WorldWideScience

Sample records for critical review occupational

  1. The impact of occupational load carriage on carrier mobility: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Simon D; Orr, Robin M

    2014-01-01

    Military personnel and firefighters are required to carry occupational loads and complete tasks in hostile and unpredictable environments where a lack of mobility may risk lives. This review critically examines the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on the mobility of these specialist personnel. Several literature databases, reference lists, and subject matter experts were employed to identify relevant studies. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were critiqued using the Downs and Black protocol. Inter-rater agreement was determined by Cohen's κ. Twelve original research studies, which included male and female participants from military and firefighting occupations, were critiqued (κ = .81). A review of these papers found that as the carried load weight increased, carrier mobility during aerobic tasks (like road marching) and anaerobic tasks (like obstacle course negotiation) decreased. As such, it can be concluded that the load carried by some specialist personnel may increase their occupational risk by reducing their mobility.

  2. Do tilt-in-space wheelchairs increase occupational engagement: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrand, Jenny; Bannigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    A wheelchair can enhance the quality of life of an individual with limited mobility, poor trunk control and stability, by enabling activity and participation and so occupational engagement. High specification wheelchairs which can tilt-in-space enable the position of users to be altered to suit activity and context. Despite tilt-in-space wheelchairs being expensive little is known about their therapeutic value. A critical literature review of the evidence was undertaken to evaluate whether the use of tilt-in-space increases occupational engagement. A wide ranging search strategy identified 170 articles which were screened using inclusion criteria. The eligible literature (n = 6) was analysed thematically using open coding. The majority of the participants used tilt-in-space but the data was too heterogeneous to combine. Measures of occupational engagement were not used so the therapeutic value could not be assessed. There is a lack of high quality evidence about the therapeutic benefits of tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Given the expense associated with providing these wheelchairs, and the increase in their provision, research is needed to justify provision of high specification wheelchairs to meet the occupational needs of users within the limited resources of health and social care. Implications for Rehabilitation Tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Wheelchairs are an important and essential assistive device for promoting independence and function. Suggests there are benefits for tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Identifies the need for additional large scale research.

  3. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  4. Critical review of the epidemiological literature on occupational exposure to perchloroethylene and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Kenneth A; Birk, Thomas; Burch, Margaret T

    2003-09-01

    Of an estimated 500,000 workers in the USA potentially exposed to perchloroethylene (PCE), the largest share is employed in the dry-cleaning industry. PCE, a non-flammable solvent, has commercial applications as a chemical intermediate, metal degreaser and, since the 1950s, primary solvent in the dry-cleaning industry. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) currently finds sufficient evidence to designate PCE as carcinogenic in animals, with limited evidence in humans. With regard to occupational exposure through dry-cleaning, PCE is considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. This review was conducted to assess the current epidemiological literature on PCE and specific cancers. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all available epidemiological literature pertaining to the carcinogenic effects of PCE. Forty-four papers that provided reasonable data on up to 17 cancer sites were critically reviewed in the context of the available background literature for each cancer site and were assessed on the basis of specified methodological and scientific quality criteria. While all the epidemiological studies selected for review investigated similar exposure-health outcome relationships, there was a broad diversity of proxy measurements of exposure to PCE, as well as numerous specific cancer outcomes of interest. The widespread lack of valid exposure measurements or other adequate indicators of potential for exposure were consistent limitations. We found no evidence of an association between breast, prostate, skin or brain cancer and exposure to PCE. A relationship between PCE and cancer of the following sites was considered unlikely: oral cavity, liver, pancreas, cervix lung. Scientific evidence was inadequate for laryngeal, kidney, esophageal and bladder cancers. The current epidemiological evidence does not support a conclusion that occupational exposure to PCE is a risk factor for cancer of any specific site. Priority areas in which

  5. Women's occupational health: a critical review and discussion of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, K

    1997-01-01

    Action to improve women's occupational health has been slowed by a notion that women's jobs are safe and that any health problems identified among women workers can be attributed to unfitness for the job or unnecessary complaining. With increasing numbers of women in the labor force, the effects of work on women's health have recently started to interest health care providers, health and safety representatives and researchers. We begin our summary of their discoveries with a discussion of women's place in the workplace and its implications for occupational health, followed by a brief review of some gender-insensitive data-gathering techniques. We have then chosen to concentrate on the following four areas: methods and data collection; directing attention to women's occupational health problems; musculoskeletal disease; mental and emotional stress. We conclude by pointing out some neglected occupational groups and health issues.

  6. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  7. [Psychiatry and occupational diseases act in Chile: historical and critical review of a complex relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Juan C; Mena, Cristián; Ortiz, Sofía; Osorio, Juan P

    2016-12-01

    The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation. This article contains an historical overview and an epistemological debate based on the authors’ experience dealing with clinical and administrative work both in occupational psychiatry departments and in regulatory entities. The development of occupational mental health in Chile is examined as part of an historical process that initially did not consider the relationship between work and mental suffering as relevant. The application of a single causality model in psychiatry, as well as the effects of building a psychiatric nosology upon legal rather than medical criteria is contested.

  8. Review of occupational therapy for people with chronic pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robinson, Katie

    2011-04-01

    Chronic pain is a significant health-care problem. This review aims to critically analyse occupational therapy services for people with chronic pain and identify significant factors influencing the future development of occupational therapy services for people with chronic pain.

  9. The Impact of Load Carriage on Measures of Power and Agility in Tactical Occupations: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer’s mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer’s mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases. After relevant studies were located using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Checklist and relevant data were extracted and tabled. Fourteen studies were deemed relevant for this review, ranging in percentage quality scores from 42.85% to 71.43%. Outcome measures used in these studies to indicate levels of power and agility included short-distance sprints, vertical jumps, and agility runs, among others. Performance of both power and agility was shown to decrease when tactical load was added to the participants. This suggests that the increase in weight carried by tactical officers may put this population at risk of injury or fatality in the line of duty.

  10. The Impact of Load Carriage on Measures of Power and Agility in Tactical Occupations: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aaron; Wiley, Amy; Orr, Robin; Schram, Benjamin; Dawes, J Jay

    2018-01-07

    The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer's mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer's mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases. After relevant studies were located using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Checklist and relevant data were extracted and tabled. Fourteen studies were deemed relevant for this review, ranging in percentage quality scores from 42.85% to 71.43%. Outcome measures used in these studies to indicate levels of power and agility included short-distance sprints, vertical jumps, and agility runs, among others. Performance of both power and agility was shown to decrease when tactical load was added to the participants. This suggests that the increase in weight carried by tactical officers may put this population at risk of injury or fatality in the line of duty.

  11. Expanding beyond individualism: Engaging critical perspectives on occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alison J; Teachman, Gail; Laliberte-Rudman, Debbie; Aldrich, Rebecca M; Huot, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Perspectives that individualize occupation are poorly aligned with socially responsive and transformative occupation-focused research, education, and practice. Their predominant use in occupational therapy risks the perpetuation, rather than resolution, of occupational inequities. In this paper, we problematize taken-for-granted individualistic analyses of occupation and illustrate how critical theoretical perspectives can reveal the ways in which structural factors beyond an individual's immediate control and environment shape occupational possibilities and occupational engagement. Using a critically reflexive approach, we draw on three distinct qualitative research studies to examine the potential of critical theorizing for expanding beyond a reliance on individualistic analyses and practices. Our studies highlight the importance of addressing the socio-historical and political contexts of occupation and demonstrate the contribution of critical perspectives to socially responsive occupational therapy. In expanding beyond individualistic analyses of occupation, critical perspectives advance research and practices towards addressing socio-political mediators of occupational engagement and equity.

  12. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Suellen Sena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the work-related cause of de Quervain tenosynovitis: a critical appraisal of its recognition as an occupational disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stéphane; Vida, Daniel; Meisner, Christoph; Lotter, Oliver; Rothenberger, Jens; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Stahl, Adelana Santos

    2013-12-01

    The authors systematically reviewed all of the etiopathologic factors discussed in the literature to verify the classification of de Quervain tenosynovitis on the list of occupational diseases. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for articles discussing the cause of de Quervain tenosynovitis. The literature was classified by the level of evidence presented, the etiopathologic hypothesis discussed, the authors' conclusion about the role of the etiopathologic hypothesis, and the first author's professional background. The quality of reporting of the observational studies was evaluated by an extended Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement checklist. A meta-analysis of all controlled cohort studies was performed. The Bradford Hill criteria were used to evaluate a causal relationship between de Quervain tenosynovitis and occupational risk factors. A total of 179 references were found, and 80 articles were included. On average, only 35 percent (median, 35 percent; range, 16 to 60 percent) of all items on the extended Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist were addressed per article. The meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of the association between de Quervain tenosynovitis and (1) repetitive, (2) forceful, or (3) ergonomically stressful manual work suggested an odds ratio of 2.89 (95 percent CI, 1.4 to 5.97; p = 0.004). No evidence was found to support the Bradford Hill criteria for a causal relationship between de Quervain tenosynovitis and occupational risk factors. No sufficient scientific evidence was provided to confirm a causal relationship between de Quervain tenosynovitis and occupational risk factors. Risk, III.

  14. Outsourcing occupational health services. Critical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Dianne

    2002-02-01

    Successful management of an outsourcing relationship produces a highly interactive, flexible relationship between two organizations. The unique skills and resources of the service provider can be leveraged by the purchasing organization to achieve its business goals. Occupational and environmental health nurses can orchestrate this process and implement this important management tool in the provision of quality occupational health services.

  15. Using systematic review in occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Piacentino, John; MacMahon, Kathleen; Schulte, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of scientific evidence is critical in developing recommendations to reduce risk. Healthcare was the first scientific field to employ a systematic review approach for synthesizing research findings to support evidence-based decision-making and it is still the largest producer and consumer of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews in the field of occupational safety and health are being conducted, but more widespread use and adoption would strengthen assessments. In 2016, NIOSH asked RAND to develop a framework for applying the traditional systematic review elements to the field of occupational safety and health. This paper describes how essential systematic review elements can be adapted for use in occupational systematic reviews to enhance their scientific quality, objectivity, transparency, reliability, utility, and acceptability. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Enabling occupation at the end of life: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katherine; Payne, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Occupation, or meaningful activity, can contribute to the well-being and quality of life of all individuals. It is thus a logical tautology that occupation should be enabled for those at the end of life. Our present review examines current provision of these processes by Occupational Therapist, who can be much-valued members of multidisciplinary palliative care teams. Following a literature search and critical selection, 10 global papers were identified examining occupation and occupational therapy at the end of life in the acute, hospice, and community environments. Universally, there appeared to be a dearth of therapists working in end-of-life care. Provision of palliative care in hospitals was found to be compensatory or rehabilitative. Hospice therapy emerged as pleasingly occupational, though the number of hospice places was disappointingly few. Community literature was sparse, so it proved challenging to draw definitive conclusions. Promising research refracted light on occupation at home; however, it also revealed stretched domiciliary services, where clients are not well informed about the potential scope of occupational therapy. A "good death" involving a quality end-of-life experience is the foundational goal overarching all therapy and medicine in the provision of palliative care. Arguably, an occupation-focused approach provided by therapists meets client needs to enable meaningful experiences in the limited time left to them. Current occupational therapy practice environments are not necessarily achieving these goals in commensurate fashion. There is a need to promote the role of occupational therapy and circumscribe what therapists can offer. Further research is necessitated across all environments and future funding for therapist positions in palliative teams. End-of-life care can be complex and challenging; however, therapists can facilitate fulfillment of client-centered occupational goals. In engaging with personally constructed nuances of meaning

  17. Can critical inquiry differ from criticism? A dialogue with current occupational science and occupational therapy schools of inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical inquiry has been adopted by various academic disciplines. However, there is a lack of consistency and transparency in the way this complex theoretical and methodological position is applied in research. For novice researchers that ambiguity can lead to blurring the conceptual distinction between critical research and the act of criticizing. Objective: The purpose of this essay is to reflect on what it means to keep a critical perspective for novice researchers. Method: The concepts are explored through a personal narrative that allows authors to examine the details of their trajectory to embrace a critical perspective, which has the power to lead to change, both personal and social. Results: We explore the methodological foundations of the critical research and observe how the emotion is taken over or suppressed in the investigation process. Conclusion: We contextualize key concepts of critical investigation, examining its recent application both in occupational science and in occupational therapy.

  18. Photodesorption: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, D.; Shapira, Y.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the literature in the field of photodesorption is presented. Material is covered through December 1975. Although it is impossible to include every paper ever published which is in some way related to photodesorption, it is felt that the material covered is sufficiently complete to permit reasonable conclusions to be reached. The literature naturally falls into two basic categories, namely, papers involved with metal substrates and those involved with semiconductor substrates. Since the effects on these two kinds of surfaces are very different, they are each considered in separate sections. Photodesorption from metals seems to be an extremely inefficient process if it occurs at all. That is, cross sections are equal to or less than 10 -23 cm 2 . The reason for this extremely low cross section is not yet well understood. Photodesorption from semiconductors seems to be a very efficient process with cross sections as high as 10 -17 cm 2 . On most substrates studied, e.g. ZnO, TiO 2 , CdS, the chrome oxide surface of stainless steel, etc., impurity carbon atoms play a very significant role. On all these materials, the single or dominant process involves chemisorption of molecular oxygen onto the impurity carbon surface atoms. Electrons are captured from the conduction band to produce a chemisorbed CO 2 - complex. The application of band gap and higher energy radiation produces electron-hole pairs. Some of the photogenerated holes migrate to the surface where they combine with the negative ion complex. The resulting physisorbed CO 2 is then thermally desorbed

  19. A critical appraisal of 2007 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) Practice Guidelines for Interventional Pain Management: an independent review utilizing AGREE, AMA, IOM, and other criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Helm, Standiford; Trescot, Andrea M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2008-01-01

    Today, with the growing interest of the medical community and others in practice guidelines, there is greater emphasis on formal procedures and methods for arriving at a widely scrutinized and endorsed consensus than ever before. Conflicts in terminology and technique are notable for the confusion that guidelines create and for what they reflect about differences in values, experiences, and interests among different parties. While public and private development activities continue to multiply, the means for coordinating these efforts to resolve inconsistencies, fill in gaps, track applications and results, and assess the soundness of particular guidelines continue to be limited. In this era of widespread guideline development by private organizations, the American College of Occupational and Environment Medicine (ACOEM) has developed guidelines that evaluate areas of clinical practice well beyond the scope of occupational medicine and yet fail to properly involve physicians expert in these, especially those in the field of interventional pain management. As the field of guidelines suffers from imperfect and incomplete scientific knowledge as well as imperfect and uneven means of applying that knowledge without a single or correct way to develop guidelines, ACOEM guidelines have been alleged to hinder patient care, reduce access to interventional pain management procedures, and transfer patients into a system of disability, Medicare, and Medicaid. To critically appraise occupational medicine practice guidelines for interventional pain management by an independent review utilizing the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE), American Medical Association (AMA), Institute of Medicine (IOM), and other commonly utilized criteria. Revised chapters of ACOEM guidelines, low back pain and chronic pain, developed in 2007 and 2008 are evaluated, utilizing AGREE, AMA, IOM instruments, and Shaneyfelt et al's criteria, were independently reviewed by 4

  20. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besar, Idris [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings.

  1. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings. (author)

  2. Spondylolysis: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, C; Herring, S

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To provide an understanding of the current concepts in the natural history, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis based on the available medical literature. Methods—Articles were selected for review by the following methods: (a) MEDLINE searches with review of abstracts to select relevant articles; (b) review of multiple textbooks considered likely to contain information on spondylolysis; (c) review of references in articles identified by (a) and (b). Over 125 articles were ultimately reviewed fully. Publications were selected for inclusion in this article on the basis of perceived scientific and historical merit, particularly as thought to be relevant to achieving the stated purpose of this review. As no controlled clinical trials were identified, this could not be used as an inclusion criterion. Conclusions—Isthmic spondylolysis is considered to represent a fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis of the neural arch. There is a relatively high incidence of radiographically identified spondylolysis in the general population, but the vast majority of these lesions probably occur without associated symptoms. Symptomatic pars lesions appear to be particularly a clinical problem in adolescents, especially adolescent athletes. The optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithms are not well identified in the current literature. Multiple imaging studies may have a role in the diagnosis of a pars lesion, and treatment seems likely to require at least relative rest and physical rehabilitation with consideration of bracing or, rarely, surgical intervention depending on the clinical context. Key Words: spondylolysis; spondylolisthesis; spine; back; neural arch; pars interarticularis PMID:11131228

  3. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  4. Occupation-based practices and homelessness: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurence; Vallée, Catherine; Kirsh, Bonnie H; Marshall, Carrie Anne; Marval, Rebecca; Low, Alissa

    2017-04-01

    Persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness have occupational needs that are seldom addressed in the Canadian system of care. The lack of documented evidence on occupational therapy practices in this field hinders the development of the profession. This article identifies current and potential practices that aim to enable or support the occupations of persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness. A scoping review was conducted, including evidence from both occupational therapy and non-occupational therapy sources. One hundred and seventy-eight papers were selected in the areas of occupational performance skills training, enrichment of occupational repertoire, employment/education, physical rehabilitation services, child/family services, community building, occupational transition from homeless to housed, literacy, and disaster relief. Occupational therapists can build environments and create opportunities that facilitate occupational engagement of individuals experiencing homelessness. Gaps in knowledge include the evaluation of occupational therapy practices, the Canadian context of family homelessness, and the cultural safety of occupational therapy interventions.

  5. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  6. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  7. Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.

  8. A review of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, W.R.; Smith, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Occupational Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Mark; Herman, Jennifer; Dickason, Stephanie; Mayo, Helen

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the available literature on occupational therapy interventions performed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception through August 2016 for studies of adults who received occupational therapy interventions in the ICU. Of 1,938 citations reviewed, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study explicitly discussed occupational therapy interventions performed and only one study specifically tested the efficacy of occupational therapy. Future research is needed to clarify the specific interventions and role of occupational therapy in the ICU and the efficacy of these interventions.

  10. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  11. Executive functioning: a scoping review of the occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi A; Krupa, Terry M; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Lysaght, Rosemary M; Parker, Kevin H

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly recognized as an important factor in the performance of complex, goal-directed tasks, executive functioning is understood in different ways across disciplines. The aim was to explore the ways in which executive functioning is conceptualized, discussed, described, and implied in the occupational therapy literature. A scoping review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted following Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien's (2010) recommended methodology. Executive functioning is described both as a set of performance component skills or processes and as the executive occupational performance inherent in complex occupations. Executive functioning is implicit in occupational performance and engagement, and some health conditions seem to be commonly associated with impaired executive functioning. Assessing executive functioning requires dynamic occupation- and performance-based assessment. Interventions targeting executive functioning are grounded in metacognitive approaches. Executive functioning is a complex construct that is conceptualized with considerable variance within the occupational therapy literature, creating barriers to effective service delivery.

  12. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  13. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  14. Occupational Adaptation as a Construct: A Scoping Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Grajo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study integrates research on practice applications of the construct of occupational adaptation with occupational therapy and occupational science literature. Method: Using Arksey and O’Malley’s 5-step Scoping Study Framework (2005, we conducted a scoping review of 74 articles from five online databases and literature hand-searching and performed quantitative and thematic analyses. Results: The Occupational Adaptation model (Schkade & Schultz, 1992; n = 74 and the Model of Human Occupation (Kielhofner, 2008; n = 37 were the most frequently cited literature influences. Occupational adaptation has been defined as a process (n = 49, an outcome (n = 37 and both a process and outcome (n = 12 of occupational participation. Four qualitative themes emerged to support the definitions of occupational adaptation from the literature. Occupational adaptation was defined as (a a product of engagement in occupation, (b a transaction in the environment, (c a response to change and life transitions; and (d a formation of a desired sense of self. Discussion: Evidence of occupational adaptation as a viable construct warrants further research to operationalize practice and outcomes.

  15. Illustrating the Importance of Critical Epistemology to Realize the Promise of Occupational Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Lisette; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Magalhães, Lilian

    2016-08-24

    This article argues that it is vital to embrace critical reflexivity to interrogate the epistemological beliefs and principles guiding occupation-based scholarship to move away from frameworks that are incongruent with calls for occupational justice. For this purpose, we describe an epistemic tension between the stated intentions to demonstrate that occupation-based work can be a means to create a more just society and the epistemological beliefs that have historically dominated occupation-based scholarship. To exemplify the potential implications of this tension, a critical analysis of Creswell's social justice/transformative design is presented, illustrating that work that expresses a commitment to social justice while relying on positivist/postpositivist assumptions often risks perpetuating injustices through neglecting their sociopolitical construction. Drawing upon critical social theory, we highlight how engagement with critical epistemological assumptions can facilitate addressing the sociopolitical "roots" of occupational injustices and highlight directions for social transformation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Occupational Interests and Mentally Retarded People: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews several studies regarding the choice of occupational interests for the mentally retarded adolescent. Several concerns about current evaluation practices are discussed. Recommendations are offered for a client centered, developmental model, making the evaluation of occupational interests a viable part of the client's…

  17. Occupational injury among migrant workers in China: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Simon; Chen, Xin; Qu, Hui; Sheff, Mira Grice

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This review considers the state of occupational injury surveillance and prevention among migrant workers in China and suggests areas of focus for future research on the topic. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies on surveillance of and interventions to prevent occupational injury among migrant workers in mainland China. Additional abstracts were identified from the citations of relevant articles from the database search. Studies fitting the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and findings were extracted and summarised. Results The search uncovered 726 studies in the English-language databases searched, and 3109 in the Chinese database. This article analyses a total of 19 research articles that fit the inclusion criteria with qualitative or quantitative data on occupational injury surveillance and prevention of migrant workers in China. Despite evidence of the vulnerability of migrant workers in the workplace, there is little systematic surveillance of occupational injury and few evaluated interventions. Conclusions Migrant workers account for a disproportionate burden of occupational injury morbidity and mortality in China. However, data are inconsistent and inadequate to detail injury incidence or to evaluate interventions. The following are suggestions to decrease injury incidence among migrants: strengthen the national system of occupational injury surveillance; focus surveillance and interventions on high-risk occupations employing migrants such as construction, manufacturing and small mining operations; improve occupational safety training and access to appropriate safety equipment; evaluate recent changes in occupational health and safety and evaluate outcome of multi-party interventions to reduce occupational injury among migrant workers. PMID:23710065

  18. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p studies.

  19. A Review of Occupational Injury Research In Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, C S; Krishnan, R

    2016-06-01

    A literature review of 16 papers on occupational injury research in Malaysia published during a 13-year period from 2000-2013 was carried out. The objective of this review and article selection was based on relevance to the research theme and mention of areas for future research. Most of the publications have focused on descriptive epidemiology, management practices, worker's knowledge, attitude, training, and rehabilitation services. The transportation, agriculture and construction sectors were found to be the most hazardous sectors and would benefit the most from Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) research and interventions. There is a strong need to develop a national injury surveillance system and also a mechanism to ensure adherence to the Occupational Safety & Health Act(OSHA) 1994. Detailed description and identification of risk factors for occupational injury in the environment, including machinery and equipment used was generally lacking. Future research on occupational injury should focus on surveillance to determine the magnitude of occupational injuries, determination of risk factors, identifying costeffective interventions (such as enforcement of OSHA regulations), and assessment of rehabilitation services. Relevant government agencies, universities, corporate sector and occupational safety organizations need to play a proactive role in identifying priority areas and research capacity building. Funding for occupational injury should be commensurate with the magnitude of the problem.

  20. A systematic review of the etiopathogenesis of Kienböck's disease and a critical appraisal of its recognition as an occupational disease related to hand-arm vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahl Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We systematically reviewed etiological factors of Kienböck’s disease (osteonecrosis of the lunate discussed in the literature in order to examine the justification for including Kienböck’s disease (KD in the European Listing of Occupational Diseases. Methods We searched the Ovid/Medline and the Cochrane Library for articles discussing the etiology of osteonecrosis of the lunate published since the first description of KD in 1910 and up until July 2012 in English, French or German. Literature was classified by the level of evidence presented, the etiopathological hypothesis discussed, and the author's conclusion about the role of the etiopathological hypothesis. The causal relationship between KD and hand-arm vibration was elucidated by the Bradford Hill criteria. Results A total of 220 references was found. Of the included 152 articles, 140 (92% reached the evidence level IV (case series. The four most frequently discussed factors were negative ulnar variance (n=72; 47%, primary arterial ischemia of the lunate (n=63; 41%, trauma (n=63; 41% and hand-arm vibration (n=53; 35%. The quality of the cohort studies on hand-arm vibration did not permit a meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of an association to KD. Evidence for the lack of consistency, plausibility and coherence of the 4 most frequently discussed etiopathologies was found. No evidence was found to support any of the nine Bradford Hill criteria for a causal relationship between KD and hand-arm vibration. Conclusions A systematic review of 220 articles on the etiopathology of KD and the application of the Bradford Hill criteria does not provide sufficient scientific evidence to confirm or refute a causal relationship between KD and hand-arm vibration. This currently suggests that, KD does not comply with the criteria of the International Labour Organization determining occupational diseases. However, research with a higher level of evidence is required to

  1. Critical review of Compton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardi, R.; Licitra, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic aspects, problems, and applications of Compton imaging including those related to nonmedical applications. The physics and technology at the base of this specific methodology are analyzed and the relative differences and merits with respect to other imaging techniques, using ionizing radiations, are reviewed. The basic Compton imaging approaches, i.e., point-by-point, line-by-line, and plane-by-plane, are analyzed. Specifically, physical design and technological aspects are reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, the most important clinical applications of the different methods are presented and discussed. Finally, possibilities and applications of the Compton imaging method to other nonmedical fields, as in the case of the important area of object defects recognition, are analyzed and reviewed. 56 references

  2. Joint Attention and Occupations for Children and Families Living with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verna G. Eschenfelder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Research reports that children living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may demonstrate deficits in social, emotional, behavioral, and communication skills, which adversely affect social participation and occupational engagement. Joint attention skills constitute any nonverbal communication that captures the attention of another to create a shared interactional experience. The components of joint attention can be targeted through intervention to promote occupational engagement in childhood co-occupations. Methods: A scoping review process was applied in the current study. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria to be analyzed through critical appraisal of topics and use of a matrix. Results: Evidence indicates that joint attention skills can be developed in children living with ASD through targeted teaching interventions. Analysis of the data elucidated emergent themes in the form of commonly used strategies to develop joint attention skills in children living with ASD. Conclusion: Joint attention teaching strategies can be implemented to develop social interaction performance skills in children living with ASD. The benefits of developing joint attention skills in this population directly relate to improved occupational and co-occupational engagement. Joint attention teaching strategies naturally align with occupational therapy techniques and approaches and should be considered as an enhancement to occupational therapy intervention.

  3. Critical Media Literacy and Gender: Teaching Middle School Children about Gender Stereotypes and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda; Hedley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the implementation of a small-scale critical media literacy curriculum unit focused on gender stereotypes, especially as they pertain to occupations. The research question was whether students exposed to the critical media literacy (CML) curriculum were more likely than students not exposed to believe: that…

  4. Korsakoff's syndrome: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, N.J.M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of

  5. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research in...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  6. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig; Blanc, Paul; Brisman, Jonas Brisman; Miller, Martin Reginald; Pedersen, Ole Find; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Viskum, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational exposure classification, lack of either external or internal referents, non-accounting of age or smoking effect, or major analytic inadequacies preventing interpretation of findings. A structured data extraction sheet was used for the remaining 147 articles. Final inclusion was based on a positive qualitative Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) score (≥2+) for study quality, yielding 25 population-wide and 34 industry/occupation-specific studies, 15 on inorganic and 19 on organic dust exposure, respectively. There was a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD in 22 of 25 population-based studies, 12 of 15 studies with an inorganic/mineral dust exposure, and 17 of 19 studies on organic exposure, even though the studies varied in design, populations, and the use of measures of exposure and outcome. A nearly uniform pattern of a dose-response relationship between various exposures and COPD was found, adding to the evidence that occupational exposures from vapors, gas, dust, and fumes are risk factors for COPD. There is strong and consistent evidence to support a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.

  7. A critical review of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Turok, N G

    2002-01-01

    The theory of cosmic inflation offers an attractive resolution of some of the great paradoxes in cosmology: why the universe is so large, flat and uniform on large scales, and how density variations arose. Inflation has rightly dominated cosmological thinking for the past two decades, helping stimulate the development of high-precision observational programmes. The survival of simple inflationary models in the face of an impressive observational onslaught has been interpreted as convincing evidence of the correctness of the basic idea. In this paper, I review inflation, but highlight its weaknesses, explaining my reasons for believing that a more complete theory may supersede inflation without necessarily incorporating it.

  8. A critical review of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    The theory of cosmic inflation offers an attractive resolution of some of the great paradoxes in cosmology: why the universe is so large, flat and uniform on large scales, and how density variations arose. Inflation has rightly dominated cosmological thinking for the past two decades, helping stimulate the development of high-precision observational programmes. The survival of simple inflationary models in the face of an impressive observational onslaught has been interpreted as convincing evidence of the correctness of the basic idea. In this paper, I review inflation, but highlight its weaknesses, explaining my reasons for believing that a more complete theory may supersede inflation without necessarily incorporating it

  9. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijkx, Piet J.; Besselink, Marc G.; Witteman, Ben J.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Bakker, Olaf J.

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition

  10. Systems pathology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of critical reasoning in online learning: application of the Occupational Performance Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; Batorski, Rosemary E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of an online guided independent study on critical reasoning skills. Twenty-one first-semester Master of Occupational Therapy students completed an online assignment designed to facilitate application of the Occupational Performance Process Model (Fearing & Clark) and kept reflective journals. Data from the journals were analyzed in relation to the three sets of questions, question type and results of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). This assignment appeared to be effective for enhancing awareness and use of critical reasoning skills. Differences in patterns of critical reasoning between students with high and low WGCTA scores and results of an inductive analysis of the journal entries are discussed. Future research investigating the types of feedback that effectively facilitate development of critical reasoning and whether students with high and low WGCTA scores might benefit from different types of instruction and/or feedback is recommended. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Critical perspective from Latin America: an epistemic disobedience in the contemporary Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pino Morán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present the critical foundations underlying the Occupational Therapy practice construction in Chile and Latin America. Although the manuscript has a theoretical/conceptual development, it is the result of the tension emerging from daily practice. The results presented have the political intention of inviting occupational therapists to identify a chain of common knowledge, applicable in various fields of the discipline role. The work’s scope should be sized as a small bibliographical discussion of a much broader and deeper stream, however, it offers us various inputs for practice and theory and research in Occupational Therapy. In conclusion we can identify a number of theories, methodologies and techniques used in the practice of occupational therapy that are not clearly identified as a particular perspective from Latin America, which is the manuscript proposal, inviting to a deeper discussion .

  13. Simulation in Occupational Therapy Curricula: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Rodger, Sylvia; Fitzgerald, Cate; Gibson, Libby

    2017-08-01

    Simulated learning experiences are increasingly being used in health-care education to enhance student engagement and provide experiences that reflect clinical practice; however, simulation has not been widely investigated in occupational therapy curricula. The aim of this paper was to: (i) describe the existing research about the use and evaluation of simulation over the last three decades in occupational therapy curricula and (ii) consider how simulation has been used to develop competence in students. A literature review was undertaken with searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL and ERIC to locate articles that described or evaluated the use of simulation in occupational therapy curricula. Fifty-seven papers were identified. Occupational therapy educators have used the full scope of simulation modalities, including written case studies (22), standardised patients (13), video case studies (15), computer-based and virtual reality cases (7), role-play (8) and mannequins and part-task trainers (4). Ten studies used combinations of these modalities and two papers compared modalities. Most papers described the use of simulation for foundational courses, as for preparation for fieldwork, and to address competencies necessary for newly graduating therapists. The majority of studies were descriptive, used pre-post design, or were student's perceptions of the value of simulation. Simulation-based education has been used for a wide range of purposes in occupational therapy curricula and appears to be well received. Randomised controlled trials are needed to more accurately understand the effects of simulation not just for occupational therapy students but for longer term outcomes in clinical practice. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. Integrated Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A; Joss, N; Husser, E; Oldenburg, B

    2017-09-01

    The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated workplace interventions that combine health promotion with occupational health and safety. Electronic databases (n = 8), including PsychInfo and MEDLINE, were systematically searched. Studies included were those that reported on workplace interventions that met the consensus definition of an "integrated approach," published in English, in the scientific literature since 1990. Data extracted were occupation, worksite, country, sample size, intervention targets, follow-up period, and results reported. Quality was assessed according to American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines. Heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analyses. Results were classified according to the outcome(s) assessed into five categories (health promotion, injury prevention, occupational health and safety management, psychosocial, and return-on-investment). Narrative synthesis of outcomes was performed. A total of 31 eligible studies were identified; 23 (74%) were (quasi-)experimental trials. Effective interventions were most of those aimed at improving employee physical or mental health. Less consistent results were reported from integrated interventions targeting occupational health and safety management, injury prevention, or organizational cost savings. Integrated approaches have been posed as comprehensive solutions to complex issues. Empirical evidence, while still emerging, provides some support for this. Continuing investment in, and evaluation of, integrated approaches are worthwhile.

  15. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold eagle... background, encircled by a white band edged in black and inscribed “Occupational Safety and Health Review...

  16. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Domingo-Pueyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed, ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information, Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years,” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  17. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  18. Music in Peacebuilding: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The critical literature review summarizes and appraises studies that have been pursued by music scholars examining the contributions of music to peacebuilding as well as the role of music in violence. These two bodies of literature are rarely brought into dialogue, but I juxtapose them in order to confront the idea of music's exceptionalism as…

  19. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  20. A critical review of clarifier modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Nopens, Ingmar; Rieger, Leiv

    This outline paper aims to provide a critical review of secondary settling tank (SST) modelling approaches used in current wastewater engineering and develop tools not yet applied in practice. We address the development of different tier models and experimental techniques in the field...

  1. Occupational and environmental risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Agnes S; Hirsch, Annemarie G; Storm, Margaret; Tan, Bruce K; Kennedy, Thomas L; Greene, J Scott; Kern, Robert C; Schwartz, Brian S

    2015-11-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent and disabling paranasal sinus disease, with a likely multifactorial etiology potentially including hazardous occupational and environmental exposures. We completed a systematic review of the occupational and environmental literature to evaluate the quality of evidence of the role that hazardous exposures might play in CRS. We searched PubMed for studies of CRS and following exposure categories: occupation, employment, work, industry, air pollution, agriculture, farming, environment, chemicals, roadways, disaster, and traffic. We abstracted information from the final set of articles across 6 primary domains: study design; population; exposures evaluated; exposure assessment; CRS definition; and results. We identified 41 articles from 1080 manuscripts: 37 occupational risk papers, 1 environmental risk paper, and 3 papers studying both categories of exposures. None of the 41 studies used a CRS definition consistent with current diagnostic guidelines. Exposure assessment was generally dependent on self-report or binary measurements of exposure based on industry of employment. Only grain, dairy, and swine operations among farmers were evaluated by more than 1 study using a common approach to defining CRS, but employment in these settings was not consistently associated with CRS. The multiple other exposures did not meet quality standards for reporting associations or were not evaluated by more than 1 study. The current state of the literature allows us to make very few conclusions about the role of hazardous occupational or environmental exposures in CRS, leaving a critical knowledge gap regarding potentially modifiable risk factors for disease onset and progression. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    2013-01-15

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  3. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The

  4. English language learning materials a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Tomlinson

    2010-01-01

    This research collection presents a critical review of the materials used for learning English around the world. The first section includes a discussion of materials for specific learners and purposes, such as young learners, self-study, academic writing and general proficiency. The second section presents a detailed study of the materials used in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, Africa and Australia, and critically evaluates their effectiveness in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. Taking both the teacher's and the learner's needs into consideration, the book m

  5. Occupational stress in the ED: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhashis; Qayyum, Hasan; Mason, Suzanne

    2017-07-01

    Occupational stress is a major modern health and safety challenges. While the ED is known to be a high-pressure environment, the specific organisational stressors which affect ED staff have not been established. We conducted a systematic review of literature examining the sources of organisational stress in the ED, their link to adverse health outcomes and interventions designed to address them. A narrative review of contextual factors that may contribute to occupational stress was also performed. All articles written in English, French or Spanish were eligible for conclusion. Study quality was graded using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-five full-text articles were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review. Most were of moderate quality, with two low-quality and two high-quality studies, respectively. While high demand and low job control were commonly featured, other studies demonstrated the role of insufficient support at work, effort-reward imbalance and organisational injustice in the development of adverse health and occupational outcomes. We found only one intervention in a peer-reviewed journal evaluating a stress reduction programme in ED staff. Our review provides a guide to developing interventions that target the origins of stress in the ED. It suggests that those which reduce demand and increase workers' control over their job, improve managerial support, establish better working relationships and make workers' feel more valued for their efforts could be beneficial. We have detailed examples of successful interventions from other fields which may be applicable to this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Occupational noise and ischemic heart disease: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M Dzhambov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise exposure might be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD. Unlike residential exposure, however, evidence for occupational noise is limited. Given that high-quality quantitative synthesis of existing data is highly warranted for occupational safety and policy, we aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risks of IHD morbidity and mortality because of occupational noise exposure. We carried out a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and on the Internet since April 2, 2015, in English, Spanish, Russian, and Bulgarian. A quality-scoring checklist was developed a priori to assess different sources of methodological bias. A qualitative data synthesis was performed. Conservative assumptions were applied when appropriate. A meta-analysis was not feasible because of unresolvable methodological discrepancies between the studies. On the basis of five studies, there was some evidence to suggest higher risk of IHD among workers exposed to objectively assessed noise >75–80 dB for <20 years (supported by one high, one moderate, and one low quality study, opposed by one high and one moderate quality study. Three moderate and two low quality studies out of six found self-rated exposure to be associated with higher risk of IHD, and only one moderate quality study found no effect. Out of four studies, a higher mortality risk was suggested by one moderate quality study relying on self-rated exposure and one of high-quality study using objective exposure. Sensitivity analyses showed that at higher exposures and in some vulnerable subgroups, such as women, the adverse effects were considerably stronger. Despite methodological discrepancies and limitations of the included studies, occupational noise appeared to be a risk factor for IHD morbidity. Results suggested higher risk for IHD mortality only among vulnerable subgroups. Workers exposed to high occupational noise should be considered at higher overall risk of IHD.

  8. Critical dialogical approach: A methodological direction for occupation-based social transformative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Lisette; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Pollard, Nick; Schiller, Sandra; Serrata Malfitano, Ana Paula; Thomas, Kerry; van Bruggen, Hanneke

    2018-05-03

    Calls for embracing the potential and responsibility of occupational therapy to address socio-political conditions that perpetuate occupational injustices have materialized in the literature. However, to reach beyond traditional frameworks informing practices, this social agenda requires the incorporation of diverse epistemological and methodological approaches to support action commensurate with social transformative goals. Our intent is to present a methodological approach that can help extend the ways of thinking or frameworks used in occupational therapy and science to support the ongoing development of practices with and for individuals and collectives affected by marginalizing conditions. We describe the epistemological and theoretical underpinnings of a methodological approach drawing on Freire and Bakhtin's work. Integrating our shared experience taking part in an example study, we discuss the unique advantages of co-generating data using two methods aligned with this approach; dialogical interviews and critical reflexivity. Key considerations when employing this approach are presented, based on its proposed epistemological and theoretical stance and our shared experiences engaging in it. A critical dialogical approach offers one way forward in expanding occupational therapy and science scholarship by promoting collaborative knowledge generation and examination of taken-for-granted understandings that shape individuals assumptions and actions.

  9. EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question

  10. Plant safety review from mass criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    The review has been done to understand the resent status of the plant in facing postulated mass criticality accident. From the design concept of the plant all the components in the system including functional groups have been designed based on favorable mass/geometry safety principle. The criticality safety for each component is guaranteed because all the dimensions relevant to criticality of the components are smaller than dimensions of 'favorable mass/geometry'. The procedures covering all aspects affecting quality including the safety related are developed and adhered to at all times. Staff are indoctrinated periodically in short training session to warn the important of the safety in process of production. The plant is fully equipped with 6 (six) criticality detectors in strategic places to alert employees whenever the postulated mass criticality accident occur. In the event of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness, PT BATAN TEKNOLOGI has also proposed the organization structure how promptly to report the crisis to Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN) Indonesia. (author)

  11. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  12. A review of occupationally-linked suicide for dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L M; Cotter, R; Birch, K M

    2016-06-01

    Suicide rates among dentists and a perceived elevated risk for suicide have been debated in the academic literature. It has filtered into the public psyche that dentists have the highest suicide rate of any occupation. The present review seeks support for both protagonist and antagonist positions from multidisciplinary perspectives. Contemporary risk factors and strategies for intervention and the prevention of suicide in dentistry are explored. An online database search for articles and reports, with selected target words, was conducted for peer reviewed publications on suicide in the dental profession, and for factors contributing to dentist suicide. Review guidelines from the American Psychological Association were used to clarify concepts, identify where most work was focussed, and to explore the superiority of any approach to the emotive topic over another. Findings suggest the dominant belief that dentists have an elevated risk of suicide may be historically, but not currently, accurate. Although dentists' suicide is trending down, diversity in methodology means no current consensus is possible. Factors found to be influencing dentists' suicide ranged from known occupational stressors, to toxins and substance abuse, and untreated mental health problems. The contemporary position in New Zealand shows dentists per sé are not more likely than other health professionals to commit suicide although they may have been in the past. Dentists should be aware of individual susceptibility to burnout and mental health problems. Future directions are outlined to address this including peer intervention, and programmes available for dentists to cope better with risks leading to suicide.

  13. Impact of peer review audit on occupational health report quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Macdonald, E B

    2015-08-01

    In a previous report, we described the implementation of a formal process for peer review of occupational health (OH) reports and a method of assessment of the outcomes of this process. The initial audit identified that 27% of OH reports required modifications. To assess formally, following implementation of this process, if changes in practice had occurred, i.e. whether fewer deficiencies were being identified in reports. We repeated a prospective internal audit of all peer reviewed OH reports between September and November 2011. We used an abbreviated assessment form, based on questions 4-8 and 10-12 of the modified SAIL (Sheffield Assessment Instrument for Letters), with four possible outcomes: no action, no changes made to report following discussion with author, changes made without discussion with author and changes made following discussion with author. One hundred seventy-three reports by 10 clinicians were audited. The audit identified a 13% reduction in OH reports requiring modifications (from 27 to 14%) compared with the previous cycle. Where modifications were required, 8% of these were related to minor typographical, spelling and grammar errors and 6% were for more complex reasons. Implementation of this process also produced a reduction in clinical complaints about OH reports from customers, from three in the preceding year to none 2 years later. Peer review improved the standard of OH reports and was associated with a reduction in customer complaints about reports. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  14. Development of critical digital review procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huiwen; Liao Benching; Tseng Maosheng; Chung Hsianghan; Cheng Tsungchieh; Chen Minghuei

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the critical digital review (CDR) procedure, which was developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and sponsored by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A preliminary CDR application experience which was performed by INER, is also described in this paper. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The 'CDR Review Items' chapter proposes optional review items, including the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SV and V), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, HFE Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. Since CDR has become a TPC policy, Chin Shan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) performed the CDR practice of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) digital I and C replacement, even though the project had been on the half way. The major review items of this CDR were: the comparison of the design change, SV and V, FMEA, Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/ Component, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. The experience of the CDR showed the importance of preparation of the documents by the vendor. This means the communication with the vendors for the bid preparation is crucial. (author)

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  16. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  17. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...... modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones...

  18. Occupational noise exposure and hearing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johannessen, Håkon A; Tynes, Tore; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    To give a systematic review of the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in working life. A literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Health and Safety Abstracts, with appropriate keywords on noise in the workplace and health, revealed 22,413 articles which were screened by six researchers. A total of 698 articles were reviewed in full text and scored with a checklist, and 187 articles were found to be relevant and of sufficient quality for further analysis. Occupational noise exposure causes between 7 and 21 % of the hearing loss among workers, lowest in the industrialized countries, where the incidence is going down, and highest in the developing countries. It is difficult to distinguish between NIHL and age-related hearing loss at an individual level. Most of the hearing loss is age related. Men lose hearing more than women do. Heredity also plays a part. Socioeconomic position, ethnicity and other factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, vibration and chemical substances, may also affect hearing. The use of firearms may be harmful to hearing, whereas most other sources of leisure-time noise seem to be less important. Impulse noise seems to be more deleterious to hearing than continuous noise. Occupational groups at high risk of NIHL are the military, construction workers, agriculture and others with high noise exposure. The prevalence of NIHL is declining in most industrialized countries, probably due to preventive measures. Hearing loss is mainly related to increasing age.

  19. Chromium: a review of environmental and occupational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencko, V

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this brief review on the environmental and occupational toxicology of chromium: occurrence, production and uses of chromium and chromium compounds; experimental toxicology; chromium toxicity for man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of chromium contamination of the environment. The review provides a conclusive evidence which suggests that chromium, especially its hexavalent form, is both toxic and carcinogenic, but its trivalent form is physiologically essential in the metabolism of insulin. It is also emphasized that among the major sources of environmental chromium today are the cement industry and the increasingly widespread use of chromium compounds added as an anticorrosion admixture to a variety of cooling systems, e.g. in large power plants, which may greatly contribute to the overall pollution of outdoor air at the sites.

  20. Chromium: a review of environmental and occupational toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, V

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this brief review on the environmental and occupational toxicology of chromium: occurrence, production and uses of chromium and chromium compounds; experimental toxicology; chromium toxicity for man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of chromium contamination of the environment. The review provides a conclusive evidence which suggests that chromium, especially its hexavalent form, is both toxic and carcinogenic, but its trivalent form is physiologically essential in the metabolism of insulin. It is also emphasized that among the major sources of environmental chromium today are the cement industry and the increasingly widespread use of chromium compounds added as an anticorrosion admixture to a variety of cooling systems, e.g. in large power plants, which may greatly contribute to the overall pollution of outdoor air at the sites. 108 references.

  1. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  2. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  3. Do occupational therapy and physical therapy curricula teach critical thinking skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kimberly A; Geelhoed, Michael; Grice, Kimatha O; Murphy, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether critical thinking ability can be improved through participation in occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) curricula. The researchers compared levels of the critical thinking skills of OT and PT students at the beginning and end of their programs to determine whether changes occurred and to examine facets of the curricula that may have caused the differences. The curricula include teaching strategies of problem-based learning modules, small group discussion and problem-solving, case studies, clinical observation, and evidence-based practice assignments, as well as teaching about critical thinking as a process in itself. Fifty OT and PT students completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal at the beginning and end of 20 mos of the academic phase of their master's degree programs. Researchers analyzed the data using a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed no differences between OT and PT students on the pretest or post-test and no differences for PT students between the pretest and post-test. OT students' scores increased significantly from pretest to post-test. The influence of the timing of teaching critical thinking skills in the resulting differences between the two curricula, as well as the validity of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is a valid measure of critical thinking changes in allied health students are discussed.

  4. Coaching as a Family-Centred, Occupational Therapy Intervention for Autism: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Desley

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require a sound evidence-base. In the context of emerging evidence on coaching interventions in paediatric occupational therapy practice, a review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted to investigate the use of coaching interventions for children and adolescents…

  5. 78 FR 59983 - Submission for Review: OPM Form 1203-FX, Occupational Questionnaire, 3206-0040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: OPM Form 1203-FX, Occupational Questionnaire... request (ICR) 3206-0040, Occupational Questionnaire, OPM Form 1203-FX. As required by the Paperwork.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Occupational Questionnaire is an optical scan form designed to collect applicant...

  6. Consumer sleep tracking devices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Consumer sleep tracking devices are widely advertised as effective means to monitor and manage sleep quality and to provide positive effects on overall heath. However objective evidence supporting these claims is not always readily available. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of available information on six representative sleep tracking devices: BodyMedia FIT, Fitbit Flex, Jawbone UP, Basis Band, Innovative Sleep Solutions SleepTracker, and Zeo Sleep Manager Pro. The review was conducted along the following dimensions: output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified a critical lack of basic information about the devices: five out of six devices provided no supporting information on their sensor accuracy and four out of six devices provided no information on their output metrics accuracy. Only three devices were found to have related peer-reviewed articles. However in these articles wake detection accuracy was revealed to be quite low and to vary widely (BodyMedia, 49.9±3.6%; Fitbit, 19.8%; Zeo, 78.9% to 83.5%). No supporting evidence on how well tracking devices can help mitigate sleep loss and manage sleep disturbances in practical life was provided.

  7. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  8. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Critical opalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, L. A.; Romanov, Vadim P.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of critical opalescence near phase transitions in different systems are reviewed. The fundamentals of the modern approach to the description of the propagation and scattering of light in media with large nonuniformities are presented. The experimental data on the coefficient of extinction and integrated intensity of the scattered light are analyzed and different models for the correlation function are discussed. Different methods for studying multiple scattering of light and methods for eliminating it from the measured intensity are examined. The kinetic properties of systems in the critical region are examined. Attention is devoted primarily to the experimental data obtained by the methods of correlation spectroscopy and to the comparison of these data with the predictions of different theoretical models. Significant attention is devoted to the study of phase transitions in liquids by the methods of light scattering as well as the problem of propagation and scattering of light in the nematic phase, where fluctuations of the director exhibit the same behavior as at the critical point. In conclusion, phase transformations in micellar solutions, to which a great deal of attention has been devoted in recent years, are studied.

  9. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  10. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2013-08-05

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers' diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen's compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker's compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194.

  11. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  12. Critical review: medical students' motivation after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Chris

    2016-08-01

    About 10 % of students in each years' entrants to medical school will encounter academic failure at some stage in their programme. The usual approach to supporting these students is to offer them short term remedial study programmes that often enhance approaches to study that are orientated towards avoiding failure. In this critical review I will summarise the current theories about student motivation that are most relevant to this group of students and describe how they are enhanced or not by various contextual factors that medical students experience during their programme. I will conclude by suggesting ways in which support programmes for students who have encountered academic failure might be better designed and researched in the future.

  13. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Thomas P.; Monahan, Shean P.; Pruvost, Norman L.; Frolov, Vladimir V.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.

    2000-01-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report

  14. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i dyes; (ii heavy metals; (iii phenols; (iv pesticides and (v pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods; (ii agricultural residues and wastes; (iii low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources. These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc., but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful topics such as: (i adsorption capacity; (ii kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes and (iii critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents.

  15. Bruxism and prosthetic treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2011-07-01

    Based on the findings from available research on bruxism and prosthetic treatment published in the dental literature, an attempt was made to draw conclusions about the existence of a possible relationship between the two, and its clinical relevance. MEDLINE/PubMed searches were conducted using the terms 'bruxism' and 'prosthetic treatment', as well as combinations of these and related terms. The few studies judged to be relevant were critically reviewed, in addition to papers found during an additional manual search of reference lists within selected articles. Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit, occurring both during sleep and wakefulness. Usually it causes few serious effects, but can do so in some patients. The etiology is multifactorial. There is no known treatment to stop bruxism, including prosthetic treatment. The role of bruxism in the process of tooth wear is unclear, but it is not considered a major cause. As informed by the present critical review, the relationship between bruxism and prosthetic treatment is one that relates mainly to the effect of the former on the latter. Bruxism may be included among the risk factors, and is associated with increased mechanical and/or technical complications in prosthodontic rehabilitation, although it seems not to affect implant survival. When prosthetic intervention is indicated in a patient with bruxism, efforts should be made to reduce the effects of likely heavy occlusal loading on all the components that contribute to prosthetic structural integrity. Failure to do so may indicate earlier failure than is the norm. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  17. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Smith, Sheila W.; Carneiro-Leao, Ana Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance) or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here, we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions. (author)

  19. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  20. A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battefeld, Diana, E-mail: dbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institut for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 (Germany); Peter, Patrick, E-mail: peter@iap.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-04-01

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.

  1. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  2. Psychosocial interventions for managing occupational stress and burnout among medical doctors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bonnie A; March, Sonja; Chan, Raymond J; Casey, Leanne M; Phillips, Rachel; Ireland, Michael J

    2017-07-17

    Occupational stress and burnout are highly prevalent among medical doctors and can have adverse effects on patient, doctor, and organisational outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to review and evaluate evidence on psychosocial interventions aimed at reducing occupational stress and burnout among medical doctors. A systematic review was conducted for original research articles reporting on psychosocial interventions targeting occupational stress or burnout among medical doctors, published in the English language, and with data collected at a minimum of two time points. Searches were conducted across five electronic databases, as well as by manual search of Google Scholar. Data was extracted relating to study characteristics and outcomes, quality and rigour, as well as modes of delivery and engagement. Studies were appraised using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Twenty-three articles were reviewed, which reported on interventions utilising cognitive-behavioural, relaxation, and supportive discussion strategies. Only 12 studies allowed estimation of pre- to post-intervention effects. Cognitive behavioural interventions demonstrated the strongest evidence, particularly for reducing stress. Some evidence was identified to support the efficacy of relaxation-based approaches, but no such evidence was found for the efficacy of discussion-based interventions, such as Balint groups. There was a lack of quality among reviewed studies, with no studies receiving a quality rating of 1, and the overall body of evidence being rated as level B, according to the SORT. Effect sizes were not pooled due to a lack of quality among the study sample. This review found that despite increased scientific attention, the quality of research examining the benefits of psychosocial/behavioural interventions for occupational stress and burnout in medical doctors remains low. Despite this, interventions focused on cognitive

  3. Information dissemination and use: critical components in occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P A; Okun, A; Stephenson, C M; Colligan, M; Ahlers, H; Gjessing, C; Loos, G; Niemeier, R W; Sweeney, M H

    2003-11-01

    Information dissemination is a mandated, but understudied, requirement of occupational and environmental health laws and voluntary initiatives. Research is needed on the factors that enhance and limit the development, transfer, and use of occupational safety and health information (OSH). Contemporary changes in the workforce, workplaces, and the nature of work will require new emphasis on the dissemination of information to foster prevention. Legislative and regulatory requirements and voluntary initiatives for dissemination of OSH information were identified and assessed. Literature on information dissemination was reviewed to identify important issues and useful approaches. More than 20 sections of laws and regulations were identified that mandated dissemination of occupational and environmental safety and health information. A four-stage approach for tracking dissemination and considering the flow of information was delineated. Special areas of dissemination were identified: the information needs of the changing workforce, new and young workers; small businesses; and workers with difficulty in understanding or reading English. We offer a framework for dissemination of OSH information and underscore the need to focus on the extent to which decision-makers and others receive and use such information. More solid data are also needed on current investments in disseminating, diffusing and applying OSH information and on the utility of that information. Am. J. Ind. Med. 44:515-531, 2003. Published 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings: Evidence from a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley

    2015-12-01

    Increased accountability and growing fiscal limitations in global health care continue to challenge how occupational therapy practices are undertaken. Little is known about how these changes affect current practice in acute hospital settings. This article reviews the relevant literature to further understanding of occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings. A scoping review of five electronic databases was completed using the keywords Occupational therapy, acute hospital settings/acute physical hospital settings, acute care setting/acute care hospital setting, general medicine/general medical wards, occupational therapy service provision/teaching hospitals/tertiary care hospitals. Criteria were applied to determine suitability for inclusion and the articles were analysed to uncover key themes. In total 34 publications were included in the review. Analysis of the publications revealed four themes: (1) Comparisons between the practice of novice and experienced occupational therapists in acute care (2) Occupational therapists and the discharge planning process (3) Role of occupation in the acute care setting and (4) Personal skills needed and organisation factors affecting acute care practice. The current literature has highlighted the challenges occupational therapists face in practicing within an acute setting. Findings from this review enhance understanding of how occupational therapy department managers and educators can best support staff that practise in acute hospital settings. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. A Critical Review of the Critical Period Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovel, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how perspectives on the critical period hypothesis (CPH) have shifted over the last 20-20 years, because of the work of applied linguistics and other disciplines. Advises caution into translating CPH research into personal practice or public policy. (Author/VWL)

  6. A review of occupational dose assessment uncertainties and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Practitioner (RPP) will spend a considerable proportion of his time predicting or assessing retrospective radiation exposures to occupational personnel for different purposes. The assessments can be for a variety of purposes, such as to predict doses for occupational dose control, or project design purposes or to make retrospective estimates for the dose record, or account for dosemeters which have been lost or damaged. There are other less frequent occasions when dose assessment will be required such as to support legal cases and compensation claims and to provide the detailed dose information for epidemiological studies. It is important that the level of detail, justification and supporting evidence in the dose assessment is suitable for the requirements. So for instance, day to day operational dose assessments often rely mainly on the knowledge of the RPP in discussion with operators whilst at the other end of the spectrum a historical dose assessment for a legal case will require substantial research and supporting evidence for the estimate to withstand forensic challenge. The robustness of the assessment will depend on many factors including a knowledge of the work activities, the radiation dose uptake and field characteristics; all of which are affected by factors such as the time elapsed, the memory of operators and the dosemeters employed. This paper reviews the various options and uncertainties in dose assessments ranging from use of personal dosimetry results to the development of upper bound assessments. The level of assessment, the extent of research and the evidence adduced should then be appropriate to the end use of the estimate. (Author)

  7. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  8. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  9. A systematic review of occupational safety and health business cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2009-12-01

    Business cases are commonly developed as means to rationalize investment. We systematically reviewed 26 reported cases on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions to assess if health and productivity arguments make a good business case. To be included in the review, studies had to analyze the costs and benefits, including productivity, of an OSH intervention at the enterprise level. We searched Medline and Embase for studies and used Google search in addition. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The intervention profitability was calculated in euros (euro in 2008) as the first year's benefits minus the total intervention costs per worker. The payback period was calculated as the intervention costs divided by the first year's benefits. We found three ex-ante and 23 ex-post cases. In 20 cases, the study design was a before-after comparison without a control group. Generally a 100% reduction of injuries or sickness absence was assumed. In two cases, productivity and quality increases were very large. The main benefit was avoided sick leave. Depreciation or discounting was applied only in a minority of cases. The intervention profitability was negative in seven studies, up to euro 500 per employee in 12 studies and more than euro 500 per employee in seven studies. The payback period was less than half a year for 19 studies. Only a few studies included sensitivity analyses. Few ex-ante business cases for management decisions on OSH are reported. Guidelines for reporting and evaluation are needed. Business cases need more sound assumptions on the effectiveness of interventions and should incorporate greater uncertainty into their design. Ex-post evaluation should be based preferably on study designs that control for trends at a time different from that of the intervention.

  10. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Lower-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle

    Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. The influence of occupation on wellbeing, as perceived by the elderly: a systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen-Winge, Christina; Morville, Anne-Le; Holtze, Dorte Buch

    2014-01-01

    of how the independently‐living elderly enhance their wellbeing through participation in occupations. Such a review will contribute to the knowledge and practice within the health promotion framework with the healthy elderly population. Thus the review will be of use to occupational therapists and others......Review objective/questions: The objective of the current review is to identify the types of occupations that are important in improving overall wellbeing amongst the elderly population. It is assumed that conducting a systematic review with a qualitative approach will lead to a deeper understanding...... working with elderly people in terms of both theory and practice, as the knowledge will be grounded in the reality of human experience. The specific question to be addressed in this review is: Which occupations do the independently‐living elderly consider to enhance their overall wellbeing?...

  12. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. ... Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and ... Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded ...

  13. Occupational and environmental scleroderma. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Moreno, Rafael; Corbella, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unknown; however, several occupational and environmental factors have been implicated. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of all studies published on SSc associated with occupational and environmental exposure. The review was undertaken by means of MEDLINE and SCOPUS from 1960 to 2014 and using the terms: "systemic," "scleroderma," or "systemic sclerosis/chemically induced" [MesH]. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the qualifying assessment. The inverse variance-weighted method was performed. The meta-analysis of silica exposure included 15 case-control studies [overall OR 2.81 (95%CI 1.86-4.23; p < 0.001)] and 4 cohort studies [overall RR 17.52 (95%CI 5.98-51.37; p < 0.001)]; the meta-analysis of solvents exposure included 13 case-control studies (overall OR 2.00 [95%CI 1.32-3.02; p = 0.001); the meta-analysis of breast implants exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 1.68 (95%CI 1.65-1.71; p < 0.001)) and 6 cohort studies (overall RR 2.13 (95%CI 0.86-5.27; p = 0.10)); the meta-analysis of epoxy resins exposure included 4 case-control studies (overall OR 2.97 (95%CI 2.31-3.83; p < 0.001)), the meta-analysis of pesticides exposure included 3 case-control studies (overall OR 1.02 (95%CI 0.78-1.32; p = 0.90)) and, finally, the meta-analysis of welding fumes exposure included 4 studies (overall OR 1.29 (95%CI 0.44-3.74; p = 0.64)). Not enough studies citing risks related to hair dyes have been published to perform an accurate meta-analysis. Silica and solvents were the two most likely substances related to the pathogenesis of SSc. While silica is involved in particular jobs, solvents are widespread and more people are at risk of having incidental contact with them.

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals drug interactions: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in modern medicine primarily for diagnostic purposes, but also for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. As the use of image has been increased, so has the use of prescription medications. These trends increase the risk of interactions between medications and radiopharmaceuticals. These interactions which have an impact on image by competing with the radiopharmaceutical for binding sites for example can lead to false negative results. Drugs that accelerate the metabolism of the radiopharmaceutical can have a positive impact (i.e. speeding its clearance or, if repeating image is needed, a negative impact. In some cases, for example in cardiac image among patients taking doxirubacin, these interactions may have a therapeutic benefit. The incidence of drug-radiopharmaceuticals adverse reactions is unknown, since they may not be reported or even recognized. Here,we compiled the medical literature, using the criteria of a systematic review established by the Cochrane Collaboration, on pharmaceutical-drug interactions to provide a summary of documented interactions by organ system and radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose is to provide a reference on drug interactions that could inform the nuclear medicine staff in their daily routine. Efforts to increase adverse event reporting, and ideally consolidate reports worldwide, can provide a critically needed resource for prevention of drug-radiopharmaceuticals interactions.Os radiofármacos desempenham função crítica na medicina moderna, primariamente para fins diagnósticos, mas também no monitoramento da progressão de doenças assim como na avaliação de respostas ao tratamento. O uso da tecnologia por imagem tem crescido e conseqüentemente as prescrições de medicamentos (radiofármacos em especial com esse propósito. Este fato, aumenta o risco de interações entre medicamentos e radiofármacos. Interações que podem ter um impacto na

  15. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  16. Empowering people to change occupational behaviours to address critical global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiugu, Moses N; Westerfield, Madeline A; Lien, Jamie M; Theisen, Emily R; Cerny, Shana L; Nissen, Ranelle M

    2015-06-01

    The greatest threat to human well-being in this century is climate change and related global issues. We examined the effectiveness of the Modified Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy model as a framework for facilitating occupational behaviour change to address climate change and related issues. Eleven individuals participated in this mixed-methods single-subject-design study. Data were gathered using the Modified Assessment and Intervention Instrument for Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy and Daily Occupational Inventories. Quantitative data were analyzed using two- and three-standard deviation band methods. Qualitative data were analyzed using heuristic phenomenological procedures. Occupational performance changed for five participants. Participants' feelings shifted from frustration and helplessness to empowerment and a desire for action. They felt empowered to find occupation-based solutions to the global issues. Occupation-based interventions that increase personal awareness of the connection between occupational performance and global issues could empower people to be agents for action to ameliorate the issues.

  17. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    primary education. Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and dust of various ..... ergonomic related health risks such as back pain, eye and body ..... measurements using appropriate time scale and space is.

  18. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    established approaches to the optimal management of infections in the intensive care unit. Rapid infection diagnosis, antibiotic dosing and optimization through pharmacologic indices, progress in the implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs, and management of fungal...... infections are some of the most relevant issues in this special patient population. During the last 18 months, Critical Care and other journals have provided a wide array of descriptive and interventional clinical studies and scientific reports helping clinical investigators and critical care physicians...

  19. Communities of practice: A means to support occupational therapists’ continuing professional development. A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, Margot; Kuijer-Siebelink, Wietske; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    Background: This literature review investigates what research reports about the contribution that communities of practice (CoPs) can make in the continuing professional development (CPD) of qualified occupational therapists. Methods: Academic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE and ERIC) were searched

  20. A critical discourse analysis of the attitudes of occupational therapists and physiotherapists towards the systematic use of standardised outcome measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. METHOD: It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from ......, deliberate and conscious reflections in local settings are needed. It is necessary to go beyond normal and familiar professional reflections. To this end, newcomers' opinions are valuable....

  1. Causal assessment of occupational pushing or pulling and low back pain: results of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffey, Darren M; Wai, Eugene K; Bishop, Paul; Kwon, Brian K; Dagenais, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and expensive musculoskeletal condition that predominantly occurs in working-age individuals of industrialized nations. Although numerous occupational physical activities have been implicated in its etiology, determining the causation of occupational LBP still remains a challenge. To conduct a systematic review evaluating the causal relationship between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP. Systematic review of the literature. Studies reporting an association between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP. Numerical association between exposure to pushing or pulling and the presence of LBP. A systematic review was performed to identify, evaluate, and summarize the literature related to establishing a causal relationship, according to Bradford-Hill criteria for causation for occupational pushing or pulling and LBP. A search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and OSH-ROM, gray literature, hand-searching occupational health journals, reference lists of included studies, and expert knowledge. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. This search yielded 2,766 citations. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight were high-quality studies and five were low-quality studies. There was conflicting evidence with one high-quality study demonstrating a positive association between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP and five studies showing no relationship. One study reported a nonstatistically significant dose-response trend, four studies discussed temporality of which one indicated a positive finding, two studies discussed the biological plausibility of a causal link between occupational pushing or pulling and LBP, and no evidence was uncovered to assess the experiment criterion. A qualitative summary of existing studies was not able to find any high-quality studies that fully satisfied any of the Bradford-Hill causation criteria for occupational pushing or

  2. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-03-01

    This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Papers, Please as Critical Making: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Lohmeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Lucas Pope’s independent game Papers, Please as an instantiation of critical making within the discipline of the digital humanities. By confronting the player with moral decisions in their capacity as an immigration officer allowing or denying entry to immigrants within a totalitarian state, the game introduces an expressive form of game design in which conceptual practices are used to examine political and social realities. This type of critical media practice introduces a political ethic to the digital humanities that is arguably scarce within the discipline.

  4. Do consumer critics write differently from professional critics? A genre analysis of online film reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, I.K.E.; Burgers, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers often base their choices to purchase experience goods like movies on online reviews. These reviews can be written by professional critics or by other consumers. However, little is known on the issue how the texts written by these two groups of reviewers differ. To answer this question, we

  5. Continuing competence assessment and maintenance in occupational therapy: Scoping review with stakeholder consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christine T; Schaefer, Nancy; Coudron, Ashley

    2017-12-01

    Continuing competence activities hold the promise of improving health-care service quality, especially given concerns about system inefficiencies and fragmentation. The aim of this scoping review was to describe the assessment and maintenance of occupational therapists' continuing competence and identify knowledge gaps for future research. A secondary aim was comparing scoping review findings with those from other health-care fields and considering possible impact of varying international regulations. A series of database searches retrieved peer-reviewed and grey literature on assessment and maintenance of occupational therapy continuing competence from 1995 to 2015. Themes were developed and findings shared with stakeholders, whose comments drove a second phase: searching for reviews related to continuing competence from allied health, medicine, and nursing, and reviewing websites and documents concerning regulatory requirements for occupational therapy continuing competence in seven English-speaking nations. Twenty-seven sources from the scoping review search met inclusion criteria. Stakeholder consultation validated the themes and preliminary knowledge gaps. Research into other health-care specialties corresponded to findings from the scoping review. The website/document review of occupational therapy regulatory requirements revealed wide variation on both the state/province and national levels. This scoping review highlights gaps in research on effective methods and assessment of occupational therapy continuing competence. Findings suggest a need for research on approaches to continuing competence that incorporate the translation of evidence to practice and address the influence of external factors. Regulatory agencies may address the quality of occupational therapy services by incorporating a variety of professional development options into requirements. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  6. Systematic Review of Interventions Supported by ICT for the Prevention Treatment of Occupational Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Angela M; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related disorders have become one of the main problems of public health in many countries and of worldwide organizations, and they are expected to become more common in the forthcoming decades. This article aims at providing a systematic review and a descriptive evaluation of the interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress. A systematic review of five databases (EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect and IEEEXplorer) was carried out. This article provides a quantitative and qualitative description of 21 studies about occupational stress interventions supported by ICT. The following factors were considered for the analysis: impact of the intervention, design of the study, type of intervention, purpose of the intervention, type of instrument for the measurement of occupational stress, and type of ICT used. The systematic review demonstrated that interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress are scarce but effective.

  7. Narrative research in psychotherapy: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy

  8. Occupational therapy for stroke patients - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; van de Nes, J.C.M.; Cup, E.H.C.; van den Ende, C.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Occupational therapy (OT) is an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to determine from the available literature whether OT interventions improve outcome for stroke patients. Methods - An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED,

  9. Fertility and Occupational hazards: Review of the Literature | Ashiru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workplace exposures and hazards have detrimental effects on many organ systems in the body including the reproductive system. The evidence of the reproductive effects of occupational hazards is obtained through a synthesis of the available literature. These effects vary and overlap due to the multiple nature of ...

  10. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks

  11. Effect of Emergency Department and ICU Occupancy on Admission Decisions and Outcomes for Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Kusum S; Durst, Matthew S; Vargas-Torres, Carmen; Olson, Ashley D; Mazumdar, Madhu; Richardson, Lynne D

    2018-05-01

    critically ill emergency department patients are affected by medical ICU bed availability, though higher emergency department volume and other ICU occupancy did not play a role. Prolonged emergency department boarding times were associated with worse patient outcomes, suggesting a need for improved throughput and targeted care for patients awaiting ICU admission.

  12. Review of Occupational Therapy Intervention Research in the Practice Area of Children and Youth 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Huang, Yu Yun; Lim, Yoonjeong

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. We conducted a systematic review examining the extent to which pediatric intervention research recently published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy reflects occupational therapy’s holistic occupation-based tenets. METHOD. We surveyed 10 systematic reviews and analyzed 38 single effectiveness studies for intervention approach, type, level of environmental targeting, level of occupational task and participation practice, and measures used. RESULTS. Of the 38 single effectiveness studies, 12 (32%) explicitly incorporated both environmental targets of intervention and practice of complex or in vivo occupational tasks, with steady increases during the 2009–2013 time frame. CONCLUSION. In the area of children and youth, occupational therapy is making steady gains in reflecting and demonstrating the effectiveness of the profession’s holistic, occupation-based tenets. Occupational therapy researchers must be mindful to ensure that despite the reductionist nature of intervention research, interventions reflect the profession’s holistic understanding of the interplay between the child, environment, and occupations. PMID:24581415

  13. Intersectionality and Educational Leadership: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Roland, Ericka

    2018-01-01

    In this review of research, we explore intersectionality in the literature on K-12 educational leadership. We seek to understand how researchers have used intersectionality and what their findings or arguments reveal about the work of leading to reduce inequities in education. We ask, What traditions and trends associated with intersectionality…

  14. Korsakoff’s syndrome: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Nicolaas JM; Walvoort, Serge JW; Kessels, Roy PC

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS), a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of KS and its definition, its epidemiology, and the lack of consensus criteria for its diagnosis. The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of KS, which include anterograde and retrograde amnesia, executive dysfunction, confabulation, apathy, as well as affective and social-cognitive impairments, are discussed. Moreover, recent insights into the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these symptoms are presented. In addition, the evidence so far on the etiology of KS is examined, highlighting the role of thiamine and alcohol and discussing the continuity hypothesis. Furthermore, the neuropathology of KS is reviewed, focusing on abnormalities in the diencephalon, including the mammillary bodies and thalamic nuclei. Pharmacological treatment options and nonpharmacological interventions, such as those based on cognitive rehabilitation, are discussed. Our review shows that thiamine deficiency (TD) is a crucial factor in the etiology of KS. Although alcohol abuse is by far the most important context in which TD occurs, there is no convincing evidence for an essential contribution of ethanol neurotoxicity (EN) to the development of WE or to the progression of WE to KS. Future research on the postmortem histopathological analysis of brain tissues of KS patients is crucial for the advancement of our knowledge of KS, especially for associating its symptoms with lesions in various thalamic nuclei. A necessary requirement for the advancement of studies on KS is the broad acceptance of a comprehensive definition and definite diagnostic criteria. Therefore, in this review, we propose such a definition of KS and draft outlines for prospective diagnostic criteria. PMID:29225466

  15. Developmental milestones for productivity occupations in children and youth: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Entremont, Lisette; Gregor, Megan; Kirou, Evangelia; Nelligan, Lindsay; Dennis, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Limited research exists on developmental milestones for productivity occupations throughout the paediatric lifespan, and negative connotations of work for children and youth may have contributed to a paucity of literature on the topic. To ascertain what is currently known about the timing and types of engagement in productivity occupations in children and youth aged 4-19. Literature referencing productive occupations in children and youth aged 4-19 was searched for this integrative review. Search terms were established based on paediatric age and occupational therapy descriptors, and terminology associated with productivity. Sixty-seven peer-reviewed articles were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. Six core productive occupations emerged as avenues for productive engagement: paid work, school-related activities, caring for self and others, household chores, volunteering, and agricultural chores. A timeline was constructed to display common milestones for engagement in these occupations throughout the paediatric lifespan. Paediatric engagement was found to be influenced by personal (age, gender, child and youth perceptions, and safety considerations), and environmental (familial factors, parental perceptions, societal influences, and safety considerations) factors. Approaches to paediatric practice must account for the full spectrum of productive occupations children and youth engage in beyond the school context.

  16. Review of occupational exposure patterns in Indian Health Care Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Nehru, R.M.; Sonawane, A.U.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of individual radiation is a prime part of the radiation protection programme. The primary justification for monitoring helps achieve and demonstrate an appropriate level of protection and can demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, contribute to the control of operations and design of installations. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules 2004 advocates that radiation surveillance is mandatory for all radiation workers. The largest group of individuals exposed occupationally to artificial radiation sources is that employed in health care facilities such as Diagnostic Radiology, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine. In this work, a comprehensive analysis was carried out on occupational exposure data for the period 2000 to 2014 to bring a measure of radiation protection infrastructure quality in health care facilities

  17. Korsakoff’s syndrome: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arts NJM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicolaas JM Arts,1,2 Serge JW Walvoort,1 Roy PC Kessels1,3,4 1Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, 2Neuropsychiatry Center Thalamus, Institution for Integrated Mental Health Care Pro Persona, Wolfheze, 3Department of Neuropsychology and Rehabilitation Psychology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 4Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS, a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of KS and its definition, its epidemiology, and the lack of consensus criteria for its diagnosis. The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of KS, which include anterograde and retrograde amnesia, executive dysfunction, confabulation, apathy, as well as affective and social-cognitive impairments, are discussed. Moreover, recent insights into the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these symptoms are presented. In addition, the evidence so far on the etiology of KS is examined, highlighting the role of thiamine and alcohol and discussing the continuity hypothesis. Furthermore, the neuropathology of KS is reviewed, focusing on abnormalities in the diencephalon, including the mammillary bodies and thalamic nuclei. Pharmacological treatment options and nonpharmacological interventions, such as those based on cognitive rehabilitation, are discussed. Our review shows that thiamine deficiency (TD is a crucial factor in the etiology of KS. Although alcohol abuse is by far the most important context in which TD occurs, there is no convincing evidence for an essential contribution of ethanol neurotoxicity (EN to the development of WE or to

  18. Evidence of the efficacy for occupational therapy in different conditions: an overview of systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research evidence available from systematic reviews of the efficacy of occupational therapy (OT) for practitioners, researchers, purchasing organizations and policy-makers. DATA SOURCE: The search for systematic reviews was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library

  19. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  20. What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults' occupational performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2016-01-01

    critically appraised 13 of 995 detected papers. Extracted data were presented and summarised descriptively. Results Eight high-quality papers showed that occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy using cognitive, behavioural and environmental strategies may significantly improve......Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home......-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer...

  1. Fibromyalgia: A Critical and Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea T; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is part of a spectrum of syndromes that lack precise classification. It is often considered as part of the global overview of functional somatic syndromes that are otherwise medically unexplained or part of a somatization disorder. Patients with fibromyalgia share symptoms with other functional somatic problems, including issues of myalgias, arthralgias, fatigue and sleep disturbances. Indeed, there is often diagnostic and classification overlap for the case definitions of a variety of somatization disorders. Fibromyalgia, however, is a critically important syndrome for physicians and scientists to be aware of. Patients should be taken very seriously and provided optimal care. Although inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune disorders have all been ascribed to be etiological events in the development of fibromyalgia, there is very little data to support such a thesis. Many of these disorders are associated with depression and anxiety and may even be part of what has been sometimes called affected spectrum disorders. There is no evidence that physical trauma, i.e., automobile accidents, is associated with the development or exacerbation of fibromyalgia. Treatment should be placed on education, patient support, physical therapy, nutrition, and exercise, including the use of drugs that are approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Treatment should not include opiates and patients should not become poly pharmacies in which the treatment itself can lead to significant morbidities. Patients with fibromyalgia are living and not dying of this disorder and positive outlooks and family support are key elements in the management of patients.

  2. SPI Project Criticality Task Force initial review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.; Cannon, J.W.; Marsden, R.S.; Worle, H.A.

    1980-03-01

    The Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (SPI) Facility is being developed to process transuranic waste stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) into a chemically inert, physically stable, basalt-like residue acceptable for a Federal Repository. A task force was established by the SPI Project Division to review and assess all aspects of criticality safety for the SPI Facility. This document presents the initial review, evaluations, and recommendations of the task force and includes the following: background information on waste characterization, and criticality control approaches and philosophies, a description of the SPI Facility Waste Processing Building, a review and assessment of potentially relevant codes and regulations; a review and assessment of the present state of criticality and assaying/monitoring studies, and recommendations for changes in and additions to these studies. The review and assessment of potentially relevant codes and regulations indicate that ERDAM 0530, Nuclear Criticality Safety should be the controlling document for criticality safety for the SPI Project. In general, the criticality control approaches and philosophies for the SPI Project comply with this document

  3. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizer, Jeffrey J; Fitzner, Karen A; Jacobs, Daniel I; Bennett, Charles L; Liebling, Dustin B; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M; Grimm, Sean A; Fisher, Matthew J; Haleem, Meraaj S; Ray, Paul S; McKoy, Judith M; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinothini Padmanathan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs. Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996–2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:725–734

  5. Radioiodine Remnant Ablation: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) is considered a safe and effective method for eliminating residual thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic disease if at all present in thyroid bed following thyroidectomy. The rationale of RRA is that in the absence of thyroid tissue, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement can be used as an excellent tumor marker. Other considerations are like the presence of significant remnant thyroid tissue makes detection and treatment of nodal or distant metastases difficult. Rarely, microscopic disease in the thyroid bed if not ablated, in the future, could be a source of anaplastic transformation. On the other hand, microscopic tumor emboli in distant sites could be the cause of distant metastasis too. The ablation of remnant tissue would in all probability eliminate these theoretical risks. It may be noted that all these are unproven contentious issues except postablation serum Tg estimation that could be a good tumor marker for detecting early biochemical recurrence in long-term follow-up strategy. Radioactive iodine is administered as a form of “adjuvant therapy” for remnant ablation. There have been several reports with regard to the administered dose for remnant ablation. The first report of a prospective randomized clinical trial was published from India by a prospective randomized study conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in the year 1996. The study reported that increasing the empirical 131 I initial dose to more than 50 mCi results in plateauing of the dose-response curve and thus, conventional high-dose remnant ablation needs critical evaluation. Recently, two important studies were published: One from French group and the other from UK on a similar line. Interestingly, all three studies conducted in three different geographical regions of the world showed exactly similar conclusion. The new era of low-dose remnant ablation has taken a firm scientific footing across the continents

  6. Drugs and bruxism: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Ephraim; Gavish, Anat; Voikovitch, Michal; Emodi-Perlman, Alona; Eli, Ilana

    2003-01-01

    Bruxism associated with drugs can be destructive, resulting in severe consequences to health that include destruction of tooth structure, irreversible harm to the temporomandibular joint, severe myofascial pain, and muscle contraction headache. However, reports concerning a possible association between bruxism and various pharmacologic drugs are scarce and mostly anecdotal. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature concerning the exacerbating or ameliorating effect of drugs on bruxism in humans. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsicINFO databases from 1982 to 2001 was conducted, and the term bruxism and one of the following terms were used: drugs, medicine(s), pharmaceutical, movement disorders, akathisia, dyskinesia, dystonia, central or autonomic nervous system, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA. Furthermore, a search using the term bruxism was carried out on the weekly journal Reactions, which deals with side effects of drugs. Several chemical terms were searched separately (e.g., caffeine, nicotine). Relevant information was also derived from reference lists of the retrieved publications. The search yielded complex information referring to the association between bruxism and dopamine-related drugs, antidepressant drugs, sedative and anxiolytic drugs, and drugs of abuse. There is insufficient evidence-based data to draw definite conclusions concerning the effects of various drugs on bruxism. Although certain substances related to the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic systems suppress or exacerbate bruxist activity in humans and animals, the literature is still controversial, and based mostly on anecdotal case reports. More controlled, evidence-based research on this under-explored subject is needed.

  7. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  8. Social and occupational factors associated with psychological wellbeing among occupational groups affected by disaster: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Greenberg, Neil

    2017-08-01

    The psychological impact of disasters has been well-documented; less attention has been paid to factors affecting the wellbeing of those exposed to disasters as occupational groups. To conduct a systematic literature review identifying social and occupational factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster-exposed employees; to use these factors to identify recommendations for potential interventions. Four electronic literature databases were searched; reference lists of relevant papers were hand-searched. A total of 18 005 papers were found, 571 full texts were read and 36 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on employees was associated with pre-disaster factors (experience/training; income; life events/health; job satisfaction), peri-disaster factors (exposure; peri-traumatic experiences; perceptions of safety; injury), social factors (organisational support; social support generally) and post-disaster factors (impact on life). It is important to build a resilient workforce outside of a crisis. Pre-disaster training in recognising signs of distress, understanding vulnerability factors such as those described above, which may put certain employees at greater risk of distress and how to support colleagues may be useful. Further research into the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions is needed.

  9. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  10. Virtual reality and its use as occupational therapeutic resource: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayane Leoncio Caiana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Virtual Reality is defined as the interface between the user and the computer simulation of a given environment or activity, providing interaction through multiple sensory channels found in video games or computers, offering different experiences to the individual. It is a growing practice in health professions, including Occupational Therapy. Objective: To analyze how virtual reality has been used in occupational therapy processes through a search in national publications that have used this approach in recent years. Method: An integrative literature review was conducted at CAPES, LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, periodicals of Occupational Therapy (Journal of Occupational Therapy - USP and Occupational Therapy Notebooks - UFSCar, and Google Scholar (book chapters between 2004 and 2014, with the following descriptors: Occupational Therapy, Video Game, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy, Computer Assisted Therapy, and User-Computer Interface. Results: Fifteen articles were selected in compliance with the inclusion criteria. It was observed that most works addressed Virtual Reality as an evaluative method (n = 07; 46.6%, intervening in neurological disorders (n = 10; 66.6%, used more frequently by adolescent audience (n = 07; 46.6%. The computer is the most commonly used equipment in the interventions (n = 10; 66.6%. Conclusion: Virtual Reality is an important tool in promoting health, and it is also used in various treatments. Its use has grown among occupational therapists, but it is still an area that needs to be diligently evidenced, so that it can serve as an aid to update techniques.

  11. A critical review of Electric Earthquake Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos

    2001-06-01

    and can guarantee reliable electric field measurements, although improvements are still possible with new generation electrodes and smart measurement schemes facilitating noise suppression. It is increasingly apparent that simultaneous electric and magnetic measurements are indispensable and conducted in most new experiments. There is also an emerging trend towards multi-parametric, broadband observations that should provide far better data and constraints on the source processes. The physics of electrification mechanisms are beginning to clarify, as also is the potential of solid state effects: charge and current densities under controlled conditions are such, that if scaled up to the size of seismogenic zones, they would yield observable EEP. However, there are still many unknowns, requiring careful experimentation and theoretical development. Research is also directed towards decoding the physics of stress/strain changes that cause electrification, exploiting properties such as are the fractal nature of faulting and Self-Organised Criticality (SOC. The first evidence of possible electromagnetic precursors due to a SOC system has been published recently. Modelling of the source processes from first principles is stepping up and certain classes of observed signals can now be predicted by theory, providing new and more rigorous means of data authentication; such models have also established the feasibility of long range EEP signals. Although progress is apparent, the knowledge is still grossly incomplete and EEP data are not indisputable, if tested with the full rigour of scientific verification methods. The new research philosophy requires time and vigilance before it begins to pay off, but it appears to have taken a more promising course.

  12. A critical review of electric earthquake precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanis, A. [Athens Univ., Athens (Italy). Dept. of Geophysics and Geothermy; Valliantos, F. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Chania (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    reliable electric field measurements, although improvements are still possible with new generation and smart measurement schemes facilitating noise suppression. It is increasingly apparent that simultaneous electric and magnetic measurements are indispensable and conducted in most new experiments. There is also an emerging trend towards multi-parametric, broadband observations that should provide far better data and constraints on the source processes. The physics of electrification mechanisms are beginning to clarify, as also is the potential of solid state effects: charge and current densities under controlled conditions are such, that if scaled up to the size of seismogenic zones, they would yield observable EEP. However, there are still many unknowns, requiring careful experimentation and theoretical development. Research is also directed towards decoding the physics of stress/strain changes that cause electrification, exploiting properties such as are the fractal nature of faulting and Self-Organised Critically (SOC). The first evidence of possible electromagnetic precursors due to a SOC system has been published recently. Modelling of the source processes from first principles is stepping up and certain classes of observed signals can now be predicted by theory, providing new and more rigorous means of data authentication; such models have also established the feasibility of long range EEP signals. Although progress is apparent, the knowledge is still grossly incomplete and EEP data are not indisputable, if tested with the full rigour of scientific verification methods. The new research philosophy requires time and vigilance before it begins to pay off, but it appears to have taken a more promising course.

  13. Outcomes of physical therapy, speech pathology, and occupational therapy for people with motor neuron disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meg E; Perry, Alison; Bilney, Belinda; Curran, Andrea; Dodd, Karen; Wittwer, Joanne E; Dalton, Gregory W

    2006-09-01

    This article describes a systematic review and critical evaluation of the international literature on the effects of physical therapy, speech pathology, and occupational therapy for people with motor neuron disease (PwMND). The results were interpreted using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. This enabled us to summarize therapy outcomes at the level of body structure and function, activity limitations, participation restrictions, and quality of life. Databases searched included MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL, PSYCInfo, Data base of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), The Physiotherapy Evidence data base (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine Reviews (EMBASE), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Evidence was graded according to the Harbour and Miller classification. Most of the evidence was found to be at the level of "clinical opinion" rather than of controlled clinical trials. Several nonrandomized small group and "observational studies" provided low-level evidence to support physical therapy for improving muscle strength and pulmonary function. There was also some evidence to support the effectiveness of speech pathology interventions for dysarthria. The search identified a small number of studies on occupational therapy for PwMND, which were small, noncontrolled pre-post-designs or clinical reports.

  14. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Freiberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  15. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Alice; Scharfe, Julia; Murta, Vanise C; Seidler, Andreas

    2018-02-16

    The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution) may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  16. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  17. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: ECunderground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies.

  18. SRTC criticality safety technical review of SRT-CMA-930039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of SRT-CMA-930039, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE): DWPF Melter-Batch 1,'' December 1, 1993, has been performed by the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment of the Melt Cell in the DWPF. Additionally, this pertains only to Batch 1 operation, which differs from batches to follow. Plans for subsequent batch operations call for fissile material in the Salt Cell feed-stream, which necessitates a separate criticality evaluation in the future. The NCSE under review concludes that the process is safe from criticality events, even in the event that all lithium and boron neutron poisons are lost, provided uranium enrichments are less than 40%. Furthermore, if all the lithium and as much as 98% of the boron would be lost, uranium enrichments of 100% would be allowable. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion. This technical review consisted of: an independent check of the methods and models employed, independent calculations application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual( 2 ) procedures

  19. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  20. Review of occupational radiation exposures in all biennial shutdown maintenance of Kaiga generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murukan, E.K.; Vinod Kumar, T.; Austine, N.X.; Soumia Menon, M.; Girish Kumar, K.; Rao, M.M.L.N.; Venkataramana, K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Kaiga generating station 1 and 2 consists of twin units of 220 M We pressurized heavy water reactors located in Karnataka, India. Major maintenance activities of one of the twin units are taken up once in two years (biennial shutdown) to execute system maintenance, system up gradation, surveillance and in-service inspection (ISI) jobs. BSDs are mandatory activities to comply with regulatory requirement to ensure the safety and reliability of plant system equipment. More than 65% of the station collective dose is contributed by biennial shutdown (BSD) jobs. It is observed that the man rem consumed during normal operation of the plant is less than 35% of the total man rem consumed. Since BSD jobs contributes significantly to station collective dose, an effective implementation of radiation protection programme specific to BSD is the key to control the occupational exposure. Various improvements in the field of radiation protection practices and process systems are adopted to achieve lowest collective dose at par with international standards. The key areas identified for application of various strategies to achieve ALARA were Man rem budgeting, Radiological condition monitoring, Radiation protection practices, Identification of critical jobs and Work groups, Work planning and execution, and Radioactive waste management. Review of collective doses of all the BSD jobs performed in the station since year 2004 and various measures incorporated to achieve ALARA exposures to plant personnel are briefly discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  2. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  3. Added value of FM – a critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a state of the art of how the topic “Added value of FM” has been treated recently in research and practice. The paper is based on research papers from EFMC 2013 and 2014. The paper provides an overview and a critical review of this research. A main focus...... is to examine to which degree there is a cumulative knowledge building in this field. The paper also summarises findings about value adding management in practice and reflects on implications for research and practice. The critical review shows that some of the papers have a strong foundation in former research...

  4. Contemporary Occupational Carcinogen Exposure and Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, Marcus G K; Cox, Angela; Teare, Dawn; Catto, James W F

    2015-12-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is a common disease. Despite manufacturing and legislative changes to workplace hygiene, many BCs still arise through occupational carcinogen exposure. To profile contemporary risks of occupational BC. A systematic review using PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science was performed in October 2012 (initial review) and May 2014 (final review) and was updated in June 2015. We identified 263 eligible articles. We excluded reports in which BC or occupation were not the main focus, and those with insufficient case, risk, or confidence interval data. We selected the most recent data from populations with multiple reports. Reports were selected by 2 of us independently. We combined odds ratios and risk ratios (RRs) to provide pooled RRs, using maximally adjusted RRs in a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using I2 and Begg and Egger tests. Risk estimates were annotated by occupational class using Nordisk Yrkesklassificering, or Nordic Occupational Classification, and International Standard Classifications of Occupations (NYK and ISCO-1958) Codes. Occupations were profiled by BC incidence and mortality risk over time. After data collection, we detected a sex difference in these profiles and recorded this as a secondary outcome. Meta-analysis revealed increased BC incidence in 42 of 61 occupational classes and increased BC-specific mortality in 16 of 40 occupational classes. Reduced incidence and mortality were seen in 6 of 61 and 2 of 40 classes, respectively. Risk varied with sex and was greatest in men (standardized incidence ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.02-1.03]; P men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.12-1.43) for women. In contrast, mortality risk declined for both sexes from the 1960s to the 1990s. The overall risk of BC mortality was also greater for men (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.18-1.48]) than for women (SMR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.80-1.63]). Limitations include possible publication bias, that reports

  5. Occupational safety and health management in the construction industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Hafiidz; Arifin, Kadir; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal; Ishak, Muhammad Izzuddin Syakir; Samsurijan, Mohamad Shaharudin

    2017-09-11

    The construction industry plays a significant role in contributing to the economy and development globally. During the process of construction, various hazards coupled with the unique nature of the industry contribute to high fatality rates. This review refers to previous published studies and related Malaysian legislation documents. Four main elements consisting of human, worksite, management and external elements which cause occupational accidents and illnesses were identified. External and management elements are the underlying causes contributing to occupational safety and health (OSH), while human and worksite elements are more apparent causes of occupational accidents and illnesses. An effective OSH management approach is required to contain all hazards at construction sites. An approach to OSH management constructed by elements of policy, process, personnel and incentive developed in previous work is explored. Changes to the sub-elements according to previous studies and the related Malaysian legislation are also covered in this review.

  6. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...

  7. BOOK REVIEW - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH FOR HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARIOUS AUTHORS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium of essays by 30 authors is a contribution to the Malaysian ever growing storehouse of medical publications. It is a worthwhile project for the Malaysian Medical Association to have undertaken to publish this long awaited book, because the content of the book involves the care of its own members. The health of the healthcare providers is often taken for granted while carrying out their duties of a doctor. They forget their own health and they expose themselves to the risk of disease every day of their lives. This book, with twenty-two chapters, covers in detail the occupational concerns of health care professionals. The chapters outline the common pitfalls in the healthcare system into which the professionals may fall into. All health care facilities are high risk venues for which not sufficient preventive systems are in place. The various risk factors are highlighted by the different authors both from the point of view of the professional and the patient. In support of preventive efforts the authors refer to the various statutory requirements in place. In spite of the provisions, the authors cite many instances of diseases and disasters the professional suffer from and are exposed to daily. This book will be of use both not only to the student of occupational health but also to every healthcare professional. It raises the awareness of personal protection and prevention since the chance of disaster awaits every morning. The dictum of “Physician, heal thyself” may come too late if this book does not evoke caution every day. It is well written with cases documenting poor infrastructure requirements to carry out their duties in a safe and efficient manner. References are well documented by all the authors to inspire further work in this area. Associate Professor Dr Jayakumar comes from the backgrounds of both academic and corporate sectors and therefore contributes his wealth of knowledge and experience while Associate Professor

  8. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  9. Oral-to-inhalation route extrapolation in occupational health risk assessment: A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Bouwman, T.; Wilschut, A.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, the health risks resulting from occupational exposure are frequently assessed by route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation based on oral toxicity data. Insight into the conditions for and the uncertainties connected with the application of RtR extrapolation

  10. Promoting occupational safety and health through the supply chain Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustailieva, E.; Starren, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Lopes Nunes, I.; Hauke, A.

    2012-01-01

    This report sheds light on occupational safety and health (OSH) within complex supply chain networks. Based on a literature, policy and case study review it attempts to give an overview of how OSH can be managed and promoted through the supply chain, and which drivers, incentives and instruments

  11. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...

  12. A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Treutlein, D.; Rydlewska, I.; Frusteri, L.; Krüger, H.; Veerman, T.; Eeckelaert, L.; Roskams, N.; Broek, K. van den; Taylor, T.N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This narrative case study review aims to support policy-makers in organizations providing such incentives by supplying information

  13. Occupational Stress and Burnout among Special Educators: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Gargiulo, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and critiques research on occupational stress, teacher attrition, and burnout among special educators. Stress sources are identified and a framework is presented for organizing the literature base and introducing proactive innovations that will address professional needs and current shortcomings and will mediate the effects of stress.…

  14. Technology supporting written productivity in children with learning disabilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Pollock, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    Occupational therapists working with school-aged children are often in the position of recommending technology to enhance written productivity. The outcome of using technology on the writing of children with learning disabilities has not been reviewed critically, and this knowledge is necessary for evidence-based practice. To review evidence regarding the use of technology to support written productivity in children with learning disabilities. A systematic search of seven databases, plus a manual search, retrieved 864 papers published between 1985 and March 2012. Twenty-seven papers (28 studies) met inclusion criteria. The evidence is of a moderately low level and results are inconclusive; however, trends suggest a positive influence of some technology on children's performance and behaviour. Methodological limitations exist in most studies and the description of specific technology intervention is often combined with teaching instructions. The available research is encouraging, but high-quality investigations with newer technologies are needed.

  15. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, close quotes was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  16. [Studies on occupational stress intervention in workplaces abroad: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujie; Dai, Junming

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of occupational stress intervention in the workplaces abroad by systematic review and to provide a reference for domestic research. The Medline database was searched to collect the literature on occupational stress intervention published from January 1 in 2000 to September 4 in 2014, Using standardized forms, the methods, contents, subjects, study design, result indicator, effectiveness and evidence of the intervention were extracted and analyzed. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total sample size of 5699 participants, including 20 randomized trials and 10 non-randomized or self-controlled studies from 12 countries, such as Germany, Japan, and Britain. The course of intervention ranged from 4 to 16 weeks. Six types of intervention were identified, i.e., cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT), relaxation technique, physical activity, organization-focused intervention, combined intervention, and multilevel intervention, among which CBT was used most frequently. The outcome variables mainly included social psychological variable and work-related variable. Occupational stress intervention could significantly improve the occupational stress and depressive symptoms, and also had some effects on the work-related outcomes. The effectiveness of the intervention might vary between the subjects with different occupational stress levels before intervention. The effectiveness of the intervention was better at an organizational level than at an individual level, but the effectiveness at a multiple level was not necessarily better than that at a single level. Occupational stress intervention is an effective method to improve the occupational stress at workplace. However, the occupational stress level before intervention, the duration and frequency of intervention, measures and level of intervention, and follow-up period have certain influence on the effectiveness of intervention. Future research should pay attention to methodology, focus on

  17. The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on The Occupational Stress of Nurses in Critical Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Matourypour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: In the nursing profession, there are numerous factors which altogether cause occupational stress and as a result occupational exhaustion in nurses and decrease the quality of patient care. Regarding the importance of this issue which influences the health indices of the society, this study investigates the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the occupational stress of nurses.Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental and before-after study was conducted using progressive muscle relaxation intervention on 33 nurses in special treatment (ICU and CCU and emergency units through simple sampling in Yazd in 2012. To assess occupational stress,Toft-Anderson questionnaire was used. The procedure of applying relaxation in a practical way was given to nurses in pamphlets and questionnaires were filled before and two weeks after the intervention. Analysis was done using SPSS.16 software and T-test.Results: The average total score of stress in nurses before and after the intervention was determined as – 28.12±43.74 and 52.12±04.72 respectively and this difference was not statistically significant (39.0>p. However, in the dimensions of nurses’ workload (/0>p 03 and t=2.27 and patients’ suffering and death, these scores were significantly different (0001.0>p and t=3.94.Conclusion: This study showed that applying progressive muscle relaxation technique as a method of emotion-focused coping cannot be effective in the reduction of occupational stress in nurses.

  18. Occupational health of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Ottavia; Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Gude, Francisco; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on patients' occupational health. We selected 19 studies that dealt with issues related to job performance and productivity, absenteeism, and psychosocial health of patients with OSAS and assessed the risk of bias in their conclusions. Although methodologically rigorous studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results obtained suggest the existence of multiple relationships between OSAS and work limitations of patients (i.e., difficulties maintaining attention, learning new tasks, or performing monotonous tasks). The studies reviewed reached more scientifically consistent conclusions about such patients' risk of taking more days of sick leave or having work disability, particularly if they reported excessive daytime sleepiness. Very few studies have explored the relationship between OSAS and psychosocial occupational health of patients. Thus, there is a need for research to clarify these aspects of occupational medicine. OSAS has numerous effects on patients' occupational health, yet, in general, results should be confirmed by studies with sufficiently large samples in which OSAS is diagnosed with reliable methods and occupational variables are assessed with standardized and validated questionnaires.

  19. Movement, demographics, and occupancy dynamics of a federally-threatened salamander: evaluating the adequacy of critical habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Bendik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical habitat for many species is often limited to occupied localities. For rare and cryptic species, or those lacking sufficient data, occupied habitats may go unrecognized, potentially hindering species recovery. Proposed critical habitat for the aquatic Jollyville Plateau salamander (Eurycea tonkawae and two sister species were delineated based on the assumption that surface habitat is restricted to springs and excludes intervening stream reaches. To test this assumption, we performed two studies to understand aspects of individual, population, and metapopulation ecology of E. tonkawae. First, we examined movement and population demographics using capture-recapture along a spring-influenced stream reach. We then extended our investigation of stream habitat use with a study of occupancy and habitat dynamics in multiple headwater streams. Indications of extensive stream channel use based on capture-recapture results included frequent movements of >15 m, and high juvenile abundance downstream of the spring. Initial occupancy of E. tonkawae was associated with shallow depths, maidenhair fern presence and low temperature variation (indicative of groundwater influence, although many occupied sites were far from known springs. Additionally, previously dry sites were three times more likely to be colonized than wet sites. Our results indicate extensive use of stream habitats, including intermittent ones, by E. tonkawae. These areas may be important for maintaining population connectivity or even as primary habitat patches. Restricting critical habitat to occupied sites will result in a mismatch with actual habitat use, particularly when assumptions of habitat use are untested, thus limiting the potential for recovery.

  20. Review of teaching methods and critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Critical information is needed to inform radiation science educators regarding successful critical thinking educational strategies. From an evidence-based research perspective, systematic reviews are identified as the most current and highest level of evidence. Analysis at this high level is crucial in analyzing those teaching methods most appropriate to the development of critical thinking skills. To conduct a systematic literature review to identify teaching methods that demonstrate a positive effect on the development of students' critical thinking skills and to identify how these teaching strategies can best translate to radiologic science educational programs. A comprehensive literature search was conducted resulting in an assessment of 59 full reports. Nineteen of the 59 reports met inclusion criteria and were reviewed based on the level of evidence presented. Inclusion criteria included studies conducted in the past 10 years on sample sizes of 20 or more individuals demonstrating use of specific teaching interventions for 5 to 36 months in postsecondary health-related educational programs. The majority of the research focused on problem-based learning (PBL) requiring standardized small-group activities. Six of the 19 studies focused on PBL and demonstrated significant differences in student critical thinking scores. PBL, as described in the nursing literature, is an effective teaching method that should be used in radiation science education. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  1. A Critical Review of the Literature on Electronic Records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides a critical review of existing articles addressing the management of electronic records in the Eastern and Southern African Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) region. The article argues that while the literature in developed countries has come up with practical solutions ...

  2. "Theorizing Teacher Mobility": A Critical Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert; Pivovarova, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    In this critical review of literature, we summarize the major theoretical frameworks that have been used to study teacher mobility. In total we identified 40 teacher mobility studies that met our inclusion criteria. We conclude that relatively few theoretical frameworks have been used to study teacher mobility and those that have been used are…

  3. Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…

  4. Disaster management and the critical thinking skills of local emergency managers: correlations with age, gender, education, and years in occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  5. Critical factors for EIA implementation: literature review and research options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-15

    After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant. Research has been done to identify the critical factors for an effective implementation of EIA. However, this research, to a large extent, has not been cumulated and analysed comprehensively according to the stages of the EIA process. This paper contributes to the critical review of the literature on EIA implementation and effectiveness by cumulating mainly empirical findings in an implementation theoretical perspective. It focuses on the links between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages defined in our comprehensive EIA implementation model, and 101 were identified as general factors related to the whole EIA system. The number of notions of stage factors and general factors is thus about equal. An overlap between stage factors and general factors was found, which demonstrates that critical factors function differently in different cases. The function of the critical factors is complex and it is difficult to determine contingencies and causations. In the sources we examined, there is evidently an imbalance between in-depth empirical research and general knowledge, and the paper offers some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The type of employment contract and employees’ health and occupational functioning – The review of studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2015-01-01

    From over 2 decades intensive research concerning temporary workers has been carried out in Europe and outside Europe. Despite having the highest rate of temporary workers in Europe, the studies on this topic are very rare in Poland. The aim of the study was to review the existing research on the relations between temporary work and employees’ health and occupational functioning. The main conclusion from this review is that there is a significant inconsistency between the results of the studi...

  7. Job stress and cardiovascular disease: a theoretic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, T S

    1996-07-01

    During the last 15 years, the research on job stress and cardiovascular diseases has been dominated by the job strain model developed by R. Karasek (1979) and colleagues (R. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990). In this article the results of this research are briefly summarized, and the theoretical and methodological basis is discussed and criticized. A sociological interpretation of the model emphasizing theories of technological change, qualifications of the workers, and the organization of work is proposed. Furthermore, improvements with regard to measuring the job strain dimensions and to sampling the study base are suggested. Substantial improvements of the job strain research could be achieved if the principle of triangulation were used in the measurements of stressors, stress, and sickness and if occupation-based samples were used instead of large representative samples.

  8. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S. K.; Kesavachandran, C.; Mahdi, Farzana; Pandey, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned. PMID:21957364

  9. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi S; Kesavachandran C; Mahdi Farzana; Pandey Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  10. Digital technologies in occupational therapy and physiotherapy undergraduate and postgraduate education: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Benita; Verdonck, Michele; Casteleijn, Daleen

    2017-11-01

    How have digital technologies been used in occupational therapy and physiotherapy undergraduate and postgraduate education?Specifically, the objective of this scoping review is to present an overview of research on the use of digital technologies in terms of type of digital technology used, pedagogy associated with the use of digital technology, subject/topic/area of application, experiences/perception of digital technology used, outcomes of the digital technology used and challenges to the use of digital technologies in occupational therapy and physiotherapy undergraduate and postgraduate education.

  11. The IAEA review of methods of reducing occupational exposures during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejnikov, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    International interest in decommissioning has increased rapidly in the last few years because of the large number of older facilities which are or soon will be retired from service and because of the many hundreds of new facilities which have been built or planned and will eventually require decommissioning. A state-of-the-art review of methods of reducing occupational exposures during decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been prepared recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The report concludes that decommissioning can be carried out without unacceptable impact on man or his environment. However, additional development is required to reduce occupational exposures during decommissioning. (author)

  12. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE MODEL MINORITY STEREOTYPE SHIBBOLETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daniel Hartlep

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted a thematic review of the literature on the model minority stereotype  (MMS.  MMS  writings  (n  =  246  included  peer-reviewed  and  non-peer-reviewed materials spanning from the 1960s to present. Writings were reviewed if their title included “model minority.”  The purpose  was to review the MMS critically.  Six major themes were found to recurrently appear in the MMS literature. Those themes were the following: (1 critiquing colorblindness, (2 countering meritocracy, (3 demystifying Asian  American  exceptionalism,  (4  uncovering  divide  and  conquer  stratagem,  (5 problematizing Asian American homogenization, and (6 unmasking the “yellow peril” stereotype. Implications for the education of Asian students in America and abroad are shared.

  13. Ischemic cardiovascular disease in workers occupationally exposed to urban air pollution - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Paola; Verso, Maria Gabriella; Tramuto, Fabio; Amodio, Emanuele; Picciotto, Diego

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among several known risk factors, researchers also focus their attention on the chronic exposure to air pollution. There is much evidence that exposure to air pollution, especially to ultrafine particles, can damage the endothelium and can favour cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Occupational exposition could be an additive risk factor for the cardiovascular system. This article presents a scientific review of the linkage between occupational exposure to air pollution and ischemic heart disease. A scientific review was undertaken, followed by PRISMA Statements. Observational studies were selected from several scientific databases, likesuch as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Nioshtic-2 and Reserchgate, searching for selected key words: police workers, professional drivers, mail carriers, filling station attendants, road cleaners, garage workers, motor vehicles and engine maintenance. All the key words were combined with "Boolean Operators" with the following words: cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease, cardiovascular function, cardiovascular system, ischemic heart disease, coronary disease, myocardial infarction. During the systematic research, the focus was on retrospective and prospective studies from January 1990 - December 2014. Both the retrospective and prospective studies showed an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in occupationally occupied people exposed to air pollution. Only one study presented a ly minor risk. The findings of this systematic review suggest a possible linkage between occupational exposure to urban air pollution, especially to motor exhaust and particulate, and ischemic heart disease.

  14. Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 Changes to the Autism Diagnostic Criteria: A Critical Moment for Occupational Therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondalyn Varney Whitney Ph.D., OT/L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the soon to be released Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM – 5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2012 bring new opportunities for occupational therapy, but the profession must prepare for the impact these changes forecast. While well positioned to capitalize on newly defined specifications of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and the elevation of sensory processing difficulties to a core feature of the disorder, the profession must be alert to the potential downside of the pending changes. The more stringentdiagnostic rubric will likely exclude a significant number of individuals currently eligible for therapeutic and academic services. Autism will be defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder that must be identifiable before early childhood (age 5, even if it is not detected until later as a result of environmental factors (minimal social demands, support from caretakers, etc.. The new diagnostic criteria will add the explicit recognition of sensory behaviors within a subdomain of stereotyped motor, verbal, and sensory-based behaviors and researchers suggest only 60% of those who currently meet the threshold for an autism spectrum diagnosis will continue to meet criteria under the new categorization. The proposed changes will likely encourage researchers to use greater specificity when recruiting sample populations and, as a result, help to determine interventions that are most advantageous for specific subtypes. Addressing sensory processing in thediagnostic criteria may authorize interventions aimed specifically towards reduction of sensory-related disabilities through remediation, environmental support, or parent education while simultaneously calling upon us to deliver evidence for Ayres’ sensory integration® (ASI approaches. The change also presents anurgent call to our profession to promote the unique scientific contributions occupational therapy makes for individuals with ASD, their families, and their educational contexts

  15. Effects of an experiential learning program on the clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills of occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Patty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.

  16. Methyl methacrylate and respiratory sensitization: A Critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Fields, Cheryl; Andrews, Larry S; Pemberton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer that has been associated with occupational asthma in a small number of case reports. Those reports have raised concern that it might be a respiratory sensitizer. To better understand that possibility, we reviewed the in silico, in chemico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology literature, and also epidemiologic and occupational medicine reports related to the respiratory effects of MMA. Numerous in silico and in chemico studies indicate that MMA is unlikely to be a respiratory sensitizer. The few in vitro studies suggest that MMA has generally weak effects. In vivo studies have documented contact skin sensitization, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and weakly positive responses on local lymph node assay; guinea pig and mouse inhalation sensitization tests have not been performed. Cohort and cross-sectional worker studies reported irritation of eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract associated with short-term peaks exposures, but little evidence for respiratory sensitization or asthma. Nineteen case reports described asthma, laryngitis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis in MMA-exposed workers; however, exposures were either not well described or involved mixtures containing more reactive respiratory sensitizers and irritants.The weight of evidence, both experimental and observational, argues that MMA is not a respiratory sensitizer. PMID:21401327

  17. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  18. Radically Reducing the Costs of Panel Critical Reviews According to ISO 14040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Christiansen, Kim; Wernet, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a procedure that radically reduces the critical review costs without compromising their thoroughness and overall quality. This procedure has 3 elements: A fixed panel for all reviews, an already critically reviewed background database, and a software-supported review procedure. The pre....... The presentation discusses these elements in the light of the upcoming ISO 14071 on critical review....

  19. Effects of radiation on coal mine environment -a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Varma, N.K.; Sahay, N.; Ahmad, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to mass-scale industrialization, world's environment is being polluted every day endangering the existence of living beings on the earth. This has attracted the attention of environmental engineers, medical practitioners, planners and researchers throughout the world. Attempts are being made to make air, water and atmosphere clean and to prevent likely hazards arising out of various industrial activities. In addition, the radiation from natural sources is all around us and has been here since time immemorial. Coal miners have small occupational radiation which arise from naturally occurring radioactive substance(s) underground. The predominant source of natural radiation present in coal mines is the radon gas. This paper describes the origin of radon and its radiological hazards. An attempt has been made to review the status of the problem likely to be caused by the different radioactive elements present in Indian coal, coal ash and allied coal-based industries. (author)

  20. A Critical Review of OSHA Heat Enforcement Cases: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Lindsley, Matthew; Hodgson, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to review the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) 2012 to 2013 heat enforcement cases, using identified essential elements of heat illness prevention to evaluate employers' programs and make recommendations to better protect workers from heat illness. (1) Identify essential elements of heat illness prevention; (2) develop data collection tool; and (3) analyze OSHA 2012 to 2013 heat enforcement cases. OSHA's database contains 84 heat enforcement cases in 2012 to 2013. Employer heat illness prevention programs were lacking in essential elements such as providing water and shade; adjusting the work/rest proportion to allow for workload and effective temperature; and acclimatizing and training workers. In this set of investigations, most employers failed to implement common elements of illness prevention programs. Over 80% clearly did not rely on national standard approaches to heat illness prevention.

  1. Fission, critical mass and safety-a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggitt, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of fission, the notion of a chain reaction in a critical mass releasing massive amounts of energy has haunted physicists. The possibility of a bomb or a reactor prompted much of the early work on determining a critical mass, but the need to avoid an accidental critical excursion during processing or transport of fissile material drove much that took place subsequently. Because of the variety of possible situations that might arise, it took some time to develop adequate theoretical tools for criticality safety and the early assessments were based on direct experiment. Some extension of these experiments to closely similar situations proved possible, but it was not until the 1960s that theoretical methods (and computers to run them) developed enough for them to become reliable assessment tools. Validating such theoretical methods remained a concern, but by the end of the century they formed the backbone of criticality safety assessment. This paper traces the evolution of these methods, principally in the UK and USA, and summarises some related work concerned with the nature of criticality accidents and their radiological consequences. It also indicates how the results have been communicated and used in ensuring nuclear safety. (review)

  2. Online counseling: a narrative and critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek; Viganó, Noemi

    2013-09-01

    This article aimed to critically review the literature on online counseling. Database and hand-searches were made using search terms and eligibility criteria, yielding a total of 123 studies. The review begins with what characterizes online counseling. Outcome and process research in online counseling is reviewed. Features and cyberbehaviors of online counseling such as anonymity and disinhibition, convenience, time-delay, the loss of social signaling, and writing behavior in cyberspace are discussed. Ethical behavior, professional training, client suitability, and clients' and therapists' attitudes and experiences of online counseling are reviewed. A growing body of knowledge to date is positive in showing that online counseling can have a similar impact and is capable of replicating the facilitative conditions as face-to-face encounters. A need remains for stronger empirical evidence to establish efficacy and effectiveness and to understand better the unique mediating and facilitative variables. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A systematic review of yoga for state anxiety: considerations for occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh-Gupta, Neha; Baldassarre, Fulvia G; Vrkljan, Brenda H

    2013-06-01

    State anxiety can result from a variety of life situations. This type of anxiety can disrupt occupational engagement and performance, thereby affecting rehabilitation and recovery. Occupational therapists need to address the connection between mind-body-spirit and its relationship to performance and engagement in meaningful occupations. Yoga, when used as an adjunct to therapy, has the potential to address state anxiety. The aim was to systematically review the evidence concerning the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment approach for state anxiety. Six electronic databases, the authors' own files, and the references of included studies from 1990 to July 2011 were searched. A total of 25 unique studies represented by 26 publications made up the sample: two systematic reviews; 16 randomized controlled trials, and seven prospective, controlled, non-randomized studies. Evidence suggests yoga can be a viable therapeutic option for reducing state anxiety in certain situations. In making the determination to recommend yoga as an intervention, occupational therapists should consider the client's circumstances and values as well as the type and intensity of the yoga program.

  4. Strategies and policies deteriorate occupational health situation in India: A review based on social determinant framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asish Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows that hazardous work, working conditions, and environment fail to maintain homeostasis results in death or severe disability. Up to the 1980s, governments did not pay major attention to occupational health in developing countries, including India. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, in 1984, was the turning point in the history of health and safety in India. It was time for the government to think deeply and review the existing legislative measures, for the upliftment of the occupational health situation in India. However, all the services remain grossly underutilized because of inadequate strategies, policies, and the lack of a proper monitoring mechanism, for occupational workers. The present study reviews the fact that Inaction or Destruction of Demands, Use of Power, Appeal to the existing bias of the system, and Exportation and Flexibility of the workers are some of the main reasons for the alarming situation of the Occupational Health Policy (OHP) in India. The existing and traditional condition of the laborers before and after independence is also highlighted in this article. Finally the threats are identified and options are provided to improve the health conditions of the workers.

  5. Occupational health and safety issues affecting young workers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Marie; Ledoux, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Many overview articles, reports, book chapters and literature reviews have examined the health and safety of young workers. These sources discuss the relationships between the work conditions of young workers and the various indicators of accidents and occupational diseases. Breslin et al. [12,13] conducted two literature reviews of quantitative studies to determine which factors best predicted work accidents and occupational disorders in young people. The present article proposes a review of young people's occupational health and safety (OHS) factors (e.g., demographic, individual, professional, organizational, temporal and operational factors) in both qualitative and quantitative studies. Five types of problems were analyzed in greater depth, namely MSD symptoms, respiratory, allergy and toxicological problems, mental health and well-being, alcohol and drug consumption, and fatigue. This review likewise examines related dimensions that allow us to adopt a more global perspective on this subject by considering such elements as young people's values, their knowledge and attitudes, safety practices in companies, the safe integration of young people, and rehabilitation. A total of 189 scientific articles were selected on the basis of certain criteria. These articles came from refereed OHS journals published between 1994 and 2005.

  6. Review of Occupational Health and Safety Organization in Expanding Economies: The Case of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Dingani; Zungu, Muzimkhulu; Kgalamono, Spoponki; Mwila, Chimba D

    2015-01-01

    Globally, access to occupational health and safety (OHS) by workers has remained at very low levels. The organization and implementation of OHS in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana has remained at suboptimal levels. Inadequacy of human resource capital, training, and education in the field of OHS has had a major negative impact on the improvement of worker access to such services in expanding economies. South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana have expanding economies with active mining and agricultural activities that pose health and safety risks to the working population. A literature review and country systems inquiry on the organization of OHS services in the 4 countries was carried out. Because of the infancy and underdevelopment of OHS in southern Africa, literature on the status of this topic is limited. In the 4 countries under review, OHS services are a function shared either wholly or partially by 3 ministries, namely Health, Labor, and Mining. Other ministries, such as Environment and Agriculture, carry small fragments of OHS function. The 4 countries are at different stages of OHS legislative frameworks that guide the practice of health and safety in the workplace. Inadequacies in human resource capital and expertise in occupational health and safety are noted major constraints in the implementation and compliance to health and safety initiatives in the work place. South Africa has a more mature system than Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana. Lack of specialized training in occupational health services, such as occupational medicine specialization for physicians, has been a major drawback in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana. The full adoption and success of OHS systems in Southern Africa remains constrained. Training and education in OHS, especially in occupational medicine, will enhance the development and maturation of occupational health in southern Africa. Capacitating primary health services with basic occupational health knowledge would

  7. A critical review of regional economic integration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang RUI

    2015-01-01

    Under the circumstances of economic globalization, regional economic integration has become the mainstream of current economic development for each country, so China has to pay more attention to it. The critical review on regional economic integration in China can lay a certain foundation and provide experience for the in-depth research. Main contents of regional economic integration are refined according to the previous studies and realities, including the integration of regional economic re...

  8. Critical Review of rate constants for reacitons of hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Greenstock, C.L.; Phillips Helman, W.; Ross, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Kinetic data for the radicals Hx and xOH in aqueous solution,and the corresponding radical anions, xO - and e/sub =/, have been critically reviewed. Reactions of the radicals in aqueous solution have been studied by pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis and other methods. Rate constants for over 3500 reaction are tabulated, including reaction with molecules, ions and other radicals derived from inorganic and organic solutes

  9. Pediatric Critical Care Telemedicine Program: A Single Institution Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria; Hojman, Nayla; Sadorra, Candace; Dharmar, Madan; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Litman, Rebecca; Marcin, James P

    2016-01-01

    Rural and community emergency departments (EDs) often receive and treat critically ill children despite limited access to pediatric expertise. Increasingly, pediatric critical care programs at children's hospitals are using telemedicine to provide consultations to these EDs with the goal of increasing the quality of care. We conducted a retrospective review of a pediatric critical care telemedicine program at a single university children's hospital. Between the years 2000 and 2014, we reviewed all telemedicine consultations provided to children in rural and community EDs, classified the visits using a comprehensive evidence-based set of chief complaints, and reported the consultations' impact on patient disposition. We also reviewed the total number of pediatric ED visits to calculate the relative frequency with which telemedicine consultations were provided. During the study period, there were 308 consultations provided to acutely ill and/or injured children for a variety of chief complaints, most commonly for respiratory illnesses, acute injury, and neurological conditions. Since inception, the number of consultations has been increasing, as has the number of participating EDs (n = 18). Telemedicine consultations were conducted on 8.6% of seriously ill children, the majority of which resulted in admission to the receiving hospital (n = 150, 49%), with a minority of patients requiring transport to the university children's hospital (n = 103, 33%). This single institutional, university children's hospital-based review demonstrates that a pediatric critical care telemedicine program used to provide consultations to seriously ill children in rural and community EDs is feasible, sustainable, and used relatively infrequently, most typically for the sickest pediatric patients.

  10. TWTF project criticality task force final review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.; Cannon, J.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Worle, H.A.

    1980-11-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) is being developed to process transuranic waste, stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, into a chemically inert, physically stable basalt-like residue acceptable at a federal repository. A task force was assembled by the TWTF Project Division to review and assess all aspects of criticality safety for the TWTF. This document presents the final review, assessments, and recommendations of this task force. The following conclusions were made: Additional criticality studies are needed for the entire envelope of feed compositions and temperature effects. Safe operating k/sub eff/'s need to be determined for process components. Criticality analyses validation experiments may also be required. SRP neutron interrogation should be replaced by DDT neutron interrogation. Accuracy studies need to be performed for the proposed assaying techniques. Time-correlated neutron monitoring needs to be mocked up for process components to prove feasibility and determine accuracy. The criticality control techniques developed for the TWTF conceptual design are in compliance with ERDAM 0530, including the Double Contingency Rule. Detailed procedures and controls need to be developed

  11. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values < 87 were significantly associated with mortality. A high Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic

  12. Critical thinking in nursing: Scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan

    2015-12-01

    This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumie, Abera; Amera, Tadesse; Berhane, Kiros; Samet, Jonathan; Hundal, Nuvjote; G/Michael, Fitsum; Gilliland, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The current rapid economic development has brought changes in workplaces in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. There is limited information on the gaps and needs of occupational health services in workplaces in Ethiopia. The present review article describes the existing profile of occupational safety and health services in Ethiopia and identifies the current gaps and needs in the services. Secondary data sources were reviewed using a structured checklist to explore the status of occupational safety, health services and related morbidity. Local literature was consulted in order to describe the type and prevalence of work related hazards, patterns of industries and of workforce. Published articles were searched in Google, Google scholar, PUBMED, and HINARI databases. Relevant heads of stakeholder organizations and experts were interviewed to verify the gaps that were synthesized using desk review. Ethiopia is an agrarian country that is industrializing rapidly with a focus on construction, manufacturing, mining, and road infrastructure. An estimated work force of about two million is currently engaged in the public and private sectors. Males constitute the majority of this workforce. Most of the workforce has basic primary education. Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and dust of various types in manufacturing sectors and chemical exposures in the flower industry. Injury in both the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors is another workplace hazard commonly observed in the country. A lack of information made assessing workplace exposures in detail difficult. The prevalence of noise exposure was found to be high with the potential to seriously impact hearing capacity. Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded international

  14. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  15. Radio-frequency glow discharge spectrometry: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, Michael R.; Payling, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of analytical radio frequency glow discharge spectrometry (rf-GDS). The historical foundations of rf-GDS are described, and current knowledge of the fundamental physics of analytical rf glow discharges is discussed. Additionally, instrumentation, methodologies, and applications of rf glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GDOES) and mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) are reviewed. Although other rf-GDS techniques have appeared [e.g. rf glow discharge atomic absorption spectrophotometry (rf-GDAAS)], the emphasis is placed upon rf-GDOES and rf-GDMS, because they have received by far the most interest from analytical chemical metrologists. This review also provides explanations of some developments that are needed for further progress in the field of analytical rf-GDS

  16. Occupational physical activity assessment for chronic disease prevention and management: A review of methods for both occupational health practitioners and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth A; Browning, Raymond C

    2016-01-01

    Occupational physical activity (OPA) is an occupational exposure that impacts worker health. OPA is amenable to measurement and modification through the hierarchy of controls. Occupational exposure scientists have roles in addressing inadequate physical activity, as well as excessive or harmful physical activity. Occupational health researchers can contribute to the development of novel OPA exposure assessment techniques and to epidemiologic studies examining the health impacts of physical activity at work. Occupational health practitioners stand to benefit from understanding the strengths and limitations of physical activity measurement approaches, such as accelerometers in smartphones, which are already ubiquitous in many workplaces and in some worksite health programs. This comprehensive review of the literature provides an overview of physical activity monitoring for occupational exposure scientists. This article summarizes data on the public health implications of physical activity at work, highlighting complex relationships with common chronic diseases. This article includes descriptions of several techniques that have been used to measure physical activity at work and elsewhere, focusing in detail on pedometers, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System technology. Additional subjective and objective measurement strategies are described as well.

  17. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  18. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  19. Review of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) toxicity, epidemiology and occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Utell, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight. Epidemiology studies (both morbidity and mortality) were undertaken to learn more about possible health effects resulting from occupational exposure. No chronic animal bioassay studies on RCF have been conducted since the 1980s. The results of the ongoing epidemiology studies confirm that occupational exposure to RCF is associated with the development of pleural plaques and minor decrements in lung function, but no interstitial fibrosis or incremental lung cancer. Evidence supporting a finding that urinary tumors are associated with RCF exposure remains, but is weaker. One reported, but unconfirmed, mesothelioma was found in an individual with prior occupational asbestos exposure. An elevated SMR for leukemia was found, but was absent in the highly exposed group and has not been observed in studies of other mineral fibers. The industry will continue the product stewardship program including the mortality study.

  20. Home- and Community-Based Occupational Therapy Improves Functioning in Frail Older People: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Leen; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Bouckaert, Leen; Declercq, Anja; Graff, Maud J L; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to assess the effectiveness of occupational therapy to improve performance in daily living activities in community-dwelling physically frail older people. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included randomized controlled trials reporting on occupational therapy as intervention, or as part of a multidisciplinary approach. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane methods of systematic reviews of interventions. Meta-analyses were performed to pool results across studies using the standardized mean difference. The primary outcome measures were mobility, functioning in daily living activities, and social participation. Secondary outcome measures were fear of falling, cognition, disability, and number of falling persons. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the studies were of reasonable quality with low risk of bias. There was a significant increase in all primary outcomes. The pooled result for functioning in daily living activities was a standardized mean difference of -0.30 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.11; P = .002), for social participation -0.44 (95% CI -0.69, -0.19; P = .0007) and for mobility -0.45 (95% CI -0.78 to -0.12; P = .007). All secondary outcomes showed positive trends, with fear of falling being significant. No adverse effects of occupational therapy were found. There is strong evidence that occupational therapy improves functioning in community-dwelling physically frail older people. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. A systematic review on critical thinking in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2016-04-18

    Critical thinking is the ability to raise discriminating questions in an attempt to search for better ideas, a deeper understanding and better solutions relating to a given issue. This systematic review provides a summary of efforts that have been made to enhance and assess critical thinking in medical education. Nine databases [Ovid MEDLINE(R), AMED, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, SCOPUS and PsycINFO] were searched to identify journal articles published from the start of each database to October 2012. A total of 41 articles published from 1981 to 2012 were categorised into two main themes: (i) evaluation of current education on critical thinking and (ii) development of new strategies about critical thinking. Under each theme, the teaching strategies, assessment tools, uses of multimedia and stakeholders were analysed. While a majority of studies developed teaching strategies and multimedia tools, a further examination of their quality and variety could yield some insights. The articles on assessment placed a greater focus on learning outcomes than on learning processes. It is expected that more research will be conducted on teacher development and students' voices.

  2. BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth, and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mill wastes; residues from biofuel industries; sewage sludge etc, that can be used for biochar production, making Brazil a key actor in the international scenario in terms of biochar research and utilization. In the last decade, numerous studies on biochar have been carried out and now a vast literature, and excellent reviews, are available. The objective of this paper is therefore to deliver a critical review with some highlights on biochar research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographic review. To this end, some key points considered critical and relevant were selected and the pertinent literature "condensed", with a view to guide future research, rather than analyze trends of the past.

  3. Occupational and Cost Risk : Critical Analysis of Monetization Policy Risk Approach to the Spanish Law Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio César Villatore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem that surrounds the issue of occupational risk is a phenomenon that plagues every society, because the work is a central element and gives force to the economy. In this sense, the exposure of workers to harmful activities that may cause damage to your health and physical and mental integrity, based on the monetization policy of risk adopted by the Brazilian legal system, can import costs to the workers, employers, the state and society. Thus, the present study seeks, from the labor law analysis and the use of concepts of Economic Analysis of Law, attest that the social costs caused by worker exposure to risk is, fallaciously shown, in a short-term smaller than that of prevention, but in the long run can import the burden on all parties of the employment relationship as well as the State and society, being necessary to use economic and legal measures for changing the monetization of risk policy, as in alien systems, as the Spanish Law analyzed.

  4. Occupational health information systems, do we need them? What are the critical success factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granhus, B.; Heid, S.

    1996-12-31

    Den norske statsoljeselskap a.s. (Statoil) which is a major Norwegian oil company has used a mainframe (VM/CMS) based occupational health information system (OHIS) since 1991. The system is distributed among 11 offshore platforms, two refineries and three office centers. It contains medical (25000) workplace (1500) and 6500 material safety data sheet (MSDS) records. The paper deals with the experiences and challenges met during the development of this system and a new client/server based version for Windows{reg_sign}. In 1992 the Norwegian Data Inspectorate introduced new legislation setting extremely strict standards for data protection and privacy. This demanded new solutions not yet utilized for systems of this scale. The solution implements a fully encrypted data flow between the user of the medical modules, while the non sensitive data from the other modules are not encrypted. This involves the use of a special {open_quotes}smart-card{close_quotes} containing the user privileges as well as the encryption key. The system will combine the advantages of a local system together with the integration force of a centralized system. The new system was operational by February 1996. The paper also summarizes the experiences we have had with our OHIS, areas of good and bad cost/benefit, development pitfalls, and which factors are most important for customer satisfaction. This is very important because of the ever increasing demand for efficiency together with company reorganization and changing technology.

  5. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  6. Critical Mass: Is Female Marine Attrition Higher in Non-Traditional Military Occupational Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    World War II had to be set aside with the acknowledgment that the service of women proved critical to military success in the past and could be...the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act of 1948 (Borlik, 1998). Additionally, women could now serve full-time in active components (Schulte... women make a difference. Seemingly, these views are in line with Dahlerup’s politics as a workplace perspective which address “the importance of

  7. A systematic review of the effectiveness of occupational health and safety training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Lynda S; Stephenson, Carol M; Schulte, Paul A; Amick, Benjamin C; Irvin, Emma L; Eggerth, Donald E; Chan, Stella; Bielecky, Amber R; Wang, Anna M; Heidotting, Terri L; Peters, Robert H; Clarke, Judith A; Cullen, Kimberley; Rotunda, Cathy J; Grubb, Paula L

    2012-05-01

    Training is regarded as an important component of occupational health and safety (OHS) programs. This paper primarily addresses whether OHS training has a beneficial effect on workers. The paper also examines whether higher engagement OHS training has a greater effect than lower engagement training. Ten bibliographic databases were searched for pre-post randomized trial studies published in journals between 1996 and November 2007. Training interventions were included if they were delivered to workers and were concerned with primary prevention of occupational illness or injury. The methodological quality of each relevant study was assessed and data was extracted. The impacts of OHS training in each study were summarized by calculating the standardized mean differences. The strength of the evidence on training's effectiveness was assessed for (i) knowledge, (ii) attitudes and beliefs, (iIi) behaviors, and (iv) health using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guide to Community Preventive Services, a qualitative evidence synthesis method. Twenty-two studies met the relevance criteria of the review. They involved a variety of study populations, occupational hazards, and types of training. Strong evidence was found for the effectiveness of training on worker OHS behaviors, but insufficient evidence was found of its effectiveness on health (ie, symptoms, injuries, illnesses). The review team recommends that workplaces continue to deliver OHS training to employees because training positively affects worker practices. However, large impacts of training on health cannot be expected, based on research evidence.

  8. A Systematic Review of Community Health Workers' Role in Occupational Safety and Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Nichols, Helen M; Clouser, Jessica M; Check, Pietra; Edwards, Lori; Bush, Ashley M; Padilla, Yancy; Betz, Gail

    2018-03-03

    We systematically reviewed the literature to describe how community health workers (CHWs) are involved in occupational health and safety research and to identify areas for future research and research practice strategies. We searched five electronic databases from July 2015 through July 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study took place in the United States, (2) published as a full peer-review manuscript in English, (3) conducted occupational health and safety research, and (4) CHWs were involved in the research. The majority of 17 included studies took place in the agriculture industry (76%). CHWs were often involved in study implementation/design and research participant contact. Rationale for CHW involvement in research was due to local connections/acceptance, existing knowledge/skills, communication ability, and access to participants. Barriers to CHW involvement in research included competing demands on CHWs, recruitment and training difficulties, problems about research rigor and issues with proper data collection. Involving CHWs in occupational health and safety research has potential for improving inclusion of diverse, vulnerable and geographically isolated populations. Further research is needed to assess the challenges and opportunities of involving CHWs in this research and to develop evidence-based training strategies to teach CHWs to be lay-health researchers.

  9. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  10. What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermolacce, Michel René Joseph; Jensen, Lars Meldgaard Sass; Parnas, J

    2010-01-01

    or incomprehensible. Then, we provide a critical review of contemporary studies on the reliability of BD and their methodological and conceptual limitations. Current approaches have focused intensely on BD's reliability and have defined BD strictly in terms of delusional content--mainly in terms of the physical...... to delusional contents alone and requires taking into account the subjective side of BD (how altered experience manifests itself) as well as the conditions of intersubjective encounter (how BD are expressed to and experienced by the clinician). The notion of "bizarreness" in schizophrenia is not purely...

  11. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2012-10-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Computerized tomography and schizophrenia: critical review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer Huebner, C.V.; Gattaz, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding structural brain abnormalities in Schizophrenia is presented. It is reported that the prevalence and the localization of the abnormalities vary widely among studies. These differences might stem from samples heterogeneity, from the choice of the computer tomographic (CT) parameter to be investigated and from the use of different criteria for defining abnormalities. It seems established that at least one subgroup of Schizophrenia patients shows mild or moderate brain atrophy, in spite of some contradictory findings. (M.A.C.)

  13. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima

    2016-01-01

    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index

  14. A review of costing methodologies in critical care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Fager, Samuel S; Milzman, David P

    2002-09-01

    Clinical decision making in critical care has traditionally been based on clinical outcome measures such as mortality and morbidity. Over the past few decades, however, increasing competition in the health care marketplace has made it necessary to consider costs when making clinical and managerial decisions in critical care. Sophisticated costing methodologies have been developed to aid this decision-making process. We performed a narrative review of published costing studies in critical care during the past 6 years. A total of 282 articles were found, of which 68 met our search criteria. They involved a mean of 508 patients (range, 20-13,907). A total of 92.6% of the studies (63 of 68) used traditional cost analysis, whereas the remaining 7.4% (5 of 68) used cost-effectiveness analysis. None (0 of 68) used cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. A total of 36.7% (25 of 68) used hospital charges as a surrogate for actual costs. Of the 43 articles that actually counted costs, 37.2% (16 of 43) counted physician costs, 27.9% (12 of 43) counted facility costs, 34.9% (15 of 43) counted nursing costs, 9.3% (4 of 43) counted societal costs, and 90.7% (39 of 43) counted laboratory, equipment, and pharmacy costs. Our conclusion is that despite considerable progress in costing methodologies, critical care studies have not adequately implemented these techniques. Given the importance of financial implications in medicine, it would be prudent for critical care studies to use these more advanced techniques. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  15. A critical review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eHupé

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia refers to additional sensations experienced by some people for specific stimulations, such as the systematic arbitrary association of colors to letters for the most studied type. Here we review all the studies (based mostly on functional and structural MRI that have searched for the neural correlates of this subjective experience, as well as structural differences related to synesthesia. Most differences claimed for synesthetes are unsupported, due mainly to low statistical power, statistical errors and methodological limitations. Our critical review therefore casts some doubts on whether any neural correlate of the synesthetic experience has been established yet. Rather than being a neurological condition (i.e., a structural or functional brain anomaly, synesthesia could be reconsidered as a special kind of childhood memory, whose signature in the brain may be out of reach with present brain imaging techniques.

  16. A Critical Review of Low Back Pain Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Laran

    2017-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) remains one of the most common and challenging musculoskeletal conditions encountered by health care professionals and is a leading cause of absenteeism. Clinical guidelines are often considered best evidence in health care. The aim of this critical review was to assess the quality and recommendations of LBP guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. Electronic databases were used to identify LBP guidelines published between 2000 and 2015. Nine guidelines were selected for review from a total of 17. Only five guidelines effectively addressed the AGREE scoring. On the basis of the appraisal and domain scores, only four guidelines were strongly recommended. Improved translation of research evidence from guidelines to clinical practice is needed.

  17. A Critical Review of Recent Literature on Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Abromeit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article of the following five recent studies on populism: 1 Ruth Wodak’s The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean (Sage, 2015; 2 Benjamin Moffitt’s The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style and Representation (Stanford University Press, 2016; 3 Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser’s Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017; 4 Jan-Werner Müller’s What is Populism? (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016; and 5 John B. Judis’ The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics (Columbia Global Reports, 2016. The review argues for a return to early Frankfurt School Critical Theory to address some of the shortcomings of these studies.

  18. Outcome measures for adult critical care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J A; Black, N A; Jenkinson, C; Young, J D; Rowan, K M; Daly, K; Ridley, S

    2000-01-01

    1. To identify generic and disease specific measures of impairment, functional status and health-related quality of life that have been used in adult critical care (intensive and high-dependency care) survivors. 2. To review the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the measures in adult critical care survivors. 3. To consider the implications for future policy and to make recommendations for further methodological research. 4. To review what is currently known of the outcome of adult critical care. Searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, The Cochrane Library and SIGLE) from 1970 to August 1998. Manual searches of five journals (1985-98) not indexed in electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings (1993-98). Reference lists of six existing reviews, plus snowballing from reference lists of all relevant articles identified. Randomised trials, non-randomised trials (cohort studies) and case series that included data on outcomes after discharge from adult (16 years and over) critical care. If reported, the following data were extracted from each paper: patient characteristics (age, gender, severity of illness, diagnostic category) number of patients eligible for study, follow-up period, number of deaths before follow-up, number and proportion of survivors included in follow-up method of presentation of outcome data - proportion normal as defined by reference values, or aggregate value (e.g. mean or median), or aggregate values plus an indication of variance (e.g. standard deviation or inter-quartile range). Evidence for three measurement properties was sought for each outcome measure that had been used in at least two studies - their validity, reliability and responsiveness in adult critical care. If the authors did not report these aspects explicitly, an attempt was made to use the data provided to provide these measurement properties. For measures that were used in at least ten studies, information on actual reported

  19. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Adult Cancer Rehabilitation: Part 1. Impact of Physical Activity and Symptom Management Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth G; Gibson, Robert W; Arbesman, Marian; D'Amico, Mariana

    This article is the first part of a systematic review of evidence for the effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address the activity and participation needs of adult cancer survivors. This article focuses on the importance of physical activity and symptom management. Strong evidence supports the use of exercise for cancer-related fatigue and indicates that lymphedema is not exacerbated by exercise. Moderate evidence supports the use of yoga to relieve anxiety and depression and indicates that exercise as a whole may contribute to a return to precancer levels of sexual activity. The results of this review support inclusion of occupational therapy in cancer rehabilitation and reveal a significant need for more research to explore ways occupational therapy can positively influence the outcomes of cancer survivors. Part 2 of the review also appears in this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Military service member and veteran reintegration: A critical review and adapted ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnitsky, Christine A; Blevins, Cara L; Fisher, Michael P; Magruder, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles. Screening of abstracts and full-text review based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, yielded 186 articles for review. Two investigators evaluating relevant articles independently found a lack of clear definition or comprehensive theorizing about MSMV reintegration. To address these gaps, we linked the findings from the literature to provide a unified definition of reintegration and adapted the social ecological systems theory to guide research and practice aimed at MSMV reintegration. Furthermore, we identified individual, interpersonal, community, and societal challenges related to reintegration. The 186 studies published from 2001 (the start of the current war era) to 2015 included 6 experimental studies or clinical trials. Most studies do not adequately account for context or more than a narrow set of potential influences on MSMV reintegration. Little evidence was found that evaluated interventions for health conditions, rehabilitation, and employment, or effective models of integrated delivery systems. We recommend an ecological model of MSMV reintegration to advance research and practice processes and outcomes at 4 levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Evidence from EXAFS for Different Ta/Ti Site Occupancy in High Critical Current Density Nb3Sn Superconductor Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Steve M; Tarantini, Chiara; Lee, Peter J; Brown, Michael D; Sung, ZuHawn; Ghosh, Arup K; Larbalestier, David C

    2018-03-19

    To meet critical current density, J c , targets for the Future Circular Collider (FCC), the planned replacement for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high field performance of Nb 3 Sn must be improved, but champion J c values have remained static for the last 10 years. Making the A15 phase stoichiometric and enhancing the upper critical field H c2 by Ti or Ta dopants are the standard strategies for enhancing high field performance but detailed recent studies show that even the best modern wires have broad composition ranges. To assess whether further improvement might be possible, we employed Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) to determine the lattice site location of dopants in modern high-performance Nb 3 Sn strands with J c values amongst the best so far achieved. Although Ti and Ta primarily occupy the Nb sites in the A15 structure, we also find significant Ta occupancy on the Sn site. These findings indicate that the best performing Ti-doped stand is strongly sub-stoichiometric in Sn and that antisite disorder likely explains its high average H c2 behavior. These new results suggest an important role for dopant and antisite disorder in minimizing superconducting property distributions and maximizing high field J c properties.

  3. A critical review of the nursing shortage in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T; Namasivayam, P; Narudin, D A A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes and critically reviews steps taken to address the nursing workforce shortage in Malaysia. To address the shortage and to build health care capacity, Malaysia has more than doubled its nursing workforce over the past decade, primarily through an increase in the domestic supply of new graduates. Government reports, policy documents and ministerial statements were sourced from the Ministry of Health Malaysia website and reviewed and analysed in the context of the scholarly literature published about the health care workforce in Malaysia and more generally about the global nursing shortage. An escalation in student numbers and the unprecedented number of new graduates entering the workforce has been associated with other impacts that have been responded to symptomatically rather than through workplace reform. Whilst growing the domestic supply of nurses is a critical key strategy to address workforce shortages, steps should also be taken to address structural and other problems of the workplace to support both new graduates and the retention of more experienced staff. Nursing shortages should not be tackled by increasing the supply of new graduates alone. The creation of a safe and supportive work environment is important to the long-term success of current measures taken to grow the workforce and retain nurses within the Malaysian health care system.

  4. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by chromium in workers exposed from different occupational settings around the globe: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Pei, De-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    The present review focused on the levels and toxicological status of heavy metals especially chromium (Cr) in the exposed workers from different occupational settings around the globe and in Pakistan. It was found that exposed workers from leather tanning and metal plating units showed elevated levels of Cr than the workers from other occupational settings. Cr and other heavy metals level in biological matrices of the exposed workers in different occupational settings revealed that developing countries are severely contaminated. Occupational settings from the Sialkot district, Pakistan exhibited elevated level of Cr in biological entities of the exposed workers. Review suggested that higher level of Cr exposure to the workers enhance the oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl (OH) radical generation) which may cause; cellular and molecular damage such as genotoxicity and chromosomal aberration formations, and carcinogenic effects. This review will help to understand the Cr contamination mechanisms and associated health implications in different occupational settings around the globe in general and particularly to Pakistan. This study will also assist occupational health and safety management authorities to devise or change the Cr recommended exposure limits (REL) for different occupational settings.

  5. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  6. The type of employment contract and employees’ health and occupational functioning – The review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From over 2 decades intensive research concerning temporary workers has been carried out in Europe and outside Europe. Despite having the highest rate of temporary workers in Europe, the studies on this topic are very rare in Poland. The aim of the study was to review the existing research on the relations between temporary work and employees’ health and occupational functioning. The main conclusion from this review is that there is a significant inconsistency between the results of the studies included in this review due to such factors as heterogeneity of the group “temporary workers,” cultural and generational differences between temporary workers, as well as different economic context in which those studies had been carried out. The main recommendations for the future research is thus to take into account the personal preferences for performing temporary work and to use more complex study design. Med Pr 2015;66(4:565–573

  7. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.

  8. Risk of Occupational Accidents in Workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Sanna, Antonio; Mancardi, Gian Luigi; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the single most important preventable medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and driving accidents. OSA may also adversely affect work performance through a decrease in productivity, and an increase in the injury rate. Nevertheless, no systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between OSA and work accidents has been performed thus far. Methods: PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of an initial list of 1,099 papers, 10 studies (12,553 participants) were eligible for our review, and 7 of them were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effects were measured by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). An assessment was made of the methodological quality of the studies. Moderator analysis and funnel plot analysis were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Results: Compared to controls, the odds of work accident was found to be nearly double in workers with OSA (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.53–3.10). Occupational driving was associated with a higher effect size. Conclusions: OSA is an underdiagnosed nonoccupational disease that has a strong adverse effect on work accidents. The nearly twofold increased odds of work accidents in subjects with OSA calls for workplace screening in selected safety-sensitive occupations. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1171. Citation: Garbarino S, Guglielmi O, Sanna A, Mancardi GL, Magnavita N. Risk of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1211–1218. PMID:26951401

  9. Occupational Survey Report on Automotive Mechanics: Task Data from Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. [Interim Report]. Research and Development Series No. 110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    The study was conducted to develop methods for using timely, firsthand occupational task information on automotive mechanics in order to identify critical performance requirements that warrant formal training. The methodology used is described in detail. A Task Inventory Questionnaire was completed by 18 auto mechanics and 12 supervisors in each…

  10. Relevance of collagen piezoelectricity to "Wolff's Law": a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2009-09-01

    According to "Wolff's Law", bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this "law" is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte's mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff's Law--specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology.

  11. Antidiabetic plant-derived nutraceuticals: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Jayapal; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major health problems in the world, especially amongst the urban population. Chemically synthesized drugs used to decrease the ill effects of DM and its secondary complications cause adverse side effects, viz., weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and heart failure. Currently, various other approaches, viz., diet control, physical exercise and use of antidiabetic plant-derived molecules/foods are advocated to manage DM, as they are economical with fewer or no side effects. This review mainly focuses on antidiabetic plants, chemically characterized plant molecules and plant-based foods in the treatment of DM. Very little science-based evidence is available on the mechanism of action of plant-derived food molecules on the DM targets. Critical DM targets include α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPP-IV, aldose reductase, PPAR-γ, AMP kinase and GLUT4. In-depth studies carried out on a few of those targets with specific mechanisms of action are addressed in this review. This review may help future researchers in identifying a right plant molecule to treat DM or to develop food formulations for DM management.

  12. Physical Exercise for Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, CM; Chang, WC; Szuhany, KL; Deckersbach, T; Nierenberg, AA; Sylvia, LG

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population. Exercise may not only mitigate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but could also potentially improve the long term outcomes of mood disorders. Recent findings We conducted a literature review on the impact of exercise on mood disorders and associated comorbid conditions as well as possible biological mechanisms. We found that exercise impacts both the physical health parameters of mood disorders as well as mental health outcomes. Exercise also positively impacts conditions frequently comorbid with mood disorders (i.e. anxiety, pain, and insomnia). There are multiple candidate biomarkers for exercise, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress as two main promising components of exercise’s anti-depressant effect. Summary Exercise appears to be a promising adjunct treatment for mood disorders. We conclude with recommendations for future research of exercise as an adjunct intervention for mood disorders. PMID:28503402

  13. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  14. A Review of the New European Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Alves, J.G.; Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.; Currivan, L.; Fantuzzi, E.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the revised Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation as issued by the European Commission as Radiation Protection 160. These recommendations are aimed at all stakeholders in radiation protection dosimetry with an emphasis in the responsible technical staff of approved dosimetry services. This paper briefly touches each Chapter and ends with a more in depth section on the uncertainty evaluation of dose measurements. -- Highlights: ► Recommendations on all aspects of running an approved dosimetry service. ► Radiation protection framework. ► Metrology of personal dosimeters. ► QC and QA of individual monitoring

  15. Prioritized schedule for review of industrial safety and occupational health programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the rationale and criteria for developing a schedule for reviewing the Industrial Safety and Occupational Health programs for the Management and Operating Contractor (MOC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reviews will evaluate the MOC's compliance with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders and regulatory requirements. The scope of this task includes developing prioritization criteria, determining the review priority of each program based upon the criteria, identifying review requirements for each program, and preparing a detailed review schedule. In keeping with the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) structure for the review of site activities, these review activities will be addressed as surveillances, although the original basis for this requirement refers to these activities as appraisals. Surveillances and appraisals are the same within this document. Surveillances are defined as: ''The act of monitoring or observing to verify whether an item, activity, system, or process conforms to specified requirements. Surveillance of a technical work activity is normally done in real time, i.e., the surveillance is accomplished as the work is being performed.''

  16. Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  17. Review of the Latest Percutaneous Devices in Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Leila; Altin, Sophia Elissa; Attaran, Robert R; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos; Regan, Christopher J

    2018-04-14

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease that, in the absence of intervention, may lead to lower extremity amputation or death. Endovascular interventions have become a first-line approach to the management of CLI and have advanced considerably within the past decade. This review summarizes the types of percutaneous devices and the techniques that are available for the management of CLI and the data supporting their use. These include devices that establish and maintain vessel patency, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, drug-coated balloons, bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, and atherectomy; devices that provide protection from embolization; and, cell-based therapies. Additionally, ongoing trials with important implications for the field are discussed.

  18. Review of the Latest Percutaneous Devices in Critical Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Haghighat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is a terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease that, in the absence of intervention, may lead to lower extremity amputation or death. Endovascular interventions have become a first-line approach to the management of CLI and have advanced considerably within the past decade. This review summarizes the types of percutaneous devices and the techniques that are available for the management of CLI and the data supporting their use. These include devices that establish and maintain vessel patency, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, drug-coated balloons, bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, and atherectomy; devices that provide protection from embolization; and, cell-based therapies. Additionally, ongoing trials with important implications for the field are discussed.

  19. The critical incident technique in dental research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Santha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a scientific quest to find answers to certain questions. It makes us think with curiosity and wonderment about how to make something better. Research contributes in a major way to the development and maintenance of health and health care systems. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena and includes subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, and behavior. It is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. The critical incident technique (CIT is a well-established qualitative research tool used in many areas of health sciences including nursing, medicine, dentistry, and their respective education systems. This technique is described as consisting of “a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems.” This review gives a gist of CIT and its application in different aspects of dental research.

  20. A review of critical care nursing and disease outbreak preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makamure, Miranda; Makamure, Muriel; Mendiola, Williane; Renteria, Daisy; Repp, Melissa; Willden, Azshwee

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks continues to increase globally. As frontline staff, critical care nurses (CCNs) are more likely to be confronted with the need to care for affected patients. With different pathological diseases emerging, CCNs play an integral role in disease outbreaks. The advanced skill set of CCNs is pivotal in the management and care of patients during an outbreak. Lack of planning and preparation before disease outbreaks leads to detrimental patient outcomes. Panic, chaos, and fear for personal safety cause stress and anxiety for unprepared nurses. However, this problem can be resolved. Comprehensive planning, training, and education can better prepare intensive care unit nurses for disease outbreaks. This article reviews some of the current literature on intensive care unit nurse preparedness for disease outbreaks in the United States. This article also offers strategies that may be used to better prepare CCNs for disease outbreaks.

  1. SERVICE MARKETING MIX OF INDIAN HOSPITALS: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh, MOTWANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sreenivas, Srinivasarao and Srinivasa (2013 said that “The health care market has become consumer centered and expecting high quality care at a reasonable price. The mushroomed development of corporate hospitals in India, competition is also bringing massive changes in industry structure. In this context, hospital services’ marketing is slowly and surely coming of age and is being woven into the fabric of hospitals planning and public relations programmes.” The essence of any marketing activity is marketing mix, and the central theme of the present paper revolves around the contemporary service marketing mix offered by Indian hospitals. In this paper author has critically reviewed 51 papers to describe elements of hospital service marketing mix; product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence.

  2. What is bizarre in bizarre delusions? A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermolacce, Michel René Joseph; Jensen, Lars Meldgaard Sass; Parnas, J

    2010-01-01

    . These studies provide highly heterogenous results because they are based on different experimental paradigms, in terms of definition, clinical sample, and number of raters. Here, we first discuss the psychopathological sources of the concept of BD, which were initially described as either nonsensical...... or incomprehensible. Then, we provide a critical review of contemporary studies on the reliability of BD and their methodological and conceptual limitations. Current approaches have focused intensely on BD's reliability and have defined BD strictly in terms of delusional content--mainly in terms of the physical...... impossibility or the cultural or historical incomprehensibility of the delusional claims. These approaches have neglected formal features of experience that underlie BD and the crucial issue of the nature and validity of BD. In the discussion, we argue that clinical diagnosis of BD cannot be limited...

  3. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳晓娟

    2009-01-01

    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.

  5. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  6. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  7. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  8. Reproducibility of clinical research in critical care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Daniel J; McCormick, T Jared; Straus, Sharon E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jeffs, Lianne; Barnes, Tavish R M; Stelfox, Henry T

    2018-02-21

    The ability to reproduce experiments is a defining principle of science. Reproducibility of clinical research has received relatively little scientific attention. However, it is important as it may inform clinical practice, research agendas, and the design of future studies. We used scoping review methods to examine reproducibility within a cohort of randomized trials examining clinical critical care research and published in the top general medical and critical care journals. To identify relevant clinical practices, we searched the New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and JAMA for randomized trials published up to April 2016. To identify a comprehensive set of studies for these practices, included articles informed secondary searches within other high-impact medical and specialty journals. We included late-phase randomized controlled trials examining therapeutic clinical practices in adults admitted to general medical-surgical or specialty intensive care units (ICUs). Included articles were classified using a reproducibility framework. An original study was the first to evaluate a clinical practice. A reproduction attempt re-evaluated that practice in a new set of participants. Overall, 158 practices were examined in 275 included articles. A reproduction attempt was identified for 66 practices (42%, 95% CI 33-50%). Original studies reported larger effects than reproduction attempts (primary endpoint, risk difference 16.0%, 95% CI 11.6-20.5% vs. 8.4%, 95% CI 6.0-10.8%, P = 0.003). More than half of clinical practices with a reproduction attempt demonstrated effects that were inconsistent with the original study (56%, 95% CI 42-68%), among which a large number were reported to be efficacious in the original study and to lack efficacy in the reproduction attempt (34%, 95% CI 19-52%). Two practices reported to be efficacious in the original study were found to be harmful in the reproduction attempt. A minority of critical care practices with research published

  9. Evaluation of Occupational and Environmental Factors in the Assessment of Chronic Cough in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlo, Susan M; Altman, Kenneth W; French, Cynthia T; Diekemper, Rebecca L; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Several recent cough guidelines have advised consideration of occupational or environmental causes for chronic cough, but it is unclear how frequently this recommendation has been routinely applied. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to address this aspect. Cough guidelines and protocols were reviewed to identify recommendations for assessment of occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough. The systematic search previously used to identify intervention fidelity to the use of protocols for diagnosis and management of chronic cough in adults was used for this review after extension to June 2015. PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the same search terms and inclusion criteria as previously. Papers that met our criteria were then reviewed to identify methods used to assess occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough and the outcomes of these assessments. Among the 10 general chronic cough guidelines and protocols identified, only the three published since 2006 included details advising detailed occupational and environmental assessments. One additional cough statement focused entirely on occupational cough. Of the 28 cohort studies of patients with chronic cough that specifically noted that they followed guidelines or protocols, none provided details of occupational and environmental assessments. Despite published recommendations, it is not apparent that occupational and environmental causes for chronic cough are addressed in detail during assessments of patients with chronic cough. This leaves open to speculation whether lack of recognition of an occupational cause may delay important preventive measures, put additional workers at risk, and/or be the reason why a chronic cough may remain unexplained. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Maria M; Slavin, Raymond G

    2003-05-01

    This article aims to define occupational rhinitis, classify its various causes, review the steps in its diagnosis, and describe its nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic principles of management. Occupational rhinitis frequently coexists with asthma but also occurs alone. Although it does not have the same impact as occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis causes distress, discomfort, and work inefficiency. By concentrating on the patient's workplace, the clinician has an opportunity to practice preventive medicine: to recognize substances in the patient's micro- and macroenvironment that are causing the problems and then to intervene by altering the environment or removing the patient from the environment.

  11. A critical review on the scaling theory of dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Alraune; Mai, Juliane; Attinger, Sabine; Dietrich, Peter; Teutsch, Georg; Fiori, Aldo; Rubin, Yoram

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of dispersive mixing of solutes in aquifers is subject of research since decades. The characterization of dispersivity at a particular field site is a prerequisite to predict the movement and spreading of a contaminant plume. Experimental investigations have shown, that field-scale dispersivities vary over orders of magnitude, which apparently depends on the scale of measurement. Gelhar et al. [1992] and Schulze-Makuch [2005] have reviewed a large number of transport experiments reported in the literature. Based on that data Schulze-Makuch [2005] performed a trend analysis of longitudinal dispersivity, fostering the empirical relationship of a power law between dispersivities and the scale of measurement without an upper bound. The goal of our study is to critically revisit not only the data used for the trend analysis but the power-law scale dependence of longitudinal dispersivity (e.g. Neuman [1990], Xu and Eckstein [1995]). Our particular focus is on the reported dispersivities of large amount (larger than 100m) and large measurement scales (in the order of kilometers). We aim to evaluate current theories of transport against a critical "mass" of field experiments and to bracket the conditions of their applicability. We further aim to evaluate the adequacy of the field sampling techniques that were employed from the perspective of more than 30 years development in modeling and field characterization. Given the tremendous progress in field data acquisition techniques and new insights gained, it is reasonable to expect that interpretations of past experiments may be flawed due to the limitations or inadequacy of field sampling techniques. Gelhar, L.W., C. Welty, and K.R. Rehfeldt, 1992, A critical review of data on field-scale dispersion in aquifers, Water Resources Research 28, No. 7: 1955-1974. Schulze-Makuch, D., 2005, Longitudinal dispersivity data and implications for scaling behavior, Ground Water, Vol. 43, No. 3, 443-456. Neuman, S.P., 1990

  12. An international systematic mapping review of fieldwork education in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael E; Hooper, Barbara R; Wood, Wendy H; King, Robin M

    2015-04-01

    Owing to its importance in preparing occupational therapists, fieldwork education has generated numerous studies. These have not been collected and reviewed, leaving researchers without a map for growing a science of fieldwork education. This study aimed to systematically categorize the topics, research designs, methods, levels of impact, and themes that have and have not been addressed in fieldwork education scholarship. Guided by a systematic mapping review design, 124 articles, identified through database searches and inclusion coding, were studied. Data were collected using a data extraction instrument and analyzed using Microsoft Access queries. Papers primarily addressed curriculum (n = 51) and students (n = 32). Conceptual/descriptive inquiry methods (n = 57) were predominant. Qualitative (n = 48) and quantitative methods (n = 49) were used equally. Research outcomes mainly targeted perceived participation in fieldwork. Recurring themes included student perceptions, external influences, and transition to practice. Three recommendations were identified: strengthen procedures for studying singular fieldwork experiences, broaden rationales for studying fieldwork, and translate educational concepts for occupational therapy.

  13. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  14. Occupational styrene exposure and acquired dyschromatopsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ariel R; Braun, Joseph M; Papandonatos, George D; Greenberg, Paul B

    2017-11-01

    Styrene is a chemical used in the manufacture of plastic-based products worldwide. We systematically reviewed eligible studies of occupational styrene-induced dyschromatopsia, qualitatively synthesizing their findings and estimating the exposure effect through meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were queried for eligible studies. Using a random effects model, we compared measures of dyschromatopsia between exposed and non-exposed workers to calculate the standardized mean difference (Hedges'g). We also assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. Styrene-exposed subjects demonstrated poorer color vision than did the non-exposed (Hedges' g = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37, 0.76; P < 0.0001). A non-significant Cochran's Q test result (Q = 23.2; P = 0.171) and an I 2 of 32.2% (0.0%, 69.9%) indicated low-to-moderate between-study heterogeneity. Funnel plot and trim-and-fill analyses suggested publication bias. This review confirms the hypothesis of occupational styrene-induced dyschromatopsia, suggesting a modest effect size with mild heterogeneity between studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 8224 OCCUPATIONAL DIVERSIFICATION AMONG RURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviews current literature in the field in both farm and non-farm occupations and ... One major negative effect is withdrawal of critical labour from the family farm which ... rural women to equip them with the necessary skills to work in non-farm .... stratification of roles by gender in African households, but also because the ...

  16. Exosomes in HIV infection: A review and critical look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Veit, Tiago Degani; Chies, José Artur Bogo

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released into the extracellular medium by different cell types. These vesicles carry a variety of protein and RNA cargos, and have a central role in cellular signaling and regulation. A PubMed search using the term "exosomes" finds 67 articles published in 2006. Ten years later, the same search returns approximately 1200 results for 2016 alone. The growing interest in exosomes within the scientific community reflects the different roles exerted by extracellular vesicles in biological systems and diseases. However, the increase in academic production addressing the biological function of exosomes causes much confusion, especially where the focus is on the role of exosomes in pathological situations. In this review, we critically interpret the current state of the research on exosomes and HIV infection. It is plausible to assume that exosomes influence the pathogenesis of HIV infection through their biological cargo (primarily membrane proteins and microRNAs). On the other hand, evidence for a usurpation of the exosomal budding and trafficking machinery by HIV during infection is limited, although such a mechanism cannot be ruled out. This review also discusses several biological aspects of exosomal function in the immune system. Finally, the limitations of current exosome research are pointed out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Xerostomia related to HIV infection /AIDS: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Fuzer Grael TINÓS

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of oral manifestations in HIV positive individuals is quite common. Xerostomia appears as one of the most frequent problems and may lead to a reduction in the quality of life of this population. Objective: This study was a critical review of the relationship between xerostomia and HIV infection, to attract the attention of dentists on the importance of dental care to these patients. Material and method: We included articles published between 2000 and 2009, indexed in PUBMED database. The descriptors used were "HIV" and "xerostomia", the exclusion criteria adopted were: the absence of these descriptors associated, non-location of the full-text, articles based on case studies or case series and the absence of the abstract in the database. Result: Based on studies in the review, it can be said that the xerostomia is a common manifestation of HIV infection, predisposing the patient to several other oral problems. Among the risk factors for its occurrence it was reported: low counts of CD4+ T cells, high plasma viral load, the use of some medications and antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS can change the salivary glands, and were considered important risk factors for the occurrence of xerostomia the presence of didanosine and the drug class which corresponds to protease inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy.

  18. Nanostructured delivery systems with improved leishmanicidal activity: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Natascia; Stella, Barbara; Giraudo, Leonardo; Della Pepa, Carlo; Gastaldi, Daniela; Dosio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania , which are responsible for numerous clinical manifestations, such as cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the site of infection for particular species. These complexities threaten 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide. Amastigotes living within macrophage phagolysosomes are the principal target of antileishmanial treatment, but these are not an easy target as drugs must overcome major structural barriers. Furthermore, limitations on current therapy are related to efficacy, toxicity, and cost, as well as the length of treatment, which can increase parasitic resistance. Nanotechnology has emerged as an attractive alternative as conventional drugs delivered by nanosized carriers have improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity, together with other characteristics that help to relieve the burden of this disease. The significance of using colloidal carriers loaded with active agents derives from the physiological uptake route of intravenous administered nanosystems (the phagocyte system). Nanosystems are thus able to promote a high drug concentration in intracellular mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)-infected cells. Moreover, the versatility of nanometric drug delivery systems for the deliberate transport of a range of molecules plays a pivotal role in the design of therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis. This review discusses studies on nanocarriers that have greatly contributed to improving the efficacy of antileishmaniasis drugs, presenting a critical review and some suggestions for improving drug delivery.

  19. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  20. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Emmie; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    Especially in the last decade, a vast number of papers on Se and its role in health issues have been published. This review gives a brief, critical overview of the main analytical findings reported in these papers. Of particular interest is the Se content in different food sources worldwide and the extent to which their consumption is reflected in the Se content of human tissues and body fluids. Several food sources, both natural (Brazil nuts, garlic, Brassica juncea) and Se-enriched (yeast-based supplements), are discussed as to origin, characteristics, Se metabolism and impact of their consumption on the human body. The continuous development of new and improvement of existing analytical techniques has provided different powerful tools to unravel the Se species and their function. An up-to-date literature study on Se speciation analysis is given, illustrating how analytical chemistry in its different facets aids in the identification of Se compounds and provides insight into the complete metabolic pathway of Se throughout the human body. This review includes a detailed image of the current state-of-the-art of Se speciation analysis in these food sources and in human tissues and body fluids. (orig.)

  1. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.

  2. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  3. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L.; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments’ purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura’s social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113

  4. Occupational tuberculosis in healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alele, Faith O; Franklin, Richard C; Emeto, Theophilus I; Leggat, Peter

    2018-04-27

    This article investigates the incidence, prevalence and factors associated with occupational tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Studies were extracted from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement from inception to the 2 nd of June 2017. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The median prevalence of latent TB infection in HCWS was 62% (IQR 22%) and the median incidence of TB disease was 3871/100,000 (IQR 9314/100,000). The risk factors associated with LTBI or active TB disease were workplace, history of contact with TB patients, and longer duration of employment. The findings of this review demonstrate that the risk of acquiring TB among HCWs in SSA is high. This may impact on the recruitment, longevity and retention of HCWs.

  5. Hypersexuality: A Critical Review and Introduction to the "Sexhavior Cycle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Bhullar, Navjot; Lykins, Amy D

    2017-11-01

    An empirical review of hypersexuality is timely as "compulsive sexual behavior" is being considered as an impulse control disorder for inclusion in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th ed. Specifically, hypersexuality has been conceptualized in the literature as the inability to regulate one's sexual behavior that is a source of significant personal distress. Various theoretical models have been posited in an attempt to understand the occurrence of hypersexuality, although disagreement about these divergent conceptualizations of the condition has made assessment and treatment of hypersexual clients more challenging. Theories of sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, dual control (sexual inhibition/excitation), and sex addiction are critically examined, as are the diagnostic criteria for clinically assessing hypersexuality as a sexual disorder. Our discussion of hypersexuality covers a diversity of research and clinical perspectives. We also address various challenges associated with reliably defining, psychometrically measuring, and diagnosing hypersexuality. Furthermore, literature is reviewed that expresses concerns regarding whether hypersexuality (conceptualized as a disorder) exists, whether it is simply normophilic behavior at the extreme end of sexual functioning, or alternatively is a presenting problem that requires treatment rather than a clinical diagnosis. Following our literature review, we developed the "sexhavior cycle of hypersexuality" to potentially explain the neuropsychology and maintenance cycle of hypersexuality. The sexhavior cycle suggests that, for some hypersexual persons, high sexual arousal may temporarily and adversely impact cognitive processing (cognitive abeyance) and explain a repeated pattern of psychological distress when interpreting one's sexual behavior (sexual incongruence). We also suggest that further research is required to validate whether hypersexuality is a behavioral disorder (such as

  6. Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

  7. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-10-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively.

  8. Reproductive Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic Drugs in Health Care Settings: A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H.; Lawson, Christina C.; Polovich, Martha; McDiarmid, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Antineoplastic drugs are known reproductive and developmental toxicants. Our objective was to review the existing literature of reproductive health risks to workers who handle antineoplastic drugs. Methods A structured literature review of 18 peer-reviewed, English language publications of occupational exposure and reproductive outcomes was performed. Results While effect sizes varied with study size and population, occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs appears to raise the risk of both congenital malformations and miscarriage. Studies of infertility and time-to-pregnancy also suggested an increased risk for sub-fertility. Conclusions Antineoplastic drugs are highly toxic in patients receiving treatment and adverse reproductive effects have been well documented in these patients. Healthcare workers with chronic, low level occupational exposure to these drugs also appear to have an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Additional precautions to prevent exposure should be considered. PMID:25153300

  9. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Knowledge translation interventions for critically ill patients: a systematic review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuff, Tasnim; Muscedere, John; Adhikari, Neill K J; Stelfox, Henry T; Dodek, Peter; Heyland, Daren K; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Cook, Deborah J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Manoharan, Venika; Currie, Jan; Cahill, Naomi; Friedrich, Jan O; Amaral, Andre; Piquette, Dominique; Scales, Damon C; Dhanani, Sonny; Garland, Allan

    2013-11-01

    We systematically reviewed ICU-based knowledge translation studies to assess the impact of knowledge translation interventions on processes and outcomes of care. We searched electronic databases (to July, 2010) without language restrictions and hand-searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing any ICU-based knowledge translation intervention (e.g., protocols, guidelines, and audit and feedback) to management without a knowledge translation intervention. We focused on clinical topics that were addressed in greater than or equal to five studies. Pairs of reviewers abstracted data on the clinical topic, knowledge translation intervention(s), process of care measures, and patient outcomes. For each individual or combination of knowledge translation intervention(s) addressed in greater than or equal to three studies, we summarized each study using median risk ratio for dichotomous and standardized mean difference for continuous process measures. We used random-effects models. Anticipating a small number of randomized controlled trials, our primary meta-analyses included randomized controlled trials and observational studies. In separate sensitivity analyses, we excluded randomized controlled trials and collapsed protocols, guidelines, and bundles into one category of intervention. We conducted meta-analyses for clinical outcomes (ICU and hospital mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay) related to interventions that were associated with improvements in processes of care. From 11,742 publications, we included 119 investigations (seven randomized controlled trials, 112 observational studies) on nine clinical topics. Interventions that included protocols with or without education improved continuous process measures (seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial; standardized

  11. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  12. The role of occupational therapists in the contexts of a natural disaster: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunwha; Law, Mary; DeMatteo, Carol; Stratford, Paul; Kim, Hwan

    2016-08-01

    To identify and inform the experience and roles of occupational therapists (OTs) in the contexts of a natural disaster. This scoping review was conducted via five steps: (1) identify the research question, (2) identify relevant academic articles published between 2000 and 2014 in English, (3) select articles based on the inclusion criteria, (4) chart the data and (5) collate, summarise, and report the results of the selected articles. The results were presented using descriptive numerical and thematic analyses. OTs can prepare a plan for evacuation of people with disabilities and their accommodation before a disaster occurs. Immediately after a disaster, they can provide emergency services for injuries and provide education and training in coping skills for psychological distress via a community-based rehabilitation approach. Consistent services for survivors' mental health and for building the OTs' capacity as part of disaster management are focussed on in the recovery phase. The potential roles of OTs across the spectrum of a natural disaster were identified via this scoping review. This review will help OTs to become involved in a disaster management system for vulnerable groups across the three phases of preparedness to, respond to and recovery from a disaster. Implication for Rehabilitation Occupational therapists can be involved in disaster management to prepare for, respond to and recover from a natural disaster. Consistent services for psychological distress are needed for people affected by a disaster to return to normalcy. Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is an important approach to help a wider group of people respond to a natural disaster in a timely manner.

  13. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,close quotes was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2x2x1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  14. Epigenetics of psoriatic disease: A systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Remy A; Abji, Fatima; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-03-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease of the skin that is sometimes accompanied by an auto-inflammatory arthritis called psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis and PsA are multifactorial diseases that result from complex interactions of environmental and genetic risk factors. Epigenetic marks, which are labile chemical marks with diverse functions, form a layer of biological information that sits at the interface of genetics and the environment. Aberrant epigenetic regulation has been previously implicated in other rheumatological disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate the nascent literature on epigenetics in psoriasis and PsA. A systematic review yielded 52 primary articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized template and study quality assessed using a methodological quality checklist. Studies reflect a broad range of epigenetic sub-disciplines, the most common being DNA methylation, followed by the parent of origin effect or genomic imprinting, expression or activity of epigenetic modifying enzymes, and histone modifications. Epidemiological studies demonstrating excessive paternal transmission provided the earliest evidence of epigenetic deregulation in psoriatic disease, however few studies have examined its molecular mechanisms. Methylation studies evolved rapidly from low resolution global to targeted analyses of known psoriatic disease susceptibility loci such as HLA-C*0602. The recent explosion of epigenome-wide association studies has provided us with novel insights into psoriasis pathogenesis, and the mechanism of action of UVB, methotrexate, and anti-TNF therapies, as well as molecular signatures of psoriasis that may have clinical relevance. Finally, recent studies of pharmacological inhibitors of epigenetic modifier enzymes demonstrate their potential applicability as novel treatment modalities for psoriasis. Challenges of epigenetics research in psoriasis and Ps

  15. Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Occupational Styrene Exposure on Auditory Function Among Adults: A Systematic Review of Selected Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, Francis T; Oketope, Olutosin; Shrestha, Laxmi

    2017-12-01

    A review study was conducted to examine the adverse effects of styrene, styrene mixtures, or styrene and/or styrene mixtures and noise on the auditory system in humans employed in occupational settings. The search included peer-reviewed articles published in English language involving human volunteers spanning a 25-year period (1990-2015). Studies included peer review journals, case-control studies, and case reports. Animal studies were excluded. An initial search identified 40 studies. After screening for inclusion, 13 studies were retrieved for full journal detail examination and review. As a whole, the results range from no to mild associations between styrene exposure and auditory dysfunction, noting relatively small sample sizes. However, four studies investigating styrene with other organic solvent mixtures and noise suggested combined exposures to both styrene organic solvent mixtures may be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone. There is little literature examining the effect of styrene on auditory functioning in humans. Nonetheless, findings suggest public health professionals and policy makers should be made aware of the future research needs pertaining to hearing impairment and ototoxicity from styrene. It is recommended that chronic styrene-exposed individuals be routinely evaluated with a comprehensive audiological test battery to detect early signs of auditory dysfunction.

  17. Occupational Styrene Exposure on Auditory Function Among Adults: A Systematic Review of Selected Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis T. Pleban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A review study was conducted to examine the adverse effects of styrene, styrene mixtures, or styrene and/or styrene mixtures and noise on the auditory system in humans employed in occupational settings. The search included peer-reviewed articles published in English language involving human volunteers spanning a 25-year period (1990–2015. Studies included peer review journals, case–control studies, and case reports. Animal studies were excluded. An initial search identified 40 studies. After screening for inclusion, 13 studies were retrieved for full journal detail examination and review. As a whole, the results range from no to mild associations between styrene exposure and auditory dysfunction, noting relatively small sample sizes. However, four studies investigating styrene with other organic solvent mixtures and noise suggested combined exposures to both styrene organic solvent mixtures may be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone. There is little literature examining the effect of styrene on auditory functioning in humans. Nonetheless, findings suggest public health professionals and policy makers should be made aware of the future research needs pertaining to hearing impairment and ototoxicity from styrene. It is recommended that chronic styrene-exposed individuals be routinely evaluated with a comprehensive audiological test battery to detect early signs of auditory dysfunction. Keywords: auditory system, human exposure, ototoxicity, styrene

  18. Book Review: Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity by Patrick Finn

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.

  19. Airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between the occupants of indoor environments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Z T; Melikov, A K

    2018-07-01

    This article reviews past studies of airborne transmission between occupants in indoor environments, focusing on the spread of expiratory droplet nuclei from mouth/nose to mouth/nose for non-specific diseases. Special attention is paid to summarizing what is known about the influential factors, the inappropriate simplifications of the thermofluid boundary conditions of thermal manikins, the challenges facing the available experimental techniques, and the limitations of available evaluation methods. Secondary issues are highlighted, and some new ways to improve our understanding of airborne transmission indoors are provided. The characteristics of airborne spread of expiratory droplet nuclei between occupants, which are influenced correlatively by both environmental and personal factors, were widely revealed under steady-state conditions. Owing to the different boundary conditions used, some inconsistent findings on specific influential factors have been published. The available instrumentation was too slow to provide accurate concentration profiles for time-dependent evaluations of events with obvious time characteristics, while computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were mainly performed in the framework of inherently steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling. Future research needs in 3 areas are identified: the importance of the direction of indoor airflow patterns, the dynamics of airborne transmission, and the application of CFD simulations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.

  1. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords "coffee" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism" in "Title/Abstract/Keywords", with no language and date restriction. According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ≥5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  2. Bipolar disorders in the Arab world: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, Ziad; Zakaria Khalil, Mostafa; Kumar, Pankaj; Suhre, Karsten; Karam, Elie; McInnis, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    Bipolar disorders are common psychiatric disorders that affect 1-5% of the population worldwide. Major advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of the disorders have recently occurred. The majority of published reports, however, originate from the Western hemisphere, mostly Europe and the United States. There is a shortage of data from the Arab world on bipolar disorders. In an era of globalization and rapid communication, it is not clear to what extent research findings pertaining to one part of the world are by necessity applicable to other parts. Psychiatric disorders are known to be affected by the culture in which they occur, and knowledge of variations in illness presentation in different ethnic groups is also increasing. However, knowledge of variations affecting Arab populations remains quite limited. This paper provides a critical review of the literature on bipolar affective disorders in the Arab world, pointing to major gaps in knowledge and future opportunities to fill these gaps. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  4. Birth-weight charts and immigrant populations: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Sørbye, Ingvil K; Wanigaratne, Susitha

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature focusing on differences in newborn size between different population subgroups defined by racial, ethnic, and immigration status. The interpretation of these differences as pathological or as merely reflecting normal variability is not straightforward and may have consequences for the provision of obstetric and neonatal care to minority populations. In this review, we critically assess some methodological issues affecting the assessment of newborn size and their potential implications for minority populations. In particular, we discuss the pros and cons of different types of newborn birth-weight (BW) charts (i.e., single local population-based references, minority-specific references, and a single international standard) to determine abnormal newborn size, with emphasis on immigrant populations. We conclude that size alone is not enough to inform clinical decisions and that all newborn size charts should be used as screening tools, not as diagnostic tools. Parental minority status may be regarded as a marker and used to further inquire about individual risk factors, particularly among immigrants who may not have a complete medical history in the new country. Finally, we outline areas for further research and recommendations for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M.

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  6. Resveratrol and diabetes: A critical review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ebru; Arslan, Ayşe Kübra Karaboğa; Yerer, Mükerrem Betül; Bishayee, Anupam

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The disease results from the defects of insulin secretion and/or action. Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. The shell and stem of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) are the richest source of this compound. In addition to various in vitro and in vivo studies revealing the effectiveness of resveratrol in DM, there are many clinical trials indicating that resveratrol has the potential to benefit in DM patients. The therapeutic action of this compound in relation to diabetes is complex and involves in several beneficial roles. In view of this, clinical studies are necessary to elucidate these roles. In the near future, the use of resveratrol, alone or in combination with current anti-diabetic therapies, might be a conventional approach to effectively manage DM or its complications. This mini-review provides a critical overview of currently available clinical studies examining the effects of resveratrol in DM last decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  8. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Santos, Joao L.M. [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C., E-mail: limajlfc@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Zagatto, Elias A.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13400-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  9. Planning and the Public Interest. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA A. NAGY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From an ethical perspective, the biggest difficulty for planners is to take the best approach in responding to the decision makers and in acting in the public interest because it always becomes subject of pressures arising with the governmental change, on the one hand, and the societal change on the other hand. Even though many debates arise regarding its existence, for planners, as well as for the planning profession, the public interest has always been legitimizing principles as a norm of practice (Alexander, 2002. The paper critically analyses the planning activity in relation to the public interest and highlights the importance of reciprocity between the two. In order to analyse this issue, the article starts with the presentation of different perspectives regarding the public interest, touching upon its conceptual meaning which is followed by a historical review of its origins and transformation. The third section presents its contextual meaning, its representatives, and the change of its content starting from the 19th century until nowadays and discusses the planners’ ability to represent it. The final part comprises the conclusions that indicate that the planning activity should serve the public interest and, by that, it would serve also the interest of planning as a profession. It emphasises two important issues of the present days: the definition of the public interest and the rational decision making within the planning process.

  10. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models

  11. Critical Success Factors for Malaysian Construction Projects: An Investigative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cheong Yong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects play an important role in the advancement of a nation through infrastructure development that leads to economic growth. They are planned carefully to accomplish certain goals. However, not all the projects achieved the goals as per planned. Many factors contribute to the successes and failures, and it becomes an interesting arena for research. The primary objective of this paper is to outline the development trend of project success measurement globally and locally. The research method employed was to make selected reviews on critical success factors' (CSFs literature and to compare international standards and progress in incorporating human behavioural aspects of project management to the situation in Malaysia. A somewhat similar pattern can be observed in Malaysia where the studies have departed from the usual criteria of time, cost and quality, to define project success in a more holistic way. However, the domestic industry has failed to respond to the emerging trend globally as there has yet been any widely published research on the importance of human-related factors towards project success. A consolidated framework of CSFs has therefore, been proposed in responding to the findings. This paper fulfils an identified need as there has been a dearth of research on the subject matter locally.

  12. Abortion law, policy and services in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak S

    2004-11-01

    Despite 30 years of liberal legislation, the majority of women in India still lack access to safe abortion care. This paper critically reviews the history of abortion law and policy in India since the 1960s and research on abortion service delivery. Amendments in 2002 and 2003 to the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, including devolution of regulation of abortion services to the district level, punitive measures to deter provision of unsafe abortions, rationalisation of physical requirements for facilities to provide early abortion, and approval of medical abortion, have all aimed to expand safe services. Proposed amendments to the MTP Act to prevent sex-selective abortions would have been unethical and violated confidentiality, and were not taken forward. Continuing problems include poor regulation of both public and private sector services, a physician-only policy that excludes mid-level providers and low registration of rural compared to urban clinics; all restrict access. Poor awareness of the law, unnecessary spousal consent requirements, contraceptive targets linked to abortion, and informal and high fees also serve as barriers. Training more providers, simplifying registration procedures, de-linking clinic and provider approval, and linking policy with up-to-date technology, research and good clinical practice are some immediate measures needed to improve women's access to safe abortion care.

  13. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Francisco Javier; Acevedo Ferrer, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  14. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  15. Review of NCRP radiation dose limit for embryo and fetus in occupationally-exposed women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of the current review, the NCRP has decided to make no change in the current recommendation of its radiation dose limit to the unborn. The NCRP recommendation is restated here as follows: During the entire gestation period, the maximum permissible dose equivalent to the embryo-fetus from occupational exposure of the expectant mother should be 0.5 rem. Since the preparation of the 1971 report there has been no new evidence concerning teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of irradiation of the embryo-fetus that would justify a change in the limit in either direction. It is implicit in this position and recommendation that women who can reasonably be expected to be pregnant should not, in certain instances, be exposed to the same radiation environment as women who are not considered fertile or as men. This applies particularly to conditions where radiation workers can receive dose equivalents of 0.5 rem or more in short periods

  16. Nursing staff under heavy stress: focus on Greece A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Theofanidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current global financial constrains place a burden on the development of health care services worldwide. Although nurses are the backbone of any health establishment, they seem are under constant occupational stress which varies from country to country.Aim: This paper aims to present and analyze critically the key stress factors on contemporary nursing.Method: A strategically planned four-step literature review was used focusing on identifying key stress factors in selected papers.Results: The refining process identified 26 key references which were analyzed and tabulated. These revealed areas of concern such as: insufficient work recourses, poor communication with superiors, dissatisfaction with psychosocial work environment, lowering levels of education achieved and pay, split-shifts and prolonged night shifts, high demanding tasks, verbal abuse, mobbing and antagonistic attitudes in work place and poor organization at work.Conclusions: A number of intervention strategies to avoid excess stress are presented which include: improved education of the workforce and awareness building; assessment-focused interventions; therapeutic counseling; skill-building and reorganizing the work environment.

  17. Review of studies on criticality safety evaluation and criticality experiment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, many studies on criticality safety evaluation have been conducted in Japan. Computer code systems were developed initially by employing finite difference methods, and more recently by using Monte Carlo methods. Criticality experiments have also been carried out in many laboratories in Japan as well as overseas. By effectively using these study results, the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook was published in 1988, almost the intermediate point of the last 50 years. An increased interest has been shown in criticality safety studies, and a Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) was set up by the Nuclear Science Committee of Organisation Economic Co-operation and Development in 1997. WPNCS has several task forces in charge of each of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP), Subcritical Measurement, Experimental Needs, Burn-up Credit Studies and Minimum Critical Values. Criticality safety studies in Japan have been carried out in cooperation with WPNCS. This paper describes criticality safety study activities in Japan along with the contents of the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook and the tasks of WPNCS. (author)

  18. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  19. Collaboration between employers and occupational health service providers: a systematic review of key characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Atkins, Salla; Hakulinen, Hanna; Pesonen, Sanna; Uitti, Jukka

    2017-01-05

    Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS) can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services. A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics): flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services. Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute to effective collaboration. This information is useful in

  20. Collaboration between employers and occupational health service providers: a systematic review of key characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana I. Halonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services. Methods A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics: flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services. Conclusion Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute

  1. Inverse Problems in Systems Biology: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Rodolfo; Colombo, Teresa; Paci, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Systems Biology may be assimilated to a symbiotic cyclic interplaying between the forward and inverse problems. Computational models need to be continuously refined through experiments and in turn they help us to make limited experimental resources more efficient. Every time one does an experiment we know that there will be some noise that can disrupt our measurements. Despite the noise certainly is a problem, the inverse problems already involve the inference of missing information, even if the data is entirely reliable. So the addition of a certain limited noise does not fundamentally change the situation but can be used to solve the so-called ill-posed problem, as defined by Hadamard. It can be seen as an extra source of information. Recent studies have shown that complex systems, among others the systems biology, are poorly constrained and ill-conditioned because it is difficult to use experimental data to fully estimate their parameters. For these reasons was born the concept of sloppy models, a sequence of models of increasing complexity that become sloppy in the limit of microscopic accuracy. Furthermore the concept of sloppy models contains also the concept of un-identifiability, because the models are characterized by many parameters that are poorly constrained by experimental data. Then a strategy needs to be designed to infer, analyze, and understand biological systems. The aim of this work is to provide a critical review to the inverse problems in systems biology defining a strategy to determine the minimal set of information needed to overcome the problems arising from dynamic biological models that generally may have many unknown, non-measurable parameters.

  2. A PEDAGOGICAL CRITICAL REVIEW OF ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi SULISWORO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning which have various shapes such as blog, classroom learning which is facilitated the World Wide Web; a mix of online instruction and meeting the class known as additional models or hybrid; or the full online experience, where all assessment and instruction is done electronically. Object relationship of learning and constructivist educational philosophy and confirmed that online learning has the orientation which is basically a constructivist ideology, where the combination of some of the knowledge is an inquiry-oriented activities and authentic and also promote the progress of the construction of new knowledge. Description of the online learning system in theory and practice can be illustrated in a few examples that have been found in the research that has been done and found new discoveries obtained in the study, but not everything can be done because of several factors. Please note that the components in the online learning system can serve as a learning system which is very strong influence on learning in the class. The objective of this research is to a pedagogical critical review of online learning system in theory and practice that can be applied by teachers in the teaching process in the classroom. The results obtained in this study were teachers and students need extra effort to make online classes and virtual. Further research is needed on appropriate strategies in order to determine the next result is more useful. There some advices for any studies that discuss online learning system are done in certain areas, namely the use of electricity and other disciplines such as social and humanities.

  3. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies are standard practice and a regulatory requirement for most new desalination projects today. However, most of the EIA studies are limited to predictive information; that is, they gather information on the project and the project\\'s environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the"surprising paucity of useful experimental data, either from laboratory tests or from field monitoring studies", which was observed by the US National Research Council in 2008, has been gradually decreasing. However, there is still a long-term research need on the site-specific effects of desalination plants after project commissioning has taken place. A main challenge of field research is the adequate design of the monitoring studies, which have to adequately distinguish the effects of the desalination project from natural processes over long periods of time. The existing monitoring studies have so far used a wide range of approaches and methods to investigate the environmental impacts of desalination plant discharges. Shortfalls are often that they are limited in scope, short-term, or localized. In essence, many studies fall short of recognizing the potentially synergetic effects of the single waste components of the discharges on marine organisms and the complexity of the potential responses by the ecosystem. While the possible risk of damage arising from the concentrate discharge to the marine environment in close proximity to the outfall is at hand, no conclusive evidence can yet be provided concerning the long-term impacts of desalination plant discharges, let alone the cumulative impacts on certain sea areas. This paper conducts a critical review of existing monitoring programs for desalination plants. Shortcomings of current practices are identified and relevant

  4. Reforming EIA systems: A critical review of proposals in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Alberto, E-mail: albertof@em.ufop.br [Federal University of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Sánchez, Luis Enrique [University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, José Claudio Junqueira [Escola Superior Dom Helder Câmara, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems are under pressure in many countries, driven by a call for efficiency and streamlining. Such a phenomenon is particularly clear in Brazil, where, in the past few years, a number of influential associations put forward documents proposing significant changes to environmental licensing and impact assessment regulations. So far, there is no publicly available information about any initiative towards scrutinizing those proposals. The objective of this study was to critically review the merits and drawbacks of the changes proposed in those documents. The analysis triangulated content analysis, focus group and online survey data. The focus group included ten seasoned Brazilian EIA specialists; the survey, based on Likert-scale and open-ended questions, resulted in 322 valid responses from EIA professionals. Results show that the proposals generally agree that the current EIA system, while playing a key role in mitigating impacts and enhancing project design, needs many changes. Nonetheless, the proposals neither offered solutions to overcome political, technical and budget barriers, nor established a sense of priority of the most urgent issues. Findings from the focus group and the survey signaled that a number of proposed actions might face public outcry, and that those changes that do not depend on legislative action are more likely to be implementable. Previous studies about EIA reform focused mostly on the context of developed countries after changes had taken place. This study, while addressing the perspective of a large developing country in a “before-reform” stage, shows that capacity-building is a key requirement in EIA reform. - Highlights: • Brazil's EIA system is under strong pressure for change. • Findings corroborate ineffectiveness in current system. • There are tensions as to the best approaches to overcome problems. • Exact effects of proposals are uncertain. • Low institutional capacity can

  5. Critical Review of Diagnostic Methods Used in Chronic Pancreatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a balanced assessment of the various pancreatic function tests and imaging techniques used in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease. Function tests that study the digestive capacity of the pancreas (fat absorption of dietary lipids, fluorescein- or radiolabelled fats, bentiromide test, etc have high specificity, but very low sensitivity. This is because 90% of pancreas has to be destroyed before steatorrhea or creatorrhea occurs. Tests that directly measure pancreatic bicarbonate and protein secretion (secretin test, etc are more accurate and may detect pancreatic dysfunction even before anatomical changes occur. Measurement of pancreatic enzymes in serum or urine, or the decreased decline of serum amino acids during their incorporation into pancreatic enzymes, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to help diagnose pancreatic disease. Sensitive and specific tumour markers are not yet available. Thus screening tests are not cost-effective - if they are negative, they do not exclude pancreatic disease; and if positive, they have to be confirmed by more specific tests. Imaging techniques are the most commonly used methods of investigation. The usefulness of abdominal survey films, barium studies, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography is critically reviewed. Most of the radiological methods can be combined with cytology or biopsy. Histology demonstrating malignancy establishes this diagnosis, but negative biopsies do not exclude malignant tumours. Presently only ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound can diagnose cancers sufficiently early to allow for possible `curative' surgery, and only endoscopic ultrasound is capable to stage tumours for the assessment of resectability.

  6. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  7. Potential and Actual Health Hazards in the Dense Urban Operational Environment: Critical Gaps and Solutions for Military Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven L; Dancy, Blair C R; Ippolito, Danielle L; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2017-11-01

    : This paper presents environmental health risks which are prevalent in dense urban environments.We review the current literature and recommendations proposed by environmental medicine experts in a 2-day symposium sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.Key hazards in the dense urban operational environment include toxic industrial chemicals and materials, water pollution and sewage, and air pollution. Four critical gaps in environmental medicine were identified: prioritizing chemical and environmental concerns, developing mobile decision aids, personalized health assessments, and better real-time health biomonitoring.As populations continue to concentrate in cities, civilian and military leaders will need to meet emerging environmental health concerns by developing and delivering adequate technology and policy solutions.

  8. An Integrative Review of the Concealed Connection: Nurse Educators' Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B

    2017-11-01

    The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the emphasized need for effective teaching methods. An integrative review was performed to examine both quantitative and qualitative research published from 2000 to 2015 related to nurse educators' critical thinking. Many barriers and facilitators existing on individual, interpersonal, and contextual levels affected nurse educators' critical thinking. Various tools have been used to measure nurse educators' critical thinking. This review also highlighted the continued lack of a consensus definition of critical thinking and the limited presence of conceptual models to guide the use of critical thinking in nursing education. Continued examination of nurse educators' critical thinking is needed, given the limited number of studies that have been completed. Much needs to be explored further, including conceptualizations of critical thinking and confirmation of emerging themes identified in this review. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(11):648-654.]. © 2017 Raymond, Profetto-McGrath, Myrick, et al.

  9. The critical current of superconductors: an historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    2001-01-01

    The most important practical characteristic of a superconductor is its critical current density. This article traces the history, both of the experimental discoveries and of the development of the theoretical ideas that have lead to the understanding of those factors that control critical current densities. These include Silsbee's hypothesis, the Meissner effect, London, Ginsburg-Landau and Abrikosov theories, flux pinning and the critical state, and the control of texture in high temperature superconductors

  10. Review of the CRAC and SILENE Criticality Accident Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, F.; Fouillaud, P.; Grivot, P.; Reverdy, L.

    2009-01-01

    In 1967, the Commissariat et l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Agency) performed its first research on criticality accidents for the purpose of limiting their impact on people, the environment, and nuclear facilities themselves. A criticality accident is accompanied by intense neutron and gamma emissions and release of radioactive fission products-gases and aerosols-gene rating risk of irradiation and contamination. This work has supplemented earlier work in criticality safety, which concentrated on critical mass measurements and computations. Understanding of the consequences of criticality accidents was limited. Emergency planning was hampered by lack of data. Information became available from pulsed reactor experiments, but the experiments were restricted to the established reactor configurations. The objectives of research performed at the Valduc criticality laboratory, mainly on aqueous fissile media, using the CRAC and SILENE facilities, by multidisciplinary teams of physicists, dosimetry specialists, and radio-biologists, were to model criticality accident physics, estimate irradiation risks and radioactive releases, detect excursions, and organize emergency response. The results of the Valduc experiments have contributed toward improved understanding of criticality accident phenomenology and better evaluation of the risks associated with such accidents. (authors)

  11. Review of the CRAC and SILENE Criticality Accident Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbry, F.; Fouillaud, P.; Grivot, P.; Reverdy, L. [CEA Valduc, Serv Rech Neutron and Critcite, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-02-15

    In 1967, the Commissariat et l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Agency) performed its first research on criticality accidents for the purpose of limiting their impact on people, the environment, and nuclear facilities themselves. A criticality accident is accompanied by intense neutron and gamma emissions and release of radioactive fission products-gases and aerosols-gene rating risk of irradiation and contamination. This work has supplemented earlier work in criticality safety, which concentrated on critical mass measurements and computations. Understanding of the consequences of criticality accidents was limited. Emergency planning was hampered by lack of data. Information became available from pulsed reactor experiments, but the experiments were restricted to the established reactor configurations. The objectives of research performed at the Valduc criticality laboratory, mainly on aqueous fissile media, using the CRAC and SILENE facilities, by multidisciplinary teams of physicists, dosimetry specialists, and radio-biologists, were to model criticality accident physics, estimate irradiation risks and radioactive releases, detect excursions, and organize emergency response. The results of the Valduc experiments have contributed toward improved understanding of criticality accident phenomenology and better evaluation of the risks associated with such accidents. (authors)

  12. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field.

  13. Association between childhood allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status in later life: systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate; Beckman, Linda; Smeeth, Liam; McKee, Martin; Abuabara, Katrina; Langan, Sinead

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the association between specific allergic diseases and educational attainment. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status, and if possible, calculate meta-analytic summary estimates for the associations. Methods Systematic electronic searches in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and education Resources Information Center (ERIC); hand search in reference lists of included papers and conference reports; search for unpublished studies in clinical trial registers and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report; data extraction; and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) will be performed. Analysis Data will be summarised descriptively, and meta-analysis including meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneities will be performed if possible. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination in a peer-reviewed, open-access, international scientific journal is planned. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017058036. PMID:29025838

  14. The scholarship of critical review: improving quality and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dana; Ebrall, Phillip

    2008-12-01

    To describe the process of scientific peer review as it is used in the manuscript submission process, assess threats and challenges to the peer review process, and to offer suggestions for enhancing its effectiveness. Peer review is often seen as one of the hallmarks of scientific publication. The primary goal of peer review is to improve the science within papers that are ultimately published, by helping an editor better understand the strengths and weaknesses of a given paper. This process, while fairly well studied within the medical field, has received almost no attention at all within chiropractic. This paper provides guidance to reviewers and potential reviewers which can help them to understand both the scientific and the human aspects of peer review. This is designed to elevate this function to one trusted by the profession rather than seen as simply another hurdle to overcome. Several future directions are offered, including unblinding the review process for transparency, conducting rigorous studies looking at peer review, and developing formal training programs for potential reviewers. Peer review is likely to remain in force as a means to provide guidance to authors and editors about the rigor of submitted papers. However, the nature of peer review may be changing and editors and authors need to stay aware of the implications of these changes. Recommendations to open the process, study it and develop training programs are designed to ensure that the process remains as impartial as possible.

  15. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  16. [Mixed depression and DSM-5: A critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, S; Bertschy, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixed depression is a depressive syndrome characterized by the presence, along with the typical depressive symptoms of depression, of those of over activation and excitation. If sometimes this activation is expressed by classical hypomanic symptoms, it is often observed by means of more subtle expression: inner tension, crowded thoughts, dramatic expression suffering, and unproductive agitation. It is important to identify mixed depression because such patients are particularly at risk of suicidal behaviors, substance abuse and therapeutic resistance. Even if therapeutic strategies continue to be discussed, treatments should rely on mood stabilizers and antipsychotics instead of antidepressants as in pure depression. Even though the concept of mixed depression has been described for more than twenty years, first by Koukopoulos and then by other authors, it had been little studied, especially because it did not appear in international psychiatric classifications. The DSM-IV supported a very narrow conception of the mixed states because the criteria required simultaneous full manic and full depressive syndromes, corresponding only to some dysphoric manias. The recently published DSM-5 proposes modifications in mood and bipolar disorder classifications, and especially introduces the possibility to specify depressive and manic episodes with "mixed features". To diagnose depression with mixed features, a full depressive syndrome has to be present together most of time with three hypomanic symptoms, except symptoms that are considered as overlapping (that can be observed either in mania or in depression), i.e. agitation, irritability and distractibility. Critical analysis of DSM criteria and review of literature. We first analyzed the clinical relevance of the definition of depression with mixed features which could correspond to mixed depression. The problem is that the hypomanic symptoms allowed by the manual lead to symptom associations that are rather illogical (as

  17. Gold nanoparticles delivery in mammalian live cells: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Lévy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional nanomaterials have recently attracted strong interest from the biology community, not only as potential drug delivery vehicles or diagnostic tools, but also as optical nanomaterials. This is illustrated by the explosion of publications in the field with more than 2,000 publications in the last 2 years (4,000 papers since 2000; from ISI Web of Knowledge, ‘nanoparticle and cell’ hit. Such a publication boom in this novel interdisciplinary field has resulted in papers of unequal standard, partly because it is challenging to assemble the required expertise in chemistry, physics, and biology in a single team. As an extreme example, several papers published in physical chemistry journals claim intracellular delivery of nanoparticles, but show pictures of cells that are, to the expert biologist, evidently dead (and therefore permeable. To attain proper cellular applications using nanomaterials, it is critical not only to achieve efficient delivery in healthy cells, but also to control the intracellular availability and the fate of the nanomaterial. This is still an open challenge that will only be met by innovative delivery methods combined with rigorous and quantitative characterization of the uptake and the fate of the nanoparticles. This review mainly focuses on gold nanoparticles and discusses the various approaches to nanoparticle delivery, including surface chemical modifications and several methods used to facilitate cellular uptake and endosomal escape. We will also review the main detection methods and how their optimum use can inform about intracellular localization, efficiency of delivery, and integrity of the surface capping. Raphaël Lévy is a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. He graduated in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg (France. In 2002, after a Master in Soft Condensed Matter Physics, he obtained a PhD in Physics at the University Louis Pasteur. He then moved to

  18. “Activated, but Stuck”: Applying a Critical Occupational Lens to Examine the Negotiation of Long-Term Unemployment in Contemporary Socio-Political Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Laliberte Rudman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solutions for the problem of long-term unemployment are increasingly shaped by neoliberally-informed logics of activation and austerity. Because the implications of these governing frameworks for everyday life are not well understood, this pilot study applied a critical occupational science perspective to understand how long-term unemployment is negotiated within contemporary North American socio-political contexts. This perspective highlights the implications of policy and employment service re-configurations for the range of activities that constitute everyday life. Methods: Using a collaborative ethnographic community-engaged research approach, we recruited eight people in Canada and the United States who self-identified as experiencing long-term unemployment. We analyzed interviews and observation notes concerning four participants in each context using open coding, critical discourse analysis, and situational analysis. Results: This pilot study revealed a key contradiction in participants’ lives: being “activated, but stuck”. This contradiction resulted from the tension between individualizing, homogenizing frames of unemployment and complex, socio-politically shaped lived experiences. Analysis of this tension revealed how participants saw themselves “doing all the right things” to become re-employed, yet still remained stuck across occupational arenas. Conclusion: This pilot study illustrates the importance of understanding how socio-political solutions to long-term unemployment impact daily life and occupational engagement beyond the realm of job seeking and job acquisition.

  19. PENERAPAN CRITICAL REVIEW ARTIKEL PEMBELAJARAN IPA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA DALAM MENYUSUN PROPOSAL SKRIPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    p parmin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to improve students’ ability in develop- ing a proposal thesis by applying critical review of scientific articles come from journals. The research is designed by class action research. The results showed 63% of students thesis proposals on Research Methodology course scored above 80. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the application has been critical review or critical study of scientific articles can enhance students’ ability in preparing research proposals.

  20. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  1. Bus use and older people: a literature review applying the Person-Environment-Occupation model in macro practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Kieran; McKenna, Kryss; Fleming, Jennifer; Worrall, Linda

    2009-03-01

    The same reasons that prompt older people to give up driving can also result in difficulties with accessing public transport. Difficulties using public transport can limit older people's participation in society, thereby impacting negatively on their health. Focusing on public buses, this review explicates the link between bus usability and the health of older people and frames existing evidence on bus usability issues. The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model offers a framework by which bus usability can be assessed. A combination of person-centred, environmental, and occupation-related factors, including bus design, service provision and performance, information, and the attitudes of staff and the community, impact on older people's ability to catch buses. More systematic research needs to take place in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of bus usability. Occupational therapy has a key role to play in conceptualizing, implementing, and evaluating improvements in bus usability for older people.

  2. Effectiveness of Interventions to Address Visual and Visual-Perceptual Impairments to Improve Occupational Performance in Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sue; Kaldenberg, Jennifer; Selmane, Romeissa; Carlo, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Visual and visual-perceptual impairments occur frequently with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and influence occupational performance. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve occupational performance for adults with visual and visual-perceptual impairments as a result of TBI. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched, and 66 full text articles were reviewed. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Strong evidence supports the use of scanning, limited evidence supports the use of adaptive strategies, and mixed evidence supports the use of cognitive interventions to improve occupational performance for adults with TBI. Evidence related to vision therapy varies on the basis of the specific intervention implemented. Although the strength of the research varied, implications are discussed for practice, education, and research. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. A missing ethical competency? A review of critical reflection in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretheway, Rebecca; Taylor, Jane; O'Hara, Lily; Percival, Nikki

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing emphasis in the health promotion literature on the ethical imperative for the profession to move towards critical practice. A key challenge for health promotion is that critical practice appears both under-developed and under-practiced. This is evident in the omission of critical reflection from Australian and international competencies for health promotion practitioners. A narrative literature review was undertaken to explore the current use of critical reflection in health promotion. Critical reflection models relevant to health promotion were identified and critiqued. There was a dearth of literature on critical reflection within health promotion, despite recognition of its potential to support critical practice. The discipline of critical social work provided literature on the use, effect and outcome of critical reflection in practice. The interdisciplinary critical reflection model was identified as the model most applicable to health promotion. Underpinned by critical theory, this model emphasises both critical and ethical practice. Critical reflection is a core competency for health promotion practitioners to address the ethical imperative to move towards critical practice. There is a need to explore the application of a critical reflection model in health promotion to determine how it may support critical and ethical practice. So what? If health promotion is to meet its ethical responsibilities, then critical reflection needs to be articulated as a core health promotion competency and a model for its application in health promotion developed.

  4. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121

  5. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucia; Moen, Bente E; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-08-05

    Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth.

  6. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) as group therapy for children living with motor coordination difficulties: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leanne; Wilson, Jessie; Williams, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate limited participation in daily occupations which negatively impacts their physical and psycho-social wellbeing. The CO-OP approach is strongly supported within the literature as an effective treatment for DCD when delivered as a one-on-one therapy. Group interventions have proven to be effective in increasing self-esteem, decreasing feelings of isolation and are a cost effective way of delivering therapy. The purpose of this review was to explore the evidence for the use of the CO-OP approach in a group format for children with motor coordination difficulties. Searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, Proquest, PsycINFO, ERIC and OTDBase, were conducted from 2000 through until September 30, 2015. Articles included were in English, peer reviewed articles, followed principals of CO-OP and were delivered through a group therapy approach. All articles were critically reviewed and thematically analysed. 192 studies were retrieved with a final number of six articles included in the review. Six themes were highlighted: achieving a new level of perceived competence; feeling a sense of belonging; children learning how the condition affected them and strategies to overcome these challenges; careful formation of intervention groups; the value of following the CO-OP protocols; and the significance of parental involvement. The findings of this review suggest that the CO-OP approach, when administered in a group format, has the potential to benefit children living with motor coordination difficulties in both physical and psycho-social domains. More research is required to confirm these findings and contribute to evidence-based practice. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Heat stress and public health: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovats, R Sari; Hajat, Shakoor

    2008-01-01

    Heat is an environmental and occupational hazard. The prevention of deaths in the community caused by extreme high temperatures (heat waves) is now an issue of public health concern. The risk of heat-related mortality increases with natural aging, but persons with particular social and/or physical vulnerability are also at risk. Important differences in vulnerability exist between populations, depending on climate, culture, infrastructure (housing), and other factors. Public health measures include health promotion and heat wave warning systems, but the effectiveness of acute measures in response to heat waves has not yet been formally evaluated. Climate change will increase the frequency and the intensity of heat waves, and a range of measures, including improvements to housing, management of chronic diseases, and institutional care of the elderly and the vulnerable, will need to be developed to reduce health impacts.

  8. Contraceptive Health Programs for Adolescents: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Hayes, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews some contraceptive education programs designed for adolescents that differ in educational process based on delivery setting. Reviews school-based, community-based, and college/university-based programs and discusses them in terms of their effectiveness, potential, and limitations. Notes that educational accountability in each setting…

  9. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  10. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  11. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  12. A review of caffeine's effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Caldwell, John A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-12-01

    Caffeine is consumed by over 80% of U.S. adults. This review examines the effects caffeine has on cognitive and physical function, since most real-world activities require complex decision making, motor processing and movement. Caffeine exerts its effects by blocking adenosine receptors. Following low (∼40mg or ∼0.5mgkg -1 ) to moderate (∼300mg or 4mgkg -1 ) caffeine doses, alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention improve, but less consistent effects are observed on memory and higher-order executive function, such as judgment and decision making. Effects on physical performance on a vast array of physical performance metrics such as time-to-exhaustion, time-trial, muscle strength and endurance, and high-intensity sprints typical of team sports are evident following doses that exceed about 200mg (∼3mgkg -1 ). Many occupations, including military, first responders, transport workers and factory shift workers, require optimal physical and cognitive function to ensure success, workplace safety and productivity. In these circumstances, that may include restricted sleep, repeated administration of caffeine is an effective strategy to maintain physical and cognitive capabilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. PENERAPAN CRITICAL REVIEW ARTIKEL PEMBELAJARAN IPA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA DALAM MENYUSUN PROPOSAL SKRIPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmin -

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyusun proposal skripsi melalui penerapan critical review artikel ilmiah bersumber dari jurnal. Penelitian dirancang dengan metode penelitian tindakan kelas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 63% proposal skripsi mahasiswa pada mata kuliah Metodologi Penelitian mendapatkan nilai diatas 80. Berdasarkan hasil yang telah diperoleh dapat disimpulkan penerapan critical review atau kajian kritis terhadap artikel ilmiah dapat meningkatkan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyusun proposal penelitian.   The aims of this research is to improve students' ability in developing a proposal thesis by applying critical review of scientific articles come from journals. The research is designed by class action research. The results showed 63% of students thesis proposals on Research Methodology course scored above 80. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the application has been critical review or critical study of scientific articles can enhance students' ability in preparing research proposals.

  14. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  15. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  17. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  18. Critical Factors in Mobile Learning: A Quasi-Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sergio Assis; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pereira; Arnaud, Lucas; de Souza, Jano Moreira

    2013-01-01

    The advance of mobile industry and research has expanded e-learning in order to support an efficient and effective educational process. However, the promised benefits are as much attractive as the existing difficulties and barriers. In this paper, we intend to identify and summarize the critical factors in mobile learning through a…

  19. A Review on Developing Critical Thinking Skills through Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Ahmad Shukri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text

  20. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical

  1. "The Bell Curve" and Its Critical Progeny: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses R. Herrnstein's and C. Murray's attempt to persuade an educated white readership that they, the readers, are genetically, socially, and intellectually superior. The most effective criticisms are those that rely on scientific evidence about the manipulation of data and flawed analyses rather than the display of moral outrage. (SLD)

  2. A Critical Review of the IELTS Writing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hacer Hande

    2010-01-01

    Administered at local centres in 120 countries throughout the world, IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is one of the most widely used large-scale ESL tests that also offers a direct writing test component. Because of its popularity and its use for making critical decisions about test takers, it is crucial to draw attention to…

  3. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The literature concerning the kinetics of the Maillard reaction was critically discussed according to the initial, intermediate and advanced stages, as this is the way the Maillard reaction is traditionally analysed. For each stage, a division is made between simple kinetics and complex kinetics.

  4. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  5. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the

  6. Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2014-03-01

    Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies

  7. Increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review Health Maintenance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschwitz, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Health Maintenance System. It includes information on the carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture removal system (CMRS), the variable oxygen system,rendevous station panels, and the crew contamination protection kit (CCPK).

  8. Nanofluidic technology for biomolecule applications: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napoli, M.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Pennathur, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we present nanofluidic phenomena, particularly as they relate to applications involving analysis of biomolecules within nanofabricated devices. The relevant length scales and physical phenomena that govern biomolecule transport and manipulation within nanofabricated nanofluidic

  9. Developing a strategic marketing plan for physical and occupational therapy services: a collaborative project between a critical access hospital and a graduate program in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Deshmukh, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a marketing plan for the Physical and Occupational Therapy (PT/OT) department at a Critical Access Hospital (CAH). We took the approach of understanding and analyzing the rural community and health care environment, problems faced by the PT/OT department, and developing a strategic marketing plan to resolve those problems. We used hospital admissions data, public and physician surveys, a SWOT analysis, and tools to evaluate alternative strategies. Lack of awareness and negative perception were key issues. Recommended strategies included building relationships with physicians, partnering with the school district, and enhancing the wellness program.

  10. Critical success factors for competitiveness of construction companies: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Abdul Ghafur; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Making progress basically, a fundamental issue for the construction companies to get by in a highly competitive industry. From time to time, industry players are facing stiff and tough competition due to large number of players, whether existing or new players involved from various background and track record. Furthermore, the large numbers of component deciding the competitiveness of contractors, whose organization structures and governance have turned out to be more muddled. Different construction companies have their own unique criteria which may differ from one to another. The enormous amount of issues needs to bring down to manageable numbers so that measures can be identified and scrutinized to enhance competitiveness. This paper discusses the result from the critical investigation from past studies in the Asian countries, namely China, India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Several fundamental factors have been identified as CSFs in construction companies in respective country. Also highlighted a critical survey based upon various literatures written on this subject where critical success factors (CSFs) as a yardstick to gauge the relationship among CSFs in various construction companies in the Asian region. Far reaching estimation of an organization's performance and resulting input to its supervision is crucial for business change. Estimation additionally empowers organizations to be contrasted from one another on the premise of institutionalized data, permitting best practices to be distinguished and connected more widely. Different countries have their own set of critical success factors (CSFs) which may differ in term of priority and at the same time share common elements of success factor in accomplishment as a construction companies. The study, which is exploratory in nature, embraced the content investigation and inductive technique to accomplish its objectives.

  11. Enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients; critical review and algorithm creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Junqueira, L; De-Souza, Daurea A

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Uberlándia, MG, Brazil. Were established in the algorithm a following sequential steps: After a clinical-surgical diagnosis, including the assessment of hemodynamic stability, were requested passage of a feeding tube in post-pyloric position and a drainage tube in gastric position. After hemodynamic stability it should be done the nutritional status diagnosis, calculated nutritional requirements, as well as chosen formulation of enteral feeding. Unless contraindicated, aiming to increase tolerance was started infusion with small volumes (15 ml/h) of a semi-elemental diet, normocaloric, hypolipidic (also hyperproteic, with addition of glutamine). To ensure infusion of the diet, as well as the progressive increase of infusion rates, the patient was monitored for moderate or severe intestinal intolerance. The schedule and infusion rates were respected and diet was not routinely suspended for procedures and diagnostic tests, unless indicated by the medical team. For nutrition therapy success it is essential routine monitoring and extensive interaction between the professionals involved. Nutritional conducts should be reevaluated and improved, seeking complete and specialized care to the critically ill patients. Adherence to new practices is challenging, though instruments such as protocols and algorithms help making information more accessible and comprehensible.

  12. A review of critical in-flight events research methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot's cognitive responses to critical in-flight events (CIFE's) were investigated, using pilots, who had on the average about 2540 flight hours each, in four experiments: (1) full-mission simulation in a general aviation trainer, (2) paper and pencil CIFE tests, (3) interactive computer-aided scenario testing, and (4) verbal protocols in fault diagnosis tasks. The results of both computer and paper and pencil tests showed only 50 percent efficiency in correct diagnosis of critical events. The efficiency in arriving at a diagnosis was also low: over 20 inquiries were made for 21 percent of the scenarios diagnosed. The information-seeking pattern was random, with frequent retracing over old inquiries. The measures for developing improved cognitive skills for CIFE's are discussed.

  13. Von Glaserfeld`s Radical Constructivism: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael D.

    We explore Ernst von Glaserfelds radical constructivism, its criticisms, and our own thoughts on what it promises for the reform of science and mathematics teaching. Our investigation reveals that many criticisms of radical constructivism are unwarranted; nevertheless, in its current cognitivist form radical constructivism may be insufficient to empower teachers to overcome objectivist cultural traditions. Teachers need to be empowered with rich understandings of philosophies of science and mathematics that endorse relativist epistemologies; for without such they are unlikely to be prepared to reconstruct their pedagogical practices. More importantly, however, is a need for a powerful social epistemology to serve as a referent for regenerating the culture of science education. We recommend blending radical constructivism with Habermas theory of communicative action to provide science teachers with a moral imperative for adopting a constructivist epistemology.

  14. Clinical review: International comparisons in critical care - lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Srinivas; Wunsch, Hannah

    2012-12-12

    Critical care medicine is a global specialty and epidemiologic research among countries provides important data on availability of critical care resources, best practices, and alternative options for delivery of care. Understanding the diversity across healthcare systems allows us to explore that rich variability and understand better the nature of delivery systems and their impact on outcomes. However, because the delivery of ICU services is complex (for example, interplay of bed availability, cultural norms and population case-mix), the diversity among countries also creates challenges when interpreting and applying data. This complexity has profound influences on reported outcomes, often obscuring true differences. Future research should emphasize determination of resource data worldwide in order to understand current practices in different countries; this will permit rational pandemic and disaster planning, allow comparisons of in-ICU processes of care, and facilitate addition of pre- and post-ICU patient data to better interpret outcomes.

  15. A critical review of qualitative interviews in applied linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Steve J.

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four ‘discourse dilemmas’ which might provide the basis for a more critical and reflective dimension to the use of qualitative interviews in applied linguistics. Summarizing important contributions that have already been made in...

  16. Telerehabilitation Store and Forward Applications: A Review of Applications and Privacy Considerations in Physical and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  17. Telerehabilitation store and forward applications: a review of applications and privacy considerations in physical and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  18. Occupational Noise Exposure and the Risk for Work-Related Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka

    2017-11-10

    Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  19. Methodology 1: Systematic reviews for occupational safety and health: the PEROSH clearinghouse. Oral presentations: Day 1: Wednesday, September 7, 2011. 22nd International Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2011 September 7-9, 2011, Oxford, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold, A.; Blatter, B.; Euler, U.; Gagliardi, D.; Knardahl, S.; Lastowiecka-Moras, E.; Olsen, O.; Verbeek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of high quality offer combined results from epidemiological studies which can be very helpful for decision making in occupational safety and health (OSH). The Clearinghouse of Systematic Reviews, a joint project of seven European research institutes,

  20. A critical review of treatment approaches for gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C

    2011-06-01

    This review presents the theoretical model, evidence base, and theoretical and methodological issues for seven treatment approaches to gambling disorders: 1) psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatments, 2) Gamblers Anonymous, 3) behavioural treatments, 4) cognitive and cognitive-behavioural therapies, 5) brief, motivational, and self-directed interventions, 6) pharmacotherapies, and 7) family therapy approaches. Throughout the review, broader clinical and research issues are also discussed, including barriers to treatment-seeking, controlled gambling versus abstinence as a treatment goal, comorbidity, and the evaluation of treatment efficacy and effectiveness.

  1. How to measure comorbidity. a critical review of available methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  2. How to measure comorbidity. A critical review of available methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V; Beckerman, H; Lankhorst, G J; Bouter, L M

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  3. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  4. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel, E-mail: rodas@uhu.es [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M. [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Mining, Mechanic and Energetic Engineering, ETSI, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alsioufi, Louay [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-10-22

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. - Highlights: • Review about arsenic in the air. • Sampling, sample treatment and analysis of arsenic in particulate matter and gaseous phase. • Total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation analysis.

  5. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  6. Guardianship for crime prevention: A critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollis-Peel, M.; Reynald, D.M.; van Bavel, M.L.; Elffers, H.; Welsh, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Cohen and Felson's (Cohen and Felson American Sociological Review 44(4):588-608, 1979) routine activity theory posits that for a crime to occur three necessary elements must converge in time and space: motivated offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardianship. Capable guardians

  7. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  8. A Critical Review of Digital Storyline-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Storyline is one of the major motivators that lead people to play video games. However, little empirical evidence exists on the instructional effectiveness of integrating a storyline into digital learning materials. This systematic literature review presents current empirical findings on the effects of a storyline game design element for human…

  9. Are Effective Counselors Made or Born? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCsipkes, Robert A.; And Others

    The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between counselor characteristics and reports of effectiveness. The theoretical position appears to focus on two opposing views. The humanists emphasize the influence of intuition, genuineness, and spontaneity, while the behaviorists place importance on technique, analysis of…

  10. Abortion Care in Ghana: A Critical Review of the Literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research.

  11. A critical review of the literature on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.; Thyssen, G.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing literature on early school leaving. We clarify what is at stake with early school leaving, and touch upon underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature. The paper investigates the levels, the methods and models with which the topic has been

  12. Problems with quantizing the Skyrmion: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We review the motivation and construction of the chiral soliton picture of baryons. We discuss the semi-classical quantization procedure of Adkins, Nappi and Witten and the stability of the semi-classical solution under the collective coordinate quantization. By studying the behavior in the chiral limit and specific numerical predictions, we conclude that the collective coordinate procedure is inadequate

  13. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER's Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee's evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP's current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program's technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee's response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee's view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee's conclusions and recommendations

  14. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  15. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  16. The myth of individualism-collectivism: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Maxim; Singer, Jefferson A

    2002-08-01

    The authors critically assess the dimension of individualism-collectivism (I-C) and its various uses in cross-cultural psychology. They argue that I-C research is characterized largely by insufficient conceptual clarity and a lack of systematic data. As a result, they call into question the utility of I-C as an explanatory tool for cultural variation in behavior, suggest alternative dimensions for cross-cultural research, and interpret the weaknesses of research on I-C as illustrative of a general trend in social psychology.

  17. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  18. A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qureshi, Zahid H

    2008-01-01

    .... This report provides a review of key traditional accident modelling approaches and their limitations, and describes new system-theoretic approaches to the modelling and analysis of accidents in safety-critical systems...

  19. Anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy for generalized and localized vulvodynia : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen K.; Borg, Charmaine; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar

    Anticonvulsant therapy has occasionally been recommended to treat vulvodynia. However, convincing evidence to support this therapeutic option is lacking. The goal of this study was to critically review studies published on the effectiveness of anticonvulsants for the treatment of vulvodynia.

  20. International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies : A critical review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.N.; Danis, W.D.; Cavusgil, S.T.

    This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic

  1. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  2. A review of the cohorts with environmental and occupational mineral fiber exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metintas, Selma; Ak, Guntulu; Metintas, Muzaffer

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine factors associated with Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) incidence rate of the groups with occupational asbestos and environmental asbestos or erionite exposure in rural area. In this ecological study, a total of 21 cohort datasets (8 environmental and 13 occupational) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression analysis model. In environmental cohorts, the risk of MM incidence was higher in women and people exposed to erionite. In this cohort, the incidence rate of MM increased as the median exposure time increased, while the incidence decreased as the median cumulative exposure dose increased. In occupational cohorts, the incidence rate of MM was positively correlated with the median cumulative exposure dose. The risk of mesothelioma was lower in those exposed to tremolite than others. Environmental asbestos exposure is as important as occupational exposure to develop MM, and it has its own unique exposure features on the risk of MM.

  3. Economic evaluations of occupational health interventions from a corporate perspective - A systematic review of methodological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uegaki, K.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Lambeek, L.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van; Tulder, M.W. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Using a standardized quality criteria list, we appraised the methodological quality of economic evaluations of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions conducted from a corporate perspective. Methods: The primary literature search was conducted in Medline and Embase.

  4. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Chaube, Alok; Jain, Shashi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  5. Haloperidol for delirium in critically ill patients - protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Kraus, S R; Collet, M O

    2018-01-01

    , relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials...... decision makers on the use of or future trials with haloperidol for the management of delirium in critically ill patients....

  6. Critical Review of Dual Diagnosis Training for Mental Health Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-01-01

    To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training, ...... of dual diagnosis training programs for mental health professionals should involve control groups, validated measures, follow-ups, and patient outcomes.......To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the effects...

  7. Devil in the Details: A Critical Review of "Theoretical Loss".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2016-09-01

    In their review of Internet gambling studies, Auer and Griffiths (J Gambl Stud 30(4), 879-887, 2014) question the validity of using bet size as an indicator of gambling intensity. Instead, in that review and in a response (Auer and Griffiths, J Gambl Stud 31(3), 921-931, 2015) to a previous comment (Braverman et al., J Gambl Stud 31(2), 359-366, 2015), Auer and Griffiths suggested using "theoretical loss" as a preferable measure of gambling intensity. This comment extends and advances the discussion about measures of gambling intensity. In this paper, we describe previously identified problems that Auer and Griffiths need to address to sustain theoretical loss as a viable measure of gambling intensity and add details to the discussion that demonstrate difficulties associated with the use of theoretical loss with certain gambling games.

  8. Knowledge Management : Review of the Critical Success Factors and Development of a Conceptual Classification Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Zand, F.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is a critical issue in today's business world. Knowledge is considered as one of the most strategic resources of the firm and sources of competitive advantage. This research provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and identifies

  9. Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety - development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the

  10. Cultural Value and Inequality: A Critical Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, K; O'Brien, D

    2015-01-01

    Inequality has become essential to understanding contemporary British society and is at the forefront of media, political and practice discussions of the future of the arts in the UK. Whilst there is a wealth of work on traditional areas of inequality, such as those associated with income or gender, the relationship between culture, specifically cultural value, and inequality is comparatively under-researched. The literature review considers inequality and cultural value from two points of vi...

  11. Pollution biomarkers in estuarine animals: critical review and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, José M; Martínez, Pablo E; Geracitano, Laura A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Martins, Camila Martinez Gaspar; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Chaves, Isabel Soares; Ferreira-Cravo, Marlize; Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-01-01

    In this review, recent developments in monitoring toxicological responses in estuarine animals are analyzed, considering the biomarker responses to different classes of pollutants. The estuarine environment imposes stressful conditions to the organisms that inhabit it, and this situation can alter their sensitivity to many pollutants. The specificity of some biomarkers like metallothionein tissue concentration is discussed in virtue of its dependence on salinity, which is highly variable in estuaries. Examples of cholinesterase activity measurements are also provided and criteria to select sensitive enzymes to detect pesticides and toxins are discussed. Regarding non-specific biomarkers, toxic responses in terms of antioxidant defenses and/or oxidative damage are also considered in this review, focusing on invertebrate species. In addition, the presence of an antioxidant gradient along the body of the estuarine polychaete Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae) and its relationship to different strategies, which deal with the generation of oxidative stress, is reviewed. Also, unusual antioxidant defenses against environmental pro-oxidants are discussed, including the mucus secreted by L. acuta. Disruption of osmoregulation by pollutants is of paramount importance in several estuarine species. In some cases such as in the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, there is a trade off between bioavailability of toxicants (e.g. metals) and their interaction with key enzymes such as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase. Thus, the metal effect on osmoregulation is also discussed in the present review. Finally, field case studies with fish species like the croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Scianidae) are used to illustrate the application of DNA damage and immunosuppressive responses as potential biomarkers of complex mixture of pollutants.

  12. The Revised Hierarchical Model: A critical review and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Judith F.; van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha; Green, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Brysbaert and Duyck (2009) suggest that it is time to abandon the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart, 1994) in favor of connectionist models such as BIA+ (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) that more accurately account for the recent evidence on nonselective access in bilingual word recognition. In this brief response, we first review the history of the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM), consider the set of issues that it was proposed to address, and then evaluate the evidence that supp...

  13. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [Review of occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys in sixty years in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Chao-lin; Wang, Huan-qiang

    2010-11-01

    To compare and analyze the all previous censuses and large-scale surveys on occupational hazard in China, draw lessons from the past, and try to provide references for the development of census or surveys on the occupational hazard in the new period. A literature retrieval had been performed mainly on the occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys since the founding of People's Republic of China. Only the survey items carried on a national scale were selected. Some keywords were drawn from these items such as survey time, survey scope, industries, occupational diseases and the rate of examination, organization and technical director, methods and so on. The outcomes and experiences were summarized. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, there were seven occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys carried in China, three of them were about silicosis or pneumoconiosis, two of them were about poison and carcinogens, one was about noise, another one was about the township industrial enterprises. Leadership attention was the fundamental guarantee of the success of the survey, sound occupational health management organizations were the base, collaborative relationship with each other was an import factor, and only the interdisciplinary team, scientific design, quality control and incentive mechanism could assure the quality of the survey. The survey should be designed and carried out according to industries.

  15. Operations and Maintenance Cost for Stratified Buildings: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ghani Nor Zaimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance is essential in preserving buildings’ appearance and performance. It needs to upkeep the building performance to prolong its value and building life cycle. Malaysia is still lacking in managing cost for building operation and maintenance. It has been found that the cost for housing maintenance is high due to poor maintenance practices. In order to get better understanding on how to manage the cost, this study reviews the contributing factors that affecting operation and maintenance cost of stratified buildings in Malaysia. The research first identified the factors through extensive literature review and scrutinize on factors that affecting and can minimize operation and maintenance cost. This literature review offers insight into building maintenance scenario in Malaysia focusing on the issues and challenges. The study also finds that operation and maintenance cost for housing in Malaysia is still in poor state. Interestingly, this paper revealed that operation and maintenance cost is also influenced by three significant factors like expectation of tenants, building characteristics and building defects. Measures to reduce the housing operation and maintenance cost are also highlighted so that this study can be a stepping stone towards proposing efficient and effective facilities management strategies for affordable housing in future.

  16. HYPNOSIS FOR ACUTE PROCEDURAL PAIN: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute, procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions. PMID:26599994

  17. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions.

  18. Biomedical Engineering curriculum at UAM-I: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Licona, Fabiola; Azpiroz-Leehan, Joaquin; Urbina Medal, E Gerardo; Cadena Mendez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) has undergone at least four major transformations since the founding of the BME undergraduate program in 1974. This work is a critical assessment of the curriculum from the point of view of its results as derived from an analysis of, among other resources, institutional databases on students, graduates and their academic performance. The results of the evaluation can help us define admission policies as well as reasonable limits on the maximum duration of undergraduate studies. Other results linked to the faculty composition and the social environment can be used to define a methodology for the evaluation of teaching and the implementation of mentoring and tutoring programs. Changes resulting from this evaluation may be the only way to assure and maintain leadership and recognition from the BME community.

  19. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical review of pH sensing with optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco

    1999-02-01

    The chemical parameter most investigated with optical fibers is doubtless pH. The first pH optical fiber sensor was described in 1980. Since then, more than one hundred and twenty original papers describing different pH sensors have been published, based on absorption-based indicators on fluorophores. Such interest is perfectly justified, since pH detection is essential in many fields of application, ranging from the environment and medicine to industry and process control. Moreover, pH transduction can be used for measuring different chemical species, such as carbon dioxide, ammonia and pesticides. Notwithstanding the great number of prototypes realized in different laboratories all over the world, only a few products are available on the market. A critical analysis of the state of art in pH sensing using optical fibers is described, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of an optical approach.

  1. Review article: Critical Care Airway Management eLearning modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Deepak; McCarthy, Sally; Mowatt, Elizabeth; Cahill, Angela; Peirce, Bronwyn; Hawking, Geoff; Osborne, Ruth; Hibble, Belinda; Ebbs, Katharine

    2017-11-16

    The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) has recently launched the Critical Care Airway Management eLearning modules to support emergency medicine trainees in developing their airway management skills in the ED. A team of emergency physicians and trainees worked collaboratively to develop the eLearning resources ensuring extensive stakeholder consultation. A comprehensive resource manual was written to provide learners with knowledge that underpins the modules. ACEM provided project coordination as well as administrative and technical team support to the production. Although specifically developed with early ACEM trainees in mind, it is envisaged the resources will be useful for all emergency clinicians. The project was funded by the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Defining Small and Medium Enterprises: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentrit Berisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The OECD estimates that small and medium enterprises account for 90% of firms and employ 63% of the workforce in the world (Munro: 2013. Small and medium enterprises account for that amount of businesses thatit is senseless the arbitrariness with which they are defined. Language mainly used for definition is numbers, but it is difficult to find two institutions, statistical agencies or countries who speak the same language in terms of small and medium enterprises. Academics, authors, policy makers apply SMEdefinitions in terms of dichotomy between universality and standardization of a unique definition and relativity and sectored specialization. Although qualitative criteria-characteristics of SMEs easily distinguish them from large businesses, quantitative criteria are mainlyused for their dimensional classification. This paper deals with a critical approachto the definition of small and medium enterprises, inconsistencies in criteria and various proposed approaches to the definition towards universal acceptance.

  3. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGioia, Jonathan; Watkins, Kari Edison; Xu, Yanzhi; Rodgers, Michael; Guensler, Randall

    2017-06-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies. Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  4. A critical review of lexical analysis and Big Five model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the idea has resurfaced that traits can be measured in a reliable and valid and this can be useful inthe prediction of human behavior. The five-factor model appears to represent a conceptual and empirical advances in the field of personality theory. Necessary orthogonal factors (Goldberg, 1992, p. 26 to show the relationships between the descriptors of the features in English is five, and its nature can be summarized through the broad concepts of Surgency, Agreeableness, Responsibility, Emotional Stability versus neuroticism and openness to experience (John, 1990, p96 Furthermore, despite the criticisms that have been given to the model, represents a breakthrough in the field of personality assessment. This approach means a contribution to the study of personality, without being the integrative model of personality.

  5. A critical review of clinical trials in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Mary A.; Strand, Vibeke; Simon, Lee S.; Lipsky, Peter E.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    One challenge in caring for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a paucity of approved therapeutics for treatment of the diverse disease manifestations. In the last 60 years, only one drug, belimumab, has been approved for SLE treatment. Critical evaluation of investigator initiated and pharma-sponsored randomized controlled trials (RCTs) highlights barriers to successful drug development in SLE, including disease heterogeneity, inadequate trial size or duration, insufficient dose finding before initiation of large trials, handling of background medications, and choice of primary endpoint. Herein we examine lessons learned from landmark SLE RCTs and subsequent advances in trial design, as well as discuss efforts to address limitations in current SLE outcome measures that will improve detection of true therapeutic responses in future RCTs. PMID:27497257

  6. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  7. A critical review of nanotechnologies for composite aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Masouras, Athanasios; Baltopoulos, Athanasios; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Sotiriadis, George; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The past decade extensive efforts have been invested in understanding the nano-scale and revealing the capabilities offered by nanotechnology products to structural materials. Integration of nano-particles into fiber composites concludes to multi-scale reinforced composites and has opened a new wide range of multi-functional materials in industry. In this direction, a variety of carbon based nano-fillers has been proposed and employed, individually or in combination in hybrid forms, to approach the desired performance. Nevertheless, a major issue faced lately more seriously due to the interest of industry is on how to incorporate these nano-species into the final composite structure through existing manufacturing processes and infrastructure. This interest originates from several industrial applications needs that request the development of new multi-functional materials which combine enhanced mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, an attempt is performed to review the most representative processes and related performances reported in literature and the experience obtained on nano-enabling technologies of fiber composite materials. This review focuses on the two main composite manufacturing technologies used by the aerospace industry; Prepreg/Autoclave and Resin Transfer technologies. It addresses several approaches for nano-enabling of composites for these two routes and reports latest achieved results focusing on performance of nano-enabled fiber reinforced composites extracted from literature. Finally, this review work identifies the gap between available nano-technology integration routes and the established industrial composite manufacturing techniques and the challenges to increase the Technology Readiness Level to reach the demands for aerospace industry applications.

  8. Nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis : a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragle, Ryan L; Sawitzke, Allen D

    2012-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, highly prevalent and disabling disease that is expected to increase in prevalence secondary to longer life expectancy and a disproportionately aging population. Treatment of OA is only marginally effective and has been focused primarily on symptom control using weight loss, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, intra-articular steroids or viscosupplementation, topical NSAIDs and analgesics, diacerein (an oral interleukin-1β inhibitor) and finally joint replacement surgery. The use of nutraceuticals in the treatment of OA is common, and scientific studies examining the effects of nutraceuticals on the pathogenesis and treatment of OA are increasing. This review examines the efficacy and safety of select nutraceuticals for the treatment of OA. The reviewed nutraceuticals include glucosamine, chondroitin, collagen hydrolysates (CHs) and avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs). There have been several clinical trials examining the efficacy of these products and the results demonstrate significant heterogeneity. Significant improvements in pain, function and structural outcomes have been shown for some of the treatment arms or subgroups of patients, but the effects are not consistent across the studies. Glucosamine, chondroitin and the two in combination have been the most extensively studied. Significant improvement in pain and functional indices and a decrease in the loss of joint space width were demonstrated in some but not all studies. CHs showed significant improvement in pain and functional indices for several subgroups of patients, but these findings were not pervasive amongst the treatment arms. ASU has demonstrated positive results with respect to decreased NSAID use in several studies and functional and pain end points in most of the reviewed studies; however, in the two studies examining structural end points, the results were mixed. The safety of these nutraceuticals has been

  9. Equilibrium models of trade equations : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, Marcelo Savino

    1993-01-01

    Neste artigo, revisa-se a literatura teórica sobre equações de comércio exterior, inclusive o modelo de comércio baseado na teoria da produção. Discute-se vários problemas comumente encontrados em trabalhos empíricos e também a literatura existente sobre equações relativas ao comércio exterior brasileiro. In this paper we review the theoretical literature on trade equation models, including the production theory approach. We discuss several empirical problems commonly found in the applied ...

  10. Critical review of the probability of causation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.A. Jr.; Fiksel, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In a more controversial report than the others in the study, the authors use one scientific discipline to review the work of another discipline. Their proposal recognizes the imprecision that develops in moving from group to individual interpretations of causal effects by substituting the term assigned share for probability of causation. The authors conclude that the use of a formula will not provide reliable measures of risk attribution in individual cases. The gap between scientific certainty and assigning shares of responsibility must be filled by subjective value judgments supplied by the scientists. 22 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  11. A Critical Review of Recent Literature on Populism

    OpenAIRE

    John Abromeit

    2017-01-01

    This is a review article of the following five recent studies on populism: 1) Ruth Wodak’s The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean (Sage, 2015); 2) Benjamin Moffitt’s The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style and Representation (Stanford University Press, 2016); 3) Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser’s Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017); 4) Jan-Werner Müller’s What is Populism? (University of Pennsylvania Press, 201...

  12. Hotel revenue management – a critical literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Zhechev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a literature review of the main concepts of hotel revenue management (RM) and current state-of-the-art of its theoretical research. The article emphasises on the different directions of hotel RM research and is structured around the elements of the hotel RM system and the stages of RM process. The elements of the hotel RM system discussed in the paper include hotel RM centres (room division, F&B, function rooms, spa & fitness facilities, golf courses, casino and gambling fa...

  13. Dietary Guidelines for Breast Cancer Patients: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for breast cancer patients (BCPs) fail to address adequate dietary intakes of macro- and micronutrients that may improve patients' nutritional status. This review includes information from the PubMed and Biomed Central databases over the last 15 y concerning dietary guidelines for BCPs and the potential impact of a personalized, nutrient-specific diet on patients' nutritional status during and after antineoplastic treatment. Results indicated that BCPs should receive a nutritional assessment immediately after diagnosis. In addition, they should be encouraged to pursue and maintain a healthy body weight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) 20-24.9], preserving their lean mass and avoiding an increase in fat mass. Therefore, after nutritional status diagnosis, a conservative energy restriction of 500-1000 kcal/d could be considered in the dietary intervention when appropriate. Based on the reviewed information, we propose a personalized nutrition intervention for BCPs during and after antineoplastic treatment. Specifications in the nutritional therapy should be based on the patients' nutritional status, dietary habits, schedule, activities, and cultural preferences. BCPs' daily energy intake should be distributed as follows: vegetables (∼75 g/serving) should be encouraged. Garlic and cruciferous vegetables must also be part of the nutrition therapy. Adequate dietary intakes of food-based macro- and micronutrients rich in β-carotene and vitamins A, E, and C can both prevent deterioration in BCPs' nutritional status and improve their overall health and prognosis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Ecotoxicology of Hexavalent Chromium in Freshwater Fish: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Vutukuru, S.S.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil, predominantly in its insoluble trivalent form [Cr(III)]. Intense industrialization and other anthropogenic activities have led to the global occurrence of soluble Cr(VI), which is readily leached from soil to groundwater or surface water, in concentrations above permissible levels. The ecotoxicology of Cr(VI) is linked to its environmental persistence and the ability to induce a variety of adverse effects in biologic systems, including fish. In aquatic ecosystems, Cr(VI) exposure poses a significant threat to aquatic life. This paper reviews the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in the environment and its acute and chronic effects on fish. We also discuss Cr(VI) toxicity at the cellular, biochemical, and genetic levels. An attempt is made in this review to comprehend the staggered data on the toxic effects of Cr(VI) to various species of fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health. PMID:19658319

  15. Morcellation of undiagnosed uterine sarcoma: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Chiappa, Valentina; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Donfrancesco, Cristina; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    In the recent decades, laparoscopy has replaced open abdominal procedures in the setting of gynecologic surgery. Extraction of large specimens (e.g., large uteri or myomas) following operative laparoscopy is technically challenging. Technological attempts allow the removal of large and solid pelvic masses via small abdominal incisions (using instruments called morcellators), thus reducing unnecessary laparotomies and improving short-term patients' outcomes. However, morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies may lead to worse survival outcomes. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns about the use of power morcellators, thus causing ongoing concerns on the applicability of minimally invasive approaches for myomectomy and the removal of large uteri. In the present review, we sought to assess pro and cons regarding minimally invasive morcellation. This review will discuss the effects of morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies, focusing on possible techniques for preoperative detection of uterine sarcoma and for avoiding intra-abdominal dissemination of potentially malignant tissues. Further efforts are necessary in order to identify tools to make a more accurate and reliable preoperative diagnosis of uterine masses. However, on the light of the current evidence, intra-abdominal morcellation should be banned from clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review on critical heat flux in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Gaikwad, Avinash; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Coolant channels of PHWR during accident similar to loss of coolant accident (LOCA) may experience different flow transients with low pressure and low flow conditions. In the advanced PHWRs it is desired to have small amount of positive quality at the exit of the coolant channel to increase the thermal efficiency. Investigation on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is important in the design and operation of the PHWRs. Understanding of thermal hydraulic phenomena associated with horizontal flow is also important in the safety and accident management in these reactors. A detailed experimental investigation on the important thermal hydraulic phenomena of horizontal tubes under low pressure and low flow conditions is carried out. The phenomena covered in this work are measurement of diabatic single phase and subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficients, steady state CHF, effect of upstream flow restrictions on flow transients and CHF, CHF under oscillatory flow and flow decreasing transients. A detailed literature review is carried out on CHF in horizontal channels to take stock of the works being carried out along with current state of the art and to justify the motivation for the experimental study. This paper presents the review of available literature on horizontal CHF with the results of the experimental work. (author)

  17. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A critical review of the literature. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers (HARC) conducted a comprehensive review of the technical literature regarding the impact of environmental conditions on human performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from deficits that occur at low exposures to deficits that occur at high exposures. Specific deficits were included in the review if scientists demonstrated the exposure caused an effect, using sound methodology. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 2 presents several conclusions regarding the applicability of the research literature to environmental conditions in nuclear power plants. The findings presented suggest that occupational standards for vibration, noise, and heat, which were developed to protect health, are inadequate for preventing deficits in cognitive or motor performance in tasks likely to be performed in nuclear power plants. Also, there is little information in the literature on simultaneous conditions; for example, the effects of simultaneous exposure to heat and noise on cognition require more research. As many exposures in nuclear power plants will be simultaneous, this limitation should be kept in mind when using Volume 1

  20. Review of carcinogenicity of hexavalent chrome and proposal of revising approval standards for an occupational cancers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungwon; Seo, Sangyun; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to suggest revised recognition standards for occupational disease due to chromium (VI) by reflecting recent domestic and international research works and considering domestic exposure status with respect to target organs, exposure period, and cumulative exposure dose in relation to the chromium (VI)-induced occupational disease compensation. In this study, the reports published by major international institutions such as World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2012), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2006), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2013), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (2004), National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2014), and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) (2012) were reviewed and the recent research works searched by PubMed were summarized. Considering the recent research works and the domestic situation, only lung cancer is conserved in the legislative bill in relation to chromium (VI), and the exposure period is not included in the bill. Nasal and paranasal sinus cancer was excluded from the list of cancers that are compensated as the chromium (VI)- induced occupational disease, while lung cancer remains in the list. In the view of legislative unity, considering the fact that only the cancers having sufficient evidence are included in the conventional list of cancers compensated as occupational disease, nasal and paranasal sinus cancer having limited evidence were excluded from the list.The exposure period was also removed from the legislative bill due to the insufficient evidence. Recent advices in connection with cumulative exposure dose were proposed, and other considerable points were provided with respect to individual occupational relevance. It is suggested that the current recognition standard which is "Lung cancer or nasal and paranasal sinus cancer caused by exposure

  1. Tablet Use in Schools: A Critical Review of the Evidence for Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haßler, B.; Major, L.; Hennessy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The increased popularity of tablets in general has led to uptake in education. We critically review the literature reporting use of tablets by primary and secondary school children across the curriculum, with a particular emphasis on learning outcomes. The systematic review methodology was used, and our literature search resulted in 33 relevant…

  2. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  3. School Uniforms: A Critical Review of the Literature. From Inquiry to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…

  4. Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature, 2004 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda; Schott, Christopher; O'Brien, Kathryn; Trigos-Carrillo, Lina; Starkey, Kim; Chasteen, Cynthia Carter

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field.…

  5. Peer-to-Peer Teaching in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigmar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…

  6. A critical review of advance directives in Germany: attitudes, use and healthcare professionals’ compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Bausewein, C.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.V.W.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent legal changes in Germany make non-compliance with advance directives (ADs) a criminal offence. This article assesses the evidence on attitudes towards, use of, and physician compliance with ADs in Germany. Methods Critical review: studies on ADs, identified from a systematic review

  7. Openness in Adoption: What We Know So Far--A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgram, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    What are the factors that keep adoptive parents and birth parents connected and sustain their kinship relationships over time? This is the central research question critically reviewed across studies dating from 1987 to 2000. A preliminary review of the literature revealed 15 to 20 studies within this 13-year scope limited to the perspective of…

  8. Occupational Safety and Health and Healthy Housing: A Review of Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E; Forst, Linda

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) risks in construction of healthy housing (HH) have not been examined and collaboration between HH and OSH professionals is inadequate. The World Health Organization is developing international HH guidelines and the International Labour Organization is working to improve OSH in construction globally. We searched for exemplary reports (including gray literature) on construction hazards; preventive measures for occupants and workers; OSH frameworks, laws, and regulations; definitions; and HH. Healthy housing construction typically improves ventilation, moisture and mold, pest control, injury hazards, cleanability, maintenance, accessibility, thermal conditioning, and avoidance of toxic building materials. To date, this work is done without explicit requirements for worker health. Construction is among the most hazardous sectors around the globe, although protective measures are well known, including engineering and administrative controls and provision of personal protective equipment. Residential construction, renovation, repair, and maintenance are fragmented, consisting mostly of small companies without proper OSH training, equipment, and knowledge of HH principles. Residential construction is often undertaken by informal or unauthorized workers, putting them at high risk. Reduced exposure to toxic building materials is an example of a benefit for both workers and occupants if OSH and HH collaboration can be improved. By recognizing that homes under new construction or renovation are both a workplace and a residence, HH and OSH initiatives can apply public health principles to occupants and workers simultaneously. This article publishes key definitions, hazards and interventions common to both fields. A global increase in residential construction and renewed global interest in HH poses both risks and opportunities for primary prevention. Policy and practice interventions can benefit the health of occupants and those who work on

  9. Beethoven recordings reviewed: a systematic method for mapping the content of music performance criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Elena; Williamson, Victoria J; Eiholzer, Hubert; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Critical reviews offer rich data that can be used to investigate how musical experiences are conceptualized by expert listeners. However, these data also present significant challenges in terms of organization, analysis, and interpretation. This study presents a new systematic method for examining written responses to music, tested on a substantial corpus of music criticism. One hundred critical reviews of Beethoven's piano sonata recordings, published in the Gramophone between August 1934 and July 2010, were selected using in-depth data reduction (qualitative/quantitative approach). The texts were then examined using thematic analysis in order to generate a visual descriptive model of expert critical review. This model reveals how the concept of evaluation permeates critical review. It also distinguishes between two types of descriptors. The first characterizes the performance in terms of specific actions or features of the musical sound (musical parameters, technique, and energy); the second appeals to higher-order properties (artistic style, character and emotion, musical structure, communicativeness) or assumed performer qualities (understanding, intentionality, spontaneity, sensibility, control, and care). The new model provides a methodological guide and conceptual basis for future studies of critical review in any genre.

  10. Bioethical conflicts of gene therapy: a brief critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ednésio da Cruz Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods and techniques employed in gene therapy are reviewed in parallel with pertinent ethical conflicts. Clinical interventions based on gene therapy techniques preferentially use vectors for the transportation of therapeutic genes, however little is known about the potential risks and damages to the patient. Thus, attending carefully to the clinical complications arising as well as to security is essential. Despite the scientific and technological advances, there are still many uncertainties about the side effects of gene therapy. Moreover, there is a need, above all, to understand the principles of bioethics as both science and ethics, in accordance with its socioecological responsibility, in order to prioritize the health and welfare of man and nature, using properly natural resources and technology. Therefore, it is hard to determine objective results and to which extent the insertion of genes can affect the organism, as well as the ethical implication

  11. Health Impacts of the Great Recession: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle

    2016-03-01

    The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession's full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field.

  12. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  14. NSSS aging review: critical systems operating measures and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    How long the nuclear plants can get. In this question we can find three main aspects: Economic - Licensing - and Technical ones. The final answer to this question will include compulsory elements coming from these three areas, each of them being a deciding factor. The presentation is focused on the technical aspect; but before a few comments are done on economic and licensing factors. Then, some particular technical items dealing with aging or life time of our nuclear plants are reviewed: electrical equipment, heat exchangers (steam generators), wear: primary pump, embrittlement: Reactor Pressure Vessel (Austeno-ferritic parts), fatigue (Thermo-hydraulic transients). By the way, some information about how this problem is handled, at the present time, explicitely or implicitely in France are given

  15. Membrane contactors for CO2 capture processes - critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Trojanowska, Anna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    The use of membrane contactor in industrial processes is wide, and lately it started to be used in CO2 capture process mainly for gas purification or to reduce the emission. Use of the membrane contactor provides high contact surface area so the size of the absorber unit significantly decreases, which is an important factor for commercialization. The research has been caried out regarding the use of novel materials for the membrane production and absorbent solution improvements. The present review reveals the progress in membrane contactor systems for CO2 capture processes concerning solution for ceramic membrane wetting, comparison study of different polymers used for fabrication and methods of enzyme immobilization for biocomposite membrane. Also information about variety of absorbent solutions is described.

  16. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  17. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical variables of business failure: a review and classification framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure is a phenomenon that ventures face during all stages of the life cycle and requires insight into its causes before it can be reversed. The scientific literature on failure is, however, spread over multiple disciplines. This study’s line of enquiry firstly reviews the documented research (both theoretical and empirical encompassing the phenomenon ‘business failure’ on a multi-disciplinary basis. A conceptual framework is then proposed for categorising variables into four sub-domains namely: signs and prediction; causes and preconditions; recovery; and cognition and learning. Better understanding of the failure phenomenon is achieved. The methodology applied is fundamentally based on grounded theory interpretation with a focus on classifying the identified relevant variables.

  19. Social and ethical aspects of forensic genetics: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Wienroth, M

    2017-07-01

    This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept of "proportionality" as a resource for balancing the social and ethical risks and benefits of the use of forensic genetics in support of criminal justice. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  20. Black Phosphorus: Critical Review and Potential for Water Splitting Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A century after its first synthesis in 1914, black phosphorus has been attracting significant attention as a promising two-dimensional material in recent years due to its unique properties. Nowadays, with the development of its exfoliation method, there are extensive applications of black phosphorus in transistors, batteries and optoelectronics. Though, because of its hardship in mass production and stability problems, the potential of the black phosphorus in various fields is left unexplored. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of crystal structure, electronic, optical properties and synthesis of black phosphorus. Recent research works about the applications of black phosphorus is summarized. Among them, the possibility of black phosphorous as a solar water splitting photocatalyst is mainly discussed and the feasible novel structure of photocatalysts based on black phosphorous is proposed.

  1. Nattokinase: an updated critical review on challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Ethiraj; Bhatnagar, Niharika

    2017-12-07

    Natto, a fermented soybean food, has been consumed by oriental people for more than 1000 years. Nattokinase, formerly called subtilisin NAT is a well studied protease of microbial origin that possesses fibrinolytic (anti-clotting) activities. Due to its strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activity, Nattokinase is regarded as a precious dietary supplement or nutraceutical for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Nattokinase is witnessed to be a useful enzyme for the com-plete removal of the vitreous and associated proliferative tissues in proliferative vitreo retinal disorders. This review focuses on the native and recombinant Nattokinase from bacteria and other sources, their production, purification, immobilization and nano-immobilization studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Yogurt and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Critical Review of Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Panahi, Shirin; Daniel, Noémie; Tremblay, Angelo; Marette, André

    2017-11-01

    Associations between yogurt intake and risk of diet-related cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) have been the subject of recent research in epidemiologic nutrition. A healthy dietary pattern has been identified as a pillar for the prevention of weight gain and CMDs. Epidemiologic studies suggest that yogurt consumption is linked to healthy dietary patterns, lifestyles, and reduced risk of CMDs, particularly type 2 diabetes. However, to our knowledge, few to no randomized controlled trials have investigated yogurt intake in relation to cardiometabolic clinical outcomes. Furthermore, there has been little attempt to clarify the mechanisms that underlie the potential beneficial effects of yogurt consumption on CMDs. Yogurt is a nutrient-dense dairy food and has been suggested to reduce weight gain and prevent CMDs by contributing to intakes of protein, calcium, bioactive lipids, and several other micronutrients. In addition, fermentation with bacterial strains generates bioactive peptides, resulting in a potentially greater beneficial effect of yogurt on metabolic health than nonfermented dairy products such as milk. To date, there is little concrete evidence that the mechanisms proposed in observational studies to explain positive results of yogurt on CMDs or parameters are valid. Many proposed mechanisms are based on assumptions that commercial yogurts contain strain-specific probiotics, that viable yogurt cultures are present in adequate quantities, and that yogurt provides a minimum threshold dose of nutrients or bioactive components capable of exerting a physiologic effect. Therefore, the primary objective of this review is to investigate the plausibility of potential mechanisms commonly cited in the literature in order to shed light on the inverse associations reported between yogurt intake and various cardiometabolic health parameters that are related to its nutrient profile, bacterial constituents, and food matrix. This article reviews current gaps and challenges

  3. Retention systems for extraoral maxillofacial prosthetic implants: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobein, M V; Coto, N P; Crivello Junior, O; Lemos, J B D; Vieira, L M; Pimentel, M L; Byrne, H J; Dias, R B

    2017-10-01

    We describe the techniques available for retention of implant-supported prostheses: bar-clips, O-rings, and magnets. We present reported preferences and, although this is limited by the heterogeneity of methods used and patients studied, we hope we have identified the best retention systems for maxillofacial prosthetic implants. If practitioners know the advantages and disadvantages of each system, they can choose the most natural and comfortable prosthesis. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases, and restricted our search to papers published 2001-13. MeSH terms used were Maxillofacial prosthesis and Craniofacial prosthesis OR Craniofacial prostheses. We found a total of 2630 papers, and after duplicates had been removed we analysed the rest and found 25 papers for review. Of these, 12 were excluded because they were case reports or non-systematic reviews. Of the remaining 13, 10 described group analyses and seemed appropriate to find practitioner's choices, as cited in the abstract (n=1611 prostheses). Three papers did not mention the type of prosthetic connection used, so were excluded. The most popular choices for different conditions were analysed, though the sites and retention systems were not specified in all 10 papers. The bar-clip system was the most used in auricular (6/10 papers) and nasal prostheses (4/10). For the orbital region, 6/10 favoured magnets. Non-osseointegrated mechanical or adhesive retention techniques are the least expensive and have no contraindications. When osseointegrated implants are possible, each facial region has a favoured system. The choice of system is influenced by two factors: standard practice and the abilities of the maxillofacial surgeon and maxillofacial prosthetist. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P.; Li, Abby A.; Minnema, Daniel J.; Collier, Richard H.; Creek, Moire R.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood–brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system. PMID:26513508

  5. Defining recovery in chronic fatigue syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Jenna L; Caikauskaite, Indre; Friedberg, Fred

    2014-11-01

    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), the lack of consensus on how recovery should be defined or interpreted has generated controversy and confusion. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review, compare, and evaluate the definitions of recovery reported in the CFS literature and to make recommendations about the scope of recovery assessments. A search was done using the MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases for peer review papers that contained the search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" and "recovery," "reversal," "remission," and/or "treatment response." From the 22 extracted studies, recovery was operationally defined by reference with one or more of these domains: (1) pre-morbid functioning; (2) both fatigue and function; (3) fatigue (or related symptoms) alone; (4) function alone; and/or (5) brief global assessment. Almost all of the studies measuring recovery in CFS did so differently. The brief global assessment was the most common outcome measure used to define recovery. Estimates of recovery ranged from 0 to 66 % in intervention studies and 2.6 to 62 % in naturalistic studies. Given that the term "recovery" was often based on limited assessments and less than full restoration of health, other more precise and accurate labels (e.g., clinically significant improvement) may be more appropriate and informative. In keeping with common understandings of the term recovery, we recommend a consistent definition that captures a broad-based return to health with assessments of both fatigue and function as well as the patient's perceptions of his/her recovery status.

  6. Critical review of the building downwash algorithms in AERMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ron L; Guerra, Sergio A; Bova, Anthony S

    2017-08-01

    The only documentation on the building downwash algorithm in AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), referred to as PRIME (Plume Rise Model Enhancements), is found in the 2000 A&WMA journal article by Schulman, Strimaitis and Scire. Recent field and wind tunnel studies have shown that AERMOD can overpredict concentrations by factors of 2 to 8 for certain building configurations. While a wind tunnel equivalent building dimension study (EBD) can be conducted to approximately correct the overprediction bias, past field and wind tunnel studies indicate that there are notable flaws in the PRIME building downwash theory. A detailed review of the theory supported by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and wind tunnel simulations of flow over simple rectangular buildings revealed the following serious theoretical flaws: enhanced turbulence in the building wake starting at the wrong longitudinal location; constant enhanced turbulence extending up to the wake height; constant initial enhanced turbulence in the building wake (does not vary with roughness or stability); discontinuities in the streamline calculations; and no method to account for streamlined or porous structures. This paper documents theoretical and other problems in PRIME along with CFD simulations and wind tunnel observations that support these findings. Although AERMOD/PRIME may provide accurate and unbiased estimates (within a factor of 2) for some building configurations, a major review and update is needed so that accurate estimates can be obtained for other building configurations where significant overpredictions or underpredictions are common due to downwash effects. This will ensure that regulatory evaluations subject to dispersion modeling requirements can be based on an accurate model. Thus, it is imperative that the downwash theory in PRIME is corrected to improve model performance and ensure that the model better represents reality.

  7. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Larry P; Li, Abby A; Minnema, Daniel J; Collier, Richard H; Creek, Moire R; Peffer, Richard C

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood-brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of action and potential exposure with agricultural and residential uses. This review identified in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiology studies in the literature and studies performed in rats in accordance with GLP standards and EPA guidelines with imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran, which are all the neonicotinoids currently registered in major markets. For the guideline-based studies, treatment was administered via the diet or gavage to primiparous female rats at three dose levels, plus a vehicle control (≥20/dose level), from gestation day 0 or 6 to lactation day 21. F1 males and females were evaluated using measures of motor activity, acoustic startle response, cognition, brain morphometry, and neuropathology. The principal effects in F1 animals were associated with decreased body weight (delayed sexual maturation, decreased brain weight, and morphometric measurements) and acute toxicity (decreased activity during exposure) at high doses, without neuropathology or impaired cognition. No common effects were identified among the neonicotinoids that were consistent with DNT or the neurodevelopmental effects associated with nicotine. Findings at high doses were associated with evidence of systemic toxicity, which indicates that these insecticides do not selectively affect the developing nervous system.

  9. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  10. Effectiveness of Occupation- and Activity-Based Interventions to Improve Everyday Activities and Social Participation for People With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Janet M; Rich, Timothy J; Wise, Elizabeth K

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve everyday activities and areas of occupation and social participation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nineteen studies identified through a comprehensive database search were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary treatment approaches, (2) community-based rehabilitation programs, (3) treatment approaches using client-centered goals and relevant contexts, (4) social skills training and peer mentoring interventions, and (5) community mobility interventions. Evidence supports the use of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches across a variety of settings, with no single treatment approach or setting clearly superior to another. The specific contributions of occupational therapy practitioners and the nature of occupational therapy interventions have not been well studied, making it difficult to determine the extent to which occupation- and activity-based interventions provided by occupational therapy practitioners improve occupational performance and social participation after TBI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. What we know about primary dysmenorrhea today: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, Stella; Avidon, Ingrid; Baker, Fiona C

    2015-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea, or painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic pathology, is a common, and often debilitating, gynecological condition that affects between 45 and 95% of menstruating women. Despite the high prevalence, dysmenorrhea is often poorly treated, and even disregarded, by health professionals, pain researchers, and the women themselves, who may accept it as a normal part of the menstrual cycle. This review reports on current knowledge, particularly with regards to the impact and consequences of recurrent menstrual pain on pain sensitivity, mood, quality of life and sleep in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Comprehensive literature searches on primary dysmenorrhea were performed using the electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library. Full-text manuscripts published between the years 1944 and 2015 were reviewed for relevancy and reference lists were cross-checked for additional relevant studies. In combination with the word 'dysmenorrhea' one or more of the following search terms were used to obtain articles published in peer-reviewed journals only: pain, risk factors, etiology, experimental pain, clinical pain, adenomyosis, chronic pain, women, menstrual cycle, hyperalgesia, pain threshold, pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, pain reactivity, pain perception, central sensitization, quality of life, sleep, treatment, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Women with dysmenorrhea, compared with women without dysmenorrhea, have greater sensitivity to experimental pain both within and outside areas of referred menstrual pain. Importantly, the enhanced pain sensitivity is evident even in phases of the menstrual cycle when women are not experiencing menstrual pain, illustrating that long-term differences in pain perception extend outside of the painful menstruation phase. This enhanced pain sensitivity may increase susceptibility to other chronic pain conditions in later life; dysmenorrhea is a risk factor for fibromyalgia. Further

  12. Occupational Neurobrucellosis Mimicking a Brain Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Algahtani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial infection which is transmitted to humans from infected animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia. In this article, we report a case of occupational neurobrucellosis that presented with a space-occupying lesion mimicking a brain tumor. We stress on the importance of obtaining detailed social history including occupation to reach the diagnosis in several conditions including brucellosis. We also stress on taking universal precautions when handling any specimens. It may be advisable that manipulation of all unknown specimens arriving at the laboratory should occur in biological safety cabinet until a highly infectious organism is ruled out. Neurobrucellosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with solitary mass lesion mimicking brain tumor especially in endemic areas or high occupational risk group.

  13. Occupational Stress: A Comprehensive Review of the Top 50 Annual and Lifetime Cited Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Nguyen, Christine; Casole, Jennifer; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behnam

    2017-05-01

    This study determined the impact and influence of published articles on the field of occupational stress. A transdisciplinary approach was used to identify the 50 work-related stress articles with the most lifetime citations and the 50 work-related stress articles with the highest annual citation rates. Studies were categorized based on their primary focus: (a) etiology, (b) predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is the outcome or predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is an independent variable, (c) management/intervention, (d) theory/model/framework, or (e) methodologies. The majority of studies with the highest number of lifetime citations as well as the highest annual citation rates used stress as a predictor or outcome of another factor. The proportion of studies that were categorized by etiology, intervention/management, theory/model/framework, or methodologies was relatively low for both lifetime and annual citations.

  14. Reducing occupational radiation exposures at LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, D.; Neri, C.; Papa, C.; Paribelli, S.

    1980-01-01

    The occupational radiation doses received by nuclear power plant personnel during a period of several years of operation are briefly reviewed. Comparisons are made between the data for BWRs and PWRs in order to identify the more ''critical'' reactor type, from a radiological poin; of view. Attention is also devoted to GCRs. Furthermore the areas which contribute most to personnel doses are considered and briefly reviewed. The main steps to be taken in order to reduce occupational radiation exposures at LWRs are discussed. (H.K.)

  15. A critical literature review of focused electron beam induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, W. F. van; Hagen, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition. Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally

  16. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  17. Folklore and Folk Songs of Chittagong: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folk Songs stems from Folklore are very rich in the southern region of Chittagong. In this part of the world Folk Songs play pivotal role in the lifestyle of people as a heart-touching and heavenly connection exists between human, nature and Folk Songs. Folk Songs in this area are special because we found the theme of Nature Conservation in them. We took the southern part of Chittagong (Lohagara, Satkania, Chandanaish and Patiya as our research area, selected a village namely Chunati in the systematic sampling and more than 100 people were interviewed through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The sufficient literature review is also done. People in this area love nature a lot. Here music personnel were born from time to time who not only worked for the musical development but also created consciousness among people to love nature and save it. We discussed about the origin of Folk Songs, pattern of Folk Songs to clarify the importance of Folk Songs of Chittagong for its connection to Folklore and at the same time for promoting the idea of Nature Conservation. Of course, this part of studies deserves more attention in the field of research. Our ultimate goal should be to conserve and promote Folk Songs of Chittagong with yearlong heritage that automatically will later enrich Folklore and Nature Conservation.

  18. Masked hypertension definition, impact, outcomes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P; Makris, Thomas K

    2007-12-01

    The phenomenon of masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a clinical condition in which a patient's office blood pressure (BP) level is hypertensive range. The prevalence in the population is about the same as that of isolated office hypertension; about 1 in 7 or 8 persons with a normal office BP level may fall into this category. The high prevalence of MH would suggest the necessity for measuring out-of-office BP in persons with apparently normal or well-controlled office BP. Reactivity to daily life stressors and behavioral factors such as smoking, alcohol use, contraceptive use in women, and sedentary habits can selectively influence MH. MH should be searched for in individuals who are at increased risk for cardiovascular complications including patients with kidney disease or diabetes. Individuals with MH have been shown to have a greater-than-normal prevalence of organ damage, particularly with an increased prevalence of metabolic risk factors, left ventricular mass index, carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired large artery distensibility compared with patients with a truly normal BP level in and out of the clinic or office. Also, outcome studies have suggested that MH increases cardiovascular risk, which appears to be close to that of in-office and out-of-office hypertension. The aim of this review was to define the entity of MH, to describe its prevalence in the general population, and to discuss its correlation with cardiovascular events.

  19. Developing and understanding biofluid vibrational spectroscopy: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Hussain, Shawn R; Lovergne, Lila; Untereiner, Valérie; Hughes, Caryn; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Thiéfin, Gérard; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2016-04-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy can provide rapid, label-free, and objective analysis for the clinical domain. Spectroscopic analysis of biofluids such as blood components (e.g. serum and plasma) and others in the proximity of the diseased tissue or cell (e.g. bile, urine, and sputum) offers non-invasive diagnostic/monitoring possibilities for future healthcare that are capable of rapid diagnosis of diseases via specific spectral markers or signatures. Biofluids offer an ideal diagnostic medium due to their ease and low cost of collection and daily use in clinical biology. Due to the low risk and invasiveness of their collection they are widely welcomed by patients as a diagnostic medium. This review underscores recent research within the field of biofluid spectroscopy and its use in myriad pathologies such as cancer and infectious diseases. It highlights current progresses, advents, and pitfalls within the field and discusses future spectroscopic clinical potentials for diagnostics. The requirements and issues surrounding clinical translation are also considered.

  20. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Older Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Katherine J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has enormous negative impacts on the affected individuals, their loved ones, and society. This burden is intensified by the social and functional changes related to age. The lower prevalence of ASPD in older adults compared to younger adults is well-documented. This discrepancy, often attributed solely to antisocial "burnout," contributes to the lack of attention given to this disorder in older adults and may signify difficulty measuring ASPD in this population. These measurement issues likely stem from problems with the validity of the diagnostic criteria for older adults which may not effectively capture changes that occur with age. This review focuses on the current literature surrounding the validity of ASPD criteria with older adults and relevant concepts, including the connection between criminality and ASPD. Issues with screening tools and the measurement of ASPD caused by problems with the criteria are also discussed. Finally, recommendations for improvement, including use of dimensional models of personality disorders, a potential geriatric subclassification of criteria, and modification of the existing criteria are presented with clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

  1. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  2. Spanish-language screening scales: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, S; Mena-Montes, B; González-Ambrosio, G; Zubieta-Zavala, A; Torres-Carrillo, N M; Acosta-Castillo, G I; Espinel-Bermúdez, M C

    2018-05-09

    Dementia is a chronic, degenerative disease with a strong impact on families and health systems. The instruments currently in use for measuring cognitive impairment have different psychometric characteristics in terms of application time, cut-off point, reliability, and validity. The objective of this review is to describe the characteristics of the validated, Spanish-language versions of the Mini-Cog, Clock-Drawing Test, and Mini-Mental State Examination scales for cognitive impairment screening. We performed a three-stage literature search of articles published on Medline since 1953. We selected articles on validated, Spanish-language versions of the scales that included data on reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity. The 3 screening tools assessed in this article provide support for primary care professionals. Timely identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is crucial for the prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Amiodarone-Associated Optic Neuropathy: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Rod S.; Bennett, Charles L.; Purpura, Joseph M.; Kapur, Rashmi; Johnson, Lenworth N.; Raisch, Dennis W.; West, Dennis P.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Belknap, Steven M.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Fisher, Mathew J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Jones, Lisa-Gaye A.; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; McKoy, June M.

    2011-01-01

    Although amiodarone is the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug, its use is limited by serious toxicities, including optic neuropathy. Current reports of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy identified from the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FDA-AERS) and published case reports were reviewed. A total of 296 reports were identified: 214 from AERS, 59 from published case reports, and 23 from adverse events reports for patients enrolled in clinical trials. Mean duration of amiodarone therapy before vision loss was 9 months (range 1-84 months). Insidious onset of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy (44%) was the most common presentation, and nearly one-third were asymptomatic. Optic disc edema was present in 85% of cases. Following drug cessation, 58% had improved visual acuity, 21% were unchanged, and 21% had further decreased visual acuity. Legal blindness (< 20/200) was noted in at least one eye in 20% of cases. Close ophthalmologic surveillance of patients during the tenure of amiodarone administration is warranted. PMID:22385784

  5. Neurofeedback with fMRI: A critical systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; MacPherson, Amanda; Lifshitz, Michael; Roth, Raquel R; Raz, Amir

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback relying on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-nf) heralds new prospects for self-regulating brain and behavior. Here we provide the first comprehensive review of the fMRI-nf literature and the first systematic database of fMRI-nf findings. We synthesize information from 99 fMRI-nf experiments-the bulk of currently available data. The vast majority of fMRI-nf findings suggest that self-regulation of specific brain signatures seems viable; however, replication of concomitant behavioral outcomes remains sparse. To disentangle placebo influences and establish the specific effects of neurofeedback, we highlight the need for double-blind placebo-controlled studies alongside rigorous and standardized statistical analyses. Before fMRI-nf can join the clinical armamentarium, research must first confirm the sustainability, transferability, and feasibility of fMRI-nf in patients as well as in healthy individuals. Whereas modulating specific brain activity promises to mold cognition, emotion, thought, and action, reducing complex mental health issues to circumscribed brain regions may represent a tenuous goal. We can certainly change brain activity with fMRI-nf. However, it remains unclear whether such changes translate into meaningful behavioral improvements in the clinical domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  7. Wearable Electronics and Smart Textiles: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Stoppa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Textiles (e-textiles are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems’ configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.

  8. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.R.; Oppelt, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The more traditional and lowest-cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection are being replaced in large measure by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the 'permanent' treatment technologies, properly designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operation experience exists in this area and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put these technological and environmental issues into perspective

  9. Synaesthesia and learning: A critical review and novel theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Robert Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning and synaesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synaesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synaesthetic inducers—the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences—often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g. letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synaesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learnt do- main. For instance, the synaesthetic colours of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synaesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synaesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic de- vices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synaesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synaesthetic triggering stimuli and synaesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synasethesia was helpful.

  10. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background In today’s society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. Methods A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Results Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). Conclusions This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user’s behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory. PMID:28592397

  11. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources.

  12. Bio-nano interface and environment: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Reyes, Gerardo; Leganes, Francisco; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Rosal, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The bio-nano interface is the boundary where engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) meet the biological system, exerting the biological function for which they have been designed or inducing adverse effects on other cells or organisms when they reach nontarget scenarios (i.e., the natural environment). Research has been performed to determine the fate, transport, and toxic properties of ENMs, but much of it is focused on pristine or so-called as-manufactured ENMs, or else modifications of the materials were not assessed. We review the most recent progress regarding the bio-nano interface and the transformations that ENMs undergo in the environment, paying special attention to the adsorption of environmental biomolecules on the surface of ENMs. Whereas the protein corona has received considerable attention in the fields of biomedics and human toxicology, its environmental analogue (the eco-corona) has been much less studied. A section dedicated to the analytical methods for studying and characterizing the eco-corona is also presented. We conclude by presenting and discussing the key problems and knowledge gaps that need to be resolved in the near future regarding the bio-nano interface and the eco-corona. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3181-3193. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  14. Oklo. A review and critical evaluation of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterstroem, Lena

    2000-10-01

    The Oklo natural fossil fission reactors in Gabon, Equatorial Africa, have been studied as a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel in a geological environment. For these studies, it is important to know what has happened to these reactors since they formed. This review is focussed on existing geological and geochronological information concerning the Oklo reactors and the surrounding ore. A sequence of geological and geochemical events in the Oklo area, as described in the literature, is given. The data and the studies behind this established geochronology are discussed and evaluated. Of the regional geology, special attention is given to the dating of the Francevillian sediments, and the intrusion of a dolerite dyke swarm. The processes that led to the mineralisation at Oklo, the subsequent formation of the nuclear reactors and later migration of fission products are described. Further discussion concerns the studies of the dolerite dyke swarm, since this appears to be one of the most important events related to fission product migration. A close look at the data related to this event shows that further study of the age of the dolerite dykes, and their effect on the uraninite in the Oklo reactors, is needed

  15. Recent developments in organic redox flow batteries: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P.; Shah, A. A.; Sanz, L.; Flox, C.; Morante, J. R.; Xu, Q.; Mohamed, M. R.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2017-08-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have emerged as prime candidates for energy storage on the medium and large scales, particularly at the grid scale. The demand for versatile energy storage continues to increase as more electrical energy is generated from intermittent renewable sources. A major barrier in the way of broad deployment and deep market penetration is the use of expensive metals as the active species in the electrolytes. The use of organic redox couples in aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes is a promising approach to reducing the overall cost in long-term, since these materials can be low-cost and abundant. The performance of such redox couples can be tuned by modifying their chemical structure. In recent years, significant developments in organic redox flow batteries has taken place, with the introduction of new groups of highly soluble organic molecules, capable of providing a cell voltage and charge capacity comparable to conventional metal-based systems. This review summarises the fundamental developments and characterization of organic redox flow batteries from both the chemistry and materials perspectives. The latest advances, future challenges and opportunities for further development are discussed.

  16. Models for Microbial Fuel Cells: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chengshuo; Zhang, Daxing; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhu, Yingmin; Guo, Yongxian

    2018-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been widely viewed as one of the most promising alternative sources of renewable energy. A recognition of needs of efficient development methods based on multidisciplinary research becomes crucial for the optimization of MFCs. Modeling of MFCs is an effective way for not only gaining a thorough understanding of the effects of operation conditions on the performance of power generation but also becomes of essential interest to the successful implementation of MFCs. The MFC models encompass the underlying reaction process and limiting factors of the MFC. The models come in various forms, such as the mathematical equations or the equivalent circuits. Different modeling focuses and approaches of the MFC have emerged. In this study, we present a state of the art of MFCs modeling; the past modeling methods are reviewed as well. Models and modeling methods are elaborated on based on the classification provided by Mechanism-based models and Application-based models. Mechanisms, advantages, drawbacks, and application fields of different models are illustrated as well. We exhibit a complete and comprehensive exposition of the different models for MFCs and offer further guidance to promote the performance of MFCs.

  17. Strategic learning and information and communication technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Monerero Font

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 93 514 USAL 4 1 606 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article presents an outline of a learning strategy redefinition, based on recent contributions from learning technologies. This new definition addresses the question of how technological affordances of the software, of the technological tools, or an educational environment, allow a learner or a group of learners develop a new ways to perform a strategic learning action. We review how different characteristics of learning strategy definition have been transformed because of introduction of ICT into education. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

  18. Economic evaluation of targeted cancer interventions: critical review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Elena B; Marshall, Deborah A; Kulin, Nathalie A; Ferrusi, Ilia L; Hassett, Michael J; Ladabaum, Uri; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    Scientific advances have improved our ability to target cancer interventions to individuals who will benefit most and spare the risks and costs to those who will derive little benefit or even be harmed. Several approaches are currently used for targeting interventions for cancer risk reduction, screening, and treatment, including risk prediction algorithms for identifying high-risk subgroups and diagnostic tests for tumor markers and germline genetic mutations. Economic evaluation can inform decisions about the use of targeted interventions, which may be more costly than traditional strategies. However, assessing the impact of a targeted intervention on costs and health outcomes requires explicit consideration of the method of targeting. In this study, we describe the importance of this principle by reviewing published cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions in breast cancer. Few studies we identified explicitly evaluated the relationships among the method of targeting, the accuracy of the targeting test, and outcomes of the targeted intervention. Those that did found that characteristics of targeting tests had a substantial impact on outcomes. We posit that the method of targeting and the outcomes of a targeted intervention are inextricably linked and recommend that cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions explicitly consider costs and outcomes of the method of targeting.

  19. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sclerotherapy of Plummer's disease - A critical ten year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrock, D.; Humplik, B.I.; Munz, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Since ten years sclerotherapy with ethanol is proposed for the treatment of Plummer's disease (unifocal autonomy). Hence, it was the aim of this study to evaluate critically all the sclerotherapies performed in our institution. Special attention should be given to the long-term results. Material and Methods: In the study enrolled were 47 consecutive patients with Plummer's disease, who were referred to sclerotherapy with ethanol since 1991 (10 men, 37 women, aged 24-79 years). The diagnosis of unifocal autonomy was proven in all patients by scintigraphy under TSH-suppressed conditions. 31 patients had latent, 16 manifest hyperthyroidism, 12 of these under antithyroid medication. All patients received ultrasound guided infiltrations of 0.5-2 ml 96 % ethanol into the autonomy. The procedure was repeated at intervals (individually between 1 week and 3 months) until there was A) sufficient success, B) partial success or C) the patient refused further infiltrations. Results: Overall, 407 infiltrations were performed. The number of infiltrations per patient reached from 1 to 63 (mean 7). The side effects included 2 cases of a (transient) paresis of the recurrent nerve and pain/discomfort in 32 %. The therapy was finished successfully (group A; normal TSH, normalisation of the scintigraphic pattern) in 17 patients, partially successfully (group B; change from manifest to latent hyperthyroidism and/or TSH > 0.1 mU/l, scintigram not completely normalized) in 12 patients, and without success (group C) in 16 patients - 2 changed to surgery, 4 to radioiodine therapy, 3 continued antithyroid medication and 4 refused therapy without further comments. Excluding 2 patients from group B (with 35 and 61 infiltrations, respectively) there was no significant difference between A, B, and C in the parameters uptake under suppression, volume of the autonomy, laboratory values, number of infiltrations, age or sex. Conclusion: The sclerotherapy with ethanol, consequently performed, is