation of an $n$-dimensional moving mirror coupled to quantum critical theories in $d$ spacetime dimensions. The bulk counterpart of the mirror with perfect reflection is a D$(n+1)$ brane in the Lifshitz geometry of $d+1$ dimensions. The motion of the mirror can be realized from the dynamics of the brane at the boundary of the bulk. The excited modes of the brane in the bulk render the mirror undergoing Brownian motion. For small displacement of the mirror, we derive the analytical results of the correlation functions and response functions. The dynamics of the mirror due to small fluctuations around the brane vacuum state in the bulk is found supraohmic so that after initial growth, the velocity fluctuations approach a saturated value at late time with a power-law behavior. On the contrary, in the Lifshitz black hole background, the mirror in thermal fluctuations shows that its relaxation dynamics becomes ohmic, and the saturation of velocity fl...
Sandler, Jen
2007-12-01
This paper critically reviews two diverse intellectual traditions concerned with community-based interventions: the literature on dissemination of community interventions and the critical psychology literature that is concerned with systemic power inequalities and structural injustice. The dominant dissemination-of-innovations framework has shifted toward an emphasis on community, yet it does not generally take into account issues of power and inequality within the diverse community spheres into which interventions are disseminated. On the other hand, critical psychologists, who have concerned themselves with both understanding and addressing issues of power and structural injustice, have tended to eschew the possibility of standardizing and making transferable practices, programs, and even processes that address these issues in particular settings. This paper traces and critiques both sides of this divide within community psychology, positing a framework to bring these diverse intellectual resources together so that community interventions might fruitfully be examined in terms of their community-based practices, or practices that bear on structural injustice. This framework is illustrated with a case study of the community-based practices of a widely disseminated evidence-based community intervention.
Towards a critical transition theory under different temporal scales and noise strengths.
Shi, Jifan; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Luonan
2016-03-01
The mechanism of critical phenomena or critical transitions has been recently studied from various aspects, in particular considering slow parameter change and small noise. In this article, we systematically classify critical transitions into three types based on temporal scales and noise strengths of dynamical systems. Specifically, the classification is made by comparing three important time scales τ(λ), τ(tran), and τ(ergo), where τ(λ) is the time scale of parameter change (e.g., the change of environment), τ(tran) is the time scale when a particle or state transits from a metastable state into another, and τ(ergo) is the time scale when the system becomes ergodic. According to the time scales, we classify the critical transition behaviors as three types, i.e., state transition, basin transition, and distribution transition. Moreover, for each type of transition, there are two cases, i.e., single-trajectory transition and multitrajectory ensemble transition, which correspond to the transition of individual behavior and population behavior, respectively. We also define the critical point for each type of critical transition, derive several properties, and further propose the indicators for predicting critical transitions with numerical simulations. In addition, we show that the noise-to-signal ratio is effective to make the classification of critical transitions for real systems.
Do Mixed States save Effective Field Theory from BICEP?
Collins, Hael; Vardanyan, Tereza
2014-01-01
The BICEP2 collaboration has for the first time observed the B-mode polarization associated with inflationary gravitational waves. Their result has some discomfiting implications for the validity of an effective theory approach to single-field inflation since it would require an inflaton field excursion larger than the Planck scale. We argue that if the quantum state of the gravitons is a mixed state based on the Bunch-Davies vacuum, then the tensor to scalar ratio r measured by BICEP is different than the quantity that enters the Lyth bound. When this is taken into account, the tension between effective field theory and the BICEP result is alleviated.
Modular Hamiltonian for Excited States in Conformal Field Theory.
Lashkari, Nima
2016-07-22
We present a novel replica trick that computes the relative entropy of two arbitrary states in conformal field theory. Our replica trick is based on the analytic continuation of partition functions that break the Z_{n} replica symmetry. It provides a method for computing arbitrary matrix elements of the modular Hamiltonian corresponding to excited states in terms of correlation functions. We show that the quantum Fisher information in vacuum can be expressed in terms of two-point functions on the replica geometry. We perform sample calculations in two-dimensional conformal field theories.
Anomalous reparametrizations and butterfly states in string field theory
Schnabl, M
2003-01-01
The reparametrization symmetries of Witten's vertex in ordinary or vacuum string field theories can be used to extract useful information about classical solutions of the equations of motion corresponding to D-branes. It follows, that the vacuum string field theory in general has to be regularized. For the regularization recently considered by Gaiotto et al., we show that the identities we derive, are so constraining, that among all surface states they uniquely select the simplest butterfly projector discovered numerically by those authors. The reparametrization symmetries are also used to give a simple proof that the butterfly states and their generalizations are indeed projectors.
Modular Hamiltonian of Excited States in Conformal Field Theory
Lashkari, Nima
2015-01-01
We present a novel replica trick that computes the relative entropy of two arbitrary states in conformal field theory. Our replica trick is based on the analytic continuation of partition functions that break the replica Z_n symmetry. It provides a method for computing arbitrary matrix elements of the modular Hamiltonian corresponding to excited states in terms of correlation functions. We show that the quantum Fisher information in vacuum can be expressed in terms of two-point functions on the replica geometry. We perform sample calculations in two-dimensional conformal field theories.
Thermal isomerization of azobenzenes: on the performance of Eyring transition state theory
Rietze, Clemens; Titov, Evgenii; Lindner, Steven; Saalfrank, Peter
2017-08-01
The thermal Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes is a prototypical reaction occurring in molecular switches. It has been studied for decades, yet its kinetics is not fully understood. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations are performed to model the kinetics of an experimental benchmark system, where a modified azobenzene (AzoBiPyB) is embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF). The molecule can be switched thermally from cis to trans, under solvent-free conditions. We critically test the validity of Eyring transition state theory for this reaction. As previously found for other azobenzenes (albeit in solution), good agreement between theory and experiment emerges for activation energies and activation free energies, already at a comparatively simple level of theory, B3LYP/6-31G* including dispersion corrections. However, theoretical Arrhenius prefactors and activation entropies are in qualitiative disagreement with experiment. Several factors are discussed that may have an influence on activation entropies, among them dynamical and geometric constraints (imposed by the MOF). For a simpler model—Z\\to E isomerization in azobenzene—a systematic test of quantum chemical methods from both density functional theory and wavefunction theory is carried out in the context of Eyring theory. Also, the effect of anharmonicities on activation entropies is discussed for this model system. Our work highlights capabilities and shortcomings of Eyring transition state theory and quantum chemical methods, when applied for the Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes under solvent-free conditions.
Twisted boundary states in c=1 coset conformal field theories
Ishikawa, H; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi
2003-01-01
We study the mutual consistency of twisted boundary conditions in the coset conformal field theory G/H. We calculate the overlap of the twisted boundary states of G/H with the untwisted ones, and show that the twisted boundary states are consistently defined in the diagonal modular invariant. The overlap of the twisted boundary states is expressed by the branching functions of a twisted affine Lie algebra. As a check of our argument, we study the diagonal coset theory so(2n)_1 \\oplus so(2n)_1/so(2n)_2, which is equivalent with the orbifold S^1/\\Z_2. We construct the boundary states twisted by the automorphisms of the unextended Dynkin diagram of so(2n), and show their mutual consistency by identifying their counterpart in the orbifold. For the triality of so(8), the twisted states of the coset theory correspond to neither the Neumann nor the Dirichlet boundary states of the orbifold and yield the conformal boundary states that preserve only the Virasoro algebra.
Anatomy of Zero-norm States in String Theory
Chan, C T; Yang, Y; Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Lee, Jen-Chi; Yang, Yi
2005-01-01
We identify and calculate the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantised (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone DDF zero-norm states and the off-shell BRST zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attentions are paid to the inter-particle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no ghost conditions and exactly recover two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two typse of zero-norm states in the generalized massive s-model approach of string theory. The high energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to fix the proportionality constants among high energy scattering amplitudes...
Light States in Chern-Simons Theory Coupled to Fundamental Matter
Banerjee, Shamik; Maltz, Jonathan; Shenker, Stephen H
2012-01-01
Motivated by developments in vectorlike holography, we study SU(N) Chern-Simons theory coupled to matter fields in the fundamental representation on various spatial manifolds. On the spatial torus T^2, we find light states at small `t Hooft coupling \\lambda=N/k, where k is the Chern-Simons level, taken to be large. In the free scalar theory the gaps are of order \\sqrt {\\lambda}/N and in the critical scalar theory and the free fermion theory they are of order \\lambda/N. The entropy of these states grows like N Log(k). We briefly consider spatial surfaces of higher genus. Based on results from pure Chern-Simons theory, it appears that there are light states with entropy that grows even faster, like N^2 Log(k). This is consistent with the log of the partition function on the three sphere S^3, which also behaves like N^2 Log(k). These light states require bulk dynamics beyond standard Vasiliev higher spin gravity to explain them.
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-01
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-15
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Stochastic geometry of critical curves, Schramm-Loewner evolutions and conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruzberg, Ilya A [James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2006-10-13
Conformally invariant curves that appear at critical points in two-dimensional statistical mechanics systems and their fractal geometry have received a lot of attention in recent years. On the one hand, Schramm (2000 Israel J. Math. 118 221 (Preprint math.PR/9904022)) has invented a new rigorous as well as practical calculational approach to critical curves, based on a beautiful unification of conformal maps and stochastic processes, and by now known as Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE). On the other hand, Duplantier (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 1363; Fractal Geometry and Applications: A Jubilee of Benot Mandelbrot: Part 2 (Proc. Symp. Pure Math. vol 72) (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) p 365 (Preprint math-ph/0303034)) has applied boundary quantum gravity methods to calculate exact multifractal exponents associated with critical curves. In the first part of this paper, I provide a pedagogical introduction to SLE. I present mathematical facts from the theory of conformal maps and stochastic processes related to SLE. Then I review basic properties of SLE and provide practical derivation of various interesting quantities related to critical curves, including fractal dimensions and crossing probabilities. The second part of the paper is devoted to a way of describing critical curves using boundary conformal field theory (CFT) in the so-called Coulomb gas formalism. This description provides an alternative (to quantum gravity) way of obtaining the multifractal spectrum of critical curves using only traditional methods of CFT based on free bosonic fields.
Brady, Kevin; Eatman, Timothy; Parker, Laurence
2000-01-01
Reviews higher education racial desegregation equity since the U.S. Supreme Court's 1992 "Fordice" decision. Discusses historically black colleges and universities' future status and African-American students' progress, using finance data analyzed and interpreted via critical race theory. HBCU's receive inferior state appropriation levels,…
Perturbation Theory for Parent Hamiltonians of Matrix Product States
Szehr, Oleg; Wolf, Michael M.
2015-05-01
This article investigates the stability of the ground state subspace of a canonical parent Hamiltonian of a Matrix product state against local perturbations. We prove that the spectral gap of such a Hamiltonian remains stable under weak local perturbations even in the thermodynamic limit, where the entire perturbation might not be bounded. Our discussion is based on preceding work by Yarotsky that develops a perturbation theory for relatively bounded quantum perturbations of classical Hamiltonians. We exploit a renormalization procedure, which on large scale transforms the parent Hamiltonian of a Matrix product state into a classical Hamiltonian plus some perturbation. We can thus extend Yarotsky's results to provide a perturbation theory for parent Hamiltonians of Matrix product states and recover some of the findings of the independent contributions (Cirac et al in Phys Rev B 8(11):115108, 2013) and (Michalakis and Pytel in Comm Math Phys 322(2):277-302, 2013).
Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Lakhtina, Ekaterina V; Pshenichnikov, Alexander F; Camp, Philip J
2016-05-14
The sedimentation equilibrium of dipolar particles in a ferrofluid is studied using experiment, theory, and computer simulation. A theory of the particle-concentration profile in a dipolar hard-sphere fluid is developed, based on the local-density approximation and accurate expressions from a recently introduced logarithmic free energy approach. The theory is tested critically against Monte Carlo simulation results for monodisperse and bidisperse dipolar hard-sphere fluids in homogeneous gravitational fields. In the monodisperse case, the theory is very accurate over broad ranges of gravitational field strength, volume fraction, and dipolar coupling constant. In the bidisperse case, with realistic dipolar coupling constants and compositions, the theory is excellent at low volume fraction, but is slightly inaccurate at high volume fraction in that it does not capture a maximum in the small-particle concentration profile seen in simulations. Possible reasons for this are put forward. Experimental measurements of the magnetic-susceptibility profile in a real ferrofluid are then analysed using the theory. The concentration profile is linked to the susceptibility profile using the second-order modified mean-field theory. It is shown that the experimental results are not consistent with the sample being monodisperse. By introducing polydispersity in the simplest possible way, namely by assuming the system is a binary mixture, almost perfect agreement between theory and experiment is achieved.
Validation of the Comfort scale for relatives of people in critical states of health 1
Freitas, Kátia Santana; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro
2015-01-01
Abstract Objective: this methodological study aims to present the construct validity of the Comfort scale for family members of people in a critical state of health (ECONF). Method: this is a methodological study. The sample was made up of 274 family members of adults receiving inpatient treatment in six Intensive Care Units (ICU) in the State of Bahía responded to 62 items distributed in 7 dimensions. The validation procedures adopted were based on the techniques of the Classical Test Theory. Results: the analysis of dimensionality was undertaken through principal components analysis, a scale being obtained with 55 items distributed in four factors: Safety, Support, Family member-relative interaction and Integration with oneself and the everyday. The analysis of the items' , discriminative power, undertaken by the item-total correlation-coefficient showed a good relationship of the items with their respective factors. From the ECONF's reliability test, from the analysis of internal consistency, a raised Alpha Cronbach coefficient was obtained for the 4 factors and the general measurement. Conclusion: the comfort scale presented satisfactory psychometric parameters, thus constituting the first valid instrument for evaluating the comfort of family members of people in a critical state of health. The advance made by the study lies in its theoretical framework on comfort, and provides the health team with a scale based on empirical evidence. PMID:26444168
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Relativistic Multichannel Theory: Theoretical Study of C+ Autoionization States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Dan; ZHANG Shi-Zhong; PENG Yong-Lun; LI Jia-Ming
2003-01-01
Based on relativistic multichannel theory, the autoionization states of C+ are studied. We calculate all the autoionization states in the energy region of 193900 ~ 231700cm"1, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy structure we obtain will be important in the dielectronic recombination processes, which plays a key role in determining the abundance of carbon in a nebula.
Probing Gravitational Cat States in Canonical Quantum Theory vs Objective Collapse Theories
Derakhshani, Maaneli
2016-01-01
Using as a testbed the recently proposed "gravcat" experimental scheme in [1], we compare the properties of gravitational cat states in three descriptions: (1) canonical quantum theory (CQT) combined with the Newtonian limit of GR, (2) objective collapse theories (OCTs) extended to the regime of semiclassical Newtonian gravity, and (3) OCTs extended to incorporate quantized Newtonian gravity. For the CQT approach, we follow the treatment of Hu and Anastopoulos in [2]. For the OCTs, we conside...
Dimensional reduction of Markov state models from renormalization group theory
Orioli, S.; Faccioli, P.
2016-09-01
Renormalization Group (RG) theory provides the theoretical framework to define rigorous effective theories, i.e., systematic low-resolution approximations of arbitrary microscopic models. Markov state models are shown to be rigorous effective theories for Molecular Dynamics (MD). Based on this fact, we use real space RG to vary the resolution of the stochastic model and define an algorithm for clustering microstates into macrostates. The result is a lower dimensional stochastic model which, by construction, provides the optimal coarse-grained Markovian representation of the system's relaxation kinetics. To illustrate and validate our theory, we analyze a number of test systems of increasing complexity, ranging from synthetic toy models to two realistic applications, built form all-atom MD simulations. The computational cost of computing the low-dimensional model remains affordable on a desktop computer even for thousands of microstates.
Dimensional reduction of Markov state models from renormalization group theory.
Orioli, S; Faccioli, P
2016-09-28
Renormalization Group (RG) theory provides the theoretical framework to define rigorous effective theories, i.e., systematic low-resolution approximations of arbitrary microscopic models. Markov state models are shown to be rigorous effective theories for Molecular Dynamics (MD). Based on this fact, we use real space RG to vary the resolution of the stochastic model and define an algorithm for clustering microstates into macrostates. The result is a lower dimensional stochastic model which, by construction, provides the optimal coarse-grained Markovian representation of the system's relaxation kinetics. To illustrate and validate our theory, we analyze a number of test systems of increasing complexity, ranging from synthetic toy models to two realistic applications, built form all-atom MD simulations. The computational cost of computing the low-dimensional model remains affordable on a desktop computer even for thousands of microstates.
Heffernan, J. B.; Ross, M. S.; Sah, J. P.; Isherwood, E.; Cohen, M. J.
2015-12-01
Spatial patterning occurs in a variety of ecosystems, and is important for the functional properties of landscapes; for testing spatial models of ecological processes; and as an indicator of landscape condition and resilience. Theory suggests that regular patterns arise from coupled local- and landscape-scale feedbacks that can also create multiple stable landscape states. In the Florida Everglades, hydrologic modification has degraded much of the historically-extensive ridge-slough landscape, a patterned peatland mosaic with distinct, flow-parallel patches. However, in the Everglades and in general, the hypothesis that patterned landscapes have homogeneous alternative states has little direct empirical support. Here we use microtopographic and vegetative heterogeneity, and their relation to hydrologic conditions, to infer the existence of multiple landscape equilibria and identify the hydrologic thresholds for critical transitions between these states. Dual relationships between elevation variance and water depth, and bi-modal distributions of both elevation variance and plant community distinctness, are consistent with generic predictions of multiple states, and covariation between these measures suggests that microtopography is the leading indicator of landscape degradation. Furthermore, a simple ecohydrologic multiple-state model correctly predicts the hydrologic thresholds for persistence of distinct ridges and sloughs. Predicted ridge-slough elevation differences and their relation to water depth are much greater than observed in the contemporary Everglades, but correspond closely with historical observations of pre-drainage conditions. These multiple lines of evidence represent the broadest and most direct support for the link between regular spatial pattern and landscape-scale alternative states in any ecosystem, and suggest that other patterned landscapes could undergo sudden collapse in response to changing environmental conditions. Hydrologic thresholds
Navigating Critical Theory and Postmodernism: Social Justice and Therapist Power in Family Therapy.
D'Arrigo-Patrick, Justine; Hoff, Chris; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Tuttle, Amy
2016-07-21
The family therapy field encourages commitment to diversity and social justice, but offers varying ideas about how to attentively consider these issues. Critical informed models advocate activism, whereas postmodern informed models encourage multiple perspectives. It is often not clear how activism and an emphasis on multiple perspectives connect, engendering the sense that critical and postmodern practices may be disparate. To understand how therapists negotiate these perspectives in practice, this qualitative grounded theory analysis drew on interviews with 11 therapists, each known for their work from both critical and postmodern perspectives. We found that these therapists generally engage in a set of shared constructionist practices while also demonstrating two distinct forms of activism: activism through countering and activism through collaborating. Ultimately, decisions made about how to navigate critical and postmodern influences were connected to how therapists viewed ethics and the ways they were comfortable using their therapeutic power. The findings illustrate practice strategies through which therapists apply each approach.
A realistic theory of health sector management. The case for critical realism.
Connelly, J
2000-01-01
To date the practice of health sector management has not been sufficiently theorised. An adequate theory should be able to answer the pre-eminent critique of managerial rationality and ethics mounted by Alasdair MacIntyre in After Virtue and should also offer robust analytical and ethical resources to identify and engage with the social, political, economic and moral issues underlying health sector management. Critical realism with its ontology of generative mechanisms, agency-structure relationships, valorisation of activity and ideology critique offers such resources in an empirically orientated but adequately theorised realist framework. Rather than negate MacIntyre, critical realism incorporates and transcends his key arguments regarding the rationality and ethics of management. This article introduces the main elements of critical realism and clears a conceptual space for the cumulation of critical realist case-studies and managerial craft knowledge.
Teoria crítica em relações internacionais Critical theory in international relations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Antonio de Meneses Silva
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar a tradição da teoria crítica em Relações Internacionais. Entende-se que haja uma lacuna nos debates teóricos com a reduzida atenção dedicada a essa tradição no Brasil. O revigoramento dos debates teóricos contribui para o enfraquecimento das tradições teóricas convencionais. O papel da teoria crítica nessa tendência é primordial. A teoria crítica da Escola de Frankfurt é examinada como precursora filosófica e metateórica da teoria crítica em Relações Internacionais. Em seguida, as bases epistemológicas dos desafios da teoria crítica às teorias convencionais são apresentadas, com ênfase especial dedicada ao trabalho de Robert W. Cox. O pensamento neogramsciano é inspecionado à luz da busca pela transformação social nas relações internacionais. A vertente da teoria crítica internacional é vista como fonte de inspiração para muitos autores que trabalham com a emancipação. Examina-se a produção de Andrew Linklater por representar a busca por transformação das comunidades políticas por meio da expansão de suas fronteiras morais. Em seguida, busca-se uma avaliação crítica dos impactos trazidos pela teoria crítica ao campo de estudos das Relações Internacionais. Conclui-se que a teoria crítica tem méritos na guinada das discussões teóricas em direção a questionamentos ontológicos e epistemológicos, debate esse que tem caracterizado esse campo de estudo nas últimas décadas, por meio da exposição das limitações conseqüentes do domínio das teorias convencionais. Não obstante, a associação da teoria crítica ao pós-positivismo epistemológico constitui atitude premeditada.This article aims to present Critical Theory in International Relations. It is understood that there has been a lacuna in theoretical debates with little attention paid to this tradition in Brazil. The current revival in theoretical discussions contributes to the weakening of
Critical test of the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition.
Berthier, Ludovic; Tarjus, Gilles
2010-09-01
In its common implementation, the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition predicts the time evolution of the intermediate scattering functions in viscous liquids on the sole basis of the structural information encoded in two-point density correlations. We provide a critical test of this property and show that the theory fails to describe the strong differences of dynamical behavior seen in two model liquids characterized by very similar pair-correlation functions. Because we use "exact" static information provided by numerical simulations, our results are a direct indication that some important information about the dynamics of viscous liquids is not captured by pair correlations and is thus not described by the mode-coupling theory, even in the temperature regime where the theory is usually applied.
Bound states and critical behavior of the Yukawa potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Yongyao
2006-01-01
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'Intensive care unit survivorship' - a constructivist grounded theory of surviving critical illness.
Kean, Susanne; Salisbury, Lisa G; Rattray, Janice; Walsh, Timothy S; Huby, Guro; Ramsay, Pamela
2017-10-01
To theorise intensive care unit survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. Increasingly, patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short- and long-term impact of critical illness includes physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives postdischarge with the term 'survivorship' being increasingly used in this context. What constitutes critical illness survivorship has, to date, not been theoretically explored. Longitudinal qualitative and constructivist grounded theory. Interviews (n = 46) with 17 participants were conducted at four time points: (1) before discharge from hospital, (2) four to six weeks postdischarge, (3) six months and (4) 12 months postdischarge across two adult intensive care unit setting. Individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis followed the principles of Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' emerged as the core category and was theorised using concepts such as status passages, liminality and temporality to understand the various transitions participants made postcritical illness. Intensive care unit survivorship describes the unscheduled status passage of falling critically ill and being taken to the threshold of life and the journey to a life postcritical illness. Surviving critical illness goes beyond recovery; surviving means 'moving on' to life postcritical illness. 'Moving on' incorporates a redefinition of self that incorporates any lingering intensive care unit legacies and being in control of one's life again. For healthcare professionals and policymakers, it is important to realise that recovery and transitioning through to survivorship happen within an individual's time frame, not a schedule imposed by the healthcare system. Currently, there are no care pathways or policies in
Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature
Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius
2014-03-01
Power laws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many complex systems. Examples are the distribution of earthquake magnitudes, solar flare intensities and the sizes of neuronal avalanches. Previously, researchers surmised that a single general concept may act as an underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. The power-law scaling observed in the primary statistical analysis is an important, but by far not the only feature characterizing experimental data. The scaling function, the distribution of energy fluctuations, the distribution of inter-event waiting times, and other higher order spatial and temporal correlations, have seen increased consideration over the last years. Leading to realization that basic models, like the original sandpile model, are often insufficient to adequately describe the complexity of real-world systems with power-law distribution. Consequently, a substantial amount of effort has gone into developing new and extended models and, hitherto, three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of an external drive and an internal dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of models is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-critical steady state characterized by heavy-tailed distributions. The third line of models proposes a non-critical self-organizing state, being guided by an optimization principle, such as the concept of highly optimized tolerance. We present a comparative overview regarding distinct modeling approaches together with a discussion of their potential relevance as underlying generative models for real
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Louks
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Engineering components often contain notches, keyways or other stress concentration features. These features raise the stress state in the vicinity of their apex which can lead to unexpected failure of the component. The Theory of Critical Distances has been proven to predict accurate results, but, conventionally, requires two key ingredients to be implemented: the first is a stress-distance curve which can be obtained relatively easily by means of any finite element software, the second is two additional material parameters which are determined by running appropriate experiments. In this novel reformulation, one of these additional parameters, namely the critical distance, can be determined a priori, allowing design engineers to assess components whilst reducing the time and cost of the design process. This paper investigates reformulating the Theory of Critical Distances to be based on two readily available material parameters, i.e., the Ultimate Tensile Strength and the Fracture Toughness. An experimental data base was compiled from the technical literature. The investigated samples had a range of stress concentration features including sharp V-notches to blunt U-notches, and a range of materials that exhibit brittle, quasi-brittle and ductile mechanical behaviour. Each data set was assessed and the prediction error was calculated. The failure predictions were on average 30% conservative, whilst the non-conservative predictions account for less than 10% of the tested data and less than 2% of the non-conservative error results exceed -20%. It is therefore recommended that a safety factor of at least 1.2 is used in the implementation of this version of the Theory of Critical Distances.
A critical evaluation of theories for predicting microcracking in composite laminates
Nairn, John A.; Hu, Shoufeng; Bark, Jong S.
1993-01-01
We present experimental results on 21 different layups of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber/3501-6 epoxy laminates. All laminates had 90 deg plies; some had them in the middle, while some had them on a free surface. During tensile loading, the first form of damage in all laminates was microcracking of the 90 deg plies. For each laminate, we recorded both the crack density and the complete distribution of crack spacings as a function of the applied load. By rearranging various microcracking theories, we developed a master-curve approach that permitted plotting the results from all laminates on a single plot. By comparing master-curve plots for different theories, it was possible to critically evaluate the quality of those theories. We found that a critical-energy-release-rate criterion calculated using a 2D variational stress analysis gave the best results. All microcracking theories based on a strength-failure criteria gave poor results. All microcracking theories using 1D stress analyses, regardless of the failure criterion, also gave poor results.
Bulk singularities at critical end points: a field-theory analysis
Diehl, H. W.; Smock, M.
2001-06-01
A class of continuum models with a critical end point is considered whose Hamiltonian [φ,ψ] involves two densities: a primary order-parameter field, φ, and a secondary (noncritical) one, ψ. Field-theoretic methods (renormalization group results in conjunction with functional methods) are used to give a systematic derivation of singularities occurring at critical end points. Specifically, the thermal singularity | t|2 - α of the first-order line on which the disordered or ordered phase coexists with the noncritical spectator phase, and the coexistence singularity | t|1 - α or | t|β of the secondary density are derived. It is clarified how the renormalization group (RG) scenario found in position-space RG calculations, in which the critical end point and the critical line are mapped onto two separate fixed points CEP* and λ*, translates into field theory. The critical RG eigenexponents of CEP* and λ* are shown to match. CEP* is demonstrated to have a discontinuity eigenperturbation (with eigenvalue y = d), tangent to the unstable trajectory that emanates from CEP* and leads to λ*. The nature and origin of this eigenperturbation as well as the role redundant operators play are elucidated. The results validate that the critical behavior at the end point is the same as on the critical line.
Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students
Notgarnie, Howard M.
2011-01-01
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students
Notgarnie, Howard M.
2011-01-01
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
BPS states in M-theory and twistorial constituents
Bandos, I A; Izquierdo, J M; Lukierski, J; Bandos, Igor A.; Azcarraga, Jose A. de; Izquierdo, Jose M.; Lukierski, Jerzy
2001-01-01
We provide a complete algebraic description of BPS states in M-theory in terms of primary constituents that we call BPS preons. We argue that any BPS state preserving k of the 32 supersymmetries is a composite of (32-k) BPS preons. In particular, the BPS states corresponding to the basic M2 and M5 branes are composed of 16 BPS preons. By extending the M-algebra to a generalized D=11 conformal superalgebra osp(1|64) we relate the BPS preons with its fundamental representation, the D=11 supertwistors.
Theory of the equation of state of hot dense matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbee, T W; Surh, M; Yang, L H
1999-07-23
Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are adapted to treat dense plasmas for temperatures exceeding the electronic Fermi temperature. Extended electronic states are obtained in a plane wave basis by using pseudopotentials for the ion cores in the local density approximation to density functional theory. The method reduces to conventional first principles molecular dynamics at low temperatures with the expected high level of accuracy. The occurrence of thermally excited ion cores at high temperatures is treated by means of final state pseudopotentials. The method is applied to the shock compression Hugoniot equation of state for aluminum. Good agreement with experiment is found for temperatures ranging from zero through 105K.
Mean-field theory of echo state networks
Massar, Marc; Massar, Serge
2013-04-01
Dynamical systems driven by strong external signals are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Here we study “echo state networks,” networks of a large number of randomly connected nodes, which represent a simple model of a neural network, and have important applications in machine learning. We develop a mean-field theory of echo state networks. The dynamics of the network is captured by the evolution law, similar to a logistic map, for a single collective variable. When the network is driven by many independent external signals, this collective variable reaches a steady state. But when the network is driven by a single external signal, the collective variable is non stationary but can be characterized by its time averaged distribution. The predictions of the mean-field theory, including the value of the largest Lyapunov exponent, are compared with the numerical integration of the equations of motion.
On critical cases in limit theory for stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Podolskij, Mark
averages. The limit theory heavily depends on the interplay between the given order of the increments, the considered power, the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the driving pure jump Lévy process L and the behavior of the kernel function g at 0. In this work we will study the critical cases, which were......In this paper we present some limit theorems for power variation of stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages in the setting of critical regimes. In [5] the authors derived first and second order asymptotic results for k-th order increments of stationary increments Lévy driven moving...
The FN method for anisotropic scattering in neutron transport theory: the critical slab problem.
Gülecyüz, M. C.; Tezcan, C.
1996-08-01
The FN method which has been applied to many physical problems for isotropic and anisotropic scattering in neutron transport theory is extended for problems for extremely anisotropic scattering. This method depends on the Placzek lemma and the use of the infinite medium Green's function. Here the Green's function for extremely anisotropic scattering which was expressed as a combination of the Green's functions for isotropic scattering is used to solve the critical slab problem. It is shown that the criticality condition is in agreement with the one obtained previously by reducing the transport equation for anisotropic scattering to isotropic scattering and solving using the FN method.
A Randomly Enlarging Critical Core Theory of Unidirectionally Fiber-reinforced Composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范赋群; 曾庆敦
1994-01-01
Based upon the micro-stochastic failure mechanisms of composites,a new micromechanical statistical model,i.e.randomly enlarging critical core theory,for the tensile failure of unidirectional composites is proposed,with which we can overcome the primary imperfections of the existing chain-of-bundles probability model.On the basis of the established statistical model,the strength distribution and the failure criterion of composites are derived.The predictions of strength for T300/5208 and glass/epoxy show very good agreement with the existing experimental results,thus verifying the reasonableness and correctness of the present theory.
Revealing the transformatory moment of learning technology: the place of critical social theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Hall
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In revealing the transformatory moment of learning technology, a holistic andongoing critique that is related to a range of socio-cultural factors is required.This critique further uncovers the social relations that frame the place of learningtechnology in bourgeois capitalist work and the development of the knowledgeeconomy. This article argues that critical social theory, and the social and powerrelationships that it highlights, is central to the uncovering of this revelation. Asa result of a holistic, or totalising, analysis based upon the political economy oftechnology in education, a framework that enables educators to examine its educationalvalue is uncovered. Iterating and re-producing this framework works asa constant critique of educational practice within capitalism, and critiques deterministicor hegemonic views of technology-as-progress. As a result, this articleseeks to demonstrate how critical social theory might enable educators to analyselearning technology as historically situated, and thereby to use critique to revealand produce practical alternatives to sociocultural problems.
Hasenfratz, Anna
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) methods were designed to study the non-perturbative phase structure and critical behavior of statistical systems and quantum field theories. I adopt the 2-lattice matching method used extensively in the 1980's and show how it can be used to predict the existence of non-perturbative fixed points and their related critical exponents in many flavor SU(3) gauge theories. This work serves to test the method and I study relatively well understood systems: the $N_f=0$, 4 and 16 flavor models. The pure gauge and $N_f=4$ systems are confining and chirally broken and the MCRG method can predict their bare step scaling functions. Results for the $N_f=16$ model indicate the existence of an infrared fixed point with nearly marginal gauge coupling. I present preliminary results for the scaling dimension of the mass at this new fixed point.
Friesacher, Heiner
2011-12-01
Nursing practice needs a theoretical foundation. As in any other discipline, theories form the core of nursing science. They contribute to the definition of nursing and to the evolution of professional domains. Depending on their level of abstraction and their range ("grand theories") they can guide actions, have an orientating, but also a critical function. Furthermore, theories serve to legitimate and justify nursing in the public. This is especially important, if politics and society have high expectations in the nursing profession. The current concept of a critical theory of nursing science has a critical focus on repressions and deficits in nursing practice, but also is aimed at achieving reasonable nursing practice. This theory is emancipatorical and normative as well. It is following Foucault's analysis of power and explicating the "Frankfurt School of Critical Theory" as a critique of the conditions of working, understanding, recognising, self, time and nature.
Zhang, Yachao
2014-12-07
A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T(c)) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T(c) of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE(HL) and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T(c) by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T(c) of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T(c) of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周文来; 密建国; 贺刚; 于燕梅; 陈健
2003-01-01
The description using an analytic equation of state of thermodynamic properties near the critical points of fluids and their mixtures remains a challenging problem in the area of chemical engineering. Based on the statistical associating fluid theory across the critical point (SAFT-CP), an analytic equation of state is established in this work for non-polar mixtures. With two binary parameters, this equation of state can be used to calculate not only vapor-liquid equilibria but also critical properties of binary non-polar alkane mixtures with acceptable deviations.