WorldWideScience

Sample records for crevicular fluid composition

  1. Cytokines in crevicular fluid and orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    This review aimed to evaluate studies on cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic treatment, summarizing the regulation patterns of the most commonly studied cytokines and exploring their clinical implications. To achieve this, a number of key databases were searched using

  2. Cytokines in crevicular fluid and orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Vissink, Arjan

    This review aimed to evaluate studies on cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic treatment, summarizing the regulation patterns of the most commonly studied cytokines and exploring their clinical implications. To achieve this, a number of key databases were searched using

  3. Assessment of periostin levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, U; Keles, Z P; Avci, B; Guler, S; Cetinkaya, B O; Keles, G C

    2015-12-01

    Periostin, a secreted adhesion molecule essential for periodontal tissue integrity, is highly expressed in the periodontal ligament and plays a critical role in tooth and bone development. The purpose of this study was to investigate periostin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid and serum of patients with periodontal disease and compare them with those of healthy individuals. Eighty individuals (41 males and 39 females; age range: 25-48 years) were enrolled in the study. Individuals were divided into three groups following clinical and radiographic examinations: the periodontal-healthy group (n = 20), gingivitis group (n = 30) and chronic periodontitis group (n = 30). Gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were collected and periostin levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total amount and concentration of periostin decreased in gingival crevicular fluid with the progression and severity of the disease from healthy controls to gingivitis and to chronic periodontitis groups and differed significantly (p 0.05). Periostin in gingival crevicular fluid negatively correlated with the gingival index in the periodontal disease groups, whereas it is inversely correlated with the clinical attachment level only in the periodontitis group (p periodontal disease, and negatively correlated with the clinical parameters. Within the limits of the study, the periostin level in gingival crevicular fluid can be considered a reliable marker in the evaluation of periodontal disease susceptibility and activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cytokine levels in crevicular fluid are less responsive to orthodontic force in adults than in juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Van't Hof, Martin A; Von Den Hoff, Johannes W; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Zhang, Ding

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement is related to the expression of mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). No information is available concerning the effect of age on the levels of these mediators in GCF. The purpose of this study was to quantify three mediators (pr

  5. Gingival Crevicular Fluid Calprotectin, Osteocalcin and Cross-Linked N-Terminal Telopeptid Levels in Health and Different Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Becerik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF calprotectin, osteocalcin and cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide (NTx levels in health along with different periodontal diseases.

  6. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for Monitoring Changes in Periodontal Ligaments and Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Camerlingo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Raman Spectroscopy is an efficient method for analyzing biological specimens due to its sensitivity to subtle chemical and structural changes. The aim of this study was to use micro-Raman spectroscopy to analyze chemical and structural changes in periodontal ligament after orthodontic force application and in gingival crevicular fluid in presence of periodontal disease. The biopsy of periodontal ligament samples of premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons and the gingival crevicular fluid samples collected by using absorbent paper cones; were analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Changes of the secondary protein structure related to different times of orthodontic force application were reported; whereas an increase of carotene was revealed in patients affected by periodontal inflammation.

  7. Gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8-concentrations in patients after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münzel Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the presence of matrix metalloproteinase-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods A total of 48 GCF samples from 20 AMI patients, hospitalized at the Department of Cardiology and Angiology of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, were investigated. Besides the myocardial infarction all patients suffered from chronic periodontal disease. Fifty-one GCF samples from 20 healthy age matched individuals with similar periodontal conditions served as controls. The dental examination included the assessment of oral hygiene, gingival inflammation, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and X-ray examination. The study was only carried out after the positive consent of the regional ethic commission. A quantitative assessment of aMMP-8 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid was performed with the help of the DentoAnalyzer (Dentognostics GmbH, Jena, Germany, utilising an immunological procedure. Results The aMMP-8 concentrations found in the gingival crevicular fluid of the AMI patients significantly differed (p = 0.001; mean value 30.33 ± 41.99 ng/ml aMMP-8 from the control group (mean value 10.0 ± 10.7 ng/ml aMMP-8. These findings suggest that periodontal inflammation in AMI patients might be associated with higher MMP-8-values compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions The acute myocardial infarction seems to influence the degree of periodontal inflammation, thus the measurement of the gingival crevicular fluid MMP8 levels seems to be a helpful biochemical test to obtain information about the severity of the periodontal disease.

  8. Salivary and gingival crevicular fluid histatin in periodontal health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadbhade, Smruti J.; Acharya, Anirudh B.; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Histatin, with its anti bacterial, anti protease, and wound closure stimulating property might influence the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This study assessed the presence of histatin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF); the levels of salivary and GCF histatin in periodontal disease. Material and methods: It was a cross sectional study that included systemically healthy forty five subjects (22 males and 23 females) between the age group of 20 to 45 years. Based on Gingival I...

  9. Characterization of proteoglycan metabolites in human gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, R J; Embery, G; Samuels, R H

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have identified glycosaminoglycans in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) associated with a variety of clinical conditions, notably those involving bone resorptive activity. GCF was here collected from around teeth undergoing active orthodontic movement. Proteoglycan metabolites were purified from GCF by anion-exchange chromatography using fast performance liquid chromatography. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan was associated with the most highly anionic protein fractions IV, V and VI, and biochemical analysis was restricted to these fractions. Analysis included glycosaminoglycan content by cellulose acetate electrophoresis, molecular size by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting and amino acid analyses. Fraction IV contained hyaluronan (18.7%) and chondroitin sulphate (10.9%), fraction V heparan sulphate (29.5%) and chondroitin sulphate (19.6%) and fraction VI chondroitin sulphate only (21.3%). SDS-PAGE revealed two Coomassie blue bands in fraction V of 72 and 60 kDa and two further bands in fraction VI of 71 and 56 kDa. These proteoglycans appeared resistant to digestion by chondroitinase ABC or heparinase III, although the glycosaminoglycan chains underwent degradation after protein-core removal. The molecular mass and amino acid composition of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan fractions showed a close similarity to those of human alveolar bone proteoglycan. The presence of heparan sulphate proteoglycan in GCF in association with orthodontic movement is in accord with previous reports. The findings support the view that proteoglycans in GCF are 'biomarkers', notably those associated with active resorption of alveolar bone.

  10. Association among pain, masticatory performance, and proinflammatory cytokines in crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Schultz, Christian; Trein, Marcos Porto; Mundstock, Karina Santos; Weidlich, Patrícia; Goularte, Jéferson Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic patients usually complain about masticatory limitations associated with the activation of fixed appliances. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether orthodontic pain reflects differences in the objective evaluation of mastication and in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the crevicular fluid of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Twenty patients with malocclusions requiring orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. Their pain experience, masticatory performance, and levels of interleukin 1-beta and prostaglandin E2 in crevicular fluid were evaluated at 3 times: before bracket placement, 24 hours after archwire placement, and 30 days after the initial appointment. All variables were compared with those of a control group of 25 subjects with normal occlusion. The masticatory performance of the patients was significantly reduced at 24 hours after bracket placement, the period in which they reported higher values of pain and had higher levels of interleukin 1-beta. The levels of prostaglandin E2 did not change in the periods evaluated, and there were no correlations between the levels of cytokines and the functional limitations observed. The only significant correlation was between pain and decreased masticatory performance. The masticatory performance of orthodontic patients is significantly reduced only during the period of greatest pain. However, these alterations did not correlate with any measurement of interleukin 1-beta or prostaglandin E2 in the crevicular fluid, suggesting that these solitary measurements are inadequate to predict the temporary pain and masticatory limitations experienced by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between magnesium and alkaline phosphatase from gingival crevicular fluid periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kasuma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium is one of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP cofactor. The amount of magnesium contained infoods affect ALP activity. Increased ALP activity will indicate the level of inflammation in periodontal disease. Elevated inflammation in periodontal disease will change gingivitis to periodontitis, where there has been damage to the bone ssupporting the teeth, and an increasing number of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. The content of GCF consists of enzymatic and non-enzymatic. Changes in the composition of GCF occurs when the inflammation gets worse. Purpose: This study was aimed to prove the correlation between magnesium and ALP from GCF on periodontal disease. Method: This research involved 60 Minangkabaunese people with 20 healthy samples, 20 mild gingivitis samples, and 20 mild periodontitis samples. GCF was collected by absorbing method. Then ALP level in GCF was measured by using ELISA technique. Magnesium level in Minangkabaunese food was tested by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ.Univariate analysis was performed to describe each variable. To see a normal distribution, Kolmogorov Smirnof Test was used (p>0.05. Unpaired T-test and Pearson correlation test was used to see correlation between ALP and magnesium level in Minangkabaunese food. Result: There is a significant correlation between the levels of ALP and magnesium level in Minangkabaunese food with periodontal disease (p=0.005. ALP is higest on mild periodontitis (137.74±23.01 ng/dl. Magnesium level normal control group is highest (250.14±32.34 mg and in mild periodontitis is the lowest (110.83±21.04 mg. Corelation between ALP and magnesium level indicates strong correlation with negative direction (r=- 0.907. Conclusion: There is correlation between the levels of alkaline phosphatase and magnesium level on periodontal disease. Increasing inflamation rate will elevate the ALP level.

  12. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance P (SP is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement.

  13. Peri-Implant Crevicular Fluid Analysis, Enzymes and Biomarkers: a Systemetic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Dursun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the current understanding of the biomarkers and enzymes associated with different forms peri-implant diseases and how their level changes influence the pathogenesis of the inflammatory diseases around dental implants. Material and Methods: An electronic search in two different databases was performed including MEDLINE (PubMed and EMBASE between 1996 to 2016. Human studies analyse peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF biomarker and enzyme levels of implants having peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis published in English language, were evaluated. A systematic review was performed to assess which biomarkers and enzymes in PICF were used to identify the inflammatory conditions around dental implants. Results: Fifty-one articles were identified of which 41 were further evaluated and included in the analysis. Due to significant heterogeneity between included studies, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Instead, a systematic descriptive review was performed. Conclusions: Biomarkers and enzymes in peri-implant crevicular fluid have shown promising results in differentiating from peri-implant disease condition to health. However, due to inconsistent results and acquiring much evidence from cross-sectional studies, additional evidence supported by randomized-controlled trials is needed to validate the links reported.

  14. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  15. Effect of two kinds of porcelain crown on AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ling Wang; Zhi Cao; Shi-Xia Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of two kinds of porcelain crown on AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid.Methods: A total of 80 patients with dental porcelain crowns at front teeth during February 2013 to February 2016 were randomly divided into cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (n=40) and gold alloy PFM group (n=40). After 6 months, the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI, PD, AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid were recorded and analyzed.Results: There were no differences in amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI and PD before treatment of the two groups (P>0.05). After treatment, the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI and PD of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P0.05). After treatment, the AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8 and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P<0.05), but that of the gold alloy PFM group were significantly lower than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (P<0.05). After treatment, the GP-x level in gingival crevicular fluid of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), but that of the gold alloy PFM group were significantly higher than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Gold alloy PFM can significantly reduce the AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8 and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid, improve the GP-x level in gingival crevicular fluid, shows better biocompatibility and clinical outcomes than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM.

  16. An evaluation on elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qujeq D

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Changes in protein levels, host calls enzymes and inflammatory mediators in gingival"ncrevicular Fluid (GCF are considered as diagnostic indicators of Periodontitis."nPurpose: he aim of the present study was to measure the elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular Fluid"namong patients with periodontitis."nMaterial and Methods: In this study, 52 periodontitis patients (experimental group and 51 healthy subjects"nwithout any gingival inflammatio (control group were participated. Subjects of the periodontitis group"nshowed pockets of 4-5 mm depth without gingival enlargement and recession or pockets of 1-2 mm depth"nwith gingival recession. For enzyme activity measurement, lOOu,! of gingival fluid of each sample was mixed"nwith lOOu! of enzyme substrate on the tube. The mixture was incubated at 34°c for lh with a buffer solution"nof 1ml volume and absorbance was read at 410nm with spectrophotometer. The enzyme activity differences"nbetween two groups were analyzed by student t test."nResults: The elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid in subjects with periodontium destruction"nand control subjects was 153±11.3 and 52.7±10.4 enzyme unit in ml per minute, respectively. The difference"nbetween groups was statistically significant (PO.05."nConclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the measurement of elastae enzyme activity could be a useful"nindication of tissue changes that may ultimately manifest clinically as periodontitis.

  17. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  18. Proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid of HIV-1-infected patients in various stages of HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticic, M; Poljak, M; Kramar, B; Tomazic, J; Vidmar, L; Zakotnik, B; Skaleric, U

    2000-07-01

    The oral cavity is rarely reported to be a site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, despite detectable virus in saliva and relatively frequent prevalence of periodontal disease in HIV-infected persons yielding increased excretion of mononuclear-cell-enriched gingival fluid. To search for possible sources of HIV in saliva, and using the polymerase chain-reaction technique, we sought the presence and shedding patterns of proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid in a group of patients previously determined as HIV-1-seropositive. Periodontal status at the collection sites was monitored by several clinical parameters, including Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected by means of paper points. Proviral HIV-1 DNA was detected in the gingival fluid of 17 out of 35 HIV-1-infected patients. Its detection correlated significantly with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (p = 0.03) and not with peripheral blood CD4+ cell count, the presence of blood in gingival fluid, or oral lesions. There was a significant correlation between clinical attachment loss at the sites of fluid collection and plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (p = 0.002), and borderline correlation between the latter and probing depth (p = 0.54) in the group of patients harboring proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid. The results of our study suggest that mononuclear cells present in gingival crevicular fluid and harboring proviral HIV-1 DNA could represent a potential source of HIV-1 in the presence or absence of local bleeding, especially in persons with advanced HIV infection and increased loss of clinical attachment.

  19. RELATION BETWEEN ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IN GINGIGVAL CREVICULAR FLUID OF IMPLANT TEETH AND THE CURING RESULT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正; 周坚; 邹石莹; 吴效民

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To discover the relation between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)of implant teeth aad the curing results.Methods. We measured the ALP level in GCF among 56 cases of implant teeth which included 2 failed cas-es, 5 cases with bad oral hygiene and gingivitis, and compared it with that in the normal group composed of 10persons.Results. The ALP levels in normal group and success implant group showed no difference. The ALP levelsin normal group and success with gingivitis group showed obvious difference. The ALP levels of the 2 failed cas-es are the highest of all.Conclusions. The ALP level in GCF is an important index in evaluating the curing result of the implantteeth.``

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae clinical isolate from gingival crevicular fluid: a potential atherogenic strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFilardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated to atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, a C. pneumoniae strain isolated from the gingival crevicular fluid of a patient with chronic periodontitis, described as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. C. pneumoniae isolate was characterized and compared to the respiratory AR-39 strain by VD4-ompA genotyping and by investigating the intracellular growth in epithelial and macrophage cell lines and its ability to induce macrophage-derived foam cells. Inflammatory cytokine levels were determined in the gingival crevicular fluid sample.C. pneumoniae isolate showed a 99% similarity with the AR-39 strain in the VD4-ompA gene sequence and shared a comparable growth kinetic in epithelial cells and macrophages, as evidenced by the infectious progeny and by the number of chlamydial genomic copies. C. pneumoniae isolate significantly increased the number of foam cells as compared to uninfected and LDL-treated macrophages (45% vs 6%, P = 0.0065 and to the AR-39 strain (45% vs 30%, P = 0.0065. Significantly increased levels of interleukin 1-β (2.1±0.3 pg/μL and interleukin 6 (0.6±0.08 pg/μL were found.Our results suggest that C. pneumoniae may harbor inside oral cavity and potentially be atherogenic, even though further studies will be needed to clarify the involvement of C. pneumoniae in chronic periodontitis as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Comparison of the pharmacokinetic profiles of two locally administered doxycycline gels in crevicular fluid and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ti-Sun; Klimpel, Homa; Fiehn, Walter; Eickholz, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Controlled-release delivery systems enable the clinician to extend the half-life period of locally administered antibiotics in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) significantly. The aim of this split-mouth study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of two different doxycycline gels (DOXY and ATRI) for topical subgingival application. Pharmacokinetics of both doxycycline gels were analyzed in GCF and saliva. In 10 patients suffering from severe periodontitis, 10 pairs of contralateral defects (pocket depth > or =5 mm/bleeding on probing or > or =6 mm) were randomly assigned either to the first application of DOXY or ATRI. Fourteen days after the topical application of the first antibiotic gel, the application of the second gel in the contralateral defect took place. Clinical examinations at baseline showed no significant differences between sites treated with DOXY and ATRI. Samples of GCF and saliva were drawn baseline, 2, 5 and 24 h after application, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days after application. Separation and quantitative measurement of both doxycycline-gels was performed with HPLC- and UV-detection at lambda=260 nm. In saliva specimens, time-dependent changes of mean doxycycline concentration were almost identical for both doxycycline-gels and declined from a maximum 2 h after application (ATRI: 6653.90+/-3096.14 microg/ml; DOXY: 5386.60+/-1542.02 microg/ml [arithmetic mean+/-SEM]) to zero values 9 days after application. In crevicular fluid specimens, sites treated with ATRI exhibited a faster decrease of mean doxycycline concentration (1085.30, 264.00, 273.94, and 258.00 microg/ml measured 2, 5, 24, and 48 h after application) than sites treated with DOXY (1388.38, 1300.40, 803.73, and 235.10 microg/ml). The faster decrease of ATRI compared with DOXY could not be proved to be statistically significantly different. Both doxycycline gels showed pharmacokinetics of controlled-release delivery systems.

  2. Gingival crevicular fluid adrenomedullin level in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, A S; Dikilitas, A; Sahin, H; Alpaslan, N Z; Bozoglan, A

    2013-06-01

    Adrenomedullin, an antimicrobial peptide, has biological applications in many tissues, but its main attribute is its ability to lower arterial pressure. The plasma adrenomedullin level is elevated in pathophysiological conditions such as arterial hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, renal diseases, diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the amounts of adrenomedullin in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontally healthy individuals, individuals with chronic periodontitis, periodontally healthy individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 and individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2. Eighty-four individuals were included in this study: 21 periodontally healthy individuals; 21 individuals with chronic periodontitis; 21 periodontally healthy individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2; and 21 individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2. An ELISA was performed to measure the adrenomedullin levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Groups with diabetes mellitus type 2 (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis) had significantly higher periodontal clinical indices than did nondiabetes mellitus groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis). The group of individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 had a significantly higher total adrenomedullin level compared with the other groups. Also, a significantly higher total adrenomedullin level was found in diabetes mellitus type 2 groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis) compared with nondiabetes mellitus groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis). An increased adrenomedullin level was found in individuals with chronic periodontitis and also in individuals with diabetes mellitus. It is thought that the effect of diabetes mellitus on the pathogenesis of

  3. The effects of periodontal therapy on gingival crevicular fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Ş; Fentoğlu, Ö; Önder, C; Serdar, M; Eser, F; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on gingival crevicular fluid levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with periodontal disease. Twenty-seven patients with gingivitis and periodontitis with RA, 26 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis that were systemically healthy and 13 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (control group) were included in this study. RA activity was assessed by disease activity score test. The clinical periodontal parameters, fasting venous blood and gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained and gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8, IL-6 and PGE2 levels were evaluated at baseline and at 3 mo follow-up after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8, PGE2 and IL-6 levels were higher in all groups than the control group. Following periodontal therapy, there were significant decreases in gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8, PGE2 and IL-6 levels from patients with RA with periodontitis (p periodontal treatment. Non-surgical periodontal therapy of patients with RA with periodontitis may provide beneficial effects on local inflammatory control via decreases in gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8, PGE2 and IL-6 levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Presence of crevicular fluid Prostaglandin E2 in relation with clinical and radiographic periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elpidio Monzón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is present in gingival crevicular fluid the (GCF and is evidenced in periodontal disease (PD. However, there are no enough reports to correlate the PGE2 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health and disease with clinical and radiographic indicators, age and gender. Hence, the present study is aimed to estimate the levels of PGE2 in GCF of subjects without periodontal disease (SEP and periodontal disease (CEP. Materials and Methods: 99 subjects were selected, 33 without PD (G1 and 66 with PD, 33 with gingivitis (G2 and 33 with periodontitis (G3, which were submitted to a clinical and radiographic diagnosis, registering samples FGC, being stored, centrifuged and refrigerated for preservation. Subsequently the concentration of crevicular PGE2 was measured by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, determining the concentration of each subject. Results: PGE2 was detected in all the samples. The G1 presented a concentration of 28.82 ± 2.88 pg / mL, G2 44.91 ± 4.37 pg / mL and G3 148.67 ± 74.74 pg / mL (0.0001. PGE2 levels were significantly correlated with bleeding on probing, probing depth, attachment loss and bone loss (0.05. PGE2 levels were modified by age, but not gender. Conclusion: It is well known that activated inflammatory cells produce inflammatory mediators that stimulate the production of PGE2. The findings of this study demonstrate an increased concentration of PGE2 in FCG according to the presence of greater severity of PD. PGE2 may be considered as a biomarker in PD progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

  5. Analysis of the peri-implant microbiota in 90 dental implants and its relationship to crevicular fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata-Ali, J; Flichy-Fernández, A-J; Alegre-Domingo, T; Candel-Marti, M-E; Peñarrocha, D; Balaguer-Martinez, J-F; Peñarrocha, M-A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the presence within the peri-implant sulcus of Tannerela forsythia (Tf), Porphyromonas gingivales (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and relate these bacteria to the peri-implant crevicular fluid volume (PICFV). A prospective and cross-sectional clinical case series study was made. For the measurement of crevicular fluid, use was made of the Periotron® 8000 (Proflow Incorporated. New York, USA), measuring the volume in Periotron units (PU). For the detection of periodontopathogenic bacteria we used the IAI-PadoTest 4.5 (IAI Inc., IAI Institute, Zuchwil, Switzerland) - a system for the detection of Tf, Pg, Td and Aa based on the use of RNA arrays. We included 34 patients (19 females and 15 males) with a mean age of 56.4 years. Of these subjects, 30.8% were smokers and 69.2% non-smokers. Out of a total series of 213 implants, we analyzed the crevicular fluid and microbiota in 90 implants. A total of 16.5% of the implants presented mucositis, while 83.5% were in healthy peri-implant conditions. The microbiological study revealed the presence of Tf in 17.1% of the implants, Pg in 9.3%, Td in 13.6%, in Aa in none of the implants. The mean Periotron reading was 93.4 PU (range 12-198 PU). A statistically significant (p<0.05) relationship was observed between PICFV and the total percentage bacteria (Tf, Pg and Td) - with a strong association between the Td levels and smoking (p<0.01). In the implants with mucositis, the concentration of Pg and Td was greater. In the implants studied, the subgingival peri-implant microbiota was characterized by low levels of Pg, Tf, Td, and none of the patients proved positive for Aa. These bacteria showed a positive correlation to crevicular fluid volume, and a statistically significant relationship was observed between Td and smoking.

  6. Evaluation of Metalloproteinase-8 Levels in Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Healthy Implants or Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Aleksandrowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of periodontal and peri-implant tissue condition is mainly based on clinical examination and imaging diagnostics. Some data imply that Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 level examination in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF might be useful for evaluating the condition of peri-implant tissues and monitoring a development of peri-implant inflammation, including both mucositis and peri-implantitis. Hence, in this study, we decided to evaluate the level of MMP-8 in PISF obtained from patients without clinical symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis and compare it with MMP-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF obtained from patients with healthy periodontium and those with varying severity of periodontitis. A total of 189 subjects were included in the study, and GCF/PISF samples were analysed for MMP-8 level by ELISA test. We documented that MMP-8 level in PISF obtained from patients without symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis was significantly higher not only than in GCF of periodontally healthy patients but also, which seems to be very interesting, than in GCF of patients with varying degrees of periodontal inflammation, consistent with earlier studies. Our observation might imply that monitoring of MMP-8 level in PISF could help to diagnose mucositis/peri-implantitis in an early stage, prior to clinical manifestations, which may allow for quick start of appropriate therapy.

  7. Host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid: implications for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, I B; Novak, M J

    1992-01-01

    During the past few years, a considerable number of studies have examined different aspects of the host response in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), including the relationship of specific markers to the active phases of periodontal disease. Various indicators of the acute inflammatory response (the lysosomal enzymes beta-glucuronidase and collagenase, the cytoplasmic enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, and the arachidonic acid metabolite PGE2) have been shown to be associated with clinical attachment loss in chronic adult periodontitis in man and experimental periodontitis in animal models. In contrast, the relationship of indicators of the humoral immune response in GCF to active periodontal disease is equivocal. Furthermore, a number of indicators of the cellular immune response have been identified recently in GCF (i.e., Interleukin-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), but their relationship to active phases of periodontal disease have not been studied. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) is the cellular hallmark of acute inflammation. Evidence from the GCF studies suggests that hyperreactivity of these cells plays a critical role in the active phases of some forms of periodontal disease. Metabolic activation of PMN can be associated with a number of potentially destructive reactions. The major effector mechanism for tissue destruction that can be specifically identified with the PMN is the synergistic effect of the release of PMN proteases and the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites by these cells. Priming of the PMN, where the PMN response is enhanced by agents that do not initiate the response, may be an important mechanism for PMN activation in the crevicular environment; for example, cytokines such as IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, and lipopolysaccharides released from subgingival Gram-negative bacteria, can serve this function. The hypothesis proposed here argues that in addition to the severe forms of periodontal disease that have been

  8. YKL-40 level in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, J; Bando, Y; Bando, M; Kajiura, Y; Hiroshima, Y; Inagaki, Y; Murata, H; Ikuta, T; Kido, R; Naruishi, K; Funaki, M; Nagata, T

    2015-07-01

    YKL-40 is a chitin-binding glycoprotein, the level of which increases in inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular diseases, and tumors. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains many proteins and markers of periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate YKL-40 level in GCF from patients with periodontitis and DM and the association between YKL-40 level and chronic periodontitis (CP) or DM. The subjects were 121 patients with DM, CP, DM and periodontitis (DM-P), and healthy subjects (H). GCF was collected using paper strips after the sites for GCF collection were clinically evaluated for probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). YKL-40 in GCF was identified by Western blotting, and its level was determined by ELISA. YKL-40 was contained in GCF samples from H, DM, CP, and DM-P sites, and its levels (amount and concentration) in CP and DM-P were significantly higher than those in H and DM. GCF YKL-40 level significantly correlated with PD and GI, and its level in BOP-positive sites was significantly higher than that in BOP-negative ones. GCF YKL-40 level was elevated in periodontitis, but not DM. YKL-40 in GCF may be an inflammatory marker for periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalina Goutoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyse the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis prior to and following surgical and/or nonsurgical periodontal therapy for a period of 32 weeks. Methods. GCF samples were obtained from 24 nondiseased and 72 diseased sites of 12 periodontal patients prior to as well as at 6, 16, and 32 weeks following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters. Both treatment modalities resulted in similar IL-6 as well as IL-8 levels. Mean IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in non-diseased compared to diseased sites and increased significantly following treatment in diseased sites. Mean total amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 (TAIL-6, TAIL-8 did not differ significantly between diseased and nondiseased sites, while following therapy TAIL-8 levels decreased significantly. Conclusions. The data suggest that periodontal therapy reduced the levels of IL-8 in GCF. However, a strong relationship between IL-6, IL-8 amounts in GCF and periodontal destruction and inflammation was not found.

  10. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumaran Anil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor levels in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Preethanath, R S; Mokeem, Sameer A; AlMoharib, Hani S; Patil, Shankargouda; Chalisserry, Elna P; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  12. Estimation of gingival crevicular fluid aspartate aminotransferase levels in periodontal health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti B Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various enzymes have been assessed as biochemical markers and aspartate aminotransferase (AST is one such marker that has received considerable attention recently. Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF has been pursued as a means of identifying the sites undergoing active disease. A problem central to periodontology today is the inability to detect actively deteriorating sites and highly susceptible patients other than by longitudinal observations of attachment. Hence, AST levels from samples of GCF can be taken as an indication for active periodontal tissue destruction. Aim: To estimate the levels of AST in the GCF in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vivo, case control, and clinico-biochemical assay. Eighty samples were selected which were divided into four groups of 20 patients each based on Russell′s Periodontal Index. Statistical analysis: The values obtained for AST level in the different groups were subjected to Student′s " t" test. Results: The mean of AST level showed an increase from Group I to Group IV. These values ran parallel with the values of clinical index, i.e. more severe the inflammation, higher the index score and higher was the AST level. Conclusions: It was concluded that as the severity of inflammation increases, there is a significant increase in the AST levels suggesting that there is a direct relationship between the AST levels in the GCF and periodontal destruction.

  13. Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čakić Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and β-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

  14. Chemerin as a Novel Crevicular Fluid Marker of Patients With Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Şeyma Bozkurt; Ballı, Umut; Dede, Figen Öngöz; Sertoğlu, Erdim; Tazegül, Kaan

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of the present study are to: 1) determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) chemerin is a novel predictive marker for patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2DM); 2) analyze the relationship between chemerin and interleukin (IL)-6 in periodontally healthy individuals and in patients with CP and with and without t2DM; and 3) evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on GCF chemerin levels. Eighty individuals were split into four groups: 20 who were systemically and periodontally healthy (CTRL), 20 with t2DM and periodontally healthy (DM-CTRL), 20 systemically healthy with CP (CP), and 20 with CP and t2DM (DM-CP). Individuals with periodontitis were treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy. GCF sampling procedures and clinical periodontal measures were performed before and 6 weeks after treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure chemerin and IL-6 levels. Greater values for GCF chemerin and IL-6 levels were found in CP groups than in periodontally healthy groups, in DM-CP than in CP, and in DM-CTRL than in CTRL (P periodontitis and t2DM induced aberrant secretion of chemerin, and non-surgical periodontal therapy influenced the decrease of GCF chemerin levels in patients with CP with and without t2DM. Furthermore, it suggests GCF chemerin levels may be considered a potential proinflammatory marker for diabetes, periodontal disease, and treatment outcomes.

  15. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  16. Calcitonin gingival crevicular fluid levels and pain discomfort during early orthodontic tooth movement in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, José Antonio; Linde, Dolores; Barbieri, Germán; Solano, Patricia; Caba, Octavio; Rios-Lugo, María Judith; Sanz, Mariano; Martin, Conchita

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the previously unreported presence of calcitonin (CT) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), its variations during initial orthodontic tooth movement in both tension and compression sites, and its possible association with the experienced dental pain. Fifteen children (mean age: 12.6 years) requiring orthodontic closure of the upper midline diastema were included. We collected GCF from the compression and tension sites of the upper right central incisor (experimental) and first bicuspid (control), before and after (1h, 24h, 7d, 15d) beginning of treatment. Calcitonin levels were determined by Western blot. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Calcitonin levels were higher in the compression site versus the control site at 7d (p=0.014). Intragroup comparisons showed an increment of CT between 1h and 7d (680.81±1672.60pg/30s, p=0.010) in the compression site. No significant changes were found in the tension and control sites. Calcitonin levels and pain intensity were negatively associated during the period from 24h to 15d (r=-0.54, p=0.05). CT levels in the GCF significantly increased in the compression site after the short term after application of orthodontic forces. These changes were negatively associated with the perceived patient's dental pain during the period from 24h to 15d. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p periodontitis groups (p periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nitrite and Nitrate Levels of Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva in Subjects with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Orkun Topcu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nitrosative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva nitrite and nitrate levels in periodontally healthy and diseased sites. Material and Methods: A total of 60 individuals including, 20 chronic periodontitis and 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontally healthy controls participated in the present study. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival index and plaque index were assessed, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and saliva samples were obtained from the subjects, including 480 GCF samples and 60 unstimulated whole saliva samples. Nitrite and nitrate were analyzed by Griess reagent. Results: Total GCF nitrite levels were higher in gingivitis and periodontitis groups (1.07 [SD 0.62] nmol and 1.08 [SD 0.59] nmol than the control group (0.83 [SD 0.31] nmol (P 0.05. The difference in GCF nitrate level was not significant among the control, gingivitis and periodontitis groups (7.7 [SD 2.71] nmol, 7.51 [SD 4.16] nmol and 7.38 [SD 1.91] nmol. Saliva nitrite and nitrate levels did not differ significantly among three study groups. Saliva nitrate/nitrite ratios were higher in periodontitis and gingivitis groups than the control group. A gradual decrease in nitrate/nitrite ratio in GCF was detected with the presence of inflammation. Conclusions: It may be suggested that nitrite in gingival crevicular fluid is a better periodontal disease marker than nitrate and may be used as an early detection marker of periodontal inflammation, and that local nitrosative stress markers don’t show significant difference between the initial and advanced stages of periodontal disease.

  19. Relationship between cytokine levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Tiago; Vianna, Priscila; Weidlich, Patricia; Musskopf, Marta Liliana; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Chies, José Artur Bogo; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Susin, Cristiano

    2012-04-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to systemic diseases/disorders and a low-grade systemic inflammatory status originated from periodontitis has been proposed as a possible explanation for this association. This study evaluates the relationship, early in pregnancy, between gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of a panel of cytokines that have been implicated in PTB and periodontal disease. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-35 years old with a gestational age up to 20 weeks were included (mean±SD gestational age:16.1±3.5 weeks). Four periodontal sites per subject were randomly selected for GCF collection. Serum and GCF levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α were analyzed using a cytometric bead array. Regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the relationship between serum and GCF cytokine levels. Participants had widespread periodontal inflammation but limited periodontal destruction. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in GCF than serum for all cytokines but IL-10. GCF levels had small but significant effect on serum levels for IL-10 (β=0.34±0.09, p<0.01), IL-12p70 (β=0.48±0.08, p<0.01) and TNF-α (β=0.29±0.09, p<0.01). Periodontal probing depth and bleeding on probing were significantly associated with GCF levels for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8; however, they had negligible effect on serum cytokine levels. Correlation between GCF and serum levels was non-significant, except for IL-12p70, which showed a significant but small correlation between the two sources (r=0.32, p=0.001). GCF cytokine levels were not strongly associated with serum cytokine levels in pregnant women with widespread periodontal inflammation but limited periodontal destruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Mok

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflammatory disease periodontitis results in tooth loss and can even lead to diseases of the whole body if not treated. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF reflects the condition of the gingiva and contains proteins transuded from serum or cells at inflamed sites. In this study, we aimed to discover potential protein biomarkers for periodontitis in GCF proteome using LC-MS/MS. Results We identified 305 proteins from GCF of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients collected using a sterile gel loading tip by ESI-MS/MS coupled to nano-LC. Among these proteins, about 45 proteins were differentially expressed in the GCF proteome of moderate periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy individuals. We first identified azurocidin in the GCF, but not the saliva, as an upregulated protein in the periodontitis patients and verified its increased expression during periodontitis by ELISA using the GCF of the classified periodontitis patients compared to the healthy individuals. In addition, we found that azurocidin inhibited the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to osteoclasts. Conclusions Our results show that GCF collection using a gel loading tip and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis following 1D-PAGE proteomic separation are effective for the analysis of the GCF proteome. Our current results also suggest that azurocidin could be a potential biomarker candidate for the early detection of inflammatory periodontal destruction by gingivitis and some chronic periodontitis. Our data also suggest that azurocidin may have an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation and, thus, a protective role in alveolar bone loss during the early stages of periodontitis.

  1. A novel method of sampling gingival crevicular fluid from a mouse model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Movila, Alexandru; Suzuki, Maiko; Kajiya, Mikihito; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Kayal, Rayyan; Hirshfeld, Josefine; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Savitri, Irma J; Mira, Abdulghani; Kurihara, Hidemi; Taubman, Martin A; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2016-11-01

    Using a mouse model of silk ligature-induced periodontal disease (PD), we report a novel method of sampling mouse gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to evaluate the time-dependent secretion patterns of bone resorption-related cytokines. GCF is a serum transudate containing host-derived biomarkers which can represent cellular response in the periodontium. As such, human clinical evaluations of PD status rely on sampling this critical secretion. At the same time, a method of sampling GCF from mice is absent, hindering the translational value of mouse models of PD. Therefore, we herein report a novel method of sampling GCF from a mouse model of periodontitis, involving a series of easy steps. First, the original ligature used for induction of PD was removed, and a fresh ligature for sampling GCF was placed in the gingival crevice for 10min. Immediately afterwards, the volume of GCF collected in the sampling ligature was measured using a high precision weighing balance. The sampling ligature containing GCF was then immersed in a solution of PBS-Tween 20 and subjected to ELISA. This enabled us to monitor the volume of GCF and detect time-dependent changes in the expression of such cytokines as IL-1b, TNF-α, IL-6, RANKL, and OPG associated with the levels of alveolar bone loss, as reflected in GCF collected from a mouse model of PD. Therefore, this novel GCF sampling method can be used to measure various cytokines in GCF relative to the dynamic changes in periodontal bone loss induced in a mouse model of PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of menstrual cycle on periodontal health and gingival crevicular fluid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerik, Sema; Ozçaka, Ozgün; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Atilla, Gül; Celec, Peter; Behuliak, Michal; Emingil, Gülnur

    2010-05-01

    Fluctuations in sex steroid hormones, which are also noticeable through the menstrual cycle of women, may impact periodontal health. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of hormonal changes occurring in the menstrual cycle on gingival inflammation and the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2). Twenty-five gingivitis patients and 25 periodontally healthy subjects having regular menstrual cycles were seen at menstruation (ME) (1 to 2 days of menstruation), ovulation (OV) (12 to 14 days), and premenstrual phases (PM) (22 to 24 days). GCF and saliva samples were collected and clinical parameters including plaque index and bleeding on probing were recorded at each menstrual phase. Salivary estrogen and progesterone levels were analyzed to determine exact menstrual cycle days. GCF levels of IL-6, PGE(2), t-PA, and PAI-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentages of sites with bleeding on probing were significantly higher in ME (60.85 +/- 18.36) and OV (58.92 +/- 25.04) than in the PM (40.12 +/- 20.10) phase in the gingivitis group (P 0.05; repeated measures analysis of variance). GCF levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in gingivitis patients compared to healthy subjects in all phases (P = 0.004, P = 0.041, and P = 0.046 for ME, OV, and PM, respectively; Mann-Whitney U test). GCF levels of IL-6, PGE(2), t-PA, and PAI-2 were unchanged in different menstrual phases in both groups (P >0.05; Friedman test). The present study suggests that changes in the sex steroid hormones during menstrual cycles might have a limited effect on the inflammatory status of gingiva, but GCF cytokine levels were not affected.

  3. The Profile of Tooth and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Different Dental Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlak Shaimaa S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpitis, apical periodontitis, and chronic periodontitis are the most common dental diseases and being the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Aims: To unravel the changes and the interrelation of the biochemical and immunohistochemical levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and teeth specimens of patients with different dental diseases. To test the influence of these changes on disease severity. Materials and methods: The GCF and tooth specimens were collected from 20 patients with chronic irreversible pulpitis (CIP, and similar number of patients with chronic periapical lesion (CPL, and chronic periodontitis (CP in addition to 20 healthy controls. Results: Statistically significant increase were found in the mean concentration of GCF-MMP1 of the patients within the CP and CIP groups over those of CIP and CPL groups (P<0.001. Highly significant elevation (P<0.001 in the means of cell with positive expression of the MMP-1 in all patient groups compared with the mean of the control group. The highest percentages of the MMP-1 expression (P=0.000 above the median values were seen in CPL (13.3% vs 86.7% followed by both CIP and CP groups (9.1% vs 90.9%. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the GCF MMP-1 was found to be an effective test in CP group at reading ≥ 0.83 pg/ml and in CPL at cut off value of ≥ 2.24 ng/ml. Conclusion: The MMP1 plays a crucial role in the demolition of periodontal tissue and the GCF analyses can be used as noninvasive method to unravel these changes.

  4. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  5. Evaluation of chemokines in gingival crevicular fluid in children with band and loop space maintainers: A clinico-biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naveen Kommineni; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kasa; Padakandla, Prathyusha; Togaru, Harshini; Kalagatla, Swathi; Vinay Chand M Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemokines are pro-inflammatory cells that can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection. Aim: This study was conducted to detect the presence of chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with band and loop space maintainers. Materials and Methods: MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels were estimated in GCF samples from twenty healthy c...

  6. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  7. PROSTAGLANDIN E2 LEVEL IN GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID AND ITS RELATION TO THE PERIODONTAL POCKET DEPTH IN PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坚; 邹石莹; 赵戚; 赵玉霞

    1994-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2(PGE2)levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)of 46 normal controls and 90 patients suf-fering from periodontitis with different periodontal pocket depths were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).The results demonstrated that PGE2 levels in the periodontal pockets are higher in patients with peri-odontitis.The PGE2 level rises as the periodontal pocket deepens,especially in casses where the periodontal pocket depth exceeds 6 mm.This study shows that PGE2 level is significantly related to the severity of bone destruc-tion in periodontitis.

  8. Influence of dental filling material type on the concentration of interleukin 9 in the samples of gingival crevicular fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović Vladimir; Taso Ervin; Petković-Ćurčin Aleksandra; Đukić Mirjana; Gardašević Milka; Rakić Mia; Xavier Struillou; Jović Milena; Miller Karolina; Stanojević Ivan; Vojvodić Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Several cytokines and lymphokines (IL1β, ENA78, IL6, TNFα, IL8 and S100A8) are expressed during dental pulp inflammation. Analysis of gingival crevicu-lar fluid (GCF) offers a non-invasive means of studying gen-eral host response in oral cavity. Although GCF levels of various mediators could reflect the state of inflammation both in dental pulp and gingiva adjacent to a tooth, GCF samples of those without significant gingivitis could be inter-preted as reflection of pulpal pro...

  9. Pharmacokinetic profile of a locally administered doxycycline gel in crevicular fluid, blood, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ti-Sun; Bürklin, Thomas; Schacher, Beate; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Schaecken, Matthijs T; Renggli, Heinz H; Fiehn, Walter; Eickholz, Peter

    2002-11-01

    With the help of so-called controlled release delivery systems, the half-life period of locally administered antibiotics in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can be extended significantly. The aim of this study was to characterize the delivery profile of a new one-component 14% doxycycline free amine gel for local application. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline (DOXY) were analyzed in GCF, saliva, and serum. Twenty patients with persisting or recurring pockets (probing depths > or = 5 mm and bleeding on probing) after mechanical treatment (surgical or non-surgical) took part in the study. In each patient 1 periodontal defect was treated with DOXY gel. Samples of GCF, saliva, and serum were obtained before application of DOXY gel; 15 minutes after application; at 2 and 5 hours; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 11 days after application. Separation and quantitative measurement of DOXY was performed with high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection at lambda = 260 nm. Coefficients of variation were lower than 2% (intraassay) and 4% (interassay), respectively. For concentrations between 50 to 1000 microg/ml, we found a linear relationship between expected and measured DOXY values (linear coefficient of correlation: r = 0.998). Within the first 5 hours after application, concentration of DOXY in GCF (maximum after 15 minutes 19.97 +/- 5.85 mg/ml) and saliva (maximum after 15 minutes 17.83 +/- 2.84 mg/ml) was similar. Then concentration fell to a lower level (28.90 +/- 19.44 microg/ml) compared to GCF (577.41 +/- 127.34 microg/ml) after 3 days. Up to 10 days after application, the concentration of DOXY in GCF was 34.24 microg/ml. With the exception of 1 patient, all serum samples were DOXY-negative. 1) After subgingival application of biodegradable 14% doxycycline gel, mean doxycycline levels in GCF that exceeded 16 microg/ml could be maintained for at least 12 days. Thus, the antimicrobial agent may be classified as a controlled release device. 2) The antibiotic

  10. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered...

  11. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovola, Joanna B; Perrea, Despoina; Halazonetis, Dimitrios J; Dontas, Ismene; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Makou, Margarita

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption.

  12. Study of TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS Levels in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid of a Rat Model of Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Ling Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate the dynamic changes in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM and periodontitis (PD. Additionally, we evaluated alveolar bone loss and the histopathological response associated with experimental diabetes mellitus and experimental periodontitis.

  13. Expression of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Wound Healing after Gingivectomy in Postorthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauten, Anne Marie; Silosi, Isabela; Stratul, Stefan Ioan; Foia, Liliana; Camen, Adrian; Toma, Vasilica; Cioloca, Daniel; Surlin, Valeriu; Surlin, Petra; Bogdan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wound healing is a tissue repair process after an injury, and two of its main components are inflammation and angiogenesis, in which course a cascade of mediators is involved. The aim of this research was to evaluate the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in wound healing after periodontal surgery (gingivectomy) for gingival overgrowth during orthodontic treatment with or without magnification devices, by assessing their levels in GCF. Methods. From 19 patients with gingival overgrowth as a result of fixed orthodontic treatment, the overgrown gingiva was removed by gingivectomy, from one half of the mandibular arch without magnification and from the other under magnification. Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 were determined from gingival crevicular fluid by ELISA tests. Results. Statistically significant differences (p gingivectomy. The dynamics of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 levels could suggest a reduced inflammation and a faster angiogenesis using microsurgery.

  14. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  15. Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açıkgöz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCH Ab levels in saliva and GCF of all HCV-seropositive patients were statistically compared. Reported here are the results of the study designed to determine the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies in GCF and saliva. One hundred percent (100% of the 39 patients have antibodies to HCV in their serum, 15.4% have antibodies to HCV in GCF, and saliva found out. HCV Ab seropositivity in GCF and saliva was significantly correlated (kappa = 0.462; <.001. This study supports the concept that GCF may be a significant source of HCV in saliva.

  16. Effect of selective laser melting deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crown restoration on related molecule contents in serum and gingival crevicular fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hua Wei; Lei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of selective laser melting deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crown restoration on contents of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in serum and gingival tissue.Methods:80 cases of patients who received cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crown restoration in our hospital from May 2013 to August 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received selective laser melting deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crown restoration and control group received casting cobalt chromium metal porcelain crown restoration. Then contents of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of both groups were detected.Results: (1) Inflammatory cytokines: compared with serum inflammatory cytokine contents of control group, serum NF-κB, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α and NO contents of observation group trended to decrease; (2) Adhesion molecules in gingival crevicular fluid: compared with adhesion molecule contents in gingival crevicular fluid of control group, mRNA contents of CD11a, CD18, LFA-1, E-selectin and P-selectin in gingival crevicular fluid of observation group trended to decrease; (3) Adhesion molecules in serum: compared with adhesion molecule contents in serum of control group, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 contents in serum of observation group were lower.Conclusion: Selective laser melting deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crown restoration is helpful to relieve inflammatory response of gingival tissue, with expression of decreased generation of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules; it’s an ideal material for crown restoration.

  17. Actividad de la lactato deshidrogenasa en fluído crevicular gingival y saliva en fumadores con periodontitis crónica Lactate dehidrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of smoker with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Leyva Huerta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe un alto porcentaje de enfermedad periodontal atribuido al hábito del tabaco. La respuesta del organismo a esta enfermedad incluye la liberación de enzimas intracelulares relacionadas con la muerte y destrucción celular, como la Lactato Deshidrogenasa (LDH. Objetivo: Comparar los valores de LDH en fluido crevicular gingival (FCG y saliva de pacientes fumadores y no fumadores con Periodontitis crónica (PC. Metodología: Participaron 15 pacientes hombres mayores de 30 años; 6 fumadores, 6 no fumadores con PC y 3 sujetos control. Se recolectaron muestras de saliva total y de FCG de bolsas periodontales de = 6 mm. El volumen del FCG se determino pesando las puntas de papel antes y después del muestreo obteniendo los valores en gramos y convertidos a unidades de volumen (ml. La actividad de LDH se determino por medio de espectrofotometría. Los resultados se convirtieron a unidades de actividad enzimática expresados en mM. El volumen de FCG fue de 0,78 µL en sujetos sanos, en no fumadores con PC 1.12 y en fumadores con PC 1,32. Los valores de LDH correspondieron a; saliva de sujetos sanos 0,845, en no fumadores con PC 1,325 y en fumadores con PC 1,7895 mM. En FCG la actividad fue 0,4568 en sujetos sanos, en no fumadores con PC 0,987 y en fumadores con PC 1,2546 mM. Conclusiones: Las técnicas utilizadas permitieron determinar diferencia entre los valores de la actividad de LDH en ambos fluidos en fumadores y no fumadores con PC.The response of the body to periodontal disease includes the production of intra-cellular enzymes like Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH which is released by damaged periodontal cells. The LDH can be found in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and saliva as a result of cellular death and damage. Objective: To compare LDH activity in GCF and saliva of smoker and non-smoker patients with Chronic Periodontitis. Methods: 15 male patients (30 to 50 years of age participated in this study; 6 smokers with Chronic Periodontitis

  18. Elevated levels of collagen cross-link residues in gingival tissues and crevicular fluid of teeth with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Springer, Ingo N G; Buschmann, Andreas; Hedderich, Jürgen; Açil, Yahya

    2003-06-01

    Lysylpyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) are collagen cross-link residues. Lysylpyridinoline is present in most tissues, whereas LP is present mainly in mineralized tissue. Both are elevated in tissue with increased collagen resorption. The purpose of this investigation was to assess if the concentrations of LP and HP are elevated in gingiva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of teeth with advanced periodontitis (AP). We investigated human gingival biopsies of healthy teeth (n = 19) and teeth with AP (n = 43) in 49 individuals. Samples of GCF from 54 teeth with AP were collected in seven patients and compared with samples from 11 patients with experimentally induced gingivitis. Levels of LP and HP were measured by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Gingival concentrations of HP but not LP around teeth with advanced periodontitis were significantly elevated compared with teeth with healthy periodontium. While significant amounts of HP and LP were measurable in the GCF of teeth with AP, no HP and LP was identified 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy of the teeth or in fluid from teeth subjected to experimentally induced gingivitis. Elevated concentrations of HP and LP in GCF may serve as indicators of ongoing destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone in advanced periodontitis.

  19. Niveles de interleukina 17 en el fluido gingival crevicular de pacientes con peridontitis crónica progresiva Levels of interleukin-17 in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF of progressive chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Quesada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los biomarcadores de destrucción tisular presentes en el fluido gingival crevicular (GCF pueden ser de utilidad para identificar y predecir la progresión de la Enfermedad Periodontal y para ver la respuesta al tratamiento. La interleukina 17 (IL-17 es una citoquina producida por las células T CD4 y tiene un papel importante en la iniciación o mantenimiento de la respuesta pro-implantaria y recientemente se ha encontrado que estimula la reabsorción ósea osteoclástica. Esta función biológica es relevante en la etiopatogénesis de la periodontitis. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de IL-17 en el fluido gingival crevicular de pacientes con periodontitis crónica progresiva. Material y método: En 14 sitios activos y 14 sitios inactivos, determinados de acuerdo con el método de tolerancia (Haffafie 1983 se tomó muestras de fluido gingival crevicular. La cantidad de IL-17 presente, se determinó con el Human IL-17 Inmunoassay Quantikine R&D INC. Mineapolis, USA. Los resultados se analizaron con el software Stata 7.0 y el Student's Test para muestras no pareadas. Resultados: La cantidad de IL-17 presente en el GCF fue significativamente mayor en los sitios activos, en relación con los sitios inactivos (p=0,0005. Conclusiones: Estos resultados sugieren la posibilidad de que la IL-17 podría ser un buen marcador de pérdida de inserción y destrucción de hueso alveolar.Biomarkers harvested from gingival crevicular fluid (GCF may be useful to identify and predict periodontal disease progression and to monitor the response to treatment. Interleukin-17 (IL-17 is a T-cell-derived cytokine that play a important role in the initiation or maintenance of the pro-inflamatory response and has recently been found to stimulate osteoclastic resorption. These biological functions are relevant to the aetiopathogenesis of periodontitis. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence of IL-17 in gingival

  20. Expression of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Wound Healing after Gingivectomy in Postorthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Rauten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wound healing is a tissue repair process after an injury, and two of its main components are inflammation and angiogenesis, in which course a cascade of mediators is involved. The aim of this research was to evaluate the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in wound healing after periodontal surgery (gingivectomy for gingival overgrowth during orthodontic treatment with or without magnification devices, by assessing their levels in GCF. Methods. From 19 patients with gingival overgrowth as a result of fixed orthodontic treatment, the overgrown gingiva was removed by gingivectomy, from one half of the mandibular arch without magnification and from the other under magnification. Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 were determined from gingival crevicular fluid by ELISA tests. Results. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 and correlations between levels of the two biomarkers were analyzed. Statistically significant differences were established between levels of the two biomarkers at different time points, with significant positive correlation at the point of 24 hours. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results seem to sustain the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis in wound healing of patients with postorthodontic gingivectomy. The dynamics of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 levels could suggest a reduced inflammation and a faster angiogenesis using microsurgery.

  1. Vitamin D-Binding Protein Levels in Plasma and Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP is the main transport protein of vitamin D and plays an important role in the immune system and host defenses. The purpose of this study was to measure DBP levels in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP, in comparison to healthy controls, with the goal of elucidating the relationship between DBP and GAgP. Fifty-nine GAgP patients and 58 healthy controls were recruited for the study; clinical parameters of probing depths (PD, bleeding index, and attachment loss (AL were recorded. DBP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. From the results, GAgP patients had higher plasma DBP concentrations (P<0.001 but lower GCF DBP concentrations (P<0.001 than healthy controls. In GAgP group, after controlling the potential confounders of age, gender, smoking status, and BMI index, GCF DBP concentrations correlated negatively with PD (P<0.001 and AL (P=0.009. Within the limits of the study, we concluded that decreased GCF DBP level and increased plasma DBP level are associated with periodontitis.

  2. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  3. Evaluation of chemokines in gingival crevicular fluid in children with band and loop space maintainers: A clinico-biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen Kommineni; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kasa; Padakandla, Prathyusha; Togaru, Harshini; Kalagatla, Swathi; Reddy, Vinay Chand M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemokines are pro-inflammatory cells that can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection. Aim: This study was conducted to detect the presence of chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with band and loop space maintainers. Materials and Methods: MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels were estimated in GCF samples from twenty healthy children and twenty children with band and loop space maintainers. Periodontal status was evaluated by measuring gingival index, plaque index, and Russell's periodontal index. The GCF samples were quantified by ELISA, and the levels of MIP-1α and MIP-1β were determined. Results: The mean MIP-1α concentrations in healthy children and those with space maintainers were 395.75 pg/µl and 857.85 pg/µl, respectively, and MIP-1β was 342.55 pg/µl and 685.25 pg/µl, respectively. MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels in GCF from children with space maintainers were significantly higher than in the healthy group, and statistically significant difference existed between these two groups. Conclusion: MIP-1α and MIP-1β can be considered as novel biomarkers in the biological mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of gingival inflammation in children with space maintainers. PMID:27630491

  4. Quantitative Gingival Crevicular Fluid Proteome in Health and Periodontal Disease Using Stable-Isotope Chemistries and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Leandro G.; Nouh, Hesham; Salih, Erdjan

    2014-01-01

    Aim Application of quantitative stable-isotope-labeling chemistries and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine alterations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) proteome in periodontal disease. Materials and Methods Quantitative proteome of GCF from 40 healthy individuals versus 40 patients with periodontal disease was established using 320 GCF samples and stable-isotope-labeling reagents, ICAT and mTRAQ, with MS technology and validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent methods. Results We have identified 238 distinct proteins of which 180 were quantified in GCF of both healthy and periodontal patients with additional 26 and 32 distinct proteins that were found only in GCF of healthy or periodontal patients. In addition, 42 pathogenic bacterial proteins and 11 yeast proteins were quantified. The data highlighted a series of proteins not quantified previously by large-scale MS approaches in GCF with relevance to periodontal disease, such as host derived Ig alpha-2 chain C, Kallikrein-4, S100-A9, transmembrane proteinase 13, peptidase S1 domain, several collagen types and pathogenic bacterial proteins e.g., formamidase, leucine amidopeptidase and virulence factor OMP85. Conclusions The innovative analytical approaches provided detailed novel changes in both host and microbial derived GCF proteomes of periodontal patients. The study defined 50 host and 16 pathogenic bacterial proteins significantly elevated in periodontal disease most of which were novel with significant potential for application in the clinical arena of periodontal disease. PMID:24738839

  5. Evaluation of chemokines in gingival crevicular fluid in children with band and loop space maintainers: A clinico-biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kommineni Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemokines are pro-inflammatory cells that can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection. Aim: This study was conducted to detect the presence of chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α, and 1β (MIP-1β and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in children with band and loop space maintainers. Materials and Methods: MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels were estimated in GCF samples from twenty healthy children and twenty children with band and loop space maintainers. Periodontal status was evaluated by measuring gingival index, plaque index, and Russell′s periodontal index. The GCF samples were quantified by ELISA, and the levels of MIP-1α and MIP-1β were determined. Results: The mean MIP-1α concentrations in healthy children and those with space maintainers were 395.75 pg/µl and 857.85 pg/µl, respectively, and MIP-1β was 342.55 pg/µl and 685.25 pg/µl, respectively. MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels in GCF from children with space maintainers were significantly higher than in the healthy group, and statistically significant difference existed between these two groups. Conclusion: MIP-1α and MIP-1β can be considered as novel biomarkers in the biological mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of gingival inflammation in children with space maintainers.

  6. The Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Source of Biomarkers to Enhance Efficiency of Orthodontic and Functional Treatment of Growing Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Mariana Caires Sobral; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Capelli, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a biological exudate and quantification of its constituents is a current method to identify specific biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity for several biological events. Studies are being performed to evaluate whether the GCF biomarkers in growing subjects reflect both the stages of individual skeletal maturation and the local tissue remodeling triggered by orthodontic force. Present evidence is still little regarding whether and which GCF biomarkers are correlated with the growth phase (mainly pubertal growth spurt), while huge investigations have been reported on several GCF biomarkers (for inflammation, tissue damage, bone deposition and resorption, and other biological processes) in relation to the orthodontic tooth movement. In spite of these investigations, the clinical applicability of the method is still limited with further data needed to reach a full diagnostic utility of specific GCF biomarkers in orthodontics. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the role of main GCF biomarkers and how they can be used to enhance functional treatment, optimize orthodontic force intensity, or prevent major tissue damage consequent to orthodontic treatment.

  7. The Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Source of Biomarkers to Enhance Efficiency of Orthodontic and Functional Treatment of Growing Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a biological exudate and quantification of its constituents is a current method to identify specific biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity for several biological events. Studies are being performed to evaluate whether the GCF biomarkers in growing subjects reflect both the stages of individual skeletal maturation and the local tissue remodeling triggered by orthodontic force. Present evidence is still little regarding whether and which GCF biomarkers are correlated with the growth phase (mainly pubertal growth spurt), while huge investigations have been reported on several GCF biomarkers (for inflammation, tissue damage, bone deposition and resorption, and other biological processes) in relation to the orthodontic tooth movement. In spite of these investigations, the clinical applicability of the method is still limited with further data needed to reach a full diagnostic utility of specific GCF biomarkers in orthodontics. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the role of main GCF biomarkers and how they can be used to enhance functional treatment, optimize orthodontic force intensity, or prevent major tissue damage consequent to orthodontic treatment. PMID:28232938

  8. Gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8 and -13 and TIMP-1 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyikoğlu, Başak; Buduneli, Nurcan; Kardeşler, Levent; Aksu, Kenan; Pitkala, Marjut; Sorsa, Timo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -13 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemically healthy counterparts with inflammatory periodontal disease. Subjects (N = 74) were divided into five groups: 12 patients with RA and gingivitis; 13 patients with RA and periodontitis; 12 systemically healthy patients with gingivitis; 13 systemically healthy patients with periodontitis; and 24 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers. Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were performed at six sites/tooth. GCF samples obtained from two sites in single-rooted teeth were analyzed by immunofluorometric assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were assessed statistically by parametric tests. The total amounts of MMP-8 were lower in the healthy control group than in RA-gingivitis, RA-periodontitis, and healthy-periodontitis groups (P 0.05). Patients with RA and gingivitis or periodontitis exhibited levels of MMP-8 and -13 and TIMP-1 that were similar to systemically healthy counterparts (P >0.05). The coexistence of RA and periodontitis did not significantly affect the investigated parameters. GCF MMP-8 levels increased with periodontal inflammation. Despite the long-term usage of corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, similar GCF MMP-8 and -13 levels in patients with RA and systemically healthy counterparts suggest that RA may create a tendency to overproduce these enzymes.

  9. Periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis lowers gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1beta and DAS28 in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıyıkoğlu, Başak; Buduneli, Nurcan; Aksu, Kenan; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Lappin, David F; Evrenosoğlu, Evren; Kinane, Denis F

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes and effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in chronic periodontitis patients with/without rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fifteen RA patients with chronic periodontitis (RA-P) and 15 systemically healthy non-RA chronic periodontitis patients (H-P) were recruited. Clinical periodontal recordings, GCF, and blood samples were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after periodontal treatment. GCF, serum IL-1β, TNF-α levels were analyzed by ELISA. Disease activity score 28 (DAS28) was used to assess RA clinical morbidity. Study groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the data at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after periodontal therapy within the same group. DAS28 decreased significantly after periodontal therapy in RA-P group (p periodontal therapy. GCF IL-1β amounts decreased significantly in both groups following treatment (p periodontal indices (p periodontal treatment suggest that periodontal therapy synergizes with systemic RA therapy to improve RA status.

  10. Effect of TNF-α Blockade in Gingival Crevicular Fluid on Periodontal Condition of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, Zeinab; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Esmaili, Zahra; Vojdanian, Mahdi; Akbari, Solmaz

    2016-09-01

    Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) share a number of clinical and pathologic features, one of which is the presence of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced bone resorption that is involved in the pathogenesis of both. To investigate the effect of TNF-α blockade on periodontal conditions in patients with active RA. The periodontal statuses of 36 patients (26 females, 10 males) diagnosed with active RA were evaluated both before and after anti-TNF-α therapy. Gingival index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), oral hygiene index (OHI), and levels of TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were measured at the baseline and 6 weeks after the treatment. Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for statistical analyses. Based on OHI (p=0.860), the level of plaque control did not change during the study period, but there was a significant reduction in gingival inflammation based on the mean BOP (p=0.049) and GI (p=0.036) before and after 6 weeks of anti-TNF-α therapy. The mean PPD index did not significantly differ at the baseline and 6 weeks after treatment (p=0.126). Anti-TNF-α therapy might have a desirable effect on periodontal conditions and might reduce TNF-α level in GCF of patients with RA.

  11. Comparative study of substance P and neurokinin A in gingival crevicular fluid of healthy and painful carious permanent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Alireza; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Rokouei, Mehrak; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Rahbar, Pegah

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is shown that neuropeptides can be transported from pulp chamber to periodontal ligament through apical foramen and accessory canals. Therefore, clinical pulpal pain leads to expression of preinflammatory neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). This study aimed to evaluate levels of SP and NKA in GCF of carious and healthy permanent teeth, comparatively. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on twenty children referred to Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, who had a painful permanent first molar. Sampling was done by sterile paper cone from GCF of the mentioned teeth and the intact tooth of the other side of the jaw in the same patient. Values of SP and NKA were measured by ELISA test. Results: The mean concentration of SP in GCF of painful carious and healthy teeth was 2.65 ± 0.56 and 1.83 ± 0.65 pcgr/ml, respectively. This value was 2.29 ± 0.29 and 1.61 ± 0.35 pcgr/ml for NKA concentration in carious and healthy teeth as well. Conclusion: Significant higher levels of both SP and NKA in GCF of painful carious teeth were observed, which is in line with previous studies’ findings.

  12. RP-HPLC assay of doxycycline in human saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denić, Marko S; Sunarić, Slavica M; Kesić, Ljiljana G; Minić, Ivan Z; Obradović, Radmila R; Denić, Marija S; Petrović, Milica S

    2013-05-05

    A reversed-phased HPLC method with fluorescence detection was optimized and validated for determination of DOXY in human saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) with tetracycline as internal standard. Single step extraction with acetonitrile for both types of samples was performed. The separation was achieved at Zorbax Extend-C18 analytical column at 30°C. Mobile phase was consisted of an aqueous phase containing magnesium acetate, ammonium acetate, Na₂EDTA, triethyl-ammonium acetate buffered to pH 7.5 with ammonium hydroxide solution and acetonitrile. The volume ratio of the buffered water mixture of salts and acetonitrile was 86:14. Fluorescence detector was set at λex=380 nm and λem=520 nm. Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was found in the range of 5.0-250.0 ng/mL for GCF with LOD of 1.63 ng/mL and LOQ of 4.93 ng/mL and 20.0-500.0 ng/mL for saliva with LOD of 6.36 ng/mL and LOQ of 19.28 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied for determination of DOXY in saliva and GCF obtained from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, an oxidative stress marker in crevicular fluid and serum in type 2 diabetes with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic periodontitis (CP is a common, chronic inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria, which has an increased prevalence and severity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2 DM. A variety of reactive oxygen species are able to cause direct damage to proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, carbohydrates and lipids. Lipid peroxidation is always combined with the formation of reactive aldehydes like 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of the HNE-His adducts levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in t2 DM among CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 subjects (20 males and 20 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (10 healthy, Group 2 (15 subjects, CP without t2 DM, Group 3 (15 subjects, CP with t2 DM. Serum and GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of the HNE-His adducts by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean HNE-His adducts concentration both in serum and GCF was highest for Group 3 followed by Group 2 and least in Group 1. Conclusions: All samples in each group tested positive for HNE-His adducts assay. Serum and GCF HNE-His adducts concentration both in t2 DM with CP and non-diabetic CP subjects were higher than the healthy controls. Further large scale longitudinal studies should be carried out to confirm positive correlations.

  14. Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Visfatin Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator which acts as growth factor, cytokine, enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and has been recently demonstrated to exert several pro-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the GCF and serum visfatin concentration. 30 subjects (age range: 25 to 52 years were selected and divided into two groups based on the gingival index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level, and radiologic parameters (bone loss: group 1 (15 subjects with healthy periodontium, group 2 (15 subjects with chronic periodontitis, while, Group 2 patients after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning, SRP constituted group 3. GCF samples (by microcapillary pipettes and serum samples (by venipuncture were collected to estimate the levels of Visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mean Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1. While concentration in group 3 was similar to group 1. The concentration of Visfatin in GCF and serum decreased after SRP. The Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum found to be highest in chronic periodontitis group and decreases after treatment. Hence Visfatin values can be considered as an “inflammatory marker” can be explored in future as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  15. Effect of Periodontal Surgery on Osteoprotegerin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid, Saliva, and Gingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy H. S. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was undertaken to investigate the OPG profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF, saliva, and gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis (CP patients in response to open flap debridement (OFD. Subjects and Methods. The study included 30 subjects divided into 2 groups: 20 CP patients and 10 periodontally healthy subjects. Plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment level measurements were recorded for all subjects. GCF, salivary, and gingival samples were collected from all 30 subjects at baseline and 3 and 6 month after OFD from the 20 CP patients. GCF and salivary OPG levels were assessed by ELISA assay, while OPG expression in gingival tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results. GCF, salivary and gingival OPG profiles were significantly higher in control subjects compared to CP patients at baseline (P<0.001. Within CP group, OPG levels in GCF, saliva, and gingival samples showed a significant increase at 3 and 6 months after OFD (P<0.001 compared to baseline. Although OPG values increased significantly in gingival samples and insignificantly in saliva after 3 months compared to 6 months, yet GCF levels were significantly decreased. Conclusions. OPG might be considered as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of periodontal bone destruction. This trial is registered with NCT02160613.

  16. Comparative study of substance P and neurokinin A in gingival crevicular fluid of healthy and painful carious permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Alireza; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Rokouei, Mehrak; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Rahbar, Pegah

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that neuropeptides can be transported from pulp chamber to periodontal ligament through apical foramen and accessory canals. Therefore, clinical pulpal pain leads to expression of preinflammatory neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). This study aimed to evaluate levels of SP and NKA in GCF of carious and healthy permanent teeth, comparatively. This cross-sectional study was performed on twenty children referred to Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, who had a painful permanent first molar. Sampling was done by sterile paper cone from GCF of the mentioned teeth and the intact tooth of the other side of the jaw in the same patient. Values of SP and NKA were measured by ELISA test. The mean concentration of SP in GCF of painful carious and healthy teeth was 2.65 ± 0.56 and 1.83 ± 0.65 pcgr/ml, respectively. This value was 2.29 ± 0.29 and 1.61 ± 0.35 pcgr/ml for NKA concentration in carious and healthy teeth as well. Significant higher levels of both SP and NKA in GCF of painful carious teeth were observed, which is in line with previous studies' findings.

  17. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  18. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  19. Assessment of gingival condition and cytokine content in gingival crevicular fluid after elastic fiber combined with flowable resin repair of pit and fissure caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ran Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the gingival condition and cytokine content in gingival crevicular fluid after elastic fiber combined with flowable resin repair of pit and fissure caries.Methods:A total of 68 patients with pit and fissure caries who received elastic fiber combined with flowable resin repair treatment in our hospital between May 2013 and August 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, group A received elastic fiber combined with reinforced flowable resin material for repair and group B received elastic fiber combined with normal flowable resin material for repair. Four weeks after repair, gingival bleeding index was assessed, and gingival crevicular fluid was collected to determine the content of interleukins and protease molecules as well as the expression levels of autophagy genes.Results: Four weeks after treatment, the gingival bleeding index of group A was significantly lower than that of group B; IL-8, IL-17, IL-18, IL-21, IL-23, IL-35, MMP1, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 content as well asAtg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 andLC-3II expression levels in gingival crevicular fluid of group A were significantly lower than those of control group while TIMP1 and TIMP2 content were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusions: The gingival condition is more ideal after elastic fiber combined with reinforced flowable resin repair of pit and fissure caries, and reinforced flowable resin can alleviate the tissue injury mediated by interleukins, matrix metalloproteinases and autophagy.

  20. The effect of subgingival antimicrobial therapy on the levels of stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaghi, N; Radvar, M; Mooney, J; Kinane, D F

    1996-09-01

    Recent investigations imply that a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease may be the ability of oral microorganisms to induce production and/or activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the host tissues. It has been suggested that the pharmacologic inhibition of MMP activity could play an important role in achieving a desirable outcome in periodontal therapy. The efficacy of locally delivered antibiotics on the level of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) stromelysin (SL) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) on sites with a history of a poor response to mechanical treatment was studied. Fifty-two patients with 4 periodontal pockets > or = 5 mm and bleeding on probing were randomized into four groups of 13 patients. One group received scaling and root planing alone and the other three groups received scaling and root planing plus a locally delivered antimicrobial system. These included 25% tetracycline fiber, 2% minocycline gel, and 25% metronidazole gel. The GCF samples taken at baseline and 6 weeks after treatments were analyzed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GCF SL levels significantly decreased after adjunctive tetracycline fiber (paired t-test, P = 0.020) and minocycline gel (paired t-test, P = 0.023) treatments whereas it remained almost unchanged in the other two groups. While the GCF TIMP level did not change significantly in the scaling and root planing alone group, it significantly increased for all three adjunctive antimicrobial treatments (for tetracycline fiber P family, may offer an advantage in changing the metalloproteinase profile of the GCF to one more compatible with periodontal health.

  1. Interleukin-1β level in peri-implant crevicular fluid and its correlation with the clinical and radiographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha M Kajale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Assessing only the clinical and radiographic parameters for evaluation of dental implants may not be enough as they often reflect extensive inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissues. As peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF can give us a more prompt and objective measure of the disease activity, the purpose of this case series is to assess the peri-implant health status of single tooth dental implants not only clinically and radiographically but also biochemically. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients were subjected to dental implants at single edentulous sites using a conventional surgical approach. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months after implant placement, the clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded. Additionally, IL-1β in PICF was estimated using the ELISA kit at 6 th and 12 th month. Results: The clinical and radiographic parameters differed significantly around the implants at different time intervals with IL-1β levels showing highly significant differences between 6 months (31.79 ± 12.26 pg/μl and 12 months (113.09 ± 51.11 pg/μl. However, Spearman′s correlation coefficient showed no correlation with the clinical and radiographic parameters. Interpretation and Conclusion: Assessment of the various parameters confirmed that all the implants had a healthy peri-implant status. Although the levels of IL-1β in PICF were elevated at the 12 th month, they were well within the healthy range as observed by previous studies. This indicates that IL-1β, a biochemical marker, can be used as an adjunct to clinical and radiographic parameters in the assessment of EARLY inflammatory changes around implants.

  2. Correlation Between Arteriosclerosis and Periodontal Condition Assessed by Lactoferrin and α1-Antitrypsin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-o; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Patients with periodontal disease exhibit exacerbated atherosclerosis, aortic stiffness, or vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, in a recent scientific statement, the American Heart Association noted that neither has periodontal disease been proven to cause atherosclerotic vascular disease nor has the treatment of periodontal disease been proven to prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between periodontal condition and arteriosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which is usually accompanied by systemic arteriosclerosis.We measured levels of gingival crevicular fluid lactoferrin (GCF-Lf) and α1-antitrypsin (GCF-AT) in 72 patients (67 ± 8 years, 56 men) with CAD. Furthermore, we evaluated the maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT) and plaque score of the carotid arteries as well as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, each of which is a parameter for determining arteriosclerosis status. The average level of GCF-Lf was 0.29 ± 0.36 µg/mL and that of GCF-AT was 0.31 ± 0.66 µg/mL, with significant correlation between the two (r = 0.701, P < 0.001). No significant difference in GCF-Lf and GCF-AT levels was observed between patients with single-, double-, and triple-vessel CAD. There were no significant correlations between the arteriosclerosis parameters (ie, max IMT, plaque score, baPWV, and FMD) and GCF-Lf or GCF-AT.No correlation between the GCF biomarkers and the severity of arteriosclerosis was detected. This result may suggest that worsening of the periodontal condition assessed by GCF biomarkers is not a major potential risk factor for arteriosclerosis.

  3. The use of 2 antibiotic regimens in aggressive periodontitis: comparison of changes in clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, Eli E; Younis, Mahmoud N

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in conjunction with 2 different antibacterial agents on clinical and immunological parameters in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients. Thirty-one AgP patients underwent clinical examination that included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). GCF (gingival crevicular fluid) samples were collected and assayed for PGE(2), IL-1beta, and TNFalpha. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy was performed. The patients received doxycycline (doxy group) or metronidazole plus amoxicillin (am-met group). After completion of the mechanical phase of therapy, patients were seen biweekly for oral hygiene reinforcement. After 12 weeks, clinical measurements and GCF sampling were repeated. The combined mechanical and antimicrobial therapy resulted in overall improvement in all clinical parameters; mean PPD reduction of 0.74 +/- 0.1 mm and mean CAL gain 0.86 +/- 0.1 mm were both statistically significant (P = .0001). Marked reduction was observed for PGE2 and IL-1beta, but not TNFalpha. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at baseline or final examination, except for PGE(2) at final examination: It was significantly lower for the doxy group (83.61 +/- 5.8 ng) than for the am-met group (124.08 +/- 15.8 ng), P = .0202. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant improvements in the clinical and immunological parameters. When combined mechanical and antimicrobial protocol is desired and microbial cultures are not available, the use of both antibiotic regimens is recommended; the treatment of choice should be based on compliance, allergies, and potential side effects.

  4. Glycated albumin and calprotectin levels in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiura, Yukari; Bando, Mika; Inagaki, Yuji; Nagata, Toshihiko; Kido, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a high prevalence of periodontitis. Periodontitis in these patients is characterized by severe inflammation and tissue breakdown, and its diagnosis is important for cures of periodontitis and DM. The purpose of this study is to investigate the levels of glycated albumin (GA), a DM marker, and calprotectin, an inflammatory marker, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from patients with periodontitis and DM (DM-P). The 78 participants in this study were patients with DM, chronic periodontitis (CP), DM-P, and healthy individuals (H). GCF and blood were collected, and GA and calprotectin in GCF were analyzed using Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels were compared among H, DM, CP, and DM-P groups. Blood GA and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured, and the correlation among GCF GA and blood HbA1c or GA levels was investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for GCF GA to predict DM was performed. GA was identified in GCF, and its amount/concentration in GCF samples from DM and DM-P were significantly higher than those of non-DM groups (H and CP). Calprotectin amounts in GCF from CP and DM-P were significantly higher than in H and DM groups. GCF GA level was positively correlated with blood HbA1c and GA level. ROC analysis of GCF GA showed an optimal cutoff value to predict DM. GA showed a high level in GCF from patients with DM. Examination of GA and calprotectin in GCF may be useful for predicting DM-P.

  5. Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid transforming growth factor-β1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... growth factor-β1 level after treatment of intrabony periodontal ... the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects of chronic periodontitis ...... fluid of periodontitis patients with and without type 2 diabetes: A literature review.

  6. Levels of interleukin-1β in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with coronary heart disease and its relationship to periodontal status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenggogeny, Putri; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Periodontitis is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Both diseases are an inflammatory diseases and have the same potential pathogenic mechanisms. Interleukin-1β as a pro-inflammatory main cytokine, can be found in this both diseases. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) derived from the serum of gingival sulcus, affected by inflammatory mechanism and the amount of this fluid will increase in that situation. Objective: To analyze the relationship of interleukin-1β levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of CHD and non-CHD patients with periodontal status. Methods: Oral clinical examination (plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) for 35 subjects with CHD and 35 non CHD were checked, laboratory test to measure the levels of Interleukin-1β was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There was no significant differences between interleukin-1β levels in CHD and non-CHD patients (p>0.05); there was no significant difference between the level of Interleukin-1β with periodontal status in CHD and control (non CHD) patients (p>0.05). Conclusions: levels of Interleukin-1β in CHD patients do not have a relationships with plaque index, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, but has a relationships with bleeding on probing.

  7. The detection of subgingival microflora contents of type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis and its correlation with gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Hua Luo; Qian Chen; Huan Zhao; Ping Xu; Yong-Xiang Fan; Ji Shi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study subgingival microflora contents of type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis and its correlation with gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis and simple periodontitis patients treated in our hospital from March 2012 to August 2014 were selected for study and enrolled in diabetes with periodontitis group and simple periodontitis group respectively. Then subgingival microflora contents and levels of cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid were detected. Results: (1) Subgingival microflora: compared with simple periodontitis group, contents of porphyromonas gingivalis aeromonas, actinomycetes with haemophilus, Forsyth Tanner bacteria, middle Prairie Waugh bacteria and Treponema denticola of diabetes with periodontitis group were higher;(2) Antioxidants and oxidation products: compared with simple periodontitis group, MPO, CAT, SOD, GSH and VitC contents of diabetic with periodontitis group were lower; MDA and 8-OhdG contents were higher; (3) Signaling molecules: compared with simple periodontitis group, SFRP1, Fas, FasL, Wnt5a, NF-kb and p38 contents of diabetic with periodontitis group were higher. Conclusion: Contents of pathogens in subgingival microflora of type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis significantly increase; antioxidants are extensively consumed and oxidation products are largely generated; there is dysfunction of multiple signaling pathways.

  8. Influence of dental filling material type on the concentration of interleukin 9 in the samples of gingival crevicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Several cytokines and lymphokines (IL1β, ENA78, IL6, TNFα, IL8 and S100A8 are expressed during dental pulp inflammation. Analysis of gingival crevicu-lar fluid (GCF offers a non-invasive means of studying gen-eral host response in oral cavity. Although GCF levels of various mediators could reflect the state of inflammation both in dental pulp and gingiva adjacent to a tooth, GCF samples of those without significant gingivitis could be inter-preted as reflection of pulpal process. The aim of this study was to investigate IL9 GCF values in patients with dental car-ies and to assess possible influence of various dental fillings materials on local IL9 production. Methods. The study group included 90 patients, aged 18–70, with inclusion and exclusion criteria in the prospective clinical study. Of the 6 types of material used for the restoration of prepared cavities, 3 were intended for temporary and 3 for definitive restora-tion. According to dental fillings weight, all the participants were divided into 3 groups: those with fillings lighter than 0.50 g, those with 0.50–1.00 g, and those with fillings heavier than 1.00 g. Samples were taken from gingival sulcus using the filter paper technique. Clinical parameters were deter-mined by bleeding index, plaque index (Silness-Lou, 0–3, gingival index (0–3, and gingival sulcus depth. Cytokine con-centrations were assessed using commercially available cy-tomix. Results. According to the weight of dental fillings, there was a clear decreament trend of IL9 values meaning that dental defects greater than 1.00 g of dental filling were associated with lower GCF IL9 concentration. The IL9 val-ues correlated with the degree of gingival index and depth of gingival sulcus, being higher with more advanced gingivitis and more pronounced anatomical changes in the tooth edge. Different filling materials exerted various local IL9 responses. Zink polycarbonate cement and amalgam fillings induced

  9. Effect of periodontal therapy on metabolic control and levels of IL-6 in the gingival crevicular fluid in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriela Alessandra da Cruz Galhardo; Lima, Meyriane de Andrade; Fortes, Tânia Vieira; de Souza, Cristiane Salgado; de Jesus, Amelia Maria; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of metabolic control and levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in gingival crevicular fluid after periodontal therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and nondiabetic (NDM) patients. This study was performed in 20 subjects (10 type 2 DM and 10 NDM patients with generalized chronic periodontal disease. Both groups were recorded for clinical parameters (plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR) and clinical attachment level (CAL)), metabolic control (fasting glucose levels, glycated a-hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TR)), and IL-6 levels at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment. DM and NDM patients revealed significant statistical reductions for clinical parameters (P periodontal therapy. However, TRG levels increased after 3 months, which suggest more confirmatory studies to investigate if these results will be repeated in other studies.

  10. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  11. Association of peripheral arterial disease with periodontal disease: analysis of inflammatory cytokines and an acute phase protein in gingival crevicular fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalapkorur, M Unlu; Alkan, B A; Tasdemir, Z; Akcali, Y; Saatçi, E

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation is a common feature of both peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PAD and periodontal disease by examining the levels of inflammatory cytokines (pentraxin 3 and interleukin 1β) and high sensitive C-reactive protein from gingival crevicular fluid and serum. A total of 60 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups based on ankle-brachial index values: with PAD (test group) and non-PAD (control group). Demographic evaluations, clinical periodontal examinations and biochemical analysis for pentraxin 3, interleukin 1β and high sensitive C-reactive protein were performed to compare the two groups. There were no significant differences with respect to gender, age, body mass index, or smoking history (duration, amount) between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical periodontal parameters (p > 0.05). Neither gingival crevicular fluid nor serum levels of the cytokines showed differences between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for confounding factors (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension and body mass index), periodontitis raised the odds ratio for having PAD to 5.842 (95% confidence interval: 1.558-21.909). Although there were no significant differences with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and biochemical analyses between the study group and control, periodontitis did raise the odds ratio for having PAD. To clarify this possible relationship, future prospective studies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum levels of APRIL, BAFF and TNF-alpha in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pinar; Buduneli, Eralp; Biyikoğlu, Başak; Aksu, Kenan; Saraç, Fulden; Buduneli, Nurcan; Lappin, David F

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activating factor (BAFF) and compare this to differences between TNF-alpha levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoporosis (OPR) and systemically healthy women with periodontal disease (SH). Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples were obtained before any periodontal intervention from 17 RA, 19 OPR patients and 13 SH women with periodontitis. Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. APRIL, BAFF and TNF-α levels were determined by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate analysis, ANOVA and Spearman correlation. Pocket depths differed in site-specific comparisons, but otherwise clinical measurements were similar in the three study groups. Multivariate least squares regression ANOVA adjusted for age and for plaque index indicated that total amounts of TNF-α and concentrations of TNF-α, BAFF and APRIL were significantly greater in the RA patients than in the SH group (p<0.05), and GCF concentrations of BAFF were greater in OPR patients than in SH. Serum TNF-α and BAFF were significantly higher in the RA group compared to SH (p<0.05) and serum TNF-α was greater in RA than in OPR (p<0.05). APRIL and BAFF correlated with RANKL levels in GCF and serum (p<0.05). Despite long-term usage of anti-inflammatory drugs in the RA and OPR patients, increased TNF-family cytokines, might suggest that these patients have a propensity to overproduce these inflammatory mediators but whether this results from greater disease activity or contribute to greater disease activity remains moot. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Asociación entre niveles de TNF-α en fluido crevicular gingival de dientes con periodontitis apical asintomática Levels of TNF-α increase in gingival crevicular fluid of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garrido Flores

    2011-12-01

    resorption, a hallmark of asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF has a great potential as a source of factors associated with osteoclastic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of TNF- a in GCF of teeth with PAA and contralateral healthy controls. Methods: A total of 14 patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP were enrolled from the Clinic of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile during 2009 and 30-second GCF samples were obtained with paper strips from AAP teeth and contralateral healthy controls. Total protein concentration and TNF- a levels were determined through bisciconitic acid method and ELISA assay, respectively. Paired t test and StataV11 software were used for statistical analysis. Results: Levels of TNF- a were significantly higher in GCF from teeth with AAP than controls when standardized by either 30s of sampling and total protein content. Conclusions: The present study provides preliminary data supporting that TNF- a levels in GCF reflect periapical status. Screening of TNF- a levels in GCF might represent a useful side-diagnostic tool to the monitoring of the apical status.

  14. 糖尿病合并牙周病患者龈沟液的研究进展%Research progress on gingival crevicular fluid in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧; 梁景平

    2013-01-01

      糖尿病与牙周病两者间存在相互影响的观点已获得普遍的认可,但其具体机制还不甚明了。龈沟液由于其来源于血清和牙龈组织间质,因此能一定程度地反映组织局部的炎症情况。且由于其获取简便、无创,近年来已成为研究糖尿病与牙周病关系的热点对象。本文将就糖尿病合并牙周病患者龈沟液方面的研究展开综述。%  Although the interaction of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis was generally accepted, the mechanism is still not identified. Gingival crevicular fluid can reflect the inflammation of the periodontal tissue because it originates from the serum and interstitium. In addition, the simple and noninvasive access of gingival crevicular fluid made it become the hot spots in the researches on the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases in re-cent years. This article aims to review the researches of gingival crevicular fluid in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases.

  15. Evaluation and comparison of interleukin-8 (IL-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid in health and severity of periodontal disease: A clinico-biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma S Lagdive

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytokines play an important role in the pathology associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Because of pro-inflammatory and neutrophil chemotactic properties, the cytokines like interleukins (IL may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The biological effects of IL-8 are relevant in this regard. Aim: This study was done to compare the level of this molecule in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF from patients with adult periodontitis (experimental group and from individuals with clinically healthy gingival (control group. Materials and Methods: GCF was collected from patients with adult periodontitis and clinically healthy gingival for 30 s using a Periopaper strip and the volume of the sample determined. Following elution of the fluid, assays for IL-8 were carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The concentration of IL-8 was calculated in the original volume of GCF on each strip. Results: The level of IL-8 in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group ( P < 0.01. The clinical parameters were positively correlated to IL-8, suggesting that the GCF IL-8 exhibited dynamic changes upon severity of periodontal disease ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: These data suggest that level of IL-8 is associated with periodontal status. The level of IL-8 in GCF is valuable in detecting the inflammation of periodontal tissue.

  16. Comparison of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal health, disease and after treatment: A clinico biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the role of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the present study is to estimate the levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in periodontal health, disease and to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on MMP-3 and TIMP-1 concentrations in GCF. Materials and Methods: A periodontal examination and collection of GCF by extra-crevicular method was performed in 30 subjects selected randomly and categorized into 3 groups. Group I consists of 10 subjects Group II consists of 20 patients and Group III consists of 20 patients of Group II. Non surgical periodontal therapy was performed, and GCF was collected after 8 weeks from the same site of 20 chronic periodontitis patients who are considered as Group III. MMP- 3 and TIMP-1 levels were estimated in GCF-samples by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The findings were analyzed using the software and descriptive statistical methods such as Mann- Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. P value < 0.001 was considered significant. Results: MMP-3 and TIMP-1 was detected in all samples. Highest mean MMP-3 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group II (7.490 ng/ml while the lowest concentrations were seen in Group I (0.344 ng/ml and Group III (2.129 ng/ml. This suggests that MMP-3 levels in GCF increases proportionally with the progression of periodontal disease and decreases after treatment. Lowest mean TIMP-1 concentrations in GCF were obtained for Group-II (1.592 ng/ml, while the highest concentrations were seen in Group-I (8.78 ng/ml and Group-III (6.40 ng/ml. This suggests that TIMP-1 levels in GCF decreases proportionally with progression of periodontal disease and increases after treatment. Conclusion: There is a substantial increase in the concentrations of MMP-3 and decrease in TIMP-1 as periodontal disease progress. Since MMP-3 and TIMP-1 levels

  17. Evaluation of the Relationship between Interleukin 17 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Healthy Individuals and Patient with Moderate Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Farsam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affect the tooth-supporting tissue. It is occurs as a result of the interaction between periodontopathic bacteria and cells of host immune system. There is increasing evidence that the cytokine interleukin- 17 play a role in progression of chronic periodontitis but the exact role of this cytokine is controversial. Thus the aim of this study is evaluation of relationship between interleukin-17 level in GCF(Gingival Crevicular fluid with moderate chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 individual (n=30 per group were recruited for the study. Group 1 included 30 individual with healthy gingiva and Group 2 included 30 moderate chronic periodontitis patient.GCF samples collected in two groups.IL-17 levels were estimated in GCF using enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay(ELIZA. Results : The mean concentration of IL-17 was significantly higher in group 2 when compared with group 1.GI(Gingival index and CAL(Clinical Attachment Loss were significantly higher in group 2 when compared with group 1. Conclusion: The more level of IL- 17 in GCF in patients with chronic periodontitis suggest that IL – 17 is involved in the periodontal inflammatory process.

  18. Patients with dental calculus have increased saliva and gingival crevicular fluid fetuin-A levels but no association with fetuin-A polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Demir, Turgut; Laloğlu, Esra; Sağlam, Ebru; Aksoy, Hülya; Yildirim, Abdulkadir; Akçay, Fatih

    2016-12-22

    Fetuin-A is a potent inhibitor of calcium-phosphate precipitation and of the calcification process, therefore it can also be related with dental calculus. Thus, we aimed to investigate a possible relationship between fetuin-A gene polymorphism and the presence of dental calculus. A possible relationship between serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of fetuin-A was also investigated. Fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were investigated in 103 patients with or without dental calculus. Additionally, serum, saliva and GCF fetuin-A levels of patients were compared according to dental calculus presence. A significant difference was not observed in the distribution of the fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms between patients with or without dental calculus. Saliva and GCF fetuin-A concentrations of patients with dental calculus were statistically higher than those without dental calculus (P=0.001, P=0.036 respectively). According to our results, fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were not associated with presence of dental calculus. However, higher GCF and saliva fetuin-A levels were detected in patients with dental calculus than in patients without dental calculus, which may result from an adaptive mechanism to inhibit mineral precipitation and eventually calculus formation.

  19. LEVELS OF LL-37 ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE IN THE GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID OF YOUNG AND MIDDLE-AGED SUBJECTS WITH OR WITHOUT GINGIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya TÜRKOĞLU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: LL-37 is an antimicrobial peptide which plays an important role in the innate immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the LL-37 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of middle-aged and young adults who have either gingivitis or healthy periodontal tissues. Materials and Methods: Forty middle-aged adults (20 healthy controls and 20 with gingivitis and 41 younger adults (20 healthy controls and 21 with gingivitis were included in the present study. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index, and papilla bleeding index were recorded. LL-37 levels in the GCF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: No significant differences were observed in the GCF LL-37 levels between young healthy and middle-aged healthy subjects. Also, there were no significant differences in GCF LL-37 levels between young and middle-aged gingivitis subjects. However, gingivitis groups had significantly higher GCF LL-37 levels than healthy groups (p<0.001. Correlation analysis demonstrated no significant correlation between age and GCF LL-37 levels neither in healthy nor in gingivitis groups. Conclusion: The levels of LL-37 in GCF increase in the presence of gingival inflammation, however, this does not vary according to subjects being young or middle-aged.

  20. The effect of adjunctive low-dose doxycycline and licorice therapy on gingival crevicular fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Zahra Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compared the effect of adjunctive low dose doxycycline and licorice on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this in vivo, experimental study 39 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were selected. Samples of GCF were collected from three deepest pockets and MMP-8 concentration was measured. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 13. Groups were treated with doxycycline, licorice and placebo. Sampling and measurement of MMP-8 was repeated after 6 weeks. Data was analyzed by t-paired and ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered significant. Results: The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in doxycycline and licorice group in comparison with the placebo group and the difference was statistically significant (P value < 0.001. The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in licorice group than doxycycline group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed that licorice extract can prevent the production of MMPs by host cells and can be as useful as antibiotics like doxycycline to cure periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. It must be added that no side-effects were observed in usage of licorice extract.

  1. The effects of chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis on serum and gingival crevicular fluid total antioxidant/oxidant status and oxidative stress index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Cağrı; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Kırnap, Mehmet; Akgül, Ozgür; Işıkoğlu, Semra; Erel, Ozcan

    2012-06-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appear to share many pathologic features. Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of both CP and RA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases with regard to antioxidant and oxidant status. A total of 80 participants were divided into four groups of 20 each: group RA-CP (patients with RA and CP), group RA (periodontally healthy patients with RA), group CP (systemically healthy patients with CP), and group C (periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers) were included in the study. After assessment of periodontal measurements, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were taken at one incisor, premolar, and molar tooth and stored with serum samples at -80°C for the antioxidant/oxidant assay. Although all clinical measurements in groups RA-CP and CP were statistically higher compared to those of C and RA groups (P 0.05). GCF total oxidant status (TOS) values of CP and RA-CP groups were higher than those of the RA group (P oxidative stress index (OSI) values of the RA-CP group were higher than those of the RA group (P 0.05). Local OSI values in groups with patients with CP were higher, whereas systemic OSI values showed no difference among the groups. The presence of RA seems not to affect local and systemic OSI values in patients with CP.

  2. Effect of chronic periodontitis on serum and gingival crevicular fluid oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with familial Mediterranean fever before and after periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Vildan; Toker, Hulya; Senel, Soner; Ozdemir, Hakan; Aydin, Huseyin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of periodontal status on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) who experienced familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and their response to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Data were obtained from 13 patients with FMF with generalized CP (FMF-CP), 15 systemically healthy patients with generalized CP, 15 systemically and periodontal healthy controls (HCs), and 14 periodontally healthy patients with FMF (FMF-HC). Each participant's total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in their gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum were recorded. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival and plaque indices in each participant were also measured. The GCF and clinical parameters at baseline and 6 weeks after periodontal treatment were recorded. The study showed statistically significant improvement of clinical parameters in both FMF-CP and CP groups after periodontal treatment. The baseline GCF-TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in the CP group compared with the FMF-CP group (P treatment, the GCF-TOS levels were significantly reduced in members of the FMF-CP group (P 0.05). The results of the present study show that patients with FMF-CP displayed reduced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant status compared with those in the CP and HC groups.

  3. Gingival inflammation and interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in gingival crevicular fluid during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Ulku; Cekici, Ali; Tanrikulu-Kucuk, Sevda; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2009-12-01

    Hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause may impact periodontal tissues by altering the host response. There are only a few studies that examined gingival changes during the menstrual cycle. This longitudinal and prospective study aims to investigate clinical and laboratory markers of gingival inflammation in women at different phases during their menstrual cycles. Twenty-seven females were included in this study. Subjects were given oral hygiene instructions before the study, and their plaque index scores were recorded once a week for 2 months. The duration and regularity of the menstrual cycle were also checked at the same time. The gingival index and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Probing depths were measured to assess the periodontal condition of the subjects. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected to analyze the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the first menstruation day (MD), estimated ovulation day (OD), and estimated predominant progesterone secretion day (PgD). These exact menstrual cycle days were determined according to serum progesterone and estradiol levels. BOP and IL-1beta levels in GCF showed significant increases from the MD to PgD under optimal plaque control. Among the 12 subjects that had premenstrual symptoms, six subjects reported oral complaints during the premenstrual period, whereas apthous lesions were more frequent during the menstruation period. These results demonstrate that the fluctuation of sex steroid hormones impact gingival inflammation during menstruation.

  4. Cigarette smoking induced liver insult concomitant with inflammatory mediators in serum crevicular fluid and bronchio alveolar lavage of schistosomal diabetic subjects with history of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Samia A; Shafik, Sherine R; Wagih, Ayman; Amir, El-Amir M; Kassem, Gamal K; Atef, Ghada; El-Toukhy, Heba

    2007-08-01

    Forty five smokers were classified into schistosomal cases with type-2 diabetis mellitus (GI) and with associated history of bronchial asthma (GII) and without T-2 DM (GIII). A control group (GIV) of non-diabetic non schistosomal age matched subjects who quitted smoking for >6 months were included. Assessed parameters included indices of glycemic status (glycated hemoglobin), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) hepatic and bronchoalveolar disposition (Liver function test, metallothionein, serum levels of cotinine, cadmium selenium, copper & zinc) and bronchoalveolar lavage) (BAL) levels of surfactant proteins A & D, zinc and copper oxidative stress and fibrogenesis (total antioxidant capacity thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and vasculopathy (angiotensin converting enzyme, P-selectin, nitrate) and periodontitis (collagenase and elastase in GCF) impact of cigarette smoking associated with trace element disbalance and enzymatic changes in crevicular fluid on altered parameters collaborative out-come. The study reflected the collaborative outcome of immune mediated mechanisms initiated by liver affection, glycemic status and history of predisposed bronchial integrity induced by oxidative stress.

  5. Inflammatory markers in gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to glycemic control: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Priscila Larcher; Artese, Hilana Paula Carilo; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Gomes, Giovane Hisse; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Dib, Sergio Atala; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and periodontitis are inflammatory conditions with a bidirectional association. This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether T2DM and glycemic control interfere in inflammatory markers profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in periodontitis patients. Fourteen diabetic periodontitis patients were enrolled in this study, seven with adequate glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] periodontitis patients without diabetes formed the control group (P). GCF was obtained from diseased sites (probing depth >6 mm) of an entirely hemiarch, pooled and cytokines levels determined using multiplex beads immunoassay. Clinical periodontal parameters were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and levels of cytokines by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's multiple comparison tests with confidence level of 95% (P periodontal pockets presented high levels of inflammatory cytokines, and there were no statistical differences between levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α according to presence of diabetes or percentage of HbA1c among the groups, despite groups with T2DM and periodontitis exhibit higher levels of PD. Within the limitations of this study, inflammatory mediators in GCF are dependent to the local response and do not correlate with the diabetic status.

  6. Levels of vaspin and omentin-1 in gingival crevicular fluid as potential markers of inflammation in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt Doğan, Şeyma; Öngöz Dede, Figen; Ballı, Umut; Sertoğlu, Erdim

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the levels of vaspin and omentin-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to evaluate GCF vaspin and omentin-1 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The study included 60 subjects: 15 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals, 15 periodontally healthy patients with T2DM, 15 systemically healthy patients with CP, and 15 patients with both CP and T2DM. GCF and clinical periodontal parameters were examined at the baseline and 6 weeks after periodontal therapy. Levels of vaspin, omentin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA, and their relative ratios were calculated. GCF vaspin and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the CP groups than in the periodontally healthy groups (P periodontally healthy groups (P periodontal therapy influenced the GCF levels of both vaspin and omentin-1 in the CP groups. Our results suggest that the levels of vaspin and omentin-1 in GCF could have potential application as inflammatory markers of diabetes, periodontal disease and treatment outcome. (J Oral Sci 58, 379-389, 2016).

  7. Inflammatory markers in gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to glycemic control: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Larcher Longo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and periodontitis are inflammatory conditions with a bidirectional association. This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether T2DM and glycemic control interfere in inflammatory markers profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Fourteen diabetic periodontitis patients were enrolled in this study, seven with adequate glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 6 mm of an entirely hemiarch, pooled and cytokines levels determined using multiplex beads immunoassay. Clinical periodontal parameters were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and levels of cytokines by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn′s multiple comparison tests with confidence level of 95% (P < 0.05. Results: Cytokines profile of GCF obtained from deep periodontal pockets presented high levels of inflammatory cytokines, and there were no statistical differences between levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α according to presence of diabetes or percentage of HbA1c among the groups, despite groups with T2DM and periodontitis exhibit higher levels of PD. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, inflammatory mediators in GCF are dependent to the local response and do not correlate with the diabetic status.

  8. Study of TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of a rat model of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhu-Ling; Cui, Yu-Qiong; Gao, Rui; Li, Ying; Fu, Zhao-Chen; Zhang, Bin; Guan, Cheng-Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the dynamic changes in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis (PD). Additionally, we evaluated alveolar bone loss and the histopathological response associated with experimental diabetes mellitus and experimental periodontitis. DM and PD were induced together in 15 rats (group 1) by streptozotocin injection and ligature induction. Periodontitis alone was produced by ligature induction in 15 rats (group 2), diabetes alone was produced by streptozotocin injection in 15 rats (group 3), and fifteen systemically and periodontally healthy rats were used as controls (group 4). The gingival TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS levels were measured by using ELISA method. Periodontal destruction was assessed by measuring the alveolar bone loss. Periodontal inflammation was quantified by histopathological grading in H&E stained samples. Higher levels of TNF-α, IL1-β and LPS, increased alveolar bone loss and more serve histopathology were found in group 1 compared with group 2, group 3 and group 4 (pperiodontal tissues. The resorption values of alveolar bone and the histological inflammation were more severe in rats with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus than in those with periodontitis alone, diabetes mellitus alone and control rats. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that hyperglycemia contributes to the heightened inflammatory response associated with periodontitis.

  9. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on visfatin concentrations in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Chen, Ling; Wei, Bin; Luo, Kai; Yan, Fuhua

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to assess visfatin concentrations in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and investigate this relationship in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Fifty-four patients with T2DM and CP were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: treatment and control. Serum and GCF visfatin concentrations and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different time points (at baseline and 3 and 6 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment). Serum and GCF visfatin concentrations showed no significant differences between the groups at baseline (t test, P >0.05). A significant decline of visfatin in the treatment group was found in serum and GCF 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment (t test, P 0.05). The data suggest that non-surgical periodontal treatment is helpful for glucose control, an effect that may be associated with reduced visfatin in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. Furthermore, the data suggest that visfatin may be considered an inflammatory marker for periodontal diseases.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: a longitudinal randomized split-mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavarro, Cristiane; Teles, Ricardo Palmier; Capelli Júnior, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    This randomized split-mouth study aimed to examine the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points during orthodontic tooth movement. A total of 16 healthy orthodontic subjects (7 females, 9 males; mean age, 17.7 years) who needed their first upper premolars extracted were enrolled. One randomly chosen maxillary canine was subjected to a distalizing force and was considered to be the test side. The contralateral canine, which was not subjected to any force but was included in the orthodontic appliance, was used as a control side. GCF sampling was performed at both the mesial (tension) and distal (pressure) test and control sites at baseline, immediately before applying the orthodontic appliance, and after 1 and 24 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days. A multiplexed bead immunoassay was used to analyse the GCF samples. The mean levels of the MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 were not significantly different between the test and control groups in each time showed. The comparisons between the tension and pressure sites were also not significantly different at each individual time. A few variations focused on MMP-1 and -3, but the expression of MMP-8 was higher than that of the other MMPs. MMPs are released in sufficient quantities such that tooth movement occurs but with no significant increase in GCF levels.

  11. Actividad de la lactato deshidrogenasa en fluído crevicular gingival y saliva en fumadores con periodontitis crónica Lactate dehidrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of smoker with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Leyva Huerta; C. Esquivel Chirino; G. Marín González; M. Neblina Noriega; S. Olivares Tapia

    2009-01-01

    Existe un alto porcentaje de enfermedad periodontal atribuido al hábito del tabaco. La respuesta del organismo a esta enfermedad incluye la liberación de enzimas intracelulares relacionadas con la muerte y destrucción celular, como la Lactato Deshidrogenasa (LDH). Objetivo: Comparar los valores de LDH en fluido crevicular gingival (FCG) y saliva de pacientes fumadores y no fumadores con Periodontitis crónica (PC). Metodología: Participaron 15 pacientes hombres mayores de 30 años; 6 fumadores,...

  12. Niveles de interleukina 17 en el fluido gingival crevicular de pacientes con peridontitis crónica progresiva Levels of interleukin-17 in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF) of progressive chronic periodontitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    J. González Quesada; R. Jorquera Cortés; O. Jorquera Cortés; S. Rivera Álvarez

    2009-01-01

    Los biomarcadores de destrucción tisular presentes en el fluido gingival crevicular (GCF) pueden ser de utilidad para identificar y predecir la progresión de la Enfermedad Periodontal y para ver la respuesta al tratamiento. La interleukina 17 (IL-17) es una citoquina producida por las células T CD4 y tiene un papel importante en la iniciación o mantenimiento de la respuesta pro-implantaria y recientemente se ha encontrado que estimula la reabsorción ósea osteoclástica. Esta función biológica ...

  13. 全瓷冠修复对高血糖患者龈沟液成分影响的分析%Effect of hyperglycemia on gingival crevicular fluid after restoration of ceramic crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋晶; 李斌; 黄毓秋; 张晓燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on gingival crevicular fluid after restoration of ceramic crown.Method:80 patients (40 male and 40 female) were randomly selected from the 40 to 50-year-old patients treated in our department in the past two years who were indicated for single ceramic crown. All the patients were treated with routine periodontal prophylaxis and restoration of all-ceramic crowns. The gross secretory volume of gingival crevicular fluid, ALP, IL-1 and TNF-αwere measured before and 2 months after restoration.Results:Among patients with normal blood glucose, there were no significant changes on gross secretory volume of gingival crevicular fluid, ALP, IL-1 and TNF-αlevels 2 months after restoration of all-ceramic crowns. Among patients with hyperglycemia, gross secretory volume of gingival crevicular fluid, IL-1 and TNF-αlevels significantly increased 2 months after restoration of all-ceramic crowns, but level of ALP did not change significantly.Conclusion:Hyperglycemia could promote gingival crevicular fluid secretion, and IL-1, TNF-αlevels in gingival crevicular fluid after restoration of ceramic crown.%目的:探讨高血糖对全瓷冠固定修复后龈沟液成分的影响。方法:选取近两年在我院口腔修复科就诊的40-50岁,需进行全瓷单冠修复的患者80例为受试对象,其中男性40例,女性40例,常规牙周洁治后采用全瓷单冠修复,分别在修复前以及修复后2个月检测基牙龈沟液的分泌量以及碱性磷酸酶,白细胞介素1β和肿瘤坏死因子α水平。结果:正常血糖患者全瓷修复后2个月基牙龈沟液分泌量,碱性磷酸酶,白细胞介素1和肿瘤坏死因子α水平均无明显升高。高糖组修复后2个月基牙龈沟液分泌量,白细胞介素1和肿瘤坏死因子α显著高于修复前,但碱性磷酸酶水平与修复前比较差异无统计学意义。结论:高糖环境可使全瓷冠修复后患者龈沟液

  14. Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Levels of Rankl and Opg in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients With Periodontal Disease and Post-menopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, María E; Bermejo, Daniela; Gruppi, Adriana; Grenón, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/RANK/Osteoprotegerine (OPG) system has been proposed as essential for osteoclast biology and identified as key part in regulating the physiology and pathology of the skeletal system. The study of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system has increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bone remodeling process, especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Bisphosphonates have become the mainstay of the treatment and prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis. They inhibit the formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate crystals in bone and also osteoclasts, thus reducing bone turnover.Current investigations relate osteoporosis with the appearance and progression of periodontal disease. Although the etiology of both is different, the bone loss present in both shares several characteristics. Thus, therapy used for osteoporosis can be considered of value in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relationship in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with periodontal disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis/ osteopenia in relation to consumption of bisphosphonates. We studied 66 periodontal active sites obtained from 17 post- menopausal women patients aged between 45-70 years old with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease. GCF samples were collected using sterile filter paper strips. To determine the concentration of RANKL and OPG, a commercial ELISA assay was used. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio (RANKL/ OPG) were compared with Mann-Whitney U Test. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio obtained in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease with or without bisphosphonates treatment showed no differences. Bisphosphonates do not alter the concentration of RANKL and OPG and their ratio in the GCF of patients with osteoporosis/ osteopenia and periodontal disease

  15. The Effect of Photodynamic Therapy and Diode Laser as Adjunctive Periodontal Therapy on the Inflammatory Mediators Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Clinical Periodontal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Faraz; Farhad, Shirin Zahra; Golestaneh, Hedayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The presence of bacterial biofilms is the major cause of gingivitis and periodontitis, their mechanical removal is not often enough. Therefore, laser therapy and photodynamic therapy can be effective as adjunctive treatment. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these treatments on the level of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), inflammatory mediators, and periodontal clinical status. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, three quadrants were studied in 12 patients with chronic periodontitis aged 30-60 years. The clinical parameters were recorded and GCF samples were taken. After the first phase of periodontal treatment, one of the three quadrants was determined as the control group, one was treated by diode laser, and one underwent photodynamic therapy. The clinical parameters were recorded 2 and 6 weeks later. The data were statistically analyzed by using Friedman, ANOVA, and LSD post-test. Results Significant reduction was observed over time in the level of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-17 (IL-17), clinical attachment loss, and pocket depth in the three treatment groups (p< 0.000). The three treatment methods significantly reduced the IL-1β and IL-17 at the baseline, up to 2 weeks, and 2-6 weeks (p< 0.05). Diode laser and photodynamic therapy significantly decreased the average bleeding on probing over time (p< 0.000 and p< 0.002, respectively). Conclusion Laser and photodynamic therapy reduced the inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and IL-17) and improved the clinical symptoms. PMID:27602399

  16. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Interleukin-29 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis and Aggressive Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently discovered interleukin 29 (IL-29 has antiviral properties and its production is induced by herpes viruses. This study was aimed at analyzing the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on IL-29 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients. A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy group (group 1; n = 20, chronic periodontitis group (group 2; n = 20, and aggressive periodontitis group (group 3; n = 20. GCF samples collected from each subject at baseline and 6–8 weeks after scaling and root planing were quantified for IL-29 levels using ELISA. The mean IL-29 concentration in GCF was found to be highest in group 3 (92.37 pg/μl. The mean IL-29 level in group 1 and group 2 was 36.88 pg/μl and 69.35 pg/μl respectively. After scaling and root planing, the mean concentration of IL-29 in GCF was increased to 85.99 pg/μl in group 2 and to 114.64 pg/μl in group 3. Results of the present study indicate that antiviral IL-29 level was highest in GCF of aggressive periodontitis patients and least in subjects with healthy periodontium, while that of chronic periodontitis lying in between. After non-surgical periodontal therapy, IL-29 levels increased both in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating periodontitis.

  17. The Effect of Photodynamic Therapy and Diode Laser as Adjunctive Periodontal Therapy on the Inflammatory Mediators Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Clinical Periodontal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Teymouri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The presence of bacterial biofilms is the major cause of gingivitis and periodontitis, their mechanical removal is not often enough. Therefore, laser therapy and photodynamic therapy can be effective as adjunctive treatment. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these treatments on the level of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF, inflammatory mediators, and periodontal clinical status. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial, three quadrants were studied in 12 patients with chronic periodontitis aged 30-60 years. The clinical parameters were recorded and GCF samples were taken. After the first phase of periodontal treatment, one of the three quadrants was determined as the control group, one was treated by diode laser, and one underwent photodynamic therapy. The clinical parameters were recorded 2 and 6 weeks later. The data were statistically analyzed by using Friedman, ANOVA, and LSD post-test. Results: Significant reduction was observed over time in the level of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-17 (IL-17, clinical attachment loss, and pocket depth in the three treatment groups (p< 0.000. The three treatment methods significantly reduced the IL-1β and IL-17 at the baseline, up to 2 weeks, and 2-6 weeks (p< 0.05. Diode laser and photodynamic therapy significantly decreased the average bleeding on probing over time (p< 0.000 and p< 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Laser and photodynamic therapy reduced the inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and IL-17 and improved the clinical symptoms.

  18. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Burcu; Guzeldemir, Esra; Ogus, Ersin; Bulut, Sule

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis (CP) patients to assess whether cytokine profiles distinguish patients with RA and patients with CP while using healthy patients as background controls. A total of 49 patients, 17 patients with RA (three males and 14 females; mean age: 47.82 ± 10.74 years), 16 patients with CP (10 males and six females; mean age: 44.00 ± 7.00 years), and 16 controls (eight males and eight females; mean age: 28.06 ± 6.18 years) were enrolled. Patients with RA were under the supervision of rheumatologists; 15 of the patients with RA were being treated with methotrexate-sulfasalazine combined therapy, and two of the patients were being treated with leflunomid therapy. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level) were recorded. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined in GCF and IL-1β and IL-10 in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were significant differences found among RA, CP, and control groups for all periodontal parameters (P 0.05). Although the total amount and concentration of serum IL-10 was not significantly different among the groups (P >0.05), serum IL-1β was significantly lower in the RA group compared to CP patients and controls and was higher in GCF of the RA group compared to the CP group. Although clinical periodontal disease parameters indicated more severe periodontal disease in CP compared to RA patients, immunologic evaluation did not reveal consistent results regarding proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. This might be a result of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatoid agents by patients with RA.

  19. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayendra Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP and 20 nonsnuff users (NS. 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC. The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI, plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD, recession (RC, and clinical attachment level (CAL. The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine ®. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey′s, Kruskal-Walli′s ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97. However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001. The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002 whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.

  20. Impact of Chronic Periodontitis on Levels of Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasaan G Mohamed

    Full Text Available The relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is bidirectional, but information about the effect of chronic periodontitis on the levels of the glucoregulatory biomarkers locally in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of 10 glucoregulatory biomarkers in GCF, firstly in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM presenting with and without chronic periodontitis and secondly, in subjects without diabetes, with and without chronic periodontitis. The material comprised a total of 152 subjects, stratified as: 54 with T2DM and chronic periodontitis (G1, 24 with T2DM (G2, 30 with chronic periodontitis (G3 and 44 without T2DM or periodontitis (G4. The levels of the biomarkers were measured using multiplex biometric immunoassays. Periodontal pocket depths were recorded in mm. Subsets G1 and G2 and subsets G3 and G4 were compared independently. Among T2DM subjects, GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon were significantly up-regulated in G1 compared to G2. Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding C-peptide, insulin, ghrelin, leptin and PAI-1. Comparisons among individuals without T2DM revealed significantly lower amounts of C-peptide and ghrelin in G3 than in G4. The number of sites with pocket depth ≥ 4mm correlated negatively with C-peptide (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: -0.240, P < 0.01 and positively with GIP and visfatin (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: 0.255 and 0.241, respectively, P < 0.01. The results demonstrate that chronic periodontitis adversely influences the GCF levels of glucoregulatory biomarkers, as it is associated with disturbed levels of biomarkers related to the onset of T2DM and its medical complications.

  1. Impact of scaling and root planing on C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mahendra; Jhingran, Rajesh; Bains, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Madan, Rohit; Rizvi, Iram; Mani, Kanchan

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-CP) or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDM-CP). Forty-eight human participants were divided into two groups: an experimental (T2DM-CP) group (group I, n=24) comprising chronic periodontitis patients with random blood sugar ≥200 mg/dL and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and control (NDM-CP) group (group II, n=24) of those with chronic periodontitis and random blood sugar periodontal therapy (NSPT) including complete SRP and subgingival debridement. Periodontal health parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), GCF volume (GCF vol), GCF-CRP, random blood glucose (RBS), glycated hemoglobin, and systemic inflammatory markers, serum CRP, total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count (Neutr) and lymphocyte count (Lymph), were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after SRP. NSPT resulted in statistically significant improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum as well as GCF of both groups I and II. The mean improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum and GCF was greater in group I than group II after NSPT. There was nonsignificant increase in GCF-CRP, TLC, Lymph, and RBS, and a significant increase in Neutr and Serum CRP in group II at 1 month. The Serum CRP level of 20 out of 24 group II patients had also increased at 1 month. The CRP levels in both GCF and serum were higher in T2DM-CP patients than in NDM-CP patients. Although there was a significant improvement in both the groups, greater improvement was observed in both GCF and serum samples of T2DM-CP patients.

  2. Resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid as a marker of periodontal inflammation and its correlation with single-nucleotide polymorphism in human resistin gene at −420

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pradeep Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Resistin is an adipocytokine, which have been studied for its role in insulin resistance and recently in inflammation. The aim of the present study is to assess the concentration of resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and to compare the levels between subjects with and without periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to further correlate the resistin levels with the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at −420. Setting and Designs: A total of 96 subjects (48 males and 48 females were divided on the basis of gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL and hemoglobin A 1c levels into healthy (group 1, n = 24, uncontrolled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 2, n = 24, controlled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 3, n = 24 and chronic periodontitis without T2DM (group 4, n = 24. Materials and Methods: The GCF and serum levels of resistin were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared among the study groups. Further, the association of the resistin levels with periodontal inflammation and SNP at −420 was studied. Results and Conclusion: The resistin levels in GCF and serum from patients with periodontitis or diabetes mellitus related periodontitis (controlled or uncontrolled were higher than that of healthy subjects and correlated positively with GI. Further, subjects with GG genotype at −420 showed significantly higher GI, PD, CAL as compared with genotype group CC. Resistin was detected in all serum and GCF samples and was significantly higher in periodontitis. Further, GG genotype at −420 was associated significantly with periodontal inflammation and resistin levels.

  3. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Salam, Sharib Abdus; Moda, Aman; Agarwal, Preeti; Nath, Sonia; Pulikkotil, Shaju Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP) and 20 nonsnuff users (NS). 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC). The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine(®)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc Tukey's, Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97). However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS) had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001). The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002) whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003). Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.

  4. Impact of Chronic Periodontitis on Levels of Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hasaan G; Idris, Shaza B; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz F; Åstrøm, Anne N; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is bidirectional, but information about the effect of chronic periodontitis on the levels of the glucoregulatory biomarkers locally in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of 10 glucoregulatory biomarkers in GCF, firstly in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) presenting with and without chronic periodontitis and secondly, in subjects without diabetes, with and without chronic periodontitis. The material comprised a total of 152 subjects, stratified as: 54 with T2DM and chronic periodontitis (G1), 24 with T2DM (G2), 30 with chronic periodontitis (G3) and 44 without T2DM or periodontitis (G4). The levels of the biomarkers were measured using multiplex biometric immunoassays. Periodontal pocket depths were recorded in mm. Subsets G1 and G2 and subsets G3 and G4 were compared independently. Among T2DM subjects, GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon were significantly up-regulated in G1 compared to G2. Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding C-peptide, insulin, ghrelin, leptin and PAI-1. Comparisons among individuals without T2DM revealed significantly lower amounts of C-peptide and ghrelin in G3 than in G4. The number of sites with pocket depth ≥ 4mm correlated negatively with C-peptide (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: -0.240, P chronic periodontitis adversely influences the GCF levels of glucoregulatory biomarkers, as it is associated with disturbed levels of biomarkers related to the onset of T2DM and its medical complications.

  5. THE ASSOCIATION OF FIXED ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID WITH PERIODONTAL HEALTH: A PRELIMINARY STUDY REPORT%固定矫治病人龈沟液量与牙周健康状况的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 范存晖; 于新波; 陈秀娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨固定矫治病人矫治前后龈沟液量与牙周健康状况的关系.方法 选取接受直丝弓矫治技术治疗的病人24例,以右上颌第一磨牙(16)、左上颌中切牙(21)、左下颌第一前磨牙或第二前磨牙(34或35)、右下颌中切牙(41)4个牙位为检测牙位,分别于矫治前和矫治1、3个月时,检测其龈沟液量、菌斑指数、牙龈指数和探诊深度.结果 固定矫治1个月和3个月时,病人的菌斑指数、牙龈指数和龈沟液量均较矫治前显著升高,差异有显著性(F=4.729~37.058,P<0.05);探诊深度矫治3个月时较矫治前和矫治1个月升高,差异有显著性(F=12.974,P<0.05).龈沟液量与菌斑指数、牙龈指数、探诊深度之间存在明显的正相关关系(r=0.288~0.503,P<0.05),结论 龈沟液量检测是一种简单有效的评价固定矫治病人牙周健康状况的指标.%Objective To observe the relationship between gingival crevicular fluid volume and periodontal health condition, before and after fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods Twenty-four patients wearing a straight wire appliance were included in this study. The right maxillary first molar (16), left maxillary central incisor (21), left mandibular first molar and right mandibular central incisor (41) were selected to be checked. The gingival crevicular fluid, plaque indext gingival index, and depth of probing were measured before and at one and three months after the treatment. Results At one and three months of the treatment, the plaque index, gingival index and the volume of gingival crevicular fluid in the patients increased significantly as compared with before treatment (F=4. 729 - 37.058,P<0.05) ; while probing depth significantly increased at three months of treatment (F=12. 974,P<0.05). The amount of gingival crevicular fluid was positively correlated with plaque index or gingival index or probing depth (r-0. 288 - 0. 503 ,P<0. 05). Conclusion The amount of gingival crevicular

  6. Dynamic changes of aspartate transaminase level in gingival crevicular fluid on tooth movement in new bone area%犬牙移入牵张成骨区龈沟液 AST 水平动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌宁; 王银龙; 李峥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of aspartate transaminase(AST ) in gingival crevicular fluid on tooth movement in new bone area after distraction osteogenesis at different time .Methods The distraction osteogenesis surgical proce‐dure was performed in 8 beagle dogs without periodontal disease and normal teeth ,experimental teeth were transplanted into the bone regeneration area after 2 weeks and after 6 weeks .Comparative analysis AST of each time (1 ,2 ,3 ,7 ,14 ,28 d after distraction) dynamic changes in gingival crevicular fluid .Results The AST level of gingival crevicular fluid in experimental tooth was rising for the first three days ,and the group of two weeks were significantly higher than 6 weeks ;AST levels after 7 d showed a trend of de‐cline ,down to the lowest point at 21 d ,and gradually restored ,AST levels reached a higher level again in the 28 d .Conclusion The AST level of experimental teeth increased significantly after 2 weeks than after 6 weeks ,but over time the AST level change is not linear ,this change has certain guiding significance for the clinical research in the future .%目的:研究分析不同时机将犬牙移入牵张成骨区后龈沟液的天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST )水平变化。方法8只无牙周疾病且正常恒牙列beag le犬行牵张成骨术后分为两组(2周和6周),均行牙齿移入牵张成骨新骨区。观察对实验牙加力1、2、3、7、14、28 d后龈沟液中AST水平变化。结果两组实验牙龈沟液AST水平前3 d均存在上升趋势,且2周组上升较6周组明显;7 d后AST水平呈现下降趋势,在21 d达最低,并逐渐恢复;当28 d时AST水平再次上升。结论牵张成骨2周后实验牙移入新骨区龈沟液AST整体水平较6周后明显升高,但随着时间的推移AST水平改变并非呈线性升高。

  7. Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid and whole mouth fluid among smokers and nonsmokers using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay and a novel chair-side test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghousia Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To indigenously prepare a chair-side test kit for investigating and comparing the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and saliva in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis in smokers and nonsmokers. To validate the diagnostic accuracy of indigenously prepared chair-side test against enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA. Furthermore, to assess the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT on the levels of MMP-8 in GCF and saliva among the test groups. Materials and Methods: GCF and saliva were collected from 250 subjects. The study population were divided into five groups; health periodontium-nonsmokers (Group 1; n = 50, chronic gingivitis-nonsmokers (Group 2; n = 50, chronic periodontitis-nonsmokers (Group 3; n = 50, chronic gingivitis-smokers (Group 4; n = 50, chronic periodontitis-smokers (Group 5; n = 50. A chair-side test kit was indigenously prepared using polyclonal antibodies (principle of immunochromatography to detect the MMP-8 levels, and it was validated against ELISA at baseline and 3 months after NSPT.Results: The chair-side test detected MMP-8 levels with a sensitivity and specificity in accordance with ELISA. MMP-8 levels at baseline were higher in Group 2 and Group 3 as compared to controls (P < 0.05, and decreased after therapy (P < 0.05. MMP-8 levels in GCF were greater than in saliva for all the groups, indicating GCF to be a better sample to detect the MMP levels.Conclusion: The chair-side test detected MMP-8 levels accurately making it a viable chair side diagnostic tool. It was effective for early diagnosis of the periodontal disease among high-risk population such as smokers.

  8. 牙周炎对2型糖尿病患者血清和龈沟液IL-6含量影响的研究%The Effect of Periodontitis on the Concentration of IL-6 in Serum and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Type-2 Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妙妍; 阮毅; 陈广盛

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect of Periodontitis on the concentration of IL-6 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in type 2 diabetic patients.Method: Twenty patients with type-2 diabetes and periodontitis, 20 with simple type-2 diabetes, 20 with simple periodontitis and 16 healthy patients were recruited in this study. The concentration of IL-6 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid were detected by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), the difference of IL-6 content in serum and gingival crevicular fluid were compared among groups, the correlation between the concentration of IL-6 in serum and that in gingival crevicular fluid were analyzed within group.Result: The concentration of IL-6 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in three unhealthy groups were significantly higher than that in the healthy group (P<0.001).The concentration of IL-6 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of the patients with type-2 diabetes and periodontitis were higher than that of the patients just with diabetes or periodontitis. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of IL-6 in serum and that in gingival crevicular fluid respectively in type-2 diabetes patients with periodontitis group (r=0.829,P<0.01), simple diabetes mellitus group (r=0.766,P<0.01) and simple periodontitis group (r=0.732,P<0.01).Conclusion: The concentration of IL-6 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in type-2 diabetes patients can be increased by periodontitis, IL-6 may play an important role in the interaction between periodontal disease and diabetes.%目的:探讨牙周炎对2型糖尿病患者血清和龈沟液IL-6含量的影响。方法:采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测20例2型糖尿病伴牙周炎患者、20例单纯2型糖尿病患者、20例单纯牙周炎患者及16例健康者的血清和龈沟液(GCF)中IL-6含量,比较组间血清和龈沟液IL-6含量的差异性,分析组内血清和龈沟液IL-6含量的相关性。结果:2型糖

  9. Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Weitsman, Y Jack

    2012-01-01

    Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites, written by the late Dr. Y. Jack Weitsman, addresses the wide range of parameters that affect the interaction of fluids with polymers and polymeric composites. The book aims at broadening the scope of available data, mostly limited up to this time to weight-gain recordings of fluid ingress into polymers and composites, to the practical circumstances of fluctuating exposure. Various forms of experimental data are given, in conjunction with theoretical models derived from basic scientific principles, and correlated with severity of exposure conditions and interpreted by means of rationally based theoretical models. The practical implications of the effects of fluids are discussed. The issue of fluid effects on polymers and polymeric composites is of concern to engineers and scientists active in aerospace and naval structures, as an increasing portion of these structures are made of polymeric composites and employ polymeric adhesives as a joining device. While...

  10. Concentrations of MMP-2 in gingival crevicular fluid of porcelain teeth with three different alloys%三种金属烤瓷冠修复后龈沟液中MMP-2水平检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许卫星; 苏俭生; 袁剑鸣

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究镍铬合金、钴铬合金、金合金三组金属烤瓷冠修复前后,龈沟液(gingival crevicular fluid,GCF)中基质金属蛋白酶-2(matrix metalloproteinase,MMP-2)水平变化,提示三种合金烤瓷冠在不同时期对牙周组织的刺激程度.方法 临床随机选择三种金属烤瓷冠修复患者共45例,每组各15例,测定在修复前、修复后1个月、3个月、6个月GCF量并采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(ABC-ELISA)检测同期GCF中MMP-2水平.结果 镍铬合金烤瓷冠GCF量、MMP-2水平在不同检测周期差异有显著性(P<0.01),钴铬合金、金合金烤瓷冠修复后MMP-2水平在不同检测周期差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 MMP-2可作为对不同金属烤瓷冠内冠材料刺激牙周组织的评价指标,临床应采用生物相容性好的合金作为内冠材料.%Objective To measure MMP-2 concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid ( GCF) of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy at different time period, and to demonstrate the degree of stimulation by these alloy on gingivae. Methods Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine the concentration and total amount of MMP-2 in gingival crevicular fluids in 45 randomly selected cases of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy, with 15 cases in each group. The assay was performed before and at 1, 3, 6 months after treatment. Results There was significant difference in the total amounts of MMP-2 and GCF volume for the Ni-Cr alloy coated porcelain teeth in different time period(P 0. 05 ). Conclusion MMP-2 is a useful assessment criterion for the evaluation of degree of stimulation on gingivae by different alloy coating materials in porcelain teeth. The bio-compatibility of alloy coating for porcelain teeth should be carefully considered for the clinical application.

  11. Alteration in the phagocyte activity of crevicular leucocytes regarding diabetic patients with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Colchado Carhuavilca, Jorge R.; Departamento Académico Medico quirúrgico. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima Perú.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to find out the alterations in the phagocyte activity of crevicular leucocytes regarding to diabetic patients with periodontal disease. For that reason, 56 patients with periodontal disease were selected: 42 of them with a diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus - Type 2, and 14 patients without it (control group), from 35 to 74 years old. To performed the study, crevicular fluid of the mentioned patients was analyzed. By means of sequential washings the samples were...

  12. Efecto antiinflamatorio de apitoxina de Apis mellifera sobre prostaglandina E2 del fluido crevicular gingival de pacientes con y sin enfermedad periodontal, sometidos a apiterapia: ensayo preliminar Anti-inflammatory effect of apitoxin and Apis mellifera on prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with and without periodontal disease, submitted to apitherapy: preliminary test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Faúndez Poblete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La apitoxina que es producida por la Apis mellifera posee efecto antiinflamatorio sobre una serie de marcadores biológicos. La prostaglandina E2 forma parte de ellos, estando presente en el fluido gingival crevicular (FGC. La prostaglandina E2 es evidenciada en la enfermedad periodontal. Objetivo: En este estudio se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de la apitoxina sobre la concentración de prostaglandina E2 del FGC de un paciente sin enfermedad periodontal (SEP y otro con enfermedad periodontal (CEP. Materiales y Método: Se seleccionó un paciente SEP y otro CEP, que sometidos a apiterapia durante 28 días, se registraron 5 muestras por paciente de FGC, siendo almacenadas, centrifugadas y refrigeradas para su conservación. Posteriormente se midió la concentración de prostaglandina E2 crevicular mediante inmunodifusión radial simple en placas petri con concentración de anticuerpo anti prostaglandina E2 de 1:1000. Selladas a 4°C, se esperó 72 horas para permitir su difusión, tiñéndose con Azul brillante de Coomasie, determinándose la concentración de cada placa. Resultados: Paciente SEP inmediatamente antes de apiterapia presentó una concentración de 0.9636 ± 0.0055 (µg/µL, finalizando con una concentración de 0.9196±0.0733 (µg/µL al completar 28 días de tratamiento. El paciente CEP antes de recibir apiterapia presento una concentración de 1.1866 ± 0.0867 (µg/µL, finalizando con una concentración de 0.9858 ± 0.0074 (µg/µL al completar 28 días de tratamiento. Discusión: Los hallazgos de este estudio demuestran una disminución de la concentración de PGE2 del FGC tanto para el paciente CEP y SEP sometidos a apiterapia durante 28 días, siendo esta disminución 3.7 veces mayor en el paciente CEP.Introduction: Apitoxin, which is produced by Apis mellifera, has anti-inflammatory effect on a number of biomarkers. Prostaglandin E2 is one of them, being present in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF

  13. Effects of fluid composition on mist composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eugene M; Lucke, William E

    2003-11-01

    In a reported study, mists of selected synthetic metalworking fluids were generated in laboratory experiments by two processes, nebulization (atomization) and air sparging (bubbling). Short-chain fatty acid species were determined by in situ trimethylsilyl derivatization. Comparison of relative amounts of the short-chain acids collected from mists generated by nebulization with those generated by sparging showed that the sparged mists had significantly higher amounts of neodecanoic, nonanoic, and dodecanedioic acids. Comparison of the amounts of acids collected by the resin cartridges to amounts found on the filters showed that significant losses of octanoic and isononanoic acids occurred over 8 hours of collection and that only dodecanedioic acid was not lost from the filter over a 22-hour sampling period. In another reported metalworking mist study, contaminants of metalworking fluids, e.g., tramp oils, were shown in laboratory experiments to increase the misting potential of water-based metalworking fluids. Significantly, tramp oil contamination caused less misting in synthetic fluids than soluble and semi-synthetic fluids.

  14. Assessment of the alkaline phosphatase level in gingival crevicular fluid, as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing on chronic periodontitis: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjappu, Jimly James; Mathew, Vinod Babu; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Hosadurga, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Context: Clinical evaluation of gingivitis and/or periodontitis does not predict the progression or remission of the disease. Due to this diagnostic constraint, clinicians assume that the pathology has an increased risk of progression and plan treatments, despite the knowledge that all inflamed sites are not necessarily progressing. Extensive research has been carried out on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) components that might serve as potential diagnostic markers for periodontitis. Among them alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in GCF has shown promise as a diagnostic marker. Aim: This study compares the levels of GCF alkaline phosphatase in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: This study is an in vivo longitudinal study conducted on twenty patients with localized periodontitis. The GCF was collected from the affected site prior to scaling and root planing and ALP level estimated. The probing depth and plaque index at the site were also measured for correlation. Patients were recalled after 7, 30, and 60 days for reassessment. Results: The GCF ALP values showed a sustained, statistically significant decrease after treatment. There was a positive correlation with probing depth but not with plaque index measured at each interval. Conclusion: The assessment of level of periodontal disease and effect of mechanical plaque control on the progression and regression of the disease can be evaluated precisely by the corresponding GCF ALP levels. Thus, alkaline phosphatase level is not only a biomarker for the pathology but also an indicator of prognosis of periodontitis. PMID:22438644

  15. 种植体周围龈沟液中硫离子含量的测定及其临床意义%Determination of Sulfide Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid around Dental Implants and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 逄爱慧; 杨焰; 吴丽娟; 马净植

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between sulfide level in gingival crevicular fluid around dental implants and the peri-implant parameters ,and to explore the feasibility of using SUL as a peri-implant monitoring index. Methods Three groups were designed ,including peri-implant mucositis (PIM ) group (47 implants ) ,peri-implantitis (PI) group (26 implants) and normal control group (50 implants). Six sites were randomly selected around the dental implants. The sulfide level in the gingival crevicular fluid at the selected sites was measured by using Diamond Probe /Perio 2000 System as well as the peri-implant clinical parameters such as sulcus bleeding index (SBI),probing pocket depth (PD ) and attachment loss (AL ). Results There were significant differences in the sulfide level among the three groups [(0. 355 9±0. 039 0) pg/mL in PI group ,(0. 125 3± 0. 037 1) pg/mL in PIM group ,(0. 052 8±0. 017 3 ) pg/mL in control group](P<0. 01 ). The sulfide level was increased with the severity of the peri-implant lesion. It was positively correlated with such peri-implant parameters as PLI (r= 0. 733),SBI (r=0. 859),PD 0=0. 873) and AL(r= 0.606) ( P<0. 01 ). Conclusion The sulfide level in the gingival crevicular fluid a-round dental implants was significantly correlated with the clinical peri-implant indices,suggesting that the sulfide level may be used to reflect the status of peri-implant tissues and the lesion progression in clinical practice.%目的 分析种植体周围龈沟液(gingival crevicular fluid,GCF)中硫化物水平(sulfide levels,SUL)与种植体牙周指数之间的相关性,探讨SUL作为种植体牙周监测指标的可行性.方法 设种植体周围黏膜炎组(peri-implant mucositis,PIM)47例(47颗牙位);种植体周围炎组(peri-implantitis,PI)26例(26颗牙位)和健康种植牙对照组50例(50颗牙位).每个牙位记录6个位点,采用金刚牙周诊断仪测量所选位点GCF中SUL和种植体牙周临床指标:龈

  16. Detection and Clinical Benefits of Interleukin-1β in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in the patients with Periodontitis%牙周炎患者龈沟液白细胞介素-1β检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫弼凡; 钱成明

    2001-01-01

    目的:检测牙周炎患者龈沟液(gingival crevicular fluid, GCF)中白细胞介素-1β(interleukin-1β, IL-1β)的含量变化,探讨 IL-1β在牙周炎发病中的作用.方法:用滤纸条浸润法采集正常成年人及成年人牙周炎患者治疗前后 GCF样本,用酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA)检测 GCF中 IL-1β含量变化.结果:牙周炎患者龈沟液中 IL-1β水平显著高于正常对照组(P<0.01),牙周炎治疗组患者龈沟液中 IL-1β水平较牙周炎组显著降低(P<0.01).龈沟液中 IL-1β水平分别与牙龈指数、探诊出血指数、牙周袋深呈显著正相关.结论:IL-1β参与牙周炎的发生和发展, GCF中 IL-1β可作为检查牙周病活动情况的一项较为敏感的指标.

  17. 盐酸米诺环素对慢性牙周炎基质金属蛋白酶-8水平的影响%Effect of Minocycline Hydrochloride Ointment on MMP-8 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井枫秋; 汪黎明; 张洁; 黄云亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究盐酸米诺环素对慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-8(matrix metalloproteinase-8,MMP-8)水平的影响.方法 选26例中重度慢性成人牙周炎患者,每例口腔左右两个象限随机分为实验组和对照组.基础治疗后实验组使用盐酸米诺环素缓释软膏,每周1次,共2次.对照组不使用盐酸米诺环素软膏,仅使用生理盐水和10%过氧化氢冲洗.使用酶联免疫法(ELISA)测定两组治疗前后龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-8的水平.结果 实验组、对照组在基础治疗后龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-8总量和浓度均明显降低(P<0.01).实验组与对照组龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-8总量和浓度的变化差异有统计学意义,实验组基质金属蛋白酶-8总量和浓度减少的量要多于对照组(P<0.01).结论 基础治疗和盐酸米诺环素缓释软膏联合应用能有效降低慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-8水平,改善牙周状况.%Objective To analyze the changes of matrix metalloproteinases - 8 ( MMP - 8) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after subgingivally administering 2% minocycline - HCl ointment to the periodontal pocket as an auxiliary treatment of moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. Methods Twenty - six subjects were selected. The left and right sides of oral cavity were divided into control group and test group with a randomized single blind method. After initial periodontal treatment of both groups, the test group was treated with the sustained release unguent of minocycline - HCL ointment in the pocket once a week for 2 weeks,while the control group with 0.9 % normal saline and 10% hydrogen peroxide. Two weeks later, gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected and detected with ELISA technique. Results The level of MMP - 8 in GCF obviously declined after treatment in both groups( P <0.01 ), particularly in the test group. The difference was statistically sigificant(P < 0. 01

  18. 引导组织再生术的应用体会及龈沟液的检测意义%Significance of determining gingival crevicular fluid volume in guided tissue regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤莉; 吴小芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价引导组织再生术在垂直性骨缺损治疗中的临床效果及龈沟液的检测意义.方法:选取60例垂直性骨缺损牙周病患牙随机分为两组,A组为引导组织再生术组( GTR),植入Bio-oss多孔骨后覆盖Bio-gide胶原膜;B组为对照组(OFD),行常规翻瓣术.术前、术后3、6、12个月观察牙周袋深度(PD)、附着丧失(AL)、牙松动度(TM)、龈沟液(GCF)量及X线片牙槽骨的变化.结果:术后3个月两组各项均较术前减少,A组X线片骨高度和密度轻度增加.术后12个月A组较B组PD、AL、TM及X线片骨高度和密度差异均有显著性,两组GCF无明显差异.结论:引导组织再生术在垂直性骨缺损治疗中的临床效果良好,Bio-oss多孔骨和Bio-gide胶原膜能有效恢复牙周垂直性骨缺损,改善临床指标,促进牙周新附着的形成;龈沟液流量可作为术后炎症的观测指标.%Objective:To observe the clinical effects of guided tissue regeneration ( GTR) in treatment of the vertical bone defect with determination of gmgival crevicular fluid. Methods: Sixty cases with intrabony per-iodontal bone defects were randomized into two groups. Croup A received treatment of GTR with graft of deproteinized bovine bone mineral ( Bio-oas) and collagen barrier membrane( Bio-gide) and group B.the control group, were treated by open-flap debridement ( OFD ) . The two groups were observed before the operation and at the 3rd ,6th and 12th month after the procedure regarding the periodonlal pocket depth ( PPD), attachment toss ( AL) .tooth mobility ( TM ) ,gingival crevicular fluid ( GCF) volume and the defects of alveolar bone on radiograms. Results: By three months of therapy, the four parameters were reduced as compared with pre-operation, and the alveolar bone height and density on radiograms were increased slightly in group A, By the 12th month after operation, PPD, AL,TM and the alveolar bone height and density on radiograms were significantly

  19. INFLUENCE OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOENZYME IN GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID AFTER NI-CR ALLOY DENTAL RESTORATION%镍铬合金修复体对龈沟液中LDH同工酶谱的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊红; 周立社; 秦文斌; 雎天林; 李利

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨镍铬合金修复牙体后龈沟液( gingival crevicular fluid, GCF )中乳酸脱氢酶( lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)同工酶的变化。方法:选择镍铬合金修复1~2a的牙位58个,健康牙位54个,用滤纸条法采集GCF,醋酸纤维薄膜电泳结合光密度扫描法测定GCF-LDH同工酶的相对含量。结果:金属修复牙组与健康对照组比较,两组间GCF中LDH1、LDH2、LDH3和LDH5的相对含量均无显著性差异(t1、t2、t3、t5分别为0.49、1.56、0.12、0.37;P>0.05),但镍铬合金修复组GCF-LDH4相对含量明显高于健康组(t4=2.03,P40. 05 ), but the GCF-LDH4 content in the prothetic teeth group was significantly higher than it in the healthy teeth group(t4=2. 03,P4<0. 05). Conclusion:The GCF-LDH isoenzyme-gram of Ni-Cr alloy prothetic teeth is changed. It indicates that Ni-Cr alloy dental prosthesis is likely to have a stimulation or injury to periodontium.

  20. Gingival crevicular fluid, serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, and interleukin-17 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis and with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pınar; Buduneli, Eralp; Bıyıkoğlu, Başak; Aksu, Kenan; Saraç, Fulden; Nile, Christopher; Lappin, David; Buduneli, Nurcan

    2013-11-01

    This study is performed to evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL), interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, IL-17A/F, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoporosis (OPR), and those who are systemically healthy (SH), all with periodontal disease. GCF and serum samples were obtained before any periodontal intervention from 17 women with RA, 19 with OPR, and 13 who were SH with periodontitis. Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. sRANKL, OPG, and IL-17 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical periodontal measurements were similar in the three study groups. Although the total amounts of GCF albumin, OPG, IL-17A, and IL-17A/F were similar in the study groups, there were statistically significant differences in GCF concentrations of sRANKL, OPG, IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, and IL-17A/F. The sRANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the RA group than in the OPR and SH groups (P <0.05). Serum sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG, and IL-17A/IL-17E ratios were significantly higher, whereas OPG concentrations were significantly lower in the RA group compared to other groups (P <0.05). Serum IL-17A concentrations were significantly higher in the RA and OPR groups than in the SH group (P <0.05). Increased inflammatory mediator levels in patients with RA, despite the long-term use of various anti-inflammatory drugs, suggest that these patients may have a propensity to overproduce these inflammatory mediators.

  1. 龈沟液钙结合蛋白和总蛋白在实验性龈炎中的变化及相互关系%Calprotectin and total protein in gingival crevicular fluid during experimental gingivitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亦兵; 孟焕新; 陈智滨

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究健康牙龈向实验性龈炎发展过程中龈沟液(gingival crevicular fluid,GCF)钙结合蛋白和总蛋白水平的变化,探讨钙结合蛋白与牙龈炎之间的关系及其作为牙周炎症标志物的可能性.方法:选取11名牙龈健康、无全身疾病的受试者,在其停止口腔卫生措施后21 d内(第0、7、14、21天)和恢复口腔卫生措施一周后(第28 天)用滤纸条收集其GCF样本(每人4颗牙).分别采用染料结合比色法和ELISA法测定GCF中总蛋白含量和钙结合蛋白含量.结果:在实验性龈炎形成过程中,钙结合蛋白含量逐渐升高,并且在实验第21天达到高峰,恢复口腔卫生措施后其值降低,接近基线水平;总蛋白含量的变化与钙结合蛋白的变化相似.结论:GCF钙结合蛋白含量和总蛋白含量可以较好地反映牙龈炎症的变化.

  2. Downhole drilling spotting fluid composition and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.R.; Campbell, G.J.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a spotting fluid concentrate composition suitable for use in downhole drilling operations in a pill for releasing periodically stuck drill string. It comprises glycerophosphoric acid ester; a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof; an optional viscosifying agent for increasing the viscosity of the dispersion; and an optional sealing agent for preventing diffusion of water into the downhole formation. This patent also describes a method for lubricating a downhole well drilling operation. It comprises mixing a spotting fluid concentrate composition comprising glycerophosphoric acid ester, a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof, an optional viscosifying agent and an optional sealing agent with drilling mud; and circulating the mud mixture through the well.

  3. Efecto antiinflamatorio de apitoxina de Apis mellifera sobre prostaglandina E2 del fluido crevicular gingival de pacientes con y sin enfermedad periodontal, sometidos a apiterapia: ensayo preliminar Anti-inflammatory effect of apitoxin and Apis mellifera on prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with and without periodontal disease, submitted to apitherapy: preliminary test

    OpenAIRE

    W Faúndez Poblete; CG Narváez Carrasco; A Burgos Arias

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La apitoxina que es producida por la Apis mellifera posee efecto antiinflamatorio sobre una serie de marcadores biológicos. La prostaglandina E2 forma parte de ellos, estando presente en el fluido gingival crevicular (FGC). La prostaglandina E2 es evidenciada en la enfermedad periodontal. Objetivo: En este estudio se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de la apitoxina sobre la concentración de prostaglandina E2 del FGC de un paciente sin enfermedad periodontal (SEP) y otro con enf...

  4. Contents comparison of AST and ALP in gingival crevicular fluid from pregnant women with or without pregnancy gingivitis%妊娠期牙龈炎患者龈沟液中天门冬氨酸转氨酶和碱性磷酸酶的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敬

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较妊娠期牙龈炎患者和正常妊娠妇女龈沟液中天门冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)水平的变化,探讨AST和ALP在妊娠期牙龈炎中的作用.方法:采集30例妊娠期牙龈炎患者和30例正常妊娠妇女龈沟液,处理后采用全自动生化分析仪分析AST和ALP含量,并做统计学分析.结果:妊娠期牙龈炎患者龈沟液中AST和ALP含量均显著高于正常妊娠妇女龈沟液中的含量,有统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:在妊娠期牙龈炎的发生发展过程中,AST和ALP发挥了重要的致炎作用,AST、ALP可以作为提示炎症活跃的信号分子.%Objectine: To investigate the effect of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in pregnancy gingivitis by comparing the levels of AST and ALP in gingival crevicular fluid from pregnant women with or without pregnancy gingivitis. Method: Gingival crevicular fluid from 30 pregnant women with pregnancy gingivitis and 30 pregnant women without pregnancy gingivitis were harvested respectively, then analyzed the levels of AST and ALP by automatic biochemistry analyzer after special treatment and performed statistical analysis. Result: Levels of AST and ALP in gingival crevicular fluid from pregnant women with pregnancy gingivitis were significantly higher than those from pregnant women without pregnancy gingivitis and statistical difference could be detected, P <0.01. Conclusion: AST and ALP play important roles in pregnancy gingivitis and could be regard as signaling molecules of active inflammation

  5. Detection and clinical benefits of keratinocyte growth factor KGF-1 in gingival crevicular fluid in the patients with periodontitis.%慢性牙周炎龈沟液中KGF-1含量检测及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵哲; 武云霞; 孙晓军

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测慢性牙周炎患者牙周基础治疗前及治疗后不同时期龈沟液中角质细胞生长因子(kemtinoeytegrowth factor,KGF)-1的质量浓度,探讨KGF-1与牙周炎的关系及其在牙周炎发病机理、病情进展方面的作用.方法:用滤纸条浸润法采集牙周健康者和慢性牙周炎患者治疗前后不同时期的龈沟液样本,用酶联免疫吸附测定法检测样本中KGF-1的质量浓度.结果:慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液中KGF-1的质量浓度高于健康对照组(P<0.05),牙周基础治疗后第4、6、8周复查,KGF-1的质量浓度低于治疗前,且治疗后不同时期的复查结果与治疗前相比,均有统计学意义(P<0.05),KGF-1的质量浓度与牙周探诊深度(PD)、附着丧失(AL)、龈沟出血指数(SBI)存在正相关.结论:龈沟液中KGF-1水平与牙周炎症密切相关,KGF-1可作为反映牙周状态的客观指标.%Objective: To detect the concentration of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in the patients with chronic periodontitis before treatment and in different periods after treatment,to research the relationship between KGF-1 in GCF and periodontitis and the effect of KGF-1 in pathogenesis of periodontitis and its progressiveness. Method:The concentration of KGF-1 in GCF were detected by way of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following careful sampling of GCF with the standardized filter strips in healthy adults as well as periodontitis patients before treatment and in different stages after treatment. Result:The concentration of KGF-1 in GCF in the inflammatory group was significant higher than the normal group (P <0.05),at the fourth week,sixth week and the eighth week after the treatment,the concentration of KGF-1 in GCF was lower than inflammatory group before treatment and significant deference of KGF-1 concentration and statistical significance were found before treatment and in different stages after treatment (P <0.05). The

  6. Establishment and evaluation of method to collect rat gingival crevicular fluid by using absorbent paper points%大鼠龈沟液吸潮纸尖采集方法的建立及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志刚; 胡敏; 刘珊; 李志敏; 姜欢; 李洪发

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish and evaluate the method to collect the rat gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)by using absorbent paper points, and to lay foundation for analysis on GCF.Methods 20 healthy male rats were selected and randomly divided into GCF group and saliva group.The GCF of the right upper molar gingival trough of the rats in GCF group and the saliva of the rats in saliva group were collected by using 1 5# absorbent paper points.The SDS-PAGE analysis and abundance detection were applied to analyze the protein bands of the samples in two groups.Results The SDS-PAGE analysis identified the proteins at 77 000,66 000,55 000,51 000,and 28 000,especially 66 000 in GCF group.While saliva group had lower brightness protein bands at 66 000,60 000, and 48 000.The data of protein abundance of 66 000 between two groups had statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion The number and types of the protein bands are different between GCF Group and saliva group,so using 15# absorbent paper points can collect the rat GCF successfully.%目的:建立并评价大鼠龈沟液(GCF)吸潮纸尖采集方法,为大鼠龈沟液分析奠定基础。方法:选取健康雄性大鼠20只,随机分为 GCF组和唾液组,每组各10只。15#吸潮纸尖分别采集 GCF组大鼠右上第一磨牙腭侧龈沟内液体和唾液组大鼠唾液。样本离心后进行 SDS-PAGE分析及蛋白丰度检测,分析2组样本的蛋白成分。结果:GCF组样本电泳结果可见相对分子质量约为77000、66000、55000、51000和28000等的蛋白质条带,尤以66000处条带亮度最高。唾液组样本在相对分子质量约为66000、60000和48000附近隐约可见蛋白质条带,条带亮度较低。2组样本66000条带处蛋白丰度值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:GCF组样本的蛋白条带数量以及种类不同于唾液组样本,证明本实验利用15#吸潮纸尖袋内多次取样法可排除唾液、血

  7. 大鼠正畸牙根吸收早期龈沟液中DPP的变化规律%Dentin phosphoprotein in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic root resorption in rats.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文星; 刘月华

    2011-01-01

    目的:构建大鼠正畸牙根吸收模型,检测龈沟液中牙本质磷蛋白(DPP)的浓度变化规律.方法:雌性12周龄SD大鼠46只,其中16只取上颌第一磨牙及牙周组织,通过HE和TRAP染色观察不同时间点根吸收程度;另30只随机分为2组,持续加力28 d(CF组)和加力14 d后停止加力(IF组),收集龈沟液并通过ELISA检测DPP浓度.结果:持续加力14 d,DPP浓度逐渐升高,CF组与IF组间无显著差异(P>0.05);第14 d到28 d,CF组DPP浓度逐渐降低,而IF组DPP浓度在第21 d仍升高,组间有显著差异(P<0.01).根吸收相对面积和DPP浓度显著相关(P<0.05).结论:DPP作为牙的特异性蛋白,与正畸牙根吸收的修复相关,可能是早期诊断正畸牙根吸收的指标.%Objective: This study aimed to establish the animal model of early orthodontic root resorption in rats, and determine whether dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GFC) could serve as a prognostic factor for orthodontic root resorption. Method:46 12-week- old female SD rats were selected. The maxillary left first molar was drawn medially by applying an excess force. 16 rats were killed and the sections were treated with HE and TRAP histochemistry in the aim of observing the root resorption. The other 30 rats were randomly divided into continuous force group (CF) and the force suspended group (IF) and GFC was collected. The concentrasion of DPP were assayed by using the biochemistry techniques of ELISA. Result:From Od to 14d afterburner,concentration of DPP gradually increased, there were no significant differences between the two groups (P >O.05);from 14 d to 28 d, the concentration of DPP decreased in CF group,while it remained elevated on the 21th day,then reduced a little in IF group. The data between the two groups was statistically significant difference (P <0.01). The relative area of root resorption was correlated to the concentration of DPP,and the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0

  8. The effect of basic periodontal therapy on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in diabetes patients with periodontitis%牙周基础治疗对糖尿病患者血清和龈沟液中肿瘤坏死因子-α的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴路; 谢晓华; 郭阳; 张瑞敏; 刘枫晨

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of basic periodontal therapy on the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum and gingival crevicular fluid,clinical periodontal measurements,glycemic control in type two diabetic patients (T2DM) with chronic periodontitis.Methods Sixty patients with type two diabetes and chronic periodontitis,randomly divided into basic periodontal therapy group (observation group) and non-basic periodontal therapy group (control group),and each group was 30 patients.All subjects received basic periodontal therapy.Clinical periodontal parameters:probing depth (PD),attachment loss(AL),and plaque index (PLI) were recorded at baseline,1 and 3 months after the treatment,HbA1c and the level of TNF-α in serum and gingival crevicular fluid were measured.Results At 1 and 3 months after treatment,PD,PLI and TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in observation group,but AL and the concentration of HbAlc and TNF-α in serum reduced significantly 3 months after treatment (P < 0.05),while that of control group had no significant difference after the treatment (P>0.05).Conclusion The basic periodontal therapy can help to control the glucose level,clinical periodontal improvements and decreases TNF-α in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in type two diabetic patients with periodontitis.%目的 观察牙周基础治疗对2型糖尿病伴牙周炎患者血清及龈沟液中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的浓度、临床牙周状态、血糖控制的影响.方法 选取2型糖尿病伴牙周炎患者60例,随机分做牙周基础治疗组(观察组)和不做牙周基础治疗组(对照组),每组各30人.分别在治疗前、治疗后1个月和3个月记录所有患者牙周临床指数:探诊深度(PD),附着丧失(AL)及菌斑指数(PLI),并检测糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)及血清及龈沟液中TNF-α的含量.结果 观察组中PD、PLI和龈沟液中TNF-α含量在治疗后1个月和3

  9. Observation on the influence of fixed appliance for multi-indexes of gingival crevicular fluid and periodontal status of patients treated with orthodontic treatment%固定矫治器对正畸治疗患者龈沟液检测指标及牙周状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟; 程名涛; 朱亚妮

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨固定矫治器对正畸治疗患者龈沟液多个检测指标及牙周状况的影响.方法:选取2009年7月~2012年4月于本院采用固定矫治器进行正畸治疗的38例患者为研究对象,将其正畸治疗前及治疗后1、3、5、8及12周的龈沟液量、龈沟液前列腺素2 (PGE2)、活化激酶5(PAK5)、β-防御素2(HBD-2)、内毒素(ET)、白细胞介素-1 β(IL-1 β)及出血指数(BI)、牙周袋深度(PD)、牙松动度(TM)、菌斑指数(PLI)、牙龈指数(GI)、简化口腔指数(OHI-S)进行检测及比较.结果:38例患者治疗前及治疗后1、3、5、8及12周的龈沟液量、龈沟液PGE2、PAK5、HBD-2、ET、IL-1 β均呈现先升后降的趋势,而BI、PD、TM、PLI、GI、OHI-S则从治疗前及治疗后8周呈现持续升高的趋势(P<0.05),有显著性差异(P<0.05);治疗后12周与8周则无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:固定矫治器对正畸治疗患者龈沟液多个检测指标及牙周状况的影响较为明显,但至1 2周时基本稳定.%Objective To study the influence of fixed appliance for multi -indexes of gingival crevicular fluid and periodontal status of patients treated with orthodontic treatment. Methods 38 patients treated with fixed appliance in our hospital from July 2009 to April 2012 were selected as research object.and the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, PGE2,PAK5,HBD-2,ET,IL-1P and BI,PD,TM,PLI,GI,OHI-S of all the patients before and after the treatment at first.third, fifth,eighth and twelfth week were detected and compared. Results The gingival crevicular fluid, PGE2,PAK5,HBD-2,ET and IL-1(3of patients increased first and decreased afterwards.and BI,PD,TM,PLI,GI,OHI-S from the pre-treatment to post-treatment at eighth week showed continuously elevated (P0.05). Conclusion The influence of fixed appliance for multi-indexes of gingival crevicular fluid and periodontal status of patients treated with orthodontic treatment is obvious, and those at twelfth week were

  10. Comparative study on inflammatory cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement with Smart Clip self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets%Smart Clip 自锁托槽和传统托槽对正畸牙龈沟液中炎症因子水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩骁; 刘昕; 张晏更; 葛宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes of the cytokine levels in the gingival crevicular fluid after applying force on the self-li-gating brackets and conventional brackets,and analyse the periodontal tissue remodeling.Methods Sixteen maxillary protruding pa-tients who needed removing bilateral maxillary first premolars were selected,self-ligating appliance being used on one side of the upper dentition as the experimental group,and using traditional straight wire appliance on the other side as the control group.IL-1 βand PGE2 levels of the gingival crevicular fluid taken at different time points in canine retraction were detected,and to analyze the relationship of their changes with periodontal tissue inflammatory response.Results After retruding the canines,levels of IL-1 βand PGE2 of the gin-gival crevicular fluid all increased and reached their top at 24 h.There were no significant differencesin IL-1 βand PGE2 levels of the gingival crevicular fluid between the experimental group and control group.Conclusions Self-ligating appliance did not differ signifi-cantly from traditional appliance in periodontal tissue remodeling in the early phase of the orthodontic tooth movement.%目的:探讨自锁矫治器和传统矫治器对牙齿加力后龈沟液中炎症因子水平变化从而比较两种类型托槽引起的牙周组织改建的情况。方法选择16例上颌前突需拔除上颌双侧第一前磨牙的患者,上牙列一侧使用自锁矫治器作为试验组,一侧使用传统直丝弓矫治器作为对照组,对两侧尖牙加力后取不同时间点的龈沟液,检测其中 IL -1β和 PGE2水平,分析其变化与牙周组织炎症反应的关系。结果在对尖牙加力后,龈沟液中 IL -1β和 PGE2水平均升高,均在加力后24 h 达到最高值,各检测时间点试验组和对照组龈沟液中 IL -1β和 PGE2含量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论2种矫治器在正畸牙移动的初期对牙周组织改建的影响无明显区别。

  11. HIV+牙周炎患者龈沟液IL-6的检测分析%Analysis of IL-6 in gingival crevicular fluid of HIV-positive patients with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯雯; 贾洪诚; 王璇; 华文浩; 付茜; 李晓光

    2014-01-01

    目的:初步探讨HIV+牙周炎患者龈沟液中IL-6和CD4+T淋巴细胞计数与牙周临床指标的相关性,为临床提供参考。方法记录20例HIV+牙周炎患者共120颗指数牙的牙周临床指标:菌斑指数(PLI)、出血指数(BI)、附着水平(AL)和牙周探诊深度(PD),用放射免疫法检测龈沟液中IL-6。计数受试者血液的CD4+T淋巴细胞,并按其分组:A组(CD4计数>500 cells/mm3,2例12颗牙),B组(CD4计数200~500 cells/mm3,13例78颗牙),C组(CD4计数<200 cells/mm3,5例30颗牙)。组间牙周临床指标和IL-6比较采用Mann-Whitney秩和检验,CD4+T淋巴细胞计数和牙周临床指标的关系采用偏相关分析,IL-6和牙周临床指标的关系采用Spearman相关分析。结果 B组的BI值、GCF值、IL-6浓度分别为3.00(2.00)、4.80(2.20)ml、10.36(5.54)pg/μl。三组间的PD、AL差异均无统计学意义。B组和C组的CD4计数和BI有相关性(P<0.05)。IL-6含量与各项牙周临床指标呈正相关(P<0.05);IL-6浓度与各项牙周临床指标呈负相关(P<0.05)。结论 HIV+牙周炎患者的牙周炎症程度与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数有关,其龈沟液中IL-6水平与牙周临床指标有关。%Objective To investigate the relationship between IL-6, CD4+T lymphocyte counts and periodontal status of HIV+patients with periodontitis. Methods The gingival crevicular fluid were collected from 120 teeth of 20 patients. The levels of IL-6 were determined by RIA assays. Clinical measurements were recorded, including plaque index(PLI), bleeding index(BI), attachment level(AL) and probing depth(PD). The plasmatic CD4+T lymphocytes were counted. All the individuals were divided into three groups:A group(CD4>500 cells/mm3), B group(200 cells/mm3≤CD4≤500 cells/mm3) and C group (CD4<200 cells/mm3). Mann-Whitney were used to compare groups. Partial correlations and Spearman correlations were applied to

  12. Effect of different porcelain fused to metal crowns on gingival crevicular fluid%不同种类金属烤瓷底冠与基牙龈沟液的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙培音; 王亚锋; 法永红; 蔡兴伟

    2011-01-01

    背景:目前关于非贵金属烤瓷和贵金属烤瓷对牙龈、牙周组织健康影响的研究较多,纯钛与非贵金属、贵金属之间进行比较的研究较少.目的:观察不同种类烤瓷金属材料修复后基牙龈沟液中龈沟液分泌量以及肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素6水平的变化.方法:选择后牙区(前磨牙和磨牙)患者60例,共80颗受试牙,按烤瓷金属内冠材料不同分为3组,钴铬合金组28颗、纯钛烤瓷组32颗、金铂合金烤瓷组30颗.在修复1,3个月后检测龈沟液的分泌量以及肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素6水平.结果与结论:修复后1,3个月钴铬合金组龈沟液分泌量以及肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素6水平明显高于修复前(P 0.05).修复后1,3个月金铂合金组的各项指标与修复前比较差异无显著性意义(P > 0.05).钴铬合金组龈沟液分泌量、肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素6水平高于纯钛组、金铂合金组(P < 0.05).纯钛组龈沟液分泌量、肿瘤坏死因子α水平高于金铂合金组(P < 0.05).%BACKGROUND: The majority of current researches focus on the influence of non-precious metal ceramic porcelain and metal ceramic porcelain on the gingival and periodontal tissue health, but few study reports the effect of pure titanium versus non-precious metals and precious metals.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) secretion, and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleu kin-6 (IL-6) in GCF during different materials of porcelain fused-to-metal crowns restoration.METHODS: Sixty patients including 80 premolar and molar teeth were involved as test teeth and divided into three groups according to the materials of porcelain fused-to-metal crowns, Co-Cr alloy group (n=28), pu re Ti alloy group (n=32) and gold-platinum alloy group (n=30). At 1 and 3 months after the restorations of crowns, the secretion amounts of GCF, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in GCF were

  13. Fluid Structure Interaction Effect on Sandwich Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS Fluid Structure Interaction, FSI, composite, balsa, low velocity impact, sandwich composites, VARTM , Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer...11 1. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) ...................11 2. Procedure...required equipment for VARTM composite production. ..............10 Figure 4. VARTM Lay-up (From [8

  14. Expression of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid during maxillary canine distal movement%上颌尖牙远中移动过程中龈沟液内中性粒细胞浸润炎症相关因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桓溪; 邢洪波; 苗芳; 李宁; 邱静怡; 李娟

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:To dynamicaly monitor the varying levels of inflammatory factors in the gingival crevicular fluid is helpful to assess the early effect of orthodontic tooth movement. Myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1, pentraxin 3 are proven to be closely related to inflammation, but it is unclear about the levels of these three kinds of inflammatory factors as wel as association of these three kinds of inflammatory factors with orthodontic tooth. OBJECTIVE:To detect the expression levels of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid during maxilary canine distal movement and to assess their correlation with periodontal disease, canine movement distance and orthodontic force. METHODS:Twenty-one orthodontic patients were enroled and assigned into 150 g (n=12) or 100 g (n=9) groups according to orthodontic force. The gingival crevicular fluid samples of orthodontic patients were colected before and at 4, 12, 24 hours, 7, 14 days after maxilary canine distal movement. Levels of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid were measured and analyzed using ELISA assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the distal movement of maxilary canine, under orthodontic force, the level of myeloperoxidase was peaked at 4 hours and then decreased, while the expression level of soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 was peaked at 12 hours, and then decreased. Both myeloperoxidase and soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 levels returned to normal at 7 days under orthodontic force. The expression level of pentraxin-3 was increased significantly under orthodontic force, peaked at 24 hours, and then decreased gradualy to the normal level at 7 days. In addition, the expression levels of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid were significantly higher under 150 g force than

  15. 正常人、牙龈炎和牙周炎患者龈沟液内一氧化氮含量的检测%Detection of the Level of Nitric Oxide in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Healthy Individuals, Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis Patients.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚斌; 徐静舒; 戚慧; 雷雅燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the level of nitric oxide in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in normal group and periodontitis group, and to study the possible role of NO in the periodontal disease. Methods: The GCF samples were collected in 20 periodontally healthy individuals, 22 gingivitis and 32 chronic periodontitis patients. The level of nitric oxide in gingival crevicular fluid was measured by immunofluorescence. Results: The nitric oxide in GCF was a significant difference in chronic periodontitis group and gingivitis group than that in control group(P<0.01). The nitric oxide in GCF was significantly different in chronic periodontitis group compared to that in gingivitis group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Nitric oxide exists in GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis and gingivitis and periodontally healthy individuals. Nitric oxide plays an important role in the development of chronic periodontal disease. The level of nitric oxide in GCF has close relation with degree of inflammation.%目的:检测正常人和牙周病患者龈沟液中NO含量,探讨NO在牙周病发病过程中的作用.方法:选择牙周健康组20例,牙龈炎组22例,慢性牙周炎组32例,分别采集龈沟液标本,免疫荧光法检测龈沟液内NO的含量.结果:慢性牙周炎患者和牙龈炎患者龈沟液内NO含量与牙周健康组相比均有高度显著性差异(P<0.01),慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液内N0含量与牙龈炎组相比有高度显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:牙周健康者、牙龈炎患者、慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液中能检测出N0的存在,NO参与了慢性牙周炎的发展过程,龈沟液内NO含量与慢性牙周炎炎症程度密切相关.

  16. Granulocyte elastase levels in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid of subjects with various periodontal conditions%不同牙周状况下唾液和龈沟液中弹性蛋白酶的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康军; 沙月琴; 陈智滨

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the granulocyte elastase ( EA) levels in saliva and/or gingival cre-vicular fluild (GCF) of subjects with various periodontal conditions and analyze the relation between EA levels in GCF and in saliva. Methods; GCF and salivary samples were collected from 17 subjects with healthy periodontium, 14 with gingivitis, 24 with chronic periodontitis ( CP) and 24 with aggressive periodontitis (AgP). The EA levels in GCF and saliva were analyzed. Results; The GCF-EA level in AgP were significantly higher than that in CP (0.485 3 ±0.225 0 vs. 0.2884±0.193 1, P<0.01); the levels of EA in saliva of periodontitis patients ( AgP and CP) were higher than those of healthy and gingivitis subjects (0. 844 5 ±0.660 6, 0.637 3 ±0.648 9 vs. 0.031 6 ±0.020 6, 0.012 2 ±0.005 8, P < 0. 001). A positive correlation was found between EA levels in saliva and those in GCF ( r -0. 660) . Conclusion: GCF-EA level may serve as a marker for clinical assessment of periodontal conditions. The measurement of EA levels in saliva may facilitate to overall screen periodontitis patients in epi-demiological study or to monitor periodontal conditions in clinical practice.%目的:比较不同牙周状况者唾液和龈沟液( gingival crevicular fluild,GCF)中的中性多形核粒细胞弹性蛋白酶( granulocyte elastase,EA)含量,并分析唾液与龈沟液EA水平的相关性.方法:采用底物法对牙周健康者(17例)、牙龈炎患者(14例)、慢性牙周炎( chronic periodontitis,CP)患者(24例)和侵袭性牙周炎(aggressive periodontitis,AgP)患者(24例)的唾液和/或龈沟液样本中的EA含量进行测定分析.结果:AgP患者龈沟液EA水平高于CP患者(0.485 3 ±0.225 0 vs.0.288 4±0.193 1,P<O.01);牙周炎患者(AgP和CP)唾液EA水平高于牙周健康者和牙龈炎患者(0.844 5±0.660 6,0.637 3±0.648 9 vs.0.012 2±0.005 8,0.031 6±0.020 6;P均<0.001).牙周炎患者唾液与龈沟液EA水平呈正相关关系(r=0.660).结论:龈沟液EA

  17. Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Fluid-Filled Composite Structure Subjected to Low Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    this study of impact force, deflection, and strain were measured in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite cylinder subjected to low...Sanchez, J. Lopez-Puente, and D. Varas, “On the influence of filling level in CFRP aircraft fuel tank subjected to high velocity impacts,” Composite ...and back sides. The baffle provided the greatest strain reduction at the high fill levels. 14. SUBJECT TERMS glass fiber composite , fluid structure

  18. Determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusions with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱和平; 王莉娟

    2002-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is an instrument for effectively determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusion. The gaseous component is extracted from inclusions with thermal decrepitation method and then determined with the sensitive QMS instrument. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and high accuracy with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of less than 3%. It has been successfully used for analyzing fluid inclusions. The analytical re-sults meet the requirement of geological study.

  19. Significance of Circulating and Crevicular Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Rheumatoid Arthritis-Chronic Periodontitis Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Silosi

    2015-01-01

    periodontal disease have been identified. Emerging as a chronic inflammatory joint disease, RA displays various features and pathogenetic events similar to chronic periodontitis (CP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of determining systemic and crevicular levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 as potential biomarkers for association between RA and CP. A total of fifty-six patients were included in the study. The subjects were categorized into four groups as follows: healthy-control (n=21, active RA (n=16, CP (n=14, and RA-CP association (n=12. Assessment of serum and crevicular concentrations of total MMP-9 (active and pro-MMP-9 was based on ELISA technique. The results of this study showed statistically significant differences of serum MMP-9 between patients groups and control. Serum levels of MMP-9 were similar in RA and RA-CP associated patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF recorded increased MMP-9 levels in RA-CP association subjects as compared to CP. Considering that RA-CP association is characterized by a disregulation of the inflammatory response, MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA-CP association. MMP-9 is therefore a sensitive tool in the diagnosis and management of patients affected by this binomial association.

  20. Determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusions with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Heping

    2002-01-01

    [1]Joseph, R. G., Stephen, E. K., Factors affecting gas analysis of inclusion fluid by quadrupole mass spectrometry, Geo-chimica et Acta, 1995, 59(19): 3977-3986.[2]Masakatsu, S., Takayuki, S., Naoto, T., Analysis of fluid inclusion gases from geothermal systems, using a rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometer, Eur. J. Mineral., 1992, 4: 895-906.[3]Van den Kerkhof, A. M., Isochoric phase diagrams in the systems CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2: Application to fluid inclusions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1990, 54: 621-629.[4]Colin, B., Michael, P. S., Mass spectrometric determination of gases in individual fluid inclusions in natural minerals, Anal. Chem., 1986, 58: 1330-1333.[5]David, I. N., Fredrick, J. S., Analysis of volatiles in fluid inclusions by mass spectrometry, Chemical Geology, 1987, 61: 1-10.[6]Yoichi, M., Ryo, K., Takayuki, S. et al., Gas composition of fluid inclusion from the Mori Geothermal Reservoir, South-western Hokkaido, Japan, Resource Geology, 1997, 47(5): 283-291.[7]Lu Huanzhang, Guo Dijiang, Progress and trends of researches on fluid inclusions, Geological Review, 2000, 46(4): 385-392.[8]Xia Xinyu, Wang Xianbin, Chen Jiangfeng, Geningjie, composition of fluid inclusions and CO2 carbon isotope of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks in Shuanghe area, Dabieshan Mountain, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1999, 29(4): 314-320.

  1. Observation of detection rate changes of herpes virus at different time points of periodontal mechanical treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis gingival crevicular fluid%慢性牙周炎进行机械治疗的不同时限龈沟液疱疹病毒检出率的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟守鹏; 曹晖

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过观察牙周机械治疗慢性牙周炎患者治疗前及治疗后不同时间点龈沟液疱疹病毒检出率的变化,分析慢性牙周炎与疱疹病毒的关系,并且为牙周炎患者的治疗及预后提供一个微生物学依据.方法 随机选取2012年3月-2014年3月来我院口腔科进行牙周机械治疗的慢性牙周炎患者16例,采用巢式聚合酶链反应分别检测患者治疗前、治疗后2个周、2个月、4个月时点龈沟液中的巨细胞病毒(HCMB)和EB病毒1型(EBV-1),并分析两种病毒检出率的变化情况.结果 慢性牙周炎患者HCMB、EBV-1治疗前检出率分别为43.8%、15%,治疗后2个周时HCMV、EBV-1的检出率降至最低,分别为8.8%、0;治疗后2个周、2个月、4个月时HCMV和EBV的检出率均明显低于治疗前(P<0.05),HCMV在治疗后2个月的检出率(15%)比2周时(8%)有所回升,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 疱疹病毒在慢性牙周炎患者的发病中起一定作用,并且在牙周机械治疗后2个月内临床指标最为敏感,可以在治疗2周后复查以指导临床治疗.%Objective To observe the detection rate changes of herpes virus at different time points of periodontal mechanical treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis gingival crevicular fluid and analyze the relationship between chronic periodontitis and herpes virus,which provide a means of microbiological basis for the treatment and prognosis of patients with periodontitis.Methods 16 patients with chronic periodontitis periodontal mechanical treatment of cases were randomly selected as research subjects between March 2012-March 2014 in the department of stomatology in our hospital.HCMB) and EB virus type 1 (EBV-1) were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of cytomegalovirus by nested polymerase chain reaction before and after treatment for 2 weeks,2 months,4 months time and analysis of the changes in the incidence of two kinds of virus.Results HCMB and EBV-1

  2. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者牙周病及外周血、龈沟液炎性标志物观察%Oral Hygiene Status and Observation of Inflammatory Factors in Peripheral Blood and Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方治; 侯春阳; 王笑歌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the oral hygiene status and the observation of inflammatory factors in the peripher-al blood and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods 51 COPD pa-tients and 57 healthy controls were selected from the outpatient department and wards of Department Respiratory Diseases of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University during January 2012 to October 2013. Periodontal examination and measurements of inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-αand hs-CRP, in the peripheral blood and GCF were de-tected in the two groups. Results The periodontitis prevalence of COPD group (56. 86%, n=29) was significantly higher than that of control group (21. 05%, n=12) (χ2 =14. 66, P<0. 01). The clinical attachment loss, periodontal probing depth, gingival index, sulcular bleeding index, plaque index, tooth mobility, dental fillings index and simplified oral hygiene index of the COPD group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0. 05). IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in the peripheral blood of COPD group were notably higher than those of the control group;in addition, the GCF, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the COPD group were still higher than those of control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion The oral hygiene status is poor in COPD patients, which increases the prevalence of periodontal disease. Therefore the expression levels of in-flammatory factors in peripheral blood and GCF are significantly increased.%目的:观察慢性阻塞性肺疾病( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD)患者牙周病(牙周指标)及外周血、龈沟液( gingival crevicular fluid, GCF)炎性标志物情况。方法选取2012年1月—2013年10月在中国医科大学附属第四医院呼吸内科门诊和(或)住院治疗的COPD患者51例作为COPD组及同期健康体检的57例作为对照组。两组均行牙周检查及外周血、GCF 白细胞介素( IL )-1β、IL-6

  3. The influence of mesially impacted third molar on MMP8 and TIMP1 level in gingival crevicular fluid of adjacent second molar%第三磨牙近中阻生对邻近第二磨牙龈沟液中MMP8和TIMP1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于书娟; 程磊; 柳玉晓; 单文玲; 黄小艳; 何玉宏; 朱国雄

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of mesially impacted third molar on MMP8 and TIMP1 expression in gingival crevicular fluid ( GCF) of adjacent second molar. Methods: 64 soldiers were divided into four groups ( n = 16). In group A, the soldiers had second molars with normal- looking gingival flap overlying a mesially impacted mandibular third molar without history of pericoronitis. In group B, the soldiers had the same second and third mandibular molars as in group A but experienced pericoronitis of the third molar within six months. In group C the soldiers showed signs and symptoms of pericoronitis of the mandibular third molar. In group D the soldiers did not have the third molar and the mandibular second molars served as controls. GCF of second molars was collected, MMP8 and TIMP1 were measured. Sulcus bleeding index (SBI) , probing depth (PD) and plaque index (PI) of the related second molars were examined. Results: MMP-8 and TIMP1 concentrations in the gingival crevicular fluid in the four groups were different(C > B > A > D. A vs B, P > 0. 05 ; A vs C or D, B vs C or D and C vs D, P < 0. 05 ) . In clinical indexes, PI of group C was higher than that of group D (P < 0. 05) , and PD in group A, B and C was deeper than in group D (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The mesially impacted third molars may stimulate the MMP8,TIMP1, MMP8/TIMP1 expression and increase PD of the adjacent second molar, and they might be potential risk factors of periodontal inflammation of the second molar. Pericoronitis of the third molar might increased the effects.%目的:探讨第三磨牙近中阻生对邻近磨牙龈沟液中MMP8和TIMP1的影响.方法:选择64例口腔科就诊的战士,分为4组,A组下颌第二磨牙伴第三磨牙近中阻生,第三磨牙无冠周炎病史,龈瓣颜色正常;B组下颌第二磨牙伴第三磨牙近中阻生,6个月内第三磨牙有冠周炎病史,龈瓣颜色正常;C组下颌第二磨牙伴第三磨牙近中阻生,有冠周炎;D组无下颌第

  4. N 2-Ar-He compositions in fluid inclusions: Indicators of fluid source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David I.; Musgrave, John A.

    1994-02-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to measure bulk samples of conservative gas species N 2, Ar, and He in fluid inclusions from a variety of hydrothermal systems. Analyses of these tracer elements help determine (1) if gases extracted by bulk inclusion analyses can provide accurate measurement of N 2-Ar-He in active and fossil geothermal systems, (2) if hydrothermal fluids associated with paleogeothermal systems in a continental setting follow N 2ArHe systematics similar to th the western Pacific Rim active geothermal systems, specifically New Zealand, and (3) whether different deposit types systematically vary with regard to N 2ArHe. The N 2ArHe ratios of fluid inclusion volatiles released from recently deposited minerals from the Valles system are similar to those of present day Valles thermal waters. Those inclusion samples from deep within the Valles system, below a regional aquitard, increase in N 2. Compositions for inclusions from the Questa and Copper Flat-porphyry deposits are N 2-rich, similar to those of arc-related volcanic gases, whereas those from Taylor Creek Sn deposit appear to be mixtures of magmatic and crustal components. N 2-Ar-He ratios of the Precambrian Tribag deposit suggest a basalt source, but significant levels of self-generated He from U and Th in the inclusion fluids are also possible. Inclusions from two epithermal deposits with low-salinity inclusions have N 2-Ar-He ratios trending towards air-saturated meteoric waters (ASW), and those inclusions with higher salinities indicate minor to no ASW component. The N 2-Ar-He ratios in Fresnillo and Cochiti inclusions, which have magmatic helium isotopic ratios, indicate additions of magmatic gases to meteoric fluids. Inclusions from sediment-hosted deposits that contain hydrocarbon-bearing brines are He-rich, as are meteoric waters with a long residence time in the crust. At relevant pressure-temperature-composition conditions, Henry's Law constants of N 2, Ar, and He

  5. Levels of glycosaminoglycans in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontal degree II furcation involvement before and after guided tissue regeneration.%Ⅱ°根分叉病变患者引导组织再生治疗术前术后龈沟液中糖氨多糖水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫福华; 郑瑜谦; 等

    2002-01-01

    目的观察Ⅱ°根分叉病变患者引导组织再生治疗术(guided tissue regeneration, GTR)前后龈沟液(gingival crevicular fluid, GCF)中糖氨多糖(glycosaminoglycans, GAG) 水平变化的同时,探讨GCF中GAG能否作为判断GTR术后组织成熟的指标.方法对6例Ⅱ°根分叉病变的患牙采用GTR治疗,并于手术前,手术后1、2、3、4、5、6周收集GCF.用0.1%阿尔辛兰(Alcian blue)染色,分光光度法测定GCF中总的硫酸化GAG及硫酸软骨素(chondroitin sulfate, CS)的水平.结果 GTR术后1~2周,GCF 中CS 明显降低(P<0.05),然后逐渐升高,第6周恢复到基线水平.而GCF中总的硫酸化GAG则在术后1周明显升高(P<0.05),然后下降,到第6周升高并超过基线水平.结论 GCF中总的硫酸化GAG,尤其是CS 可用作监测牙周伤口愈合和组织再生的一个潜在指标,但是否可以用作GTR术后组织成熟的指标,还需加大样本并结合病理进行进一步的纵向观察.

  6. Effect of IPS e.max Press Ceramic Crown on the Level of MMP-2 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid%IPS e.max Press铸瓷全冠对龈沟液中MMP-2水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董蕾; 孙振学; 朱海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the ef ects of IPS e.max press ceramic crown on the periodontal tissue of the restored teeth. Methods 79 clinical patients (107 anterior teeth)were selected to be placed by IPS e.max press ceramic crown ,and before and 6 months after rehab,the weight of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)was mensurated and the level of MMP-2 in GCF was checked by way of enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay,the result was analyzed. Results The weight of GCF,the level of MMP-2 in GCF after rehab had no significantly statistical dif erence with those before rehab(﹥0.05). Conclusion IPS e.max press ceramic crown has no significantly negative influence on gingival health of the restored teeth. And it is a kind of restoration with favorable biocompatibility.%目的:探讨IPS e.max Pres 铸瓷全冠修复对牙周组织的影响。方法选择IPS e.max Pres 铸瓷全冠修复患者79例107颗患牙,在修复前和修复后6个月,测定龈沟液(GCF)量,并运用采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)对龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)水平进行分析。结果修复后GCF量、MMP-2水平与修复前比较差异无统计学意义(﹥0.05)。结论 IPS e.max Pres 铸瓷全冠对牙周组织无明显影响,是一种生物相容性良好的修复方式。

  7. Efficacy of scaling and root planning with and without adjunct Nd:YAG laser therapy on clinical periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid interleukin 1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels among patients with periodontal disease: A prospective randomized split-mouth clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Javed, Fawad

    2017-04-01

    Limited evidence exists regarding the role of scaling and root planning (SRP) with adjunct neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser therapy in reducing periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD]) and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) among patients with periodontal disease (PD). The aim was to assess the effect of SRP with and without adjunct Nd:YAG laser therapy on clinical periodontal parameters and GCF interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels among patients with PD. Demographic data was collected using a questionnaire. Mandibular right and left quadrants were randomly divided into test- (SRP+Nd:YAG laser) and control-sites (SRP alone). PI, BOP and PPD were assessed and GCF IL-1β and TNF-α levels were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Level of significance was set at Pnd 6-month follow-up, PI (Pnd PPD (Pnd PPD and GCF IL-1β and TNF-α levels were comparable at 3- and 6-month follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, IL-1β (Pnd TNF-α (Pnd 6-month follow-up. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, SRP+Nd:YAG therapy was more effective in reducing periodontal inflammatory parameters and GCF IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared with SRP alone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Constraints from fluid inclusions in mantle minerals on the composition of subduction-zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, P.; Provost, A.; Cluzel, N.

    2013-12-01

    Slab-derived fluids are thought to enrich the mantle wedge in water and trace elements, and this metasomatized mantle region becomes the source of island arc basalts. Much of the evidence for this model has been derived indirectly through the study of the composition of the end-products, the lavas, and there have only been a few direct studies of the metasomatism of the mantle rocks from these regions. Therefore important aspects of the model have remained somewhat hypothetical. In particular, there are different viewpoints on the nature of subduction fluids, their trace element compositions and their pathways in the slab and overlying mantle. The whole debate is also hampered by the limited memory that high-pressure metamorphic rocks preserve of their subduction history, due to retrograde overprinting during exhumation, and by uncertainties in reproducing the conditions of subduction during experiments. Here we identify trapped pristine samples of the fluid phase percolating through the mantle wedge beneath island arcs, by examining fluid inclusions trapped within spinel-harzburgite xenoliths in an arc-front volcano (Batan island, Luzon arc). The xenoliths correspond to previously metasomatized mantle fragments incorporated in the lavas during ascent. Cl-bearing H2O-rich fluid inclusions occur within both primary (ol, opx) and late metasomatic minerals (e.g., cpx, phlogopite, amphibole). They were formed by the addition of aqueous fluids or by separation of aqueous fluids from H2O-saturated melt inclusions, as suggested by the occurrence of composite inclusions consisting of silicate glass and H2O (liq+vap). The associated silicate melt inclusions were previously shown to display silica-rich compositions that are consistent with slab-derived melts [1] or melts of metasomatized mantle peridotites [2]. In situ Raman spectroscopy reveals that at room temperature, the fluid inclusions are composed mainly of H2O, H2S and HS- and contain also sulphur (S6) and Mg

  9. 正畸牙根吸收与龈沟液中牙本质涎磷蛋白和牙本质涎蛋白相关性的实验研究%Relationship between orthodontics root resorption following experimental tooth movement and the level ofdentin sialoph-osphoprotein and dentin siaioprotein in gingival crevicular fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志刚; 胡敏; 姜欢; 田莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of expression of dentin sialoph-osphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) with root resorption following experimental tooth movement in rats.Methods 36 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups on average randomly: Control group, light force group and heavy force group.The experimental teeth were drawn-off mesially by the force of 0.392 N in light force group and 0.98 N in heavy force group, with both of the maxillary central incisors as the tooth of anchorage.At the 7th day, the gingival crevicular fluid of rats were collected; the histological slices were made, including the experimental tooth and periodontal tissue; the tissues was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining to observe the histological changes of the root resorption of rats.Then the expression of DSPP and DSP were assayed by using biochemistry techniques of Western blot.Results Histological observation: There was not root resorption in control group.Neither root resorption nor cementoclast was observed in light force group.And in heavy force group visible root resorption came out in pressure zone.Western blot results: There was expression of DSPP and no DSP in control group, and there was the expression of DSPP and DSP in both light force group and heavy force group.The result of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the expression of DSPP and DSP among three groups.The highest one was heavy force group, followed by the light force group and control group with the least amount of proteins.Conclusion There is the expression of DSPP and DSP in gingival crevicular fluid following experimental tooth movement with root resorption.%目的 探讨大鼠龈沟液中牙本质涎磷蛋白(DSPP)和牙本质涎蛋白(DSP)的表达与实验性牙移动所致牙根吸收的关系.方法 36只健康Wistardd大鼠随机分成3组:对照组、

  10. The importance of water quality and haemodialysis fluid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenich, Nicholas A; Ronco, Claudio; Levin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of renal failure by haemodialysis uses dialysis fluid to facilitate the normalization of electrolyte and acid base abnormalities and the removal of low molecular weight uraemic compounds present in the plasma such as urea. The dialysis fluid is a continuously produced blend of treated tap water and a concentrated solution containing electrolytes, buffer, and glucose. The water used originates as drinking water but undergoes additional treatment. Recent surveys have indicated that the chemical and microbiological content of such water frequently fails to meet the requirements of established standards, and its bacterial content arising from the presence of a biofilm in the water distribution network or the hydraulic circuit of the dialysis machine is a contributory factor to the chronic inflammatory state in patients undergoing regular dialysis. The composition of the dialysis fluid plays an important role in the modulation of complications associated with end-stage renal disease, as well as those associated with the treatment itself. The avoidance of complications arising from water contaminants requires a constant and vigorous attention to water quality, whilst with the composition of electrolytes and buffer there is a trend towards greater individualization to provide a high degree of treatment tolerance.

  11. Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood and crevicular phagocytes in health and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neutrophils constitute the main phagocytic cell system in mammalian host defense against an infecting agent. Abnormalities in leukocyte number and function are associated with increased susceptibility to periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro phagocytic properties of crevicular and peripheral blood neutrophils in healthy and periodontitis subjects. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 subjects, that is, 10 patients in each of the following three groups: healthy controls, chronic periodontitis (CP, and localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP, were included in the study. The neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral blood and gingival crevice and tested for phagocytosis of Candida albicans. The percentage of leukocytes with ingested C. albicans was determined by light microscopy. Results: A significant reduction in the phagocytic activity of crevicular fluid polymorphonuclear neutrophils (CF-PMN of LAP subjects (mean: 54.3±7(P< 0.001 was observed, compared to healthy controls (mean: 74.2±9 and chronic periodontitis subjects (mean: 69±9(P=0.352. The mean percentage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs with phagocytosis of opsonized C. albicans in LAP patients was significantly reduced (mean: 74.9±5(P< 0.0068 compared to the phagocytic activity of neutrophils from controls (mean:82.1±3 and chronic periodontitis subjects (mean: 82.0±5(P=0.970. There was no significant reduction in the phagocytic activity of CF PMNs (mean: 69±9 (P=0.35 and peripheral blood PMNs (mean: 82.5(P=0.97 in the chronic periodontitis group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The phagocytic activity of both crevicular and peripheral neutrophils in subjects with periodontitis is altered, increasing the susceptibility to periodontitis. Thus individual susceptibility may be an additional and important modifying factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  12. 冠心病伴牙周炎患者非刺激性唾液及龈沟液中血小板活化因子的检测及意义%Detection of platelet-activating factor in unstimulated mixed saliva and gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟; 吴婷; 孙钦峰; 杨丕山; 刘晓玲

    2010-01-01

    目的:检测冠心病伴中重度牙周炎、单纯冠心病、单纯中重度牙周炎及健康对照组的非刺激性全唾液(unstimulated mixed saliva)及龈沟液(gingival crevicular fluid,GCF)中血小板活化因子(platelet-activating factor,PAF)水平,探讨牙周炎与心血管疾病之间的关系.方法:选取经冠状动脉造影确诊为冠心病且伴有中重度牙周炎患者24例(C+P组),单纯冠心病患者36例(C组),单纯中重度牙周炎患者32例(P组)及健康人(H组)28例.对所有受检者进行口腔检查,记录其探诊出血指数、牙石指数、探诊深度、附着丧失等相关临床牙周指标,并收集非刺激性全唾液和龈沟液,采用ELISA检测其中PAF水平.各组间PAF水平差异应用SPSS13.0软件包进行统计学分析.结果:C+P组和P组患者唾液和龈沟液中PAF水平显著高于C组和H组患者(P<0.05),相关分析显示,龈沟液中PAF水平与牙周探诊深度、附着丧失水平呈正相关(P<0.05).结论:冠心病伴牙周炎患者的唾液及龈沟液中PAF水平明显升高,提示PAF的升高可能是牙周炎影响心血管疾病发生、发展的又一重要因素.

  13. Effects of double gingival retraction and gingival retraction on the quantity and components of gingival crevicular fluid%双线排龈法和单线排龈法对基牙龈沟液含量和成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳燕; 匡斌

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较双线排龈和单线排龈对基牙龈沟液含量和成分的影响.方法:对47位患者的94个牙行冠桥修复,采用同一患者的不同牙位对照,分别采取双线排龈法和单线排龈法,取印模,完成修复体.于修复后7、21d和3、6个月提取受试牙位龈沟液,称重并检测其中天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)含量.结果:修复后7d,单线排龈组龈沟液量、GCF-AST和GCF-ALP含量高于双线排龈组(P<0.05);修复后21 d、3个月,两组各项牙周指标之间无显著性差异(P>0.05);修复后6个月,单线排龈组龈沟液含量高于双线排龈组(P<0.05),GCF-AST和GCF-ALP含量有所升高但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:双线排龈法对牙周组织的影响较单线排龈法小,更有利于牙周组织的健康.%AIM: To study the effects of double gingival retraction and gingival retraction before impression on the quantity and components of gingival crevicular fluid {GCF). METHODS: 94 teeth in 47 patients were treated by fixed prosthetics. Double gingival retraction was applied on one side and gingival retraction was applied on the other side in each patient. The quantity of GCF and the content of aspartate aminotransferase( AST) and alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) in GCF were assessed at 7 and 21 d, 3 and 6 months after application of the prosthetics. RESULTS: 7 d after treatment the quantity of GCE and the content of AST and ALT in the gingival retraction group were higher than those in double gingival retraction groupe ( P 0.05). 6 months after treatment the GCF in gingival retraction groupe was more than that in double gingival retraction groupe, while AST and ALT content was not statistically different between the two groups (P>0. 05). CONCLUSION; Double gingival retraction has less effect on periodontal tissues than gingival retraction.

  14. Fluid flow sensing with ionic polymer-metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Trabia, Sarah; Shen, Qi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors have been developed and modeled over the last two decades for use as soft-robotic deformable actuators and sensors. IPMC devices have been suggested for application as underwater actuators, energy harvesting devices, and medical devices such as in guided catheter insertion. Another interesting application of IPMCs in flow sensing is presented in this study. IPMC interaction with fluid flow is of interest to investigate the use of IPMC actuators as flow control devices and IPMC sensors as flow sensing devices. An organized array of IPMCs acting as interchanging sensors and actuators could potentially be designed for both flow measurement and control, providing an unparalleled tool in maritime operations. The underlying physics for this system include the IPMC ion transport and charge fundamental framework along with fluid dynamics to describe the flow around IPMCs. An experimental setup for an individual rectangular IPMC sensor with an externally controlled fluid flow has been developed to investigate this phenomenon and provide further insight into the design and application of this type of device. The results from this portion of the study include recommendations for IPMC device designs in flow control.

  15. Determination of bone metabolic marker levels in perio-implant crevicular fluid and analysis of dental implants stability by resonance frequency in the early stage of healing%早期愈合阶段牙种植体周沟液骨代谢相关因子的检测和种植体稳定性共振频率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩劼; 陈智滨; 李玮; 孟焕新

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of osteoprotegerin ( OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand ( RANKL) level in perio-implant crevicular fluid ( PICF) and to monitor the development of the stability of Straumann ® tissue-level implants by resonance frequency analysis ( RFA) during the early phases of healing .Methods: A total of 35 implants ( length 10 mm ) were placed.PICF samples were collected with filter paper strips at baseline , 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks post-surgery, respectively.The OPG, RANKL levels were determined by ELISA method .At the same time points, the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were determined with Osstell TM mentor.Results:During healing , PICF-OPG levels increased significantly 2 weeks after surgery when compared with the 4th-, 6th-, 8th-and 12th-week reevaluation (P<0.05).The OPG/RANKL ratio in PICF was significantly higher ( P<0 .05 ) than that in gingival crevicular fluid at 1 week post-surgery .ISQ slightly fluctuated within the first 4 weeks after installation .Following this, the ISQ values increased steadily for all the implants and up to 12 weeks.Significant differences were noted between the mean ISQ values at the 12th-week and other observation time points .Conclusion: The PICF-OPG levels may be effective in monito-ring the process of osseointegration .All the ISQ values indicated the stability of Straumann ® implants over a 12-week healing period .RFA is a reliable and effective assistant to monitor implant stability .%目的:观察牙种植体周沟液中骨保护素( osteoprotegerin,OPG)、核因子κB受体活化因子配体( receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand , RANKL)在Straumann®种植体骨愈合期的动态变化,结合种植体稳定性变化情况的共振频率分析,评价种植体周沟液和共振频率分析在监测种植体周围软组织健康状况和骨组织的改建更新过程中的作用。方法:35例牙齿缺失患者非潜

  16. 镍铬、金合金烤瓷牙修复后不同时期龈沟液IL-8含量水平探讨%To explore the different periods of gingival crevicular fluid IL levels of-8 Cr, gold alloy porcelain teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国能

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gold alloy and Ni Cr porcelain dental restoration on periodontal tissue. Methods in our hospital in 2011 during the May 5 to June 2012 80 cases of anterior teeth defect patients. According to the dif-ferent crown materials within the repair will be the group of gold alloy, Ni Cr alloy was observed in different periods of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and IL-8 levels, gingival crevicular fluid amount (GCF), phosphorus, alkaline acid (ALP). Results after treatment, 1 weeks, two kinds of alloy porcelain compared with the previous repair in gingival crevicular fluid volume, to-tal IL-8, with statistical significance;3, 6 months after the repair, the gold alloy group the index decreased significantly, to 6 months and gradually returned to the level before the repair. Ni Cr alloy group the index at 6 months in the repair and restoration of the former comparison was statistically significant, gold alloy group in the repair of the 3 and 6 months, the index was signifi-cantly lower than that of Ni Cr alloy group, the difference was significant;the content of IL-8, two kinds of alloy porcelain only significant differences in the repair of 3 months, repair at 6 months, two kinds of metal ceramic were restored to the level before the repair;Ni Cr alloy group repair at 6 months of AST, ALP and repair before there was significant difference, and gold The AST level was significantly increased in the alloy group at 6 months, and the difference was not significant between the gold al-loy group and the healthy teeth at 6 months after the repair of the ALP. Conclusion the irritation of the gold alloy to the gums is small, and it is an ideal material for the porcelain fused to metal crown.%目的:探讨金合金、镍铬烤瓷牙修复对牙周组织的影响。方法:选取我院2011年5月~2012年5月期间的80例前牙缺损患者,根据修复内冠材料不同将其分为金合金组、镍铬合金组,观察不同时期天

  17. Composite media for fluid stream processing, a method of forming the composite media, and a related method of processing a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Troy G; Law, Jack D; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R; Tranter, Rhonda

    2014-04-01

    A composite media including at least one crystalline aluminosilicate material in polyacrylonitrile. A method of forming a composite media is also disclosed. The method comprises dissolving polyacrylonitrile in an organic solvent to form a matrix solution. At least one crystalline aluminosilicate material is combined with the matrix solution to form a composite media solution. The organic solvent present in the composite media solution is diluted. The composite media solution is solidified. In addition, a method of processing a fluid stream is disclosed. The method comprises providing a beads of a composite media comprising at least one crystalline aluminosilicate material dispersed in a polyacrylonitrile matrix. The beads of the composite media are contacted with a fluid stream comprising at least one constituent. The at least one constituent is substantially removed from the fluid stream.

  18. Tooth correction using self-ligating bracketversusconventional bracket appliance:expression of interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in gingival crevicular fluid after correction%自锁托槽与传统托槽矫治器矫正后龈沟液内白细胞介素1β和肿瘤坏死因子α的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔占琴; 李文静; 郁焕兵

    2015-01-01

    背景:在临床正畸矫正过程中,自锁托槽较传统托槽更加有利于牙周健康的维护,但以往的研究多局限于牙周临床指数和牙周致病菌方面,炎性因子是否参与其中尚未见相关报道。目的:对比自锁托槽与传统托槽矫治器矫治前后龈沟液内白细胞介素1β和肿瘤坏死因子α表达水平的变化。方法:选择需做固定矫治且牙周健康的38例患者为受试对象,其中男20例,女18例,年龄11-25岁,按照随机数字表法分为对照组和试验组,每组19例,分别采用传统托槽矫治器与自锁托槽矫治器进行矫治。在矫治前、矫治后4,8,12周检测龈沟液量及其中白细胞介素1β和肿瘤坏死因子α表达水平。结果与结论:两组矫治后的龈沟液量、白细胞介素1β和肿瘤坏死因子α水平均高于矫治前(P<0.05);试验组矫治后不同时间点的龈沟液量、白细胞介素1β和肿瘤坏死因子α表达水平低于对照组(P<0.05),表明自锁托槽矫治器更加有利于保护牙周组织的健康。%BACKGROUND:During clinical orthodontic correction, the self-ligating bracket is more helpful to maintain the periodontal healthy than the traditional bracket, but previous studies mainly focused on the clinical periodontal index and periodontal pathogens, and whether inflammatory cytokines are involved has not been reported. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the changes of the expression levels of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α in gingival crevicular fluid before and after the correction using self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket appliance. METHODS:Totaly 38 orthodontic patients without periodontal disease (including 20 males and 18 females; aged 11-25 years) were included in this study. Al the patients were randomly divided into control and test groups (n=19/group) and subjected to orthodontic correction using self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket appliance, respectively

  19. Effective medium of periodic fluid-solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2012-05-24

    An analytic solution of the effective mass density and bulk modulus of a periodic fluid-solid composite is obtained by using the multiple-scattering theory in the long-wavelength limit. It is shown that when the concentration of solid inclusions is high, the effective mass density is structure dependent and differs significantly from the leading-order dipole solution, whereas Wood\\'s formula is accurately valid, independently of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the analytic solution are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. In the vicinity of the tight-packing limit, the critical behavior of the effective mass density is also studied and it is independent of the lattice symmetry. © 2012 Europhysics Letters Association.

  20. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Gregory, G.: An epidemiological study of chronic periodontal disease . Arch Oral Biol 10:553-566, 1965. 52. Shuler, R.L.: Effect of cigarette smoking on the... studies . Researchers have attempted to correlate plaque accumulation, calculus deposition, gingivitis, periodontal disease , and oral hygiene practices...in the etiology of periodontal disease . 15 In 1970 Alexander studied the relationship between tobacco smoking and periodontal health in 200 dental

  1. The adiponectin level in gingival crevicular fluid in patients of chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus type 2%慢性牙周炎伴2型糖尿病患者龈沟液中脂联素水平的检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道洲; 吴万红; 姜慧; 张帆; 黄萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine the adiponectin level in gingival crevicular fluid(GCF)in patients of chronic periodontitis with dia-betes mellitus type 2.Methods:20 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with chronic periodontitis(DM&CP),20 of periodontitis(CP) and 20 health subjects(H)were included.The periodontal indexes (SBI,PLI,PD and AL)were measured,GCF samples were quan-tified by periotron 8000,the adiponectin content in GCF was tested by adiponectin ELISA kit.The relationship between the adiponectin level in GCF and the periodontal indexes of the DM&CP patients was analyzed statistically.Results:The adiponectin level in GCF in group DM&CP was significantly lower than that in the other 2 groups(P 0.05).Conclusion:Decrease of adiponectin in GCF may play a role in the development of DM&CP.%目的:探究牙周炎伴2型糖尿病患者龈沟液中脂联素水平及意义。方法:纳入慢性牙周炎伴糖尿病患者(DM&CP)、慢性牙周炎患者(CP)、健康对照者(H)各20例,记录其临床指标(SBI、PLI、PD 和 AL),并收集龈沟液(GCF)样本,用龈沟液测量仪 periotron8000对 GCF 进行定量,用脂联素 ELISA 试剂盒检测样本中脂联素含量,比较组间检测指标的差异以及临床指标与 GCF 中脂联素水平的相关性。结果:DM&CP 组 GCF 中脂联素水平显著低于其他2组(P <0.05),CP 患者龈沟液脂联素水平与牙周健康组相比无统计学差异(P >0.05)。GCF 中脂联素水平与临床指标 PD 值、AL 值有负相关性(P <0.05),与 SBI、PLI 无明显相关(P >0.05)。结论:龈沟液中脂联素水平降低可能与 DM&CP 发生发展有关。

  2. 牙周机械治疗对2型糖尿病患者牙周健康及龈沟液白介素6水平的影响%Effect of periodontal mechanical therapy on periodontal health and interleukin-6 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳玮; 项立新; 刘丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of periodontal mechanical therapy on periodontal health and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods GCF samples were obtained with filter papers in first molar sites from 37 type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. The randomized controlled and blinded clinical trial with a duration of six months was designed to compare effects between three groups of professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PMTC), i.e. coronal scaling (group Ⅱ) with periodontal initial therapy (group Ⅰ) and without clinical therapy (control group). The clinical periodontal index such as probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), modified bleeding index (mBI) and bacteria plaque index (PLI) were obtained with a Williams type periodontal probe. Laboratory examination including GCF volume, concentrations and total amounts of IL-6 in GCF were detected with ELISA method. Results Significantly decreasing trends of PD, AL, mBI, GCF volume and total amounts of IL-6 were observed in group Ⅰin all test period. The group Ⅱ had a significant reduction of PD at the third month as compared with baseline (⊿=0.36 mm, P<0.05), and the other figures showed descending trends but didn′t present statistical significances. At the end of study, the group Ⅰand Ⅱ had significant reductions of GCF volume compared with increases of control group (0.96 μ1>0.03 μ1mm>-0.20 μ1, P<0.05). Conclusions The sequential periodontal supra- and sub- gingival scaling has definitive effects on periodontal health improvement and on reducing the IL-6 level in GCF in type 2 diabetic patients.%目的 评价定期龈上洁治和龈下刮治对2型糖尿病患者牙周健康及龈沟液白介素6水平的影响.方法 采用随机、对照、盲法设计,将37例2型糖尿病伴牙周炎患者分为基础治疗组(牙周基础治疗)13例、龈上洁治组(龈上洁治)11

  3. The correlation of OPG/RANKL expression level of gingival crevicular fluid to sulcus bleeding index in patients with chronic periodontitis%龈沟液 OPG/RANKL 表达与慢性牙周炎患者龈沟出血指数的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭君

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液护骨素( osteoprotegerin,OPG)和核因子κB受体活化因子配体( receptor ac-tivator of nuclear factor-KB ligand,RANKL)表达与其龈沟出血指数的关系。方法以吸潮纸尖法,取37例慢性牙周炎患者(观察组)和同期入院体检的31例健康志愿者(对照组)的龈沟液。采用免疫荧光试验分析OPG和RANKL的表达强度;并以简单线性回归法测试OPG/RANKL表达与龈沟出血指数的相关性。结果与对照组比较,观察组患者OPG和OPG/RANKL表达强度明显偏低,RANKL表达强度明显偏高,且各指标的组间差异均有统计学意义( P<0.001)。经线性回归分析,观察组患者的 OPG/RANKL 的表达情况与其出血指数呈显著负相关( y =-3.7755x+3.6212,R2=0.6651,P<0.05)。结论 OPG/RANKL/RANK系统参与了慢性牙周炎的发生和发展,可作为衡量其炎症性出血程度的客观指标。%Objective To examine the relationship between the level of osteoprotegerin ( OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-KB ligand ( RANKL) expression and sulcus bleeding index.Method The gingival crevicular fluid of 37 patients with chronic periodontitis ( chosen as the experimental group ) and 31 healthy volunteers were abstracted with moisture absorption paper point method.Their OPG and RANKL expression level were detected with immunofluorescence test and the correlation of OPG/RANKL expression and sulcus bleeding index were analyzed with simple linear regression. Findings Compared with the control group, the OPG and OPG/RANKL expression level were lower significantly and the RANKL expression level were higher significantly (P<0.001).Negative correlation was found between the OPG/RANKL expression level and sulcus bleeding index (y=-3.7755x +3.6212,R2 =0.6651,P<0.05).Conclusion OPG/RANKL/RANK system is involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis

  4. 龈沟液中IL-1β与2型糖尿病和牙周病相关性的研究%The research of correlation among IL-1β in gingival crevicular fluid and type 2 diabetes, periodontal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰; 丁岩; 邓晓红; 宋健玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the different level of IL-1β in gingival crevicular fluid(GCF)among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontal diseases patients (DM&AP) and periodontal diseases patients (AP), we investigated the relationship between concetration of HbAlc and IL-1β in DM and DM&AP. Method: GCF were collected by filter strips.DM,DM & AP.AP patients and normal control group of 30 patients in each were included in this study. Their IL-1β were measured by ELASA, HbAlc in DM and DM&AP were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Result:The diabetics, diabetics with periodontal diseases and periodontal diseases patients had higher GCF and IL-1β than normal control group (P <0.05). The diabetics with periodontal diseases and periodontal diseases patients had higher GCF than the diabetics group (P <0.05). The diabetics with periodontal diseases had higher IL-1β than the diabetics group and periodontal diseases patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: The diabetics and diabetics with periodontal diseases patients have higher IL-ip than normal. Long-term hyperglycemia causes diabetic patients susceptible to periodontal disease. So diabetic patients should highly concerned about periodontal health as they control blood suger.%目的:比较2型糖尿病患者(DM)、2型糖尿病伴牙周病患者(DM&AP)及牙周病患者(AP)龈沟液(GCF)中的白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)水平,探讨DM和DM&AP糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)浓度与IL-1β的相关性.方法:使用滤纸条法采集GCF,DM、DM&AP、AP患者及正常对照组各30例;ELISA法测定GCF中IL-1β含量;运用高效液相层析法测定DM和DM&AP的糖化血红蛋白水平.结果:DM、DM&AP、AP的GCF量和IL-1β量均高于正常对照组(P<0.05);DM&AP、AP组GCF量显著高于DM组(P <0.05);DM&AP组IL-1β含量高于DM组和AP组(P<0.05).结论:糖尿病患者和糖尿病伴牙周病患者IL-1β均高于正常人,长期的高血糖会使糖尿病患者

  5. Ⅱ型糖尿病合并牙周病患者龈沟液中肿瘤坏死因子α水平和意义%Measurement and Analysis of TNF-α in Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Type 2 Diabetes Complicated with Periodontal Diseases Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰; 丁岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the TNF-α level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from periodonlal diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus with which from systemically healthy person and the relationship between TNF-α concentration and metabolic condition. Methods: Thirty diabetics complicated with periodontal diseases patients and perio-dontal diseases and thirty systemically healthy persons were included in this study. Their TNF-α was measured by radioimmunoassay. and HbAlc levels of diabetic patients were measured by high-performance liquid chromatogra-phy. Results: The diabetics with periodontal diseases and patients with periodontal diseases had higher GCF and GCF-TNF-α as compared to the control group(P<0. 01). The diabetics with periodontal diseases had higher GCF-TNF-α as compared to the periodontal diseases group (P<0. 01). The levels of TNF-α of diabetics with periodontal diseases did not correlate with HbAlc levels. Conclusion: The TNF-α level was controlled by systemic factor. The high TNF-α contents in diabetics may be a consequence of a systemic abnormal response and a more severe periodontal disease may thus be resulted.%目的:比较Ⅱ型糖尿病合并牙周病患者、牙周病患者与健康者龈沟液中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量和龈沟液量,以及Ⅱ型糖尿病合并牙周病患者龈沟液中TNF-α量与糖代谢状况的关系.方法:使用滤纸条法采集龈沟液,Ⅱ型糖尿病合并牙周病患者、牙周病患者和全身健康者各30例;放射免疫法测定龈沟液中TNF-α含量;运用高效液相层析法测定Ⅱ型糖尿病合并牙周病患者的糖化血红蛋白水平.结果:糖尿病合并牙周病组和牙周病组龈沟液量及龈沟液TNF-α量均显著高于正常对照组(P<0.01),糖尿病合并牙周病组龈沟液TNF-α量显著高于牙周病组(P<0.01).糖尿病合并牙周病组龈沟液中TNF-α含量与糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)水平无显著直线相关性.结论:龈沟液中TNF-α含量

  6. 3种金属烤瓷冠修复后龈沟液中白细胞介素-8水平动态测定%Determination of the dynamic levels of interleukin-8 in gingival crevicular fluid of porcelain teeth with three different alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许卫星; 苏俭生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨镍铬合金、钴铬合金、金合金3组金属烤瓷冠修复前后不同时期龈沟液(GCF)内白细胞介素-8(IL-8)水平变化,了解这3种金属烤瓷冠在不同时期对牙龈的刺激程度.方法 临床随机选择3种金属烤瓷冠修复患者共45例,每组各15例,测定在修复前以及修复后1、3、6个月GCF量,并采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法检测同期GCF中IL-8总量、IL-8含量.结果 镍铬合金烤瓷冠在修复1、3、6个月后GCF量、IL-8总量与修复前相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).钴铬合金、金合金烤瓷冠在修复3个月后回复到修复前水平.3种金属烤瓷冠IL-8含量在不同时期差异均无统计学意义.结论 IL-8参与炎症的免疫调节,可作为评价不同金属烤瓷冠对牙龈组织刺激程度的指标,不同合金烤瓷冠内冠材料对牙龈存在不同的长期刺激,临床金属烤瓷冠修复时对内冠材料的选择应予以关注.%Objective To study the interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy at different time periods, and to uncover the degree of stimulation by these alloys on gingiva at different time periods. Methods 45 cases of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy were selected randomly, with 15 cases in each group. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the concentration and total amount of IL-8 in GCF. The assay was done before treatment, as well as at 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results The total amounts of IL-8 and GCF volume in the Ni-Cr alloy coated porcelain teeth were higher in different time period than those before treatment (P<0.05). However, the IL-8 levels in Co-Cr and gold alloy coated porcelain teeth returned to pre-dental restoration after 3 months. Otherwise, the levels of IL-8 concentration in GCF showed no significant difference among the three different alloys coating at different

  7. Constraints from Water on Mantle Melting and Slab Fluid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, T.; Wade, J.

    2005-12-01

    Water drives mantle melting and fluid migration in subduction zones, but most models for these phenomena have been developed without constraints from water measurements in arc magmas. For example, the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) records systematic variations in La/Yb, Ba/La and d18O, and these proxies have been used to predict the extent of mantle melting during decompression [1] and water-addition [2]. Here we use water concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from arc tephra, along with estimates derived from a clinopyroxene hygrometer [3], to test different models for mantle melting and slab fluid composition along the CAVA (from Nicaragua to Costa Rica). We use Ti as a proxy for mantle melt fraction (F) and invert H2O concentrations in CAVA magmas to obtain those in the mantle source (H2Oo), as in [4]. The relationship between F and H2Oo is nominally linear for Costa Rica mantle, with wet melting productivity dF/dH2O = 30 (wt%/wt%), higher than that used in [2], but consistent with experimentally-determined and MELTS-calculated productivity at 50 degrees above the dry solidus. This predicts mantle temperature beneath Costa Rica of at least 1350°C, and allows for a small (1-2% F) decompression-melting contribution, relative to the wet melting contribution (8-20% F). The percent of wet melting correlates locally with Ba/La, but not regionally, and so the use of Ba/La as a wet melting proxy [1] should be limited to single volcanoes or clusters. The water content of the CAVA melting region varies from 2500-9000 ppm H2O but does not decrease monotonically from Nicaragua to Costa Rica as does Ba/La. The relationship between H2Oo and Ba/La is thus complex, and requires a large along-strike decrease in Ba/La and H2O/La in the slab fluids towards the southeast. Such variation appears to be driven largely by La concentration, reflecting more dilute fluids (higher H2O/La) beneath Nicaragua and more solute-rich fluids (e.g., sediment melts with high La/ H

  8. The Influence of Nanoadditives on the Biological Properties and Chemical Composition of Process Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borůvková K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study process fluids were tested after the addition of nanoparticles. Cooling and lubricating process fluids are used in machining to reduce wear on tools, to increase machine performance and to improve product quality. The use of process fluids leads to their pollution and contamination. Nanoparticles were added to the process fluids in order to increase their antibacterial activity. The selected nanoparticles were nanoparticles of metallic silver. The process fluids were modified by the addition of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid. Reduction of silver nanoparticles in the volume of the fluid was achieved using UV. The modified fluids were tested for their cytotoxicity and changes in chemical composition. The cytotoxicity of process fluids was tested for the purpose of verifying whether the process fluids, which are in direct contact with the skin of the operator, affect the health of the operator. The cytotoxicity of the process fluids was tested on human fibroblast cells. Fibroblasts are the basic cells of fibrous tissue. The cytotoxicity was tested by measuring the cell viability and using XTT. Analysis of chemical composition was performed for the purpose of determining the individual substances in the process fluids and their chemical stability. Qualitative analysis of the process fluids was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC - MS.

  9. Protein composition in the fluid of individual bovine follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M M; Kroll, J; Byskov, A G; Faber, M

    1976-09-01

    The proteins in follicular fluid from individual and pooled bovine follicles were studied by gel chromatography and quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The mean protein concentration was 86-4% of serum; very large proteins were present in only low concentrations. A minimum of 40 individual proteins was distinguished in follicular fluid, and 15 of these proteins were quantitated. A correlation between molecular weight and follicular fluid: serum concentration ratio was found. Fluid from individual follicles differed only in the relative concentrations of small and large proteins. An exception to this was IgG which was occasionally, but never in healthy growing follicles, present in concetrations above 150% of serum. Healthy growing, preovulatory and atretic follicles had higher, and cystic follicles mostly lower, concentrations of small proteins than serum. The concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin in healthy growing follicles never exceeded 16% of serum. The concentration of large proteins in follicular fluid increased with increasing follicle size. Attempts to detect proteins specific to follicular fluid by immunizing rabbits with pooled follicular samples and the follicular fluid proteins not bound by anti-bovine antiserum resulted in production of antibodies against fibrinogen and its split products D+E only.

  10. Blister fluid composition in a pediatric patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mona; Kowal-Vern, Areta; An, Gary; Hanumadass, Marella

    2008-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening disease mostly related to drug ingestion. Apoptotic keratinocytes lead to separation of the epidermis from dermis and widespread blistering of the skin. This case is a pediatric patient with a seizure disorder who developed TEN after starting carbamezepine. Blister fluid was analyzed for protein, chemical, and mineral content. The TEN blister fluid composition was similar to burn blister, except that the burn blister fluid has a 3-fold increase in albumin and protein. There was a substantial increase in lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, and magnesium in both blister fluid specimens compared with serum levels. To our knowledge, this report is the first in the literature to analyze TEN blister fluid composition and compare it to burn blister fluid.

  11. 母体唾液及龈沟液细胞因子水平与早产低体重新生儿关系的病例对照研究%Association between preterm low birth weight and maternal cytokine levels of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 沙月琴; 康军; 陈智滨; 苗江霞; 孙玉艳

    2010-01-01

    目的 验证牙周炎是否为早产低体重新生儿(preterm low birth weight,PLBW)母亲体内低度炎症的来源之一,初步探讨PLBW与炎症因子之间的关系.方法 以83例PLBW的母亲(PLBW组)及44名健康新生儿(normal birth weight,NBW)的母亲(NBW组)为研究对象,留取受试对象的静息全唾液、龈沟液,应用酶联免疫吸附试验检测唾液和龈沟液中白细胞介素(IL)-1β和IL-6水平,比较两组间唾液和龈沟液中细胞因子水平的差异,并分析细胞因子与分娩孕周、新生儿体重之间的相关性.结果 唾液IL-1β水平在PLBW组[(78.32±11.81)ng/L]显著高于NBW组[(39.66±11.89)ng/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);分娩孕周与唾液IL-6之间呈显著的负相关关系(r=-0.274,P<0.01);新生儿体重与龈沟液IL-1β(r=-0.231,P<0.01)、唾液IL-6(r=-0.424,P<0.01)之间呈显著的负相关关系.结论 唾液和龈沟液中炎性因子水平越高,分娩孕周越短、新生儿体重越轻,母体牙周炎程度与PLBW之间可能存在一定程度的相关关系.%Objective To examine the hypothesis that periodontitis was one of the sources of inflammation in preterm low birth weight (PLBW) mothers and investigate the relationship between PLBW and inflammatory factors.Methods The samples of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected from 83 PLBW mothers(PLBW group) and 44 normal birth weight(NBW) mothers(NBW group).The levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The concentrations of cytokines in saliva and GCF were compared between the two groups.Results IL-1β level in saliva of PLBW group was higher than which of NBW group significantly[(78.32±11.81) ng/L vs.(39.66±11.89) ng/L, P<0.05].There was no statistically significant difference on IL-6 level in saliva[(17.45±3.13) ng/L vs.(16.28±0.66) ng/L], IL-1β level in GCF[(93.58±13.22) ng/L vs.(81.38±9.28) ng/L]and IL-6 level in GCF[(15.35±0.28) ng/L vs.(14.87 ±0.37) ng/L) between

  12. 牙周基础治疗对侵袭性牙周炎患者唾液和龈沟液中牙周致病菌的作用%Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on putative periodontal pathogens in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids in patients with aggressive periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路瑞芳; 冯向辉; 徐莉; 孟焕新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the prevalence of putative periodontal pathogens in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids (GCF) in patients with aggressive periodontitis(AgP).Methods Sixteen patients with AgP received non-surgical periodontal treatment,and un-stimulated saliva and GCF were collected before treatment and 2 weeks,2 months,4 months,6 months post-treatment.Periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa),Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg),Tannerella forsythia (Tf),Treponema denticola (Td),Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) were detected by polymerase chain reaction.Results The Aa,Pg,Tf,Td,Pi and Fn in saliva were detected in 7,16,13,14,9 and 14 patients respectively at baseline,and in 3,9,5,4,4 and 7 patients 2 weeks post-treatment.The prevalence of the 6 periodontal pathogens showed a tendency to increase at 2 months post-treatment,and was almost the same as that of baseline at 6 months post-treatment.While in GCF the prevalence of Aa,Pg,Tf,Td,Pi and Fn were 17% (11/64),95% (61/64),84% (54/64),72% (46/64),41% (26/64) and 56% (36/64) at baseline,and reduced to 8% (5/64),75% (48/64),28% (18/64),14% (9/64),16% (10/64) and 23% (15/64) at 2 weeks post-treatment (P < 0.05).The prevalence of the 6 periodontal pathogens remained a relatively low level [13% (8/64),73% (47/64),42% (27/64),23% (15/64),8% (5/64) and 38% (24/64)respectively] at 6 months post-treatment in GCF(P < 0.05) compared with baseline except Aa.There was difference of periodontal pathogens detection between saliva and GCF.Conclusions Non-surgical periodontal treatment can reduce pocket depth as well as periodontal pathogens in saliva and GCF.Periodontal ruaintenance every 2 months can keep the periodontal pathogens in GCF at a relatively low level.The periodontal pathogen detection in saliva can not completely replace the site detection.%目的

  13. Oral hygiene status and expression of inflammatory factors in peripheral blood and gingival crevicular fluid of elderly pa-tients with coronary artery disease%老年冠心病患者口腔牙周现况及外周血、龈沟液炎性标识指标对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 朱浩

    2014-01-01

    目的:对照分析老年冠心病( CHD)患者口腔牙周现况及外周血、龈沟液( GCF)炎性标识指标水平。方法连续选择2013年1月到2013年4月在解放军沈阳军区总医院心内科住院治疗的老年CHD患者47例,对照组入选同时间参加我院体检结论健康老年人42例。两组对象均接受了口腔牙周检查及外周血、GCF处炎性标识指标( IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α和hs-CRP)检测。结果老年CHD组的牙周炎及牙周病患病率分别为53.19%(25例)和72.34%(34例),均明显高于对照组(13例,27.65%,χ2=6.59和10例,23.81%,χ2=9.15;均P<0.01)。老年CHD组的临床附着丧失、牙周探诊深度、龈沟出血指数、牙齿松动度、牙齿填充指数及简化口腔卫生指数均明显差于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01);老年CHD组的外周血IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α和hs-CRP水平均显著高于对照组,老年CHD组的GCF处IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α均显著高于对照组( P<0.05P<0.01)。结论老年CHD患者口腔牙周卫生状况差,牙周疾病患病率增加,外周血及GCF处炎性标识指标水平明显升高。%Objective To investigate the oral hygiene status and to analyze the expression of inflammatory factors in the periph -eral blood and gingival crevicular fluid ( GCF) of elderly patients with coronary artery disease ( CHD) .Methods A total of 47 CHD elderly patients and 42 healthy controls were selected from Department of Cardiology , General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to Apirl ,2013.All the cases were treated by periodontal examination and measurements of in-flammatory factors,including IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-αand hs-CRP,in the peripheral blood and GCF.Results The periodontitis preva-lence was 53.19%(n=25),and the prevalence of periodontal disease was 72.34%(n=34) in the CHD group,which were signifi-cantly higher than 27.65%(n=13,x=6.59) and 23.81%(n=10,x=9.15) in the

  14. Effect of special intervention on expression of inflammatory factors in peripheral blood and gingival crevicular fluid of elderly patients with coronary heart disease and periodontitis%专项干预对老年冠心病合并牙周炎患者口腔、外周血及龈沟液炎性指标影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 朱浩

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察专项干预对老年冠心病(CHD)合并牙周炎患者口腔、外周血及龈沟液(GCF)炎性指标影响。方法连续选择近期在解放军沈阳军区总医院心内科住院治疗的老年CHD合并牙周炎患者45例。入选对象随机分为口腔干预组(23例)和对照组(22例)。两组患者均接受了常规冠心病治疗,口腔干预组另接受了口腔专项干预治疗。治疗前后进行了口腔、外周血及GCF处炎性指标检测。结果两组患者治疗前各类口腔及牙周相关指标接近,治疗后口腔干预组的PD、CAL、M、SBI及OHI-S均明显好于治疗前及对照组同期结果(P均<0.05);两组患者治疗前外周血炎性标识指标水平接近,两组患者治疗后外周血炎性标识指标水平均明显低于治疗前,同时,口腔干预组的IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α和hs-CRP表达水平均显著低于对照组(P均<0.05);两组患者治疗前GCF处炎性标识指标水平接近,治疗后口腔干预组GCF处IL-1β、IL-6和TNF-α水平均显著低于治疗前及对照组同期结果(P均<0.05~0.01)。结论专项干预可明确改善老年冠心病(CHD)合并牙周炎患者口腔、外周血及龈沟液(GCF)炎性指标。%Objective To investigate the effect of special intervention on the expression of inflammatory factors in the oral cavity, peripheral blood and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and periodontitis. Methods A total of 45 elderly patients with CHD and periodontitis were selected from Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA and divided into intervention group (n=23) and control group (n=22). All the cases were treated by general therapy;meanwhile, the cases in the intervention group were also treated by special intervention. Inflammatory factors in the oral cavity, peripheral blood and GCF were tested before and after treatment. Results Related indicators of

  15. Chemical compositions of aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid in the vicinity of the second critical endpoint in the system peridotite-H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Ono, S.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the chemical compositions of fluid and melt is fundamental in understanding the magma genesis and chemical differentiation in the Earth's interior. We investigated the stability fields of aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid magma using in-situ x-ray radiography and the second critical endpoint in the system peridotite-H2O was determined to be around 3.8 GPa (Mibe et al., 2007, JGR). Using the quenched recovered samples obtained by Mibe et al. (2007), we determined the chemical compositions of aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid in the vicinity of the second critical endpoint in the system peridotite-H2O by EPMA analyses. A 10- to 30-μm diameter electron beam was used to obtain the composition of quenched materials from aqueous fluid, silicate melt, and supercritical fluid. The compositions of coexisting aqueous fluid and silicate melt were determined at 3.3 GPa and 3.6 GPa and 1180°C. In both samples, olivine coexists with aqueous fluid and silicate melt. In the run at 3.3 GPa, the composition of aqueous fluid was high-Mg dacitic, whereas the composition of silicate melt was hydrous peridotite. In the run at 3.6 GPa, the composition of aqueous fluid was high-Mg andesitic, whereas the composition of silicate melt was hydrous komatiitic. Although aqueous fluids in both runs are high-Mg, both MgO and FeO preferentially enters into silicate melt compared to aqueous fluid.

  16. Preparation of Rare-Earth Composite Ferrite Magnetic Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣立; 刘永超; 刘守坤; 鞠明礼

    2004-01-01

    Water-based rare-earth ferrite (RexFe3-xO4)magnetic fluids were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The result shows that saturation magnetic intensity of ferrite magnetic fluids can be improved by adding Dy3+ and the saturation magnetic intensity will reach the highest if n(Fe)∶n(Dy3+)=30∶1. The modification and formation mechanism of RexFe3-xO4 particles is discussed in detail. The physicochemical properties are investigated by the Gouy magnetic balance, IR, TEM, XRD, and EDX, etc.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANGANESE PHTHALOCYANINE-Fe3O4 NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITE AND ITS ELECTROMAGNETORHEOLOGICAL FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc)-Fe3O4 nanoparticles composite was prepared and characterized. The results show that MnPc are complexed on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the state of single molecule. There is effective composite between MnPc and Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can improve the antioxidization ability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles greatly. The composite was dispersed into chlorinated paraffin oil to form electromagnetorheological (EMR) fluid with high activity,and the EMR properties of this EMR fluid are studied.

  18. Preliminary results on the composition of oviductal fluid in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if qualitative and quantitative differences exist in energy substrates and ionic components of buffalo cow oviductal fluid during dioestrus, pre-ovulatory and ovulatory phases of the oestrous cycle. Ten multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis cows at 15 days in milk were used. Cannulation of oviduct was performed as previously described by Kavanaugh et al.(1992 for cattle, adapting the technique to the smaller dimension of buffalo reproductive tract. We evaluated daily secretion rates, energy substrates and ions concentration during the three phases. Oviductal fluid secretion rates (ml/24h and glucose concentration were significantly greater in the ovulatory phase (P<0.01 and in the pre-ovulatory phase (P<0.05 than in dioestrus. No significant differences were detected between oestrous phases for the other parameters analyzed.

  19. 侵袭性牙周炎龈沟液中有机酸与牙龈卟啉单胞菌和齿垢密螺旋体的关系%Relationship between volatile fatty acids and Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in gingival crevicular fluids of patients with aggressive periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路瑞芳; 冯琳; 高学军; 孟焕新; 冯向辉

    2013-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, etc. are metabolic product of putative periodontal pathogens, which play significant roles in periodontitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) , Treponema denticola (T. denticola) , and the concentration of SCFAs in gingival crevicular fluid ( GCF) of patients with aggressive periodontitis ( AgP). Methods; GCF was sampled from 4 sites per individual in 20 patients with AgP and 14 healthy controls. Concentrations of SCFAs, including succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid in the supernant of GCF were analyzed by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), P. gingivalis and T. denticola in the deposit of the same GCF were detected by PCR with their electrophoretic band quantified. Results : The concentrations of succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid, the prevalence and PCR band quantity of P. gingivalis and T. denticola in GCF were all significantly higher in patients with AgP than that of healthy controls. In patients with AgP, butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in P. gingivalis positive sites than negative sites [2.87 (0.99, 4. 36) mmol/L vs. 0.33 (0.00, 1.44) mmol/L, P<0.05], the concentrations of succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid were positively correlated with PCR band quantity of P. gingivalis (r value was 0. 334, 0. 548, 0.411, 0. 493, 0. 273, respectively, P < 0. 05); the concentrations of SCFAs were significantly higher in T. denticola positive sites than negative sites; succinic acid, 1. 67 (1.15, 2.11) mmol/L m. 0.80 (0.48, 1.06) mmol/L; acetic acid, 31.95 (23.77, 43.13) mmol/L vs. 12.51 (7.57, 15.69) mmol/L; propionic acid, 11.86 (6.55, 14.98) mmol/L vs. 2.82 (1.71, 7.03) mmol/L; butyric acid, 3.45 (2.41,4.78) mmol/L vs. 0.54 (0.00, 1.56) mmol

  20. IL-2,IL-17,IL-35 Expression in Peri-implant Gingival Crevicular Fluid and the Clinical Significance%种植体周围炎龈沟液中IL-2、IL-17、IL-35的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光山; 王明德

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study interleukin(IL) 2,IL-17,IL-35 expression in peri-implantitis gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the clinical significance.Methods A total of 40 patients with implant surround-ing inflammation ( group A) from Linqu People′s Hospital were chosen as the research objects between Jan . 2011 and Dec.2013,while another 40 patients with healthy implant were chosen as group B,and 50 healthy people were chosen as healthy control group.The probing depth(PD),gingival sulcus bleeding index (SBI), the IL-2,IL-17,IL-35 mass concentration in the GCF of the three groups were recorded,and the correlation between IL-2,IL-17 in GCF,IL-35 mass concentration with gender,age,PD and SBI was analyzed.Results The PD,SBI,GCF of group A were significantly higher than group B and control group[(4.49 ±0.71) mm vs (2.59 ±0.62) mm,(2.54 ±0.59) mm;(3.45 ±0.89) vs (0.69 ±0.22),(0.64 ±0.27);(1.96 ± 0.82) μL vs (0.89 ±0.25) μL,(0.69 ±0.21) μL](P 0.05 ) .IL-7 of group A was higher than group B [(10.61 ±1.02) ng/L vs (7.58 ±0.98) ng/L,(5.49 ±0.91) ng/L](P <0.05),group B higher than the control group(P <0.05); IL-2,IL-35 level of group A were lower than group B and control group [(3.19 ±0.49) ng/L vs (3.69 ±0.68) ng/L,(3.91 ±0.72) ng/L;(62.78 ±4.29) ng/L vs (75.82 ± 4.63) ng/L,(82.49 ±4.81) ng/L](P<0.01),group B lower than the control group (P<0.05).IL-17 was positively correlated with age,PD and SBI(r=0.710,0.629,0.749,P <0.05),and IL-2,IL-35 were negatively correlated with the age, DP, SBI ( r =-0.698, -0.381, -0.761;r =-0.715, -0.387,-0.752, P<0.05).Conclusion IL-17 shows high expression in GCF in peri-implantitis,IL-2,IL-35 show low expression in GCF in peri-implantitis;the specific expressions of IL-35,IL-2,IL-17 in GCF are closely related to peri-implantitis.%目的:探讨白细胞介素(IL)2、IL-17、IL-35在种植体周围炎龈沟液中的表达及意义。方法选择2011年1月至2013年12月临朐县人民医院收治的40

  1. Compositions of Upper Mantle Fluids Beneath Eastern China:Implications for Mantle Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mingjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; ZHANG Tongwei; BO Wenrui

    2004-01-01

    The composition of gases trapped in olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in lherzolite xenoliths collected from different locations in eastern China has been measured by the vacuum stepped-heating mass spectrometry.These xenoliths are hosted in alkali basalts and considered as residues of partial melting of the upper mantle, and may contain evidence of mantle evolution. The results show that various kinds of fluid inclusions in lherzolite xenoliths have been released at distinct times, which could be related to different stages of mantle evolution. In general, primitive fluids of the upper mantle (PFUM) beneath eastern China are dominated by H2, CO2 and CO, and are characterized by high contents of H2 and reduced gases. The compositions of PFUM are highly variable and related to tectonic settings. CO, CO2 and H2 are the main components of the PFUM beneath cratons; the PFUM in the mantle enriched in potassic metasomatism in the northern part of northeastern China has a high content of H2, while CO2 and SO2 are the dominant components of the PFUM in the Su-Lu-Wan (Jiangsu-Shandong-Anhui) region, where recycled crustal fluids were mixed with deeper mantle components. There are several fluids with distinct compositions beneath eastern China, such as primitive fluids of upper mantle (CO, CO2 and H2), partial melting fluids (CO2 and CO) and metasomatic fluids mixed with recycled crustal fluids (CO2, N2, 8O2 and CH4) etc. Fluids of the upper mantle beneath the North China craton are different from that of the South China craton in total gases and chemical compositions: the contents of the reduced gases of the PFUM in the NCC are higher than those in the SCC.

  2. Acyl chain composition and coexisting fluid phases in lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongwen; Bradley, Miranda; Mitchell, Drake

    2011-10-01

    At room temperature phospholipid bilayers enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol may form a solid phase as well as two coexisting fluid phases. These are the standard fluid phase, or the liquid-disordered phase, ld, and the liquid-ordered phase, lo, which is commonly associated with lipid rafts. Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form coexisting lo, ld and solid phases over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes to detect these 2 phases: NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions strongly into the lo phase and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions strongly into the ld phase. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the ternary phase diagram of POPC/SPM/Chol with particular focus on the functionally important lo/ld coexistence region. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of these two fluorescent probes.

  3. Composition of fluid from the notochordal canal of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, R W; Mathews, M B; Umminger, B L; Grant, B F; Pang, P K; Thomson, K S; Pickford, G E

    1975-05-01

    Fluid from the notochordal canal of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, was analyzed for major inorganic and organic constituents and compared with blood serum from the same fish. Significantly or suggestively lower levels of sodium, magnesium, calcium, bicarbonate, sulfate, total carbohydrates, glucose, lactate, cholesterol, bound phosphate and total proteins were found in notochordal fluid than in serum, whereas potassium, chloride, urea, trimethylamine oxide, and total free amino acids were higher and inorganic phosphorus essentially identical. Osmolarity of notochordal fluid (1058 mOsm) exceeds that of serum (942 mOsm). A whitish precipitate in the fluid consisted of a matrix of fibers 100 A in diameter and of indefinite length. It resembled a sialoglycoprotein in composition and was stabilized by disulfide bonds. The fluid contained cellular debris.

  4. Research on torsional friction behavior and fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Cui, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient.

  5. Designing magnetic composite materials using aqueous magnetic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Galicia, J A; Cousin, F; Guemghar, D; Menager, C; Cabuil, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report on how to take advantage of good knowledge of both the chemistry and the stability of an aqueous magnetic colloidal suspension to realize different magnetic composites. The osmotic pressure of the magnetic nanoparticles is set prior to the realization of the composite to a given value specially designed for the purpose for each hybrid material: magnetic particles in polymer networks, particles as probes for studying the structure of clay suspensions and shape modification of giant liposomes. First, we show that the introduction of magnetic particles in polyacrylamide gels enhances their Young modulus and reduces the swelling caused by water. The particles cause both a mechanical and an osmotic effect. The latter is strongly dependent on the ionic strength and is attributed to an attraction between particles and the polymeric matrix. In the second part, we determine the microscopic structure of suspensions of laponite as a function of concentration, by combining SANS and magneto-optica...

  6. Fluid Structure Interaction Effects on Composites Under Low Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Interaction, FSI, low velocity impact, carbon fiber reinforced polymers, CFRP, carbon nanotubes, CNT, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, VARTM . 16...Ethyl Ketone Peroxide MWCNT Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube VARTM Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...samples used in this research is known as vacuum assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ). VARTM is a very common method used in low pressure composite

  7. U and Th Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Hydrothermal Fluids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Shen, C.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Kelley, D. S.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium and Th concentration and isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) were determined using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP- MS). The LCHF is an off-axis, serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal system located at 30°N near the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. Carbonate chimneys reaching 60 m in height vent alkaline (pH~10), calcium-rich fluids at 40- 91°C and the towers are home to dense microbial communities. Vent fluid and seawater U and Th concentration and isotopic composition data provide critical information for constraining U-Th chimney ages. The increased sensitivity (1-2%) of MC-ICP-MS combined with an Aridus nebulization system allows the precise measurement of small quantities of sample (~150 ml) with low concentrations (ICP-MS techniques to measure the U and Th concentration and isotopic composition (234U, 238U, 230Th, and 232Th) of eight hydrothermal fluid samples. Endmember fluids with ~1mmol/kg Mg have ~0.02 ng/g U, confirming that end-member fluids contain near-zero values of both Mg and U. Thorium concentrations of fluids are close to deep seawater values. U and Th isotopic compositions are reported at the permil level. These data may provide new insights into the role of serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems in the budgets of U and Th in the ocean. Techniques presented in this study may be applied to other hydrothermal and seep environments.

  8. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  9. Designing magnetic composite materials using aqueous magnetic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia, Jose Alberto [Laboratoire Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees - Equipe Colloides Inorganiques, UMR 7612 CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 4 place Jussieu, case 63 - 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sandre, Olivier [Laboratoire Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees - Equipe Colloides Inorganiques, UMR 7612 CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 4 place Jussieu, case 63 - 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cousin, Fabrice [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, UMR 12 CNRS/CEA CEA-Saclay - 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guemghar, Dihya [Laboratoire Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees - Equipe Colloides Inorganiques, UMR 7612 CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 4 place Jussieu, case 63 - 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Menager, Christine [Laboratoire Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees - Equipe Colloides Inorganiques, UMR 7612 CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 4 place Jussieu, case 63 - 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cabuil, Valerie [Laboratoire Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees - Equipe Colloides Inorganiques, UMR 7612 CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 4 place Jussieu, case 63 - 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2003-04-23

    In this paper, we report on how to take advantage of good knowledge of both the chemistry and the stability of an aqueous magnetic colloidal suspension to realize different magnetic composites. The osmotic pressure of the magnetic nanoparticles is set prior to the realization of the composite to a given value specially designed for the purpose for each hybrid material: magnetic particles in polymer networks, particles as probes for studying the structure of clay suspensions and shape modification of giant liposomes. First, we show that the introduction of magnetic particles in polyacrylamide gels enhances their Young modulus and reduces the swelling caused by water. The particles cause both a mechanical and an osmotic effect. The latter is strongly dependent on the ionic strength and is attributed to an attraction between particles and the polymeric matrix. In the second part, we determine the microscopic structure of suspensions of laponite as a function of concentration, by combining SANS and magneto-optical experiments with the probes. This study requires conditions suitable for including the magnetic particles as probes without disturbing the clay suspensions. The third part presents giant magnetoliposomes, which encapsulate magnetic nanoparticles. Shape transitions are obtained with either a magnetic field or an osmotic stress.

  10. The Composition of the Fluids in Alkali Basalts and Mantle-Derived Xenoliths in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Minjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; LI Liwu

    2001-01-01

    The components of the fluids released from alkali basalts and mantle-derived Iherzolite xenoliths in eastern China have been determined by the vacuum pyrolysis-mass spectrometric (MS) method in the present study. The results show that mantle-derived lherzolites formed in fluids composed mainly of reducing gases such as H2 and CO, and their fluid composition is characterized by a higher H2 content and a lower total content of volatiles. The fluids in alkali basalts are composed mainly of oxidizing gases, such as CO2 an SO2 and characterized by higher contents of SO2 and volatiles,implying that the extraneous oxidized fluids which are composed mainly of SO2 mixed with primary alkali basaltic magmas during their formation and evolution. The fluid compositions of alkali basalts and Iherzolite xenoliths show high nonhomogeneity in the upper mantle source region and difference in alkali basaltic magma evolution in different districts. It can be deduced that the region with higher PH2 could exist in the upper mantle beneath eastern China.

  11. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Polyacrylic Acid Composites Under Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S. Katti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated mechanical response of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic composites under dry, wet and simulated body fluid conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HAP is mineralized under two conditions; one, in presence of polyacrylic acid (in situ HAP, second, in absence of polyacrylic acid (ex situ HAP. Further, in situ and ex situ HAP are mixed with polyacrylic acid to make HAP/PAAc composites. Interfacial interactions between PAAc and HAP have been studied using photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR. The mechanical response of the composites under wet condition is studied by soaking composite samples in simulated body fluid (SBF. Under wet conditions, SBF and water weaken the HAP-HAP interface significantly. PAS-FTIR data suggests that PAAc attaches to HAP through the dissociated carboxylate groups. The water and SBF soaked samples showed creep-like behavior and exhibit large residual strain after unloading. Loading under different strain rates has significant effect on mechanical properties of these composites. Both in situ and ex situ 70:30 composites exhibit highest elastic modulus at strain rate of 0.01 sec-1. XRD study indicates formation of Ca2P2O7 phase in ex situ composite after soaking in SBF and water for 3 hours, whereas in situ composites showed presence of only hydroxyapatite phase after soaking in SBF and water for same duration of time.

  12. New Simulation Method for Transient Response of Composite Fluid Line Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Muneyuki; Yamazaki, Koji

    In the first report on this subject, a new simulation method for obtaining the transient response of composite fluid line systems, such as gas transport networks, air brake systems, pressure instrument lines and pneumatic control systems, has been presented. This simulation is based on the wave diagram of the fluid line system and Brown’s approximate step response of a semi-infinite line. In this report, two kinds of wave reduction techniques are introduced for the effective computation of the transient response. One is the unification of equivalent and similar waves at any junction of lines from different traveling routes. The other is the elimination of small waves attenuated by the partial reflection and the long propagation distance. For computed response examples using these techniques, the step responses of composite fluid line systems (a loop line system and multiline branching systems) are also presented.

  13. The compositions of Hydrous Fluids in equilibrium with the Peridotitic Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Locmelis, M.; Fiorentini, M.; Rushmer, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The compositional characteristics of H2O-rich fluids are critical to determine because migrating hydrous fluids have the capacity to impart many of the compositional characteristics of arc magmas and the continental crust/hydrosphere, to mantle source regions. However, the compositions of H2O-fluids produced by near-solidus experiments on peridotite are intrinsically difficult to determine. In this study we avoided many previously encountered problems by using an indirect approach. This involved H2O-saturated experiments on a hydrous nepheline basanite for which conditions of equilibrium with garnet-lherzolite (~ 1200 °C and 2.6 GPa) had been independently established using near-liquidus phase equilibria. Following experiments in single Ag70Pd30 and Au capsules, the quenched products of melts and H2O-fluids could be easily distinguished and directly analysed by EDS and LAM ICP-MS. Solute concentrations in the fluid phase were then calculated from mass-balances using estimated H2O-solubilities in melts. Because mineral/melt partition coefficients had already been determined for trace and minor elements in the basanite, we indirectly obtained peridotite/fluid partition coefficients for the same elements. In addition, we were able to directly analyse co-existing fluid-solutes and peridotite phases (clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + olivine + amphibole + mica + spinel) from one sub-solidus experiment at 950 °C and 2.0 GPa. At 2.0 GPa and 950-1100 °C the H2O-fluid contains between 10 and 20 wt. % of dissolved solute, which has a peralkaline phonolite composition. Relative to the co-existing basanite melt, the H2O-fluid is enriched in Cs, Rb, K, Pb, Ba and V, but otherwise has lower concentrations of most incompatible elements. It is not depleted in HFSE relative to REE. As pressure and temperature increase, the fluid becomes more solute-rich until at 4.0 GPa and 1100 °C no clear distinction between the fluid and melt phase is apparent. At 2-3 GPa and 1100

  14. Speckle tracking and speckle content based composite strain imaging for solid and fluid filled lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Md Shifat-E; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2017-02-01

    Strain imaging though for solid lesions provides an effective way for determining their pathologic condition by displaying the tissue stiffness contrast, for fluid filled lesions such an imaging is yet an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel speckle content based strain imaging technique for visualization and classification of fluid filled lesions in elastography after automatic identification of the presence of fluid filled lesions. Speckle content based strain, defined as a function of speckle density based on the relationship between strain and speckle density, gives an indirect strain value for fluid filled lesions. To measure the speckle density of the fluid filled lesions, two new criteria based on oscillation count of the windowed radio frequency signal and local variance of the normalized B-mode image are used. An improved speckle tracking technique is also proposed for strain imaging of the solid lesions and background. A wavelet-based integration technique is then proposed for combining the strain images from these two techniques for visualizing both the solid and fluid filled lesions from a common framework. The final output of our algorithm is a high quality composite strain image which can effectively visualize both solid and fluid filled breast lesions in addition to the speckle content of the fluid filled lesions for their discrimination. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated using the in vivo patient data and compared with recently reported techniques. The results show that both the solid and fluid filled lesions can be better visualized using our technique and the fluid filled lesions can be classified with good accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of apatite formation on natural nano-hydroxyapatite/ chitosan composite in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-bin FAN; Xiao-ying L(U)

    2008-01-01

    This study is focused on the ability of apatite formation on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan (CH) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro. At first, natural nano-HA was prepared according to a wet-bailing method and the composite was prepared by combining the natural nano-hydroxyapatite and chit-osan, and then in vitro biomineralization test of natural nano-HA/CH composite was carried out in standard SBF. Subsequently, the quantity of the weight of the particles formed on the composite surface in SBF was measured by analytical balance, and the morphology change on the surface of the composite was observed by a scanning elec-tron microscope (SEM). Lastly, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was used to investigate the chemical components of the particles formed on the nat-ural nano-HA/CH composite surface in SBF. The result of quantity assessment shows that the weight of the com-posite increased with the increase of soaking time. The SEM image shows that the particles were gradually formed on natural nano-HA/CH composite surface, and the FTIR spectrum of the particles on composite surface confirms that these particles were carbonate apatite. This study indicates that the nano-HA/CH composite has a good ability for apatite formation in SBF, which predicts the bone-inducing ability of natural nano-HA/CH com-posite in vivo.

  16. Synovial fluid lubrication of artificial joints: protein film formation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingyun; Myant, Connor; Underwood, Richard; Cann, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Despite design improvements, wear of artificial implants remains a serious health issue particularly for Metal-on-Metal (MoM) hips where the formation of metallic wear debris has been linked to adverse tissue response. Clearly it is important to understand the fundamental lubrication mechanisms which control the wear process. It is usually assumed that MoM hips operate in the ElastoHydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) regime where film formation is governed by the bulk fluid viscosity; however there is little experimental evidence of this. The current paper critically examines synovial fluid lubrication mechanisms and the effect of synovial fluid chemistry. Two composition parameters were chosen; protein content and pH, both of which are known to change in diseased or post-operative synovial fluid. Film thickness and wear tests were carried out for a series of model synovial fluid solutions. Two distinct film formation mechanisms were identified; an adsorbed surface film and a high-viscosity gel. The entrainment of this gel controls film formation particularly at low speeds. However wear of the femoral head still occurs and this is thought to be due primarily to a tribo-corrosion mechanisms. The implications of this new lubrication mechanism and the effect of different synovial fluid chemistries are examined. One important conclusion is that patient synovial fluid chemistry plays an important role in determining implant wear and the likelihood of failure.

  17. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation

  18. Research of essential elements composition in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with outcomes of traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, M. A.; MAMADALIEV A.M.; MAMADALIEVA S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the essential elements composition in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with different outcomes of traumatic brain injury before and after complex treatment with the use of endolumbal and intracystal introduction of ozone and pyracetam in dynamics. Essential elements composition was investigated in the cerebrospinal fluid of 83 patients. Thus, it may be noted positive changes in the metabolism of essential elements in the cerebrospinal fluid of pat...

  19. Resuscitation fluid composition affects hepatic inflammation in a murine model of early sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Amanda L; Grin, Peter M; Kraus, Nicole; Gold, Michelle; Berardocco, Matthew; Liaw, Patricia C; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E

    2017-12-01

    Fluid resuscitation is a crucial therapy for sepsis, and the use of balanced fluids and/or isotonic albumin may improve patient survival. We have previously demonstrated that resuscitation with normal saline results in increased hepatic leukocyte recruitment in a murine model of sepsis. Given that clinical formulations of albumin are in saline, our objectives were to develop a novel balanced electrolyte solution specifically for sepsis and to determine if supplementing this solution with albumin would improve the inflammatory response in sepsis. We developed two novel buffered electrolyte solutions that contain different concentrations of acetate and gluconate, named Seplyte L and Seplyte H, and administered these solutions with or without 5% albumin. Normal saline with or without albumin and Ringer's lactate served as controls. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and the liver microvasculature was imaged in vivo at 6 h after CLP to quantify leukocyte recruitment. Hepatic cytokine expression and plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations were also measured. Septic mice receiving either Seplyte fluid showed significant reductions in hepatic post-sinusoidal leukocyte rolling and adhesion compared to normal saline. Hepatic cytokine concentrations varied in response to different concentrations of acetate and gluconate in the novel resuscitation fluids but were unaffected by albumin. All Seplyte fluids significantly increased hepatic TNF-α levels at 6 h compared to control fluids. However, Seplyte H exhibited a similar cytokine profile to the control fluids for all other cytokines, whereas mice given Seplyte L had significantly elevated IL-6, IL-10, KC (CXCL1), and MCP-1 (CCL2). Plasma cfDNA was generally increased during sepsis, but resuscitation fluid composition did not significantly affect cfDNA concentrations. Electrolyte concentrations and buffer constituents of resuscitation fluids can modulate hepatic cytokine production and leukocyte

  20. HIV阳性的牙周炎患者CD4+ T淋巴细胞计数和龈沟液前列腺素E2与牙周临床指标的相关性分析%Association of CD4+ T lymphocyte count and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 with periodontal parameters in HIV-positive periodontitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪诚; 王璇; 华文浩; 李晓光; 侯雯; 付茜

    2014-01-01

    目的 评估HIV+牙周炎患者的CD4+ T淋巴细胞计数(简称CD4计数)和龈沟液中前列腺素E2(prostaglandin E2,PGE2)与牙周临床指标的相关性,以期为临床提供参考.方法 选择符合纳入标准的20例HIV+牙周炎患者,计数其血液CD4+T淋巴细胞.按CD4计数分组:A组(CD4计数< 200个/mm3,共计5例30颗牙)、B组(CD4计数为200~500个/mm3,共计13例78颗牙)、C组(CD4计数>500个/mm3,共计2例12颗牙),对受试者共计120颗指数牙进行牙周检查:菌斑指数(plaque index,PLI)、出血指数(bleeding index,BI)、附着水平(attachment level,AL)、牙周探诊深度(probing depth,PD),用放射免疫法检测龈沟液中PGE2.组间牙周临床指标和PGE2的比较采用Mann-Whitney秩和检验,CD4计数和牙周临床指标的相关性采用偏相关分析,PGE2与牙周临床指标的关系采用Spearman相关分析.结果 B组的BI值、PGE2质量浓度、PGE2总量分别为3.00(2.00)、90.75(30.60) μg/L及447.58(243.08) pg,均显著高于A组[分别为2.00(1.25)、79.75 (30.50) μg/L、339.52(200.97) pg]和C组[分别为2.00(1.00)、73.38(14.83) μg/L、299.18(108.33) pg](P<0.0167),而A组和C组的各项牙周临床指标差异及三组两两之间的PD和AL差异均无统计学意义(P>0.0167).A组和B组的CD4计数与BI有相关性,偏相关系数分别为0.657(P <0.05)、-0.369(P<0.05);C组的CD4计数与BI无相关性(P>0.05).PGE2质量浓度与探诊深度、附着丧失呈负相关(P<0.05),PGE2总量与各项牙周临床指标呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 HIV+牙周炎患者的牙周炎症程度与CD4计数有关,其龈沟液中PGE2水平与牙周临床指标有关.%Objective To investigate the correlation of CD4+ T lymphocyte count and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) with periodontal status in HIV-positive patients with periodontitis.Methods Twenty subjects were selected according to inclusion criteria.The plasmatic CD4+ T lymphocytes were counted.All the

  1. Composition of chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold evaluation after simulated body fluid immersion as reconstruction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisqa, F.; Triaminingsih, S.; Corputty, J. E. M.

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation is one of the most important aspects of bone regeneration. Because domestically made chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffolding from crab shell and bovine bone and tendon has potential as a maxillofacial reconstruction material, the material’s HA-forming ability requires evaluation. The aim of this research is to investigate chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold’s potential as a maxillofacial reconstruction material by observing the scaffold’s compositional changes. Scaffold specimens were immersed in 37°C simulated body fluid (SBF) for periods of 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. Scaffold composition was then evaluated by using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) percentages of the scaffold were found to increase following SBF immersion. The high Ca/P ratio (3.82) on the scaffold indicated HA formation. Ion exchange played a significant role in the increased percentages of Ca and P, which led to new HA layer formation. The scaffold’s HA acted as a nucleation site of Ca and P from the SBF, with collagen and chitosan as the scaffold’s matrix. Chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold shows potential as a maxillofacial reconstruction material, since its composition favors HA formation.

  2. Solid-fluid mixture microstructure design of composite materials with application to tissue engineering scaffold design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu

    The ability to design the material microstructure brings the use of composite materials into the next generation. In this paper, we report pioneering research to implement the computational material microstructure design into the internal architecture design for a tissue engineering scaffold. A tissue engineering design postulate is that scaffolds should match specified healthy tissue stiffness, while concurrently providing sufficient porosity for cell migration and tissue regeneration. Employing the inverse homogenization method and the adaptive topology optimization method, a complex 3D microstructure can be designed to perform with the anisotropic elastic stiffness and porosities analogous to a native bone specimen. Besides the elastic stiffness from its solid part, fluid in the porous region also plays an important role in tissue engineering. The flow of fluid through the pores brings nutrients to cells in the tissue matrix and also removes their waste. Fluid permeability of cylinderical trabecular bone grafts was found to predict clinical success. Deriving from Darcy's Law, we developed software to calculate the homogenized fluid permeability of 3D cancellous voxel models, which were directly reconstructed from micro-CT images. Furthermore, an Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) algorithm was utilized to maximize fluid permeability in the microstructure. The fluid optimization scheme was then collaborated with solid phase optimization through Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to create an integrated solid-fluid mixture microstructure design. In addition, to ensure the fabrication feasibility, we also implemented a post-optimization process to enhance design results by improving the dynamic stiffness to eliminate weak connections and checkerboard pattern. The design scaffolds were then built by an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique using various bio-compatible materials and ready for further investment. This computational

  3. Pressure oscillation induced by composite fluid flow - Physical picture generating low frequency earthquake -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, S.; Kurita, K.

    2006-12-01

    Recently low frequency (LF) earthquakes have been found to occur in various geophysical settings. Structural inspection of the source region and analysis of focal mechanism suggest the possible role of fluid in the generation process. The nature of fluid expected in the source region should be characterized by multiphase system such as magma and gas bubble, magma and crystal and aqueous fluid and gas bubble, for example. In this system the physical properties of this composite depends on the mutual volume fraction. The volume fraction is variable depending on the flow situation. We consider the link between the flow situation and the volume fraction is an essential part of the composite flow. Here based on the concept that nature of the composite flow plays a central role in the generation of pressure oscillation, we report a simple laboratory model to demonstrate LF earthquakes. The multiphase system in the source region of the LF earthquakes is modeled here as a composite of viscous fluid and incompressible granular phase. plastic particles made of polystyrene (0.5 mm in diameter) and glycerol solution is packed into a cylindrical case (60 mm in diameter). The packing state of the solid phase is near random closed packing state. The glycerol solution flows into the case from the pressure reservoir and it goes out from exit tube with 60 mm in length and 3 mm in diameter. The pressure is measured using a pressure sensor. The control parameter is fluid pressure (1 atm plus 300 Pa to 1500 Pa) and its viscosity (30 mPas to 100 mPas) in this experiment. When the pressure difference between the case is low, the flow is characterized as a permeable flow. Only the interstitial fluid of the glycerol solution flows out depending on the pressure difference. When the pressure difference is above the critical value, both fluid and particles flow out as a composite flow. In this state the output pressure was observed to oscillate. In the diagram of power spectrum of the

  4. Preparation of microcellular composites with biomimetic structure via supercritical fluid technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new microcellular composite material with a biomimetic structure has been prepared via the supercritical fluid (SCF) technology. The resultant material has a clear biomimetic structure like bamboo and wood. The skin region is enriched with oriented high-strength thermotropic liquid crystal polymer fibrils, while the core region with polystyrene (PS) micro-cells. The diameter and density of micro- cells can be controlled by the processing parameters such as temperature and pressure. And the skin thickness can be controlled conveniently by varying the composition of polystyrene and liquid crystal polymer.

  5. Organic rankine cycle with positive displacement expander and variable working fluid composition

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles are often used in the exploitation of low-temperature heat sources. The relatively small temperature differential available to these projects makes them particularly vulnerable to changing ambient conditions, especially if an air-cooled condenser is used. The authors have recently demonstrated that a dynamic ORC with a variable working fluid composition, tuned to match the condensing temperature with the heat sink, can be used to achieve a considerable increase in year-...

  6. Synthesis, processing and characterization of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated fabric composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Tarig A. [Center for Advanced Materials (T-CAM), Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Rangari, Vijay K., E-mail: rangariv@tuskegee.edu [Center for Advanced Materials (T-CAM), Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Jeelani, Shaik [Center for Advanced Materials (T-CAM), Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian fluid behavior defined as the increase of viscosity with the increase in the applied shear rate. The shear thickening fluid (STF) is a combination of hard metal oxide particles suspended in a liquid polymer. This mixture of flowable and hard components at a particular composition, results in a material with remarkable properties. In this manuscript the shear thickening fluid (STF) was prepared by ultrasound irradiation of silica nanoparticles dispersed in liquid polyethylene glycol polymer. The as-prepared STFs have been tested for their rheological and thermal properties. Kevlar and Nylon fabrics were soaked in STF/ethanol solution to make STF/fabric composite. Knife threats and quasistatic penetration tests were performed on the neat fabrics and STF/fabric composite targets for both engineered spike and knife on areal density basis. The results showed that STF impregnated fabrics have better penetration resistance as compared to neat fabrics without affecting the fabric flexibility. This indicates that the addition of STF to the fabric have enhanced the fabric performance and can be used in liquid body armor applications.

  7. Estrogenic octylphenol affects seminal fluid production and its biochemical composition of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tina H; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2004-10-01

    Estrogenic chemicals such as alkylphenols (APs) have been shown to disrupt the reproductive system of male fish. In the present study, the effects of the estrogenic chemical octylphenol (100 microg g(-1)) and 17 beta-estradiol on the semen production and the biochemical composition of the seminal fluid of the viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) were investigated at the time of spawning. After 10 days of octylphenol or estrogen treatment, vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis was induced as indicated by increased plasma vitellogenin concentration. In accordance with the increased vitellogenin concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), total protein concentration, and total calcium concentration were also increased, and free amino acids concentration was decreased in blood plasma. Octylphenol treatment caused a decrease in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the milt volume and an increase in the spermatocrit. The histological examination revealed that octylphenol affected the normal lobular structure, including the Sertoli cells. In the majority of the octylphenol-treated fish, trapped sperm cells were observed in parts of the seminiferous lobules and the sperm ducts. The biochemical composition of the seminal fluid was also affected by the octylphenol or estrogen. The seminal plasma concentrations of magnesium, calcium, and total protein were elevated, and the concentration of free amino acids was reduced in the treated fish. This study indicates that octylphenol inhibits the seminal fluid production and changes its biochemical composition in eelpouts.

  8. Amniotic fluid volume and composition after fetal membrane resection in late-gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2011-11-01

    The chronically catheterized fetal sheep is a widely used model for fetal physiologic and pathophysiologic investigations. Catheterization involves opening the amniochorion to gain access to the fetus. In the current study, we explored the role of the amnion and amniochorion in maintaining normal amniotic fluid volume (AFV) and composition and fetal blood-gas status after surgery. Fetal sheep were catheterized at 119.6 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE, n = 25) d gestation (term, approximately 147 d). An opening equal to approximately 5% of total membrane surface area was created by resecting a portion of the amnion or amniochorion during surgery. The uterine wall was closed in all animals. Compared with control sheep (AFV = 992 ± 153 mL, n = 11), resection of the amnion had no significant effect on AFV (745 ± 156 mL, n = 7) measured 5 d after surgery, whereas resection of the amniochorion resulted in extensive loss of amniotic fluid (AFV = 131 ± 38 mL, n = 7). This loss resulted from extensive entry of amniotic fluid into the space between the chorion and uterine wall. Amniotic fluid, fetal plasma, and urinary solute concentrations; arterial pH; oxygen tension; and carbon dioxide tension were unchanged. A small opening in the amnion has minimal effects on ovine AFV, whereas a small opening in the amniochorion results in oligohydramnios. In addition, the amnion appears to be the primary site that limits the rate of amniotic fluid absorption by the chorionic vasculature.

  9. Some aspects of the role of intergranular fluids in the compositional evolution of metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Chakraborty; Ralf Dohmen

    2001-12-01

    Minerals that react with each other during the progressive evolution of metamorphic terranes are not always in physical contact. As such, an "intergranular fluid" could play a major role in element transfer and chemical evolution. However, the nature of this uid and its specific role remains somewhat elusive. Recent experiments in our laboratory shed some light on the behavior of such a uid. Here we present a simple mathematical model which accounts for diffusion within crystals and fluid, solubility in the fluid and mass balance between the various reservoirs. The model elucidates the nature of element exchange between two minerals via the mediation of an intergranular fluid. It is shown that a coupling of thermodynamics and kinetics controls the evolution of the system and the concentration of an element in the intergranular fluid is a key parameter of interest. The results have important implications for standard tools of metamorphic petrology such as geothermometers and barometers, geospeedometry and the closure of isotopic systems. For example, homogeneity of mineral grains may be a poor criterion for equilibrium and the rim compositions of minerals showing diffusion zoning may be out of equilibrium with distant exchange partners, even in the presence of a uid in which transport is fast.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction and its effect on the performance of composite structures under air-blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three material systems: E-glass Vinyl-Ester (EVE composites, sandwich composites with EVE facesheet and monolithic foam core (2 different core thicknesses, and monolithic aluminum alloy plates, were subjected to shock wave loading to study their blast response and fluid-structure interaction behaviors. High-speed photography systems were utilized to obtain the real-time side-view and back face deformation images. A 3-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique was used to analyze the real-time back face displacement fields and subsequently obtain the characteristic fluid-structure interaction time. The reflected pressure profiles and the deflection of the back face center point reveal that the areal density plays an important role in the fluid-structure interaction. The predictions from Taylor's model (classical solution, does not consider the compressibility and model by Wang et al. (considers the compressibility were compared with the experimental results. These results indicated that the model by Wang et al. can predict the experimental results accurately, especially during the characteristic fluid-structure interaction time. Further study revealed that the fluid-structure interaction between the fluid and the sandwich composites cannot be simplified as the fluid-structure interaction between the fluid and the facesheet. Also, it was observed that the core thickness affects the fluid-structure interaction behavior of sandwich composites.

  11. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.c, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.u [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  12. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong

    2013-01-01

    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  13. Comparative study on IL-1βand TNF-αin gingival crevicular fluid of peri-implants and teeth%IL-1β和TNF-α在种植体和天然牙周围龈沟液中的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仕禄; 牟雁东; 雍苓; 廖娟; 邓军

    2016-01-01

    目的:本研究旨在探讨健康种植体和天然牙周围龈沟液的IL-1β和TNF-α的水平,为维持种植体周围组织的健康提供理论依据。方法:本研究共纳入17名患者,每名患者含有一颗健康种植牙和一颗同名天然牙(种植牙组:17枚ITI种植体;天然牙组:17颗天然牙)。采用酶联免疫吸附法对健康种植体和天然牙周围龈沟液的IL-1β和TNF-α进行分析;采用Spearman法对两组的IL-1β和TNF-α的水平相关性进行分析。结果:与天然牙组相比较,种植牙组的IL-1β和TNF-α的水平均增加。种植牙组和天然牙组的IL-1β水平分别为(Mean±SD,26.14±10.26;21.93±6.43),但两组间的IL-1β水平无统计学差异(P>0.05);种植牙组和天然牙组的TNF-α水平分别为(Mean ±SD,3.17±0.72;2.67±0.58),两组间的TNF-α水平具有显著性统计学差异(P0.05). The levels of TNF-α of implants and teeth were re-spectively(Mean±SD, 3.17±0.72;2.67±0.58), and the difference of levels of TNF-α between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Significant positive correlation was noted between the IL-1β and TNF-α in implants group(P<0.05), and in teeth group(P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in gingival creviscular fluid of healthy implants were higher compared with the natural teeth. The composition and structure of connective tissue around the implants, plaque and the implant itself, may make more production of the IL-1β and TNF-α in gingival creviscular fluid around the healthy implants than teeth.

  14. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings onto Carbon/carbon Composites in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jin-Ling; Bo, Wu; Hai, Zhou; Cao, Ning; Li, Mu-Sen

    Two types of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings onto carbon/carbon composite (C/C composites) substrates, deposited by plasma spraying technique, were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to determine their behavior in conditions similar to the human blood plasma. Calcium ion concentration, pH value, microstructure, and phase compositions were analyzed. Results demonstrated that both the crystal Ca-P phases or the amorphous HA do dissolve slightly, and the dissolution of CaO phases in SBF was evident after 1 day of soaking. The calcium-ion concentration was decreased and the pH value of SBF was increased with the increasing of the immersing time. The precipitation was mainly composed of HA, which was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron-probe microanalyzer.

  16. VIII. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): composite scores of crystallized, fluid, and overall cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Bauer, Patricia J; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Gershon, Richard C; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazo, Philip David; Heaton, Robert K

    2013-08-01

    The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) includes 7 tests covering 6 cognitive abilities. This chapter describes the psychometric characteristics in children ages 3-15 years of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognition: "crystallized" (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and "fluid" (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children's health status and school performance.

  17. Rheological properties of magnetorheological fluid prepared by gelatin-carbonyl iron composite particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hua-jin; HUANG Hong-jun; ZHANG Ling-zhen; QI Jian-ying; CAO Shao-kun

    2005-01-01

    Gelatin-carbonyl iron composite particle was prepared by micro emulsion method. The analysis of scanning electron microscope(SEM) shows that the ultrafine particles are spheroids coated by gelatin, and the average sizes of particles are 3-10 μm. The specific saturation magnetization σs is 130.9 A·m2/kg, coercivity Hc is 0.823 A/m, and residual magnetism r is 4.98 Am2/kg for the composite particles. It is shown that the particles possess properties of soft magnetic. The yield stress of magnetorheological fluid(MRF) with composite particle reaches 70 kPa at 0.5 T magnetic induction. Magnetorheological effects are superior in lower magnetic field intensity and the subsidence stability of the MRF is excellent compared with pure carbonyl iron powder.

  18. Changes in energetic profile of pregnant ewes in relation with the composition of the fetal fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samia Haffaf; Bouabdellah Benallou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the energetic profile of fetal fluids and to make comparisons of the concentrations of the constituents present with those in the maternal plasma.Methods: A study was conducted in 102 gravid sheep uteri. The four stages of gestation as Stage I(0–60 days), Stage II(61–90 days), Stage III(91–120 days) and Stage IV(121–145 days) were identified based on the crown anus length of the embryo/fetus. The amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from the gravid uteri of each group were subjected to biochemical analysis of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride.Results: The levels of glucose and triglyceride in maternal plasma were lower(P 0.05) of plasma cholesterol levels was detected between the sampling periods.Contrariwise, cholesterol concentrations of fetal fluids were higher in Stages III and IV of pregnancy when compared with the Stages I and II.Conclusions: The influence of pregnancy on the biochemical composition of fetal fluids was statistically significant.

  19. Fluorian garnets from the host rocks of the Skaergaard intrusion: implications for metamorphic fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C.E.; Bird, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Zoned, silica-deficient, calcic garnets containing up to 5 mol% F substitution for O formed during contact metamorphism of basalts by the Skaergaard intrusion in East Greenland. Fluorian calcic garnets occur as a retrograde alteration of prograde wollastonite and clinopyroxene that fills vesicles and vugs in lavas 30-70 m from the intrusion. The F content of garnet is extremely sensitive to minor changes in fluid composition. The calculations show that a decrease in pH or an increase in log aF- of 0.3 at constant pressure and temperature will decrease the F concentration in garnet from 5 to 0 mol%. The results of this study show that fluorian hydrous grandites provide a mineralogical record of the activities of F species in coexisting metamorphic and hydrothermal fluids. -from Authors

  20. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  1. A shape memory foam composite with enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties as a hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, T L; Touchet, T; Hasan, S M; Smith, C; Russell, B; Rivera, J; Maitland, D J; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage accounts for more than 30% of trauma deaths worldwide. Current hemostatic devices focus primarily on time to hemostasis, but prevention of bacterial infection is also critical for improving survival rates. In this study, we sought to improve on current devices used for hemorrhage control by combining the large volume-filling capabilities and rapid clotting of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams with the swelling capacity of hydrogels. In addition, a hydrogel composition was selected that readily complexes with elemental iodine to impart bactericidal properties to the device. The focus of this work was to verify that the advantages of each respective material (SMP foam and hydrogel) are retained when combined in a composite device. The iodine-doped hydrogel demonstrated an 80% reduction in bacteria viability when cultured with a high bioburden of Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrogel coating of the SMP foam increased fluid uptake by 19× over the uncoated SMP foam. The composite device retained the shape memory behavior of the foam with more than 15× volume expansion after being submerged in 37°C water for 15 min. Finally, the expansion force of the composite was tested to assess potential tissue damage within the wound during device expansion. Expansion forces did not exceed 0.6N, making tissue damage during device expansion unlikely, even when the expanded device diameter is substantially larger than the target wound site. Overall, the enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties of the shape memory foam composite indicate its strong potential as a hemostatic agent to treat non-compressible wounds.

  2. Fast Responsive and Controllable Liquid Transport on a Magnetic Fluid/Nanoarray Composite Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dongliang; Zhang, Na; Zheng, Xi; Hou, Guanglei; Tian, Ye; Du, Yi; Jiang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-06-28

    Controllable liquid transport on surface is expected to occur by manipulating the gradient of surface tension/Laplace pressure and external stimuli, which has been intensively studied on solid or liquid interface. However, it still faces challenges of slow response rate, and uncontrollable transport speed and direction. Here, we demonstrate fast responsive and controllable liquid transport on a smart magnetic fluid/nanoarray interface, i.e., a composite interface, via modulation of an external magnetic field. The wettability of the composite interface to water instantaneously responds to gradient magnetic field due to the magnetically driven composite interface gradient roughness transition that takes place within a millisecond, which is at least 1 order of magnitude faster than that of other responsive surfaces. A water droplet can follow the motion of the gradient composite interface structure as it responds to the gradient magnetic field motion. Moreover, the water droplet transport direction can be controlled by modulating the motion direction of the gradient magnetic field. The composite interface can be used as a pump for the transport of immiscible liquids and other objects in the microchannel, which suggests a way to design smart interface materials and microfluidic devices.

  3. High Blood Pressure Effects on the Blood to Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier and Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Composition: A Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Study in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim González-Marrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid proteomic profile, trying to find possible biomarkers of the effects of hypertension of the blood to CSF barrier disruption in the brain and their participation in the cholesterol and β-amyloid metabolism and inflammatory processes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is a system linked to the brain and its composition can be altered not only by encephalic disorder, but also by systemic diseases such as arterial hypertension, which produces alterations in the choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid protein composition. 2D gel electrophoresis in cerebrospinal fluid extracted from the cistern magna before sacrifice of hypertensive and control rats was performed. The results showed different proteomic profiles between SHR and WKY, that α-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A1, albumin, immunoglobulin G, vitamin D binding protein, haptoglobin and α-1-macroglobulin were found to be up-regulated in SHR, and apolipoprotein E, transthyretin, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, transferrin, α-1β-glycoprotein, kininogen and carbonic anhidrase II were down-regulated in SHR. The conclusion made here is that hypertension in SHR produces important variations in cerebrospinal fluid proteins that could be due to a choroid plexus dysfunction and this fact supports the close connection between hypertension and blood to cerebrospinal fluid barrier disruption.

  4. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi [Department of Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.

  5. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin; Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi

    2015-12-01

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.

  6. Chlorine isotopic compositions of deep saline fluids in Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan : using B–Cl isotopes to interpret fluid sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musashi, Masaaki; Oi, Takao; Kreulen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We report chlorine stable isotopic compositions (δ37Cl, expressed in ‰ relative to the standard mean ocean chloride) as well as δ2H and δ18O values of deep saline fluids taken at eight drill-holes reaching from 73 to 780 m below sea level in the Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan. Analytical r

  7. Computational Simulation of VARI Fluid Process Molding for Stiffened Panel Structural Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAO Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The resin filling time can be predicted and the flow pattern of resin can be simulated in Composites VARI Fluid Process Molding with simulation software PAM-RTM. The permeability is important parameter in VARI process. In-plane and transverse permeability are usually tested with complicate and expensive enclosed mold.A set of model with simple structure, easy operation, low cost, was built to obtain accurate permeability by using a process of vacuum-assisted resin infusion (VARI. Besides, the method of equivalent model was employed. The simulation results of effective model is compared with those of experimental VARI process. The filling times for simulation method is 254 s which is shorter than 301 s of the experimental process. Based on flow runner project with equivalent model, the stiffened panel structural composite is prepared to validate the selective process.

  8. Copper-arsenic decoupling in an active geothermal system: A link between pyrite and fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur P.; Chryssoulis, Stephen; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Wrage, Jackie; Roberts, Malcolm P.

    2017-05-01

    Over the past few decades several studies have reported that pyrite hosts appreciable amounts of trace elements which commonly occur forming complex zoning patterns within a single mineral grain. These chemical zonations in pyrite have been recognized in a variety of hydrothermal ore deposit types (e.g., porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, epithermal Au deposits, iron oxide-copper-gold, Carlin-type and Archean lode Au deposits, among others), showing, in some cases, marked oscillatory alternation of metals and metalloids in pyrite growth zones (e.g., of Cu-rich, As-(Au, Ag)-depleted zones and As-(Au, Ag)-rich, Cu-depleted zones). This decoupled geochemical behavior of Cu and As has been interpreted as a result of chemical changes in ore-forming fluids, although direct evidence connecting fluctuations in hydrothermal fluid composition with metal partitioning into pyrite growth zones is still lacking. In this study, we report a comprehensive trace element database of pyrite from the Tolhuaca Geothermal System (TGS) in southern Chile, a young and active hydrothermal system where fewer pyrite growth rims and mineralization events are present and the reservoir fluid (i.e. ore-forming fluid) is accessible. We combined the high-spatial resolution and X-ray mapping capabilities of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) with low detection limits and depth-profiling capacity of secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in a suite of pyrite samples retrieved from a ∼1 km drill hole that crosses the argillic (20-450 m) and propylitic (650-1000 m) alteration zones of the geothermal system. We show that the concentrations of precious metals (e.g., Au, Ag), metalloids (e.g., As, Sb, Se, Te), and base and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Co, Ni, Pb) in pyrite at the TGS are significant. Among the elements analyzed, As and Cu are the most abundant with concentrations that vary from sub-ppm levels to a few wt.% (i.e., up to ∼5 wt.% As, ∼1.5 wt.% Cu). Detailed wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) X

  9. Investigation on Impact Strength Properties of Kevlar Fabric using Different Shear Thickening Fluid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Joselin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Great interest has aroused in developing high impact resistant fabrics based on the incorporation of a shear thickening fluid (STF into high performance fabrics (Kevlar. This work developed a shear thickening fluid enhanced fabrics and the influence of the shear thickening fluid types against spike impact and the impact resistance performance were investigated. Silica nano-particle impregnated Kevlar fabrics exhibit significantly enhanced ballistic performance while retaining flexibility. It was found that fabrics impregnated with functionalized nanoparticles offer multiple resistance to the penetration of a sharp impactor. The improvement in protection is traced by the formation of siloxane bonds during functionalization. It exhibits significant improvement in shear stiffness and aslight increase in tensile stiffness. The impact strength properties of all samples were tested using impact testingand quasi-static testing apparatuses. Chemical compositions and microscopic structures were analyzed with Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The current study clearly displays a significant enhancement in penetration resistance of Kevlar fabric impregnated with different combination of STF’s.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 236-243, DOI:http://dx.doi.org /10.14429/dsj.64.7322

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Oral Fluids in Health and Periodontal Disease by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Erdjan

    2017-01-01

    The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology. This chapter deals with the experimental details of preanalytical steps using multidimensional protein separation combined with MS analysis of WS and GCF to achieve detailed protein composition at qualitative and quantitative levels. These approaches are interfaced with gold standard "stable-isotope" labeling technologies for large-scale quantitative MS analysis which is a prerequisite to determine accurate alterations in protein levels as a function of disease progression. The latter incorporates two stable-isotope chemistries one specific for cysteine containing proteins and the other universal amine-specific reagent in conjunction with oral fluids in health and periodontal disease to perform quantitative MS analysis. In addition, specific preanalytical steps demanded by the oral fluids such as GCF and WS for sample preparations to overcome limitations and uncertainties are elaborated for reliable large-scale quantitative MS analysis.

  11. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  12. The fluid control mechanism of bionic structural heterogeneous composite materials and its potential application in enhancing pump efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the structure of dolphin skin controls fluid media dynamically. Gaining inspiration from this phenomenon, a kind of bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was designed. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material is composed of two materials: a rigid metal base layer with bionic structures and an elastic polymer surface layer with the corresponding mirror structures. The fluid control mechanism of the bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was investigated using a fluid–solid interaction method in ANSYS Workbench. The results indicated that the bionic structural heterogeneous composite material’s fluid control mechanism is its elastic deformation, which is caused by the coupling action between the elastic surface material and the bionic structure. This deformation can decrease the velocity gradient of the fluid boundary layer through changing the fluid–solid actual contact surface and reduce the frictional force. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material can also absorb some energy through elastic deformation and avoid energy loss. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was applied to the impeller of a centrifugal pump in a contrast experiment, increasing the pump efficiency by 5% without changing the hydraulic model of the impeller. The development of this bionic structural heterogeneous composite material will be straightforward from an engineering point of view, and it will have valuable practical applications.

  13. Tourmalinization at the Darasun goldfield, Eastern Transbaikalia: Compositional, fluid inclusion and isotopic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Prokofiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoned tourmaline (schorl-dravite in the matrix of hydrothermal explosive breccia and ore veins in gold deposits, Chita region, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, are associated with Na- and K-rich porphyry-type subvolcanic intrusives. δ18O values of tourmaline from three gold deposits (Darasun, Talatui, Teremkinskoye are +8.3‰, +7.6‰, and +6.0‰ and calculated δ18O values of fluids responsible for the tourmalinization are +7.3‰, +7.7‰, and +4.2‰, respectively. These data imply an igneous fluid source, except at the Teremkin deposit where mixing with meteoric water is indicated. Wide ranges of Fe3+/Fetot and the presence of vacancies characterize the Darasun deposit tourmaline indicating wide ranges of ƒ(O2 and pH of mineralizing fluids. Initial stage tourmalines from the gold deposits of the Darasun ore district are dravite or high mg schorl. Second stage tourmaline is characterized by oscillatory zoning but with Fe generally increasing towards crystal rims indicating decreasing temperature. Third stage tourmaline formed unzoned crystals with xMg (mole fraction of Mg close to that of the first stage tourmaline, due to a close association with pyrite and arsenopyrite. From Fe3+/Fetot values, chemical composition and crystallization temperatures, logf(O2 of mineralizing fluids ranged from ca. −25 to −20, much higher than for the gold-bearing beresite–listvenite association, indicating that tourmalinization was not related to gold mineralization.

  14. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  15. The isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in hydrothermal vent fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. F.; Bourbonnais, A.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems at mid-ocean ridges are sites with rapid rates of biomass production, sustained by chemolithoautotrophic bacteria at the base of the vent community food chains. The exact metabolic pathways, in particular those that involve nitrogen (N), and the rates at which the metabolic reactions take place are poorly constrained. In previous studies, very low 15N/14N ratios have been attributed to strong N isotope fractionation during chemosynthetic assimilation of ammonium. However, actual data on the N isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic N in vent systems, which could provide coherent information on the sources of N during chemolithoautotrophic biosynthesis, do not exist. Furthermore, the fate of hydrothermally discharged ammonium as well as that of nitrate that is mixed in from the ocean water column have not been the focus of much attention. As a consequence, little is known about N-cycle reactions within hydrothermal vent systems. We will present nitrate isotope (15N/14N and 18O/16O) data from various sites at Axial Volcano on the Juan de Fuca ridge. Their integration with nitrate concentration data suggests non-conservative behavior of nitrate along temperature gradients. Highest N and O isotope ratios (7.6 permil and 21.0 permil, respectively) are found in average diffuse fluids (17°C). Elevated N and O isotope ratios were associated with decreased nitrate concentrations and indicate a nitrate consuming process that fractionates both N and O isotopes. The ratio of 15N versus 18O enrichment in residual nitrate is, however, not consistent with previous reports on nitrate N versus O isotope fractionation during denitrification in the suboxic ocean water column, implying anomalous N and O isotope fractionation during denitrification in hydrothermal vent fluids and/or the presence of additional microbially mediated N transformations that affect the N and O isotope composition of the nitrate pool in the Axial hydrothermal vent system in a

  16. Association of serum and crevicular visfatin levels in periodontal health and disease with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Raghavendra, N M; Sharma, Anuj; Patel, Swati Pradeep; Raju, Arjun; Kathariya, Rahul; Rao, Nishanth S; Naik, Savitha B

    2012-05-01

    Levels of visfatin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were explored in patients with periodontal health, periodontal disease with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2 DM) and were found to be elevated with periodontal disease, and were correlated with periodontal clinical parameters. DM and chronic periodontitis (CP) are associated with each other. Adipokines, specifically visfatin, are secreted from adipocytes and are thought to cause insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of visfatin in serum and GCF in t2 DM among individuals with CP and to find an association, if any. Thirty individuals (15 males and 15 females) were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: group 1 (10 healthy), group 2 (10 well-controlled t2 DM among individuals with CP), and group 3 (10 individuals with CP and without diabetes). Serum and GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The mean visfatin concentration increased in both serum and GCF in individuals with t2 DM with CP. Also, it was observed that visfatin in both serum and GCF correlated positively with all the periodontal parameters. All the samples in each group tested positive for visfatin assay. Serum and GCF visfatin concentration in both t2 DM with CP and individuals with CP and without diabetes correlated positively with all the clinical parameters. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm positive correlations.

  17. Effects of periodontal initial therapy on Matrix-metalloproteinases-9 levels in the unstimulated whole saliva, gingival crevicular fluid and serum of chronic periodontitis patients%牙周基础治疗对慢性牙周炎患者非刺激性全唾液、龈沟液及血清中基质金属蛋白酶-9水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴琳; 詹渊博; 宋雪静; 徐晓满; 穆森; 张瑞敏

    2014-01-01

    目的 评估慢性牙周炎患者经牙周基础治疗前后的非刺激性全唾液、龈沟液及血清中基质金属蛋白酶-9 (MMp-9)水平,探讨其作为牙周炎诊断及预后标志物的可能性.方法 酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测20名牙周炎患者治疗前、后及20名健康人非刺激性全唾液、龈沟液及血清中MMP-9的水平,并记录牙周袋探诊深度(PD)、临床附着丧失(CAL)和出血指数(BI).结果 ①除CAL外,经牙周基础治疗6周后慢性牙周炎患者的临床指标明显改善[CAL治疗前(5.50±1.97) mm,治疗后(5.50±1.97) mm,P=1.000;PD治疗前(7.05±1.81) mm,治疗后(4.23±1.06) mm,P=0.000;BI治疗前3.75±0.44,治疗后0.20±0.41,P=0.000);②治疗后非刺激性全唾液、龈沟液及血清中MMP-9水平明显降低,与治疗前相比差异具有统计学意义[非刺激性全唾液MMP-9水平治疗前(22.89±5.28)ng/mL,治疗后(18.11±7.19) ng/mL,P=0.003;龈沟液MMP-9水平治疗前(41.80±2.90) ng/mL,治疗后(35.71±4.49) ng/mL,P=0.000;血清MMP-9水平治疗前(6.67±5.318) ng/mL,治疗后(2.47±2.713) ng/mL,P=0.004];③除血清外,牙周炎患者治疗前后的非刺激性全唾液和龈沟液中MMP-9水平仍高于健康对照组,其差异有统计学意义[非刺激性全唾液水平为(6.78±3.02)ng/mL,龈沟液为(30.20±3.64) ng/mL,与治疗前后比较P=0.000;健康对照组血清MMP-9水平(1.18±0.88) ng/mL,与治疗前、后比较P =0.004、P=0.055].结论 非刺激性全唾液中MMP-9的表达水平可能成为慢性牙周炎的检测指标之一,可能为临床诊治提供参考依据.%Objective To evaluate the MMP-9 levels in the unstimulated whole saliva (UWS),gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of patients with chronic periodontitis before and after the initial phase of periodontal treatment and to determine whether they are possible diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for periodontitis.Methods Twenty patients with periodontitis and 20 healthy controls were included

  18. Pressurized fluid extraction of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida using a modified supercritical fluid extractor and a central composite design for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hossein; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin

    2012-06-01

    Essential oil components were extracted from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) flowers using pressurized fluid extraction. A central composite design was used to optimize the effective extraction variables. The chemical composition of extracted samples was analyzed by a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector column. For achieving 100% extraction yield, the temperature, pressure, extraction time, and the solvent flow rate were adjusted at 90.6°C, 63 bar, 30.4 min, and 0.2 mL/min, respectively. The results showed that pressurized fluid extraction is a practical technique for separation of constituents such as 1,8-cineole (8.1%), linalool (34.1%), linalyl acetate (30.5%), and camphor (7.3%) from lavandin to be applied in the food, fragrance, pharmaceutical, and natural biocides industries.

  19. Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Rossel, Scott M. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

    2004-06-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

  20. Characterisation of fluid-structure interaction for water impact of composite panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Battley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic loads can be very significant for high performance marine vessels. Water impact of panels, known as "slamming", typically generates high magnitude short duration pressure pulses that move across the structure. In the case of compliant panels there can be significant coupling between the pressures and the structural responses. While there has been significant development of numerical methods to simulate this type of fluid-structure interaction there is only very limited experimental data available for validation of the simulation approaches. This paper describes an experimental study of sandwich composite panels subjected to water slamming impacts. The results demonstrate that compliant panels subjected to water slamming impacts experience different pressures than rigid panels, and have different structural responses than predicted by traditional uniform pressure based analysis approaches. The study also characterizes the significant effects that the dimensions of pressure transducers and data acquisition sampling rates have on the measured pressures.

  1. Influence of feedstock composition on the yield of total cycle oil in fluid catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badoni, R.P.; Madhwal, D.C.; Athaiya, N.; Bhatia, B.M.L.; Bhagat, S.D. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1995-06-01

    With a view to gaining an insight into the understanding of the factors responsible for the maximization of the total cycle oil (TCO) in the fluid catalytic cracking of the vacuum gas oils (VGOs) including the one from Bombay High (BH), necessitated by a greater demand for the diesel fuel compared to gasoline, in India, studies have been carried out on three different VGOs in a Xytel Auto Mat II unit over two REY based FCC catalysts differing in their zeolite content using a fixed bed reactor. The fact that the yield of CLO (370{degree}C+) from BH VGO was much higher than would be expected for a predominantly paraffinic feedstock has led to studying the cracking to compositionally different concentrates isolated from BH VGO and the results are discussed. 10 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. An improved technique for studying pleural fluid pressure and composition in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, M

    1998-07-01

    Knowledge of pleural liquid pressure (Pliq) and composition is crucial for studies concerning intrapleural fluid dynamics, and pleural fluid turnover. We measured Pliq at intercostal and costal levels in anaesthetized spontaneously breathing rabbits using a minimally invasive method that assures a long-lasting hydraulic continuity between the pleural liquid and the recording system. Polyethylene tubes were glued either to the exposed endothoracic fascia or inserted into a rib to provide a scaled connection to the recording system. After inducing a pneumothorax with nitrous oxide (N2O) via an intrapleural cannula, a hole (approximately 0.7 mm2) was pierced in the parietal pleura through the tube lumen. The tubes were then connected to pressure transducers and the whole system was filled with heparinized saline to the level of the parietal pleura; finally the pneumo-thorax was removed after N2O washout and Pliq recordings were performed. A different kind of tube was used to obtain microsamples of pleural fluid (2.5-3 microliters) during spontaneous breathing; colloid osmotic pressure of the microsamples (pi liq) was measured with an osmometer, and averaged 9.3 +/- 1.5 cm H2o (n = 70 samples). When pooled and plotted against lung height end-expiratory intercostal and costal Pliq data scattered along a single regression line with a slope of -0.83 and -0.90 cm H2O cm(-1) in supine and prone animals, respectively. End-inspiratory costal Pliq was significantly more subatmospheric than intercostal in the ventral region of the chest (P dynamics and turnover.

  3. The composition and activation aspects of El-Fayoum clays for using as a drilling fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat S. El-Mahllawy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The local consumption and the high importation cost of imported bentonite to Egypt led to find local substitute solutions for economical aspects. Hence, this paper presents the composition and activation capability of clays collected from the claystone quarries in Kom Oshim area at El-Fayoum province, Egypt for their application as a drilling fluid (water-based mud. It is an attempt to minimize the importation cost of the imported bentonites to Egypt by a local solution and maximize the usage of the studied clay sediments. The physical, chemical, thermal and mineralogical characteristics of five Egyptian clay samples were studied. The rheological properties of the prepared slurries from these samples and their activation characterization during studying the influence of NaOH and POLYPAC-R polymer as activators were investigated. It was found that the non-activated samples cannot be used as a drilling mud but it could be after the activation process where some significant changes in the rheological properties were observed. The experimental results revealed that the activated fitted samples may express as medium grade bentonitic clay and this type of clay can be used as a drilling fluid for shallow depth wells.

  4. Efeet of diferent inlay materials on the level of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid%不同金属嵌体对龈沟液中基质金属蛋白酶-8水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳松

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过检测嵌体修复患者龈沟液的量(gingival crevicutar fluid,GCF)、探诊深度(gingival crevicedepth,GCD)以及龈沟液基质金属蛋白酶-8(Matrix metalloproteinases-8,MMP-8)水平,比较镍铬合金和金铂合金铸造金属嵌体对牙周的影响.方法 选择临床病例20例,分别采用镍铬合金和金铂合金铸造金属嵌体修复后牙邻牙合Ⅱ类洞,分别在修复前、修复后12个月时检测修复牙GCF、GCD以及MMP-8水平.结果 12个月时镍铬合金组与金铂合金组在指标上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 非贵金属嵌体对牙周组织有不利影响.

  5. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; de Vries, Marcel P; Weening, Desiree; Vonk, Roel J; Roelofsen, Han

    2008-02-01

    Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

  6. Fluid geochemistry of the Mondragone hydrothermal systems (southern Italy): water and gas compositions vs. geostructural setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, Emilio; Minissale, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella "Magda"; Tamburrino, Stella; Iorio, Marina; Tedesco, Dario

    2017-02-01

    The geochemistry of natural thermal fluids discharging in the Mondragone Plain has been investigated. Thermal spring emergences are located along the Tyrrhenian coast in two different areas: near Padule-S. Rocco (41°7.5'N 13°53.4'E) at the foot of Mt. Petrino, and near Levagnole (41°8.5'N 13°51.3'E) at the foot of Mt. Pizzuto. The water isotopic composition of both thermal discharges is lighter than the one of local shallow groundwater (δ18O ≅ -6.3‰ SMOW vs. ≅ -5.9‰; δD ≅ -40‰ SMOW vs. ≅ -36‰, respectively) as a consequence of inland higher altitude of recharge by rainfall, suggesting that thermal water undergoes a deep and long flow-path before emerging along the coast. The chemical composition of the highest temperature samples of two areas points that fluids in the hydrothermal reservoir(s) interact with similar lithologies, since they are both hosted in the lower sedimentary carbonate formations of the Campanian-Latial Apennine succession. However, the two spring systems are different in terms of temperature and salinity (Levagnole: ≅50 °C and 8.9 g/L vs. Padule: ≅32 °C and 7.4 g/L, respectively). The higher salinity of Levagnole springs is due to a longer interaction with evaporite material embedded in Miocene sedimentary formations and to the eventual mixing, during rising, with fresh seawater close to the seashore. The chemical and isotopic composition of the free gases associated with the springs, again suggests a different source of the two hydrothermal systems. Comparing the 3He/4He measured ratios with other gas emissions located NE and SE of Mt. Massico-Roccamonfina alignment, it is evident that the Levagnole thermal springs are related to the northern Latial mantle wedge where the 3He/4He is about 0.5 R/Ra, whereas the Padule-S. Rocco springs, although being only 3.5 km south of Levagnole, are related to the Campanian mantle wedge where R/Ra is always ≥2.0. Such a difference in 3He/4He ratio in a very short distance

  7. 2型糖尿病伴牙周炎病人血清HbA1c、龈沟液IL-1β和TNF-α的检测%Serum HbA1c,gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β and TNF-α Detection in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 高秀秋

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究2型糖尿病伴牙周炎病人、单纯牙周炎病人、牙周健康者龈沟液(gingival cervicular fluid,GCF)白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)水平及其关系.方法:选取单纯牙周炎病人35例,2型糖尿病伴牙周炎病人35例,另选取单纯健康者30例,检查并记录探诊出血阳性率、探诊深度和附着水平丧失.运用高效液相层析法、ELISA法、放射免疫法分别测定各组血清糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、龈沟液IL-1β和TNF-α的水平.结果:2型糖尿病合并牙周炎组血清糖化血红蛋白、龈沟液IL-1β和TNF-α的水平均明显高于单纯牙周炎组、正常对照组(P0.05),龈沟液中IL-1β和TNF-α水平均有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:IL-1β、TNF-α可能在牙周炎对2型糖尿病的影响中起一定的作用.

  8. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on structure of adhesive composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H; Mueller, H J

    1995-02-01

    This work evaluates the degradation of three adhesive/composite systems (Tenure/Marathon One. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 and Optibond/Herculite XRV) upon immersion in 75% ethanol solution and in an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir). Shear bond strength (SBS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) specimens were employed for this study. For the SBS specimens, the bonded interface and composite were exposed to food and oral simulating fluids at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. A similar control series was stored in air. DTS specimens were stored in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. The SBS specimens were sheared to failure. Small quantities of bonding resin were removed from the tooth side of the fractured surface and from the non-fractured fractured end of the composite for Fourier transform infrared microscopic evaluation. Similar scrapings were taken from DTS specimen surfaces. The infrared absorbance intensity (AI) of the major peaks was measured as a function of storage time and ratioed against the aromatic C = C (1609.4 cm-1) peak. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The AI of major peaks was similar for the materials stored either in air or in Moi-Stir for all testing periods. Storage in ethanol caused the AI of aliphatic C = C (1638 cm-1) and of O-H (approximately 3500 cm-1) bonds to significantly decrease (30-50%) for specimens of bonding resin while the AI of C = O bonds (1730 cm-1) increased (60-120%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Study on Mixed Working Fluids with Different Compositions in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Systems for Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the thermal efficiency of vehicle diesel engines is to recover waste heat by using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC system. Tests were conducted to study the running performances of diesel engines in the whole operating range. The law of variation of the exhaust energy rate under various engine operating conditions was also analyzed. A diesel engine-ORC combined system was designed, and relevant evaluation indexes proposed. The variation of the running performances of the combined system under various engine operating conditions was investigated. R245fa and R152a were selected as the components of the mixed working fluid. Thereafter, six kinds of mixed working fluids with different compositions were presented. The effects of mixed working fluids with different compositions on the running performances of the combined system were revealed. Results show that the running performances of the combined system can be improved effectively when mass fraction R152a in the mixed working fluid is high and the engine operates with high power. For the mixed working fluid M1 (R245fa/R152a, 0.1/0.9, by mass fraction, the net power output of the combined system reaches the maximum of 34.61 kW. Output energy density of working fluid (OEDWF, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, and engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR all reach their maximum values at 42.7 kJ/kg, 10.90%, and 11.29%, respectively.

  10. The significance and level detection of altered IL-17A and IL-35 in peri-implant gingival crevicular fluid%种植体周龈沟液IL-17 A和IL-35水平检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乙娜; 杨朝晖; 孔祥波; 伍虹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the similarities and differences of the expression of interleukin( IL)-17A and IL-35 between the group of peri-implantitis and peri-implant healthy patients, and to explore the mutual relationship and effect of IL-17A and IL-35 on the development and progress in peri-implantitis. Methods Peri-implant sulcular fluid( PISF) was collected from 20 subjects with healthy implants, and 20 with implantitis. The latter was made as comparison group after the implantitis was treated. The concentrations of IL-17A and IL-35 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Bleeding on probing(BOP), modified sulcus bleeding index( mSBI) and gingival index( GI) of the healthy implant group, the peri-implantitis group and the treated group were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results The concentrations of IL-17A and IL-35 in the peri-implantitis group were significantly higher than those in the healthy implant group (P<0. 05). IL-17A was slightly lower after treatment (P<0. 05), and IL-35 was slightly higher af-ter treatment (P<0. 05). The concentrations of IL-17A and IL-35 were negatively correlated in the peri-implantitis group. Conclusions The expressions of IL-35 and IL-17A are are closely related with the occurrence and development of peri-implantitis. IL-17A and IL-35 are potential molecular biological markers that may help assist diagnosis and treatment of implantitis.%目的:分析种植体组不同时期龈沟液(peri-implant sulcular fluid,PISF)中(interleukin,IL)-17A和IL-35水平改变,探讨其在种植体周围炎或黏膜炎发展过程中的作用和相互关系。方法收集2008—2013年在中山大学孙逸仙纪念医院口腔科行种植修复患者共40例为研究对象,分为种植体健康组20例和种植体炎症组20例,将种植体炎症组经过治疗后作为对照组。在种植体中有单冠修复、联冠修复。采集不同患者龈沟液并定量,对标本采用双抗体

  11. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning.

  12. Novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure for intelligent drilling fluid under ultra-high temperature and ultra-high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Mao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano-based drilling fluid has attracted a strong interest due to its attractive properties, and micro-nano composite materials have great potential for developing intelligent drilling fluid. In this study a novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure was prepared and characterized by PSD, SEM, TEM and ESEM. The results showed that the composite, as a micro-nano drilling fluid additive, possessed excellent properties such as thermal stability, rheology, fluid loss and lubricity. Especially, it could plug the formation effectively and improve the pressure bearing capability of formation significantly.

  13. Metamorphic fluid flow - a question of scale, crustal depth and bulk rock composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, R.J.; Rye, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that certain metamorphic rocks interacted with significant volumes of aqueous fluid during their time-integrated mineral reaction history. Rather than demonstrating that pervasive fluid flow is general in metamorphic rocks, these documented cases instead suggest the likelihood of pronounced to extreme channelization of through-going in fluids in deep-seated metamorphic terranes (P>3 kbar). In rocks more shallowly buried, and therefore under low lithostatic stress, pervasive flow along grain boundaries and open microfractures probably occurred, as at Skye and the Skaergaard Complex. In higher pressure metamorphic environments, documented cases of high fluid/rock ratio make a strong case for flow channelized in veins or in impure marble aquifers where pore space and permeability were created by decarbonation reactions driven by infiltration of aqueous fluid. The source of this fluid may commonly be traced to a nearby wet granitic intrusion or quartz vein. As long as the pressurized source of aqueous fluid continued, outward flow was possible as fluid held open the intergranular pore space which was created only at the infiltration/reaction front where a reduction in solid volume accompanied reaction. Cessation or interruption of fluid flow would allow the pore space to close due to porous-rock strength being exceeded by lithostatic stress. Pervasive flow or aqueous fluid in deepseated metamorphic terranes is therefore probably limited to carbonate-bearing lithologies adjacent to sources of major volumes of fluid; otherwise, fluid flow is likely to be localized in fractures or veins.

  14. Composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus vulgaris volatiles: comparison between supercritical fluid extraction and hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Burillo, Jesus; Mainar, Ana M; Urieta, José S; Barroso, José G; Coelho, José A; Palavra, António M F

    2010-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the volatile oil from Thymus vulgaris L. aerial flowering parts was performed under different conditions of pressure, temperature, mean particle size and CO(2) flow rate and the correspondent yield and composition were compared with those of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation (HD). Both the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and 52 components were identified. The main volatile components obtained were p-cymene (10.0-42.6% for SFE and 28.9-34.8% for HD), gamma-terpinene (0.8-6.9% for SFE and 5.1-7.0% for HD), linalool (2.3-5.3% for SFE and 2.8-3.1% for HD), thymol (19.5-40.8% for SFE and 35.4-41.6% for HD), and carvacrol (1.4-3.1% for SFE and 2.6-3.1% for HD). The main difference was found to be the relative percentage of thymoquinone (not found in the essential oil) and carvacryl methyl ether (1.0-1.2% for HD versus t-0.4 for SFE) which can explain the higher antioxidant activity, assessed by Rancimat test, of the SFE volatiles when compared with HD. Thymoquinone is considered a strong antioxidant compound.

  15. Biomimetic fabrication of calcium phosphate/chitosan nanohybrid composite in modified simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nucleation and growth of bone-like hydroxyapatite (HAp mineral in modified simulated body fluids (m-SBF were induced on chitosan (CS substrates, which were prepared by spin coating of chitosan on Ti substrate. The m-SBF showed a two fold increase in the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions compared to SBF, and the post-NaOH treatment provided stabilization of the coatings. The calcium phosphate/chitosan composite prepared in m-SBF showed homogeneous distribution of approximately 350 nm-sized spherical clusters composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP; Ca8H2(PO46·5H2O crystalline structure. Chitosan provided a control over the size of calcium phosphate prepared by immersion in m-SBF, and post-NaOH treatment supported the binding of calcium phosphate compound on the Ti surface. Post-NaOH treatment increased hydrophilicity and crystallinity of carbonate apatite, which increased its potential for biomedical application.

  16. Cytokine profiles in crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement of short and long durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Hazemeijer, Heleen; de Haan, Bart; Qu, Ning; de Vos, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background: Orthodontic treatment induces a distortion of the extracellular matrix of the periodontium, resulting in alterations in cytoskeletal configuration. Cytokines are known to facilitate this process by inducing cellular proliferation, differentiation, and stimulation of periodontal remodelin

  17. Association between gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E 2 level and preterm low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Tarannum

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The study provides weak evidence that there is correlation between GCF-PGE 2 levels and birth outcome. Further clinical trials with large samples are required to confirm the association between GCF-PGE 2 levels and PLBW.

  18. A Sensitive Method for the Detection of Immune Complexes in Human Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Report) This document has been approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1992; 19...Northwestern University but with intervals of 10, 10, 15, 20, and dontitis, deposits of ICs and comple- Dental School Clinic provided the GCF 30 min...Nachweismie- of antibody. Journal of Pt-riodontal Re- :tmcter inl a profile to indicate active thode karno zur F rkundung dcr Fragestellung Mearri/ 19

  19. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, Miriam; Bloemen, M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von Den Hoff, Johannes W

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement requires extensive re-modelling of the periodontium. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix during re-modelling, while their activity is regulated by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate di

  20. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumaran Anil; Sajith Vellappally; Preethanath, R. S.; Sameer A. Mokeem; Hani S. AlMoharib; Shankargouda Patil; Elna P. Chalisserry; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of H...

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, Miriam; Bloemen, M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von Den Hoff, Johannes W

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement requires extensive re-modelling of the periodontium. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix during re-modelling, while their activity is regulated by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate

  2. Effects of Stirring and Fluid Perfusion on the In Vitro Degradation of Calcium Phosphate Cement/PLGA Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jie; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Wolke, Joop G C; Jansen, John A

    2015-11-01

    In vitro degradation rates of calcium phosphate bioceramics are investigated using a large variation of soaking protocols that do not all match the dynamic conditions of the perfused physiological environment. Therefore, we studied the effect of stirring and fluid perfusion on the in vitro degradation rate of apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPC) containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres. The composites were soaked in phosphate-buffered saline up to 6 weeks under unstirred, stirred, or perfused conditions followed by analysis of mass loss, compression strength, porosity, crystal phase composition, and morphology of the cement composites. The results showed that fluid perfusion reduced the decrease in pH and corresponding degradation rates, while nonperfused soaking conditions (i.e., stirred and unstirred conditions) resulted into more extensive acidification, the rate of which increased with stirring. After 2 weeks, the formation of a secondary brushite phase was observed for cement composites soaked under nonperfused (i.e., stirred and unstirred) conditions, whereas this phase was not detected in cements soaked under perfused conditions. The degradation rate of cement composites decreased in the order unstirred>stirred>perfused, as evidenced by quantification of mass loss, compression strength, and pore morphology. To summarize, we have demonstrated that soaking conditions strongly affected the in vitro degradation process of CPCs. As a consequence, it can be concluded that the experimental design of current in vitro degradation studies does not allow for correlation to (pre-)clinical studies.

  3. Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily L; Ronquillo, Rollie; Altmeppen, Hermann; Spudich, Serena S; Price, Richard W; Sinclair, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV) infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p = 0.0232), suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001). As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05). Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.

  4. Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Ho

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p = 0.0232, suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001. As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05. Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE COMPOSITION OF FLUIDS AND SERA OF SOME MARINE ANIMALS AND OF THE SEA WATER IN WHICH THEY LIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, W H

    1940-05-20

    1. The electrolyte composition, the pH, and freezing points of the fluids of several invertebrates and one primitive chordate are reported. 2. Fluids of the worms, echinoderms, and the clam Venus were isotonic with sea water; fluids of the Arthropoda were hypertonic to sea water. 3. The pH of all fluids was below that of sea water. In the Arthropoda and Myxine less individual variation in pH appeared than in the echinoderms and worms. 4. Ratios of ionic concentrations in the fluid to those in the sea water indicated (1) uniform distribution of ions between the internal and external media for the echinoderms and Venus, (2) differential distribution of potassium and magnesium in the worms; (3) differential distribution of sulfate, magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the Arthropoda; and (4) differential distribution of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate in Myxine. 5. The unequal distribution of ions implies the expenditure of energy against a concentration gradient across the absorbing or excreting membranes, a capacity frequently overlooked in the invertebrates. 6. The sera of the Arthropoda from diluted sea water showed higher concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions relative to the respective concentrations in the external medium than in normal sea water, and also showed different orders for those ions. 7. The increase in osmotic pressure of the sera of the animals moving into brackish water is caused by unequal accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions. Sulfate and magnesium ionic ratios do not change.

  7. Sequential extraction and compositional analysis of oil-bearing fluid inclusions in reservoir rocks from Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The free oils, adsorbed oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions have been extracted separately and analyzed by GC and GC-MS in reservoir rock samples collected from the Kuche Depression. The results demonstrate that the molecular compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions are significantly different from those of the free oils (the current oils). Compared with the current oil, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions are characterized by relatively high values of parameters Pr/nC17and Ph/nC18, low values of Pr/Ph, hopanes/steranes, C30-diahopane/C30-hopane and Ts/Tm, low content of C29Ts terpane and high maturities as indicated by C29 steranes 20S/(20R+20S). In addition, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions correlate very well with the oils in northern and central Tarim Basin, which were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks. The adsorbedoils appear to be an intermediate type between free oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The above analytical data indicate that there are at least two oil-charging episodes for these reservoir rock samples. The early charging oils were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks, and the later charging oils, from Triassic-Jurassic terrestrial source rocks. The primary marine oils were overwhelmingly diluted by the following terrestrial oils.

  8. A model of sulphur solubility for hydrous mafic melts: application to the determination of magmatic fluid compositions of Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pichavant

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical model of sulphur solubility that allows us to calculate f S2 if P, T, fO2 and the melt composition, including H2O and S, are known. The model is calibrated against three main experimental data bases consisting in both dry and hydrous silicate melts. Its prime goal is to calculate the f S2 of hydrous basalts that currently lack experimental constraints of their sulphur solubility behaviour. Application of the model to Stromboli, Vesuvius, Vulcano and Etna eruptive products shows that the primitive magmas found at these volcanoes record f S2 in the range 0.1-1 bar. In contrast, at all volcanoes the magmatic evolution is marked by dramatic variations in f S2 that spreads over up to 9 orders of magnitude. The f S2 can either increase during differentiation or decrease during decompression to shallow reservoirs, and seems to be related to closed versus open conduit conditions, respectively. The calculated f S2 shows that the Italian magmas are undersaturated in a FeS melt, except during closed conduit conditions, in which case differentiation may eventually reach conditions of sulphide melt saturation. The knowledge of f S2, fO2 and fH2O allows us to calculate the fluid phase composition coexisting with magmas at depth in the C-O-H-S system. Calculated fluids show a wide range in composition, with CO2 mole fractions of up to 0.97. Except at shallow levels, the fluid phase is generally dominated by CO2 and H2O species, the mole fractions of SO2 and H2S rarely exceeding 0.05 each. The comparison between calculated fluid compositions and volcanic gases shows that such an approach should provide constraints on both the depth and mode of degassing, as well as on the amount of free fluid in magma reservoirs. Under the assumption of a single step separation of the gas phase in a closed-system condition, the application to Stromboli and Etna suggests that the main reservoirs feeding the eruptions and persistent

  9. Parametric study of fluid flow manipulation with piezoelectric macrofiber composite flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, O.; Tarazaga, P.; Stremler, M.; Shahab, S.

    2017-04-01

    Active Fluid Flow Control (AFFC) has received great research attention due to its significant potential in engineering applications. It is known that drag reduction, turbulence management, flow separation delay and noise suppression through active control can result in significantly increased efficiency of future commercial transport vehicles and gas turbine engines. In microfluidics systems, AFFC has mainly been used to manipulate fluid passing through the microfluidic device. We put forward a conceptual approach for fluid flow manipulation by coupling multiple vibrating structures through flow interactions in an otherwise quiescent fluid. Previous investigations of piezoelectric flaps interacting with a fluid have focused on a single flap. In this work, arrays of closely-spaced, free-standing piezoelectric flaps are attached perpendicular to the bottom surface of a tank. The coupling of vibrating flaps due to their interacting with the surrounding fluid is investigated in air (for calibration) and under water. Actuated flaps are driven with a harmonic input voltage, which results in bending vibration of the flaps that can work with or against the flow-induced bending. The size and spatial distribution of the attached flaps, and the phase and frequency of the input actuation voltage are the key parameters to be investigated in this work. Our analysis will characterize the electrohydroelastic dynamics of active, interacting flaps and the fluid motion induced by the system.

  10. Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal sulfides in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal sulfide minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of sulfide mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated sulfide minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. The order of precipitation of the sulfides was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic sulfides in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the sulfide minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of sulfides indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric

  11. Structure, corrosion behavior and mechanical property of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol) composite in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Suo, Jinping; Zou, Peng; Jia, Lintao; Wang, Shifang

    2010-01-01

    The data for long-term drug-delivery systems are scarce compared to the short-term systems because the required research efforts are more time-consuming. In this study, we report a novel cross-linked composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing cupric ions for long-term delivery, which is helpful for contraception and trace element balance in the human body. The composition, corrosion products, crystal structure, chemical structure and mechanical stability of the composite, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for one year, were studied by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and mechanical testing. The results show that no other new elements, such as P, Cl and Ca, appear on the surface of the composite and no Cu(2)O was formed after immersion in SBF for one year. The effectiveness of copper can be greatly improved and the side-effects caused by these compounds might also be eliminated. Furthermore, this novel composite exhibits long-term mechanical stability in SBF. The present in vitro long-term data suggest that this novel copper-containing composite may serve as a substitute for conventional materials of copper-containing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) and as a carrier for controlled-release material in a variety of other applications.

  12. Transient Dynamic Response and Failure of Composite Structure Under Cyclic Loading with Fluid Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    14  2.  Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) .......... 15  3.  Composite Panels...Diagram of VARTM fabrication. .......................................................... 16  Figure 12.  VARTM and composite panel being made...method chosen is to perform “wet layup” of the composite laminates, followed by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ). 1. Wet Layup “Wet

  13. The impact of lipid composition on the stability of the tear fluid lipid layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulovesi, P.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The tear fluid protects the corneal epithelium from drying and pathogens and it also provides nutrients to these cells. Tear fluid is composed of an aqueous layer as well as a lipid layer that resides at the air-tear interface. The function of the lipid layer is to lower the surface tension of th......-neutral lipid ratio. The results provide a plausible rationale for the development of dry eye syndrome in blepharitis patients....

  14. Fluid bilayer structure determination: Joint refinement in composition space using X-ray and neutron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Wiener, M.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Experimentally-determined structural models of fluid lipid bilayers are essential for verifying molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers and for understanding the structural consequences of peptide interactions. The extreme thermal motion of bilayers precludes the possibility of atomic-level structural models. Defining {open_quote}the structure{close_quote} of a bilayer as the time-averaged transbilayer distribution of the water and the principal lipid structural groups such as the carbonyls and double-bonds (quasimolecular fragments), one can represent the bilayer structure as a sum of Gaussian functions referred to collectively as the quasimolecular structure. One method of determining the structure is by neutron diffraction combined with exhaustive specific deuteration. This method is impractical because of the expense of the chemical syntheses and the limited amount of neutron beam time currently available. We have therefore developed the composition space refinement method for combining X-ray and minimal neutron diffraction data to arrive at remarkably detailed and accurate structures of fluid bilayers. The composition space representation of the bilayer describes the probability of occupancy per unit length across the width of the bilayer of each quasimolecular component and permits the joint refinement of X-ray and neutron lamellar diffraction data by means of a single quasimolecular structure that is fitted simultaneously to both data sets. Scaling of each component by the appropriate neutron or X-ray scattering length maps the composition-space profile to the appropriate scattering length space for comparison to experimental data. The difficulty with the method is that fluid bilayer structures are generally only marginally determined by the experimental data. This means that the space of possible solutions must be extensively explored in conjunction with a thorough analysis of errors.

  15. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  16. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  17. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-03-24

    The health benefits of 'drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day" in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5-12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2-6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1-4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  19. Preparation of ibuprofen/lipid composite microparticles by supercritical fluid technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia WANG; Hui CHEN; Yanni GUO; Yuzhong SU; Hongtao WANG; Jun LI

    2008-01-01

    Using the CO2-and N2-assisted atomization processes, the production of ibuprofen/lipid composite microparticles is investigated, in which the lipid includes myristic acid and tripalmitin. The produced composite particles show similar morphology to that of the pure lipids obtained by the same process. In the case of the N2-assisted process, the average size of composite part-icles is slightly larger than that of the pure lipid particles due to the difficulty of solidification when using N2. In the case of the CO2-assisted process, the average size of com-posite particles is slightly smaller than that of the pure myr-istic acid particles, but slightly larger than that of the pure tripalmitin particles. The dissolution study reveals that the drug release from the ibuprofen/myristic acid particles is enhanced in comparison with that of the unprocessed ibu-profen. For the particles produced by the N2-assisted pro-cess, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate the encapsulation of ibuprofen into myristic acid. The obtained ibuprofen/tripalmitin composite particles with 5% or 20% of ibuprofen (in mass) evidently show the con-trolled drug release: only about 20% of the drug is released in 500 min from the ibuprofen/tripalmitin composite part-icles consisting of 20% ibuprofen prepared by the CO2-assisted process, and the same release is obtained from the ibuprofen/tripalmitin composite particles containing 5% ibuprofen prepared by the N2-assisted process.

  20. Evaluation of chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite strength as scaffold material by immersion in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N. K.; Indrani, D. J.; Johan, C.; Corputty, J. E. M.

    2017-08-01

    The reconstruction of bone tissue defects is a major challenge facing oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The essential elements needed for tissue engineering are cells, scaffolds (matrix), and stimulant molecules (growth factors). The mechanical properties of chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen scaffolds produced by BATAN, Jakarta, have not yet been studied. This study therefore analyzed the mechanical properties of chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffolds prepared by BATAN, Jakarta, before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for eight days. The compressive and tensile strengths of the chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffolds were analyzed after immersion in SBF at 37°C for eight days. Each scaffold was removed and dried at room temperature on days 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. The data obtained were processed and analyzed. Variations in the compressive strength and tensile strength were attributed to several aspects, such the specimen size, which was not uniform, the scaffold composition, scaffold pore size, which was also not uniform, and the degradation of the polymer. The chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold does not exhibit differences in the tensile strength and compressive strength before and after immersion in SBF.

  1. Interlinking Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Assessment of Crevicular Visfatin Levels in Health and in Disease Before and After Initial Periodontal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vandita; Shettar, Leena; Bajaj, Mahesh; Math, Abhishek Savir; Thakur, Srinath L

    2016-08-01

    Visfatin is a new adipocytokine associated with both chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus independently. We aimed to estimate and compare the changes in the levels of visfatin in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) of healthy subjects and in subjects with periodontitis with or without controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) after administration of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Forty two subjects were equally divided into Group 1 (healthy), Group 2 (systemically healthy with chronic periodontitis), Group 3 (subjects with chronic periodontitis having controlled T2DM). Defined clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and at one month follow-up period. Visfatin was assessed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. One way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures were used. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for correlation. Significant increase in the visfatin levels was seen with the highest values observed in diabetes with periodontal disease. Visfatin responded to non-surgical periodontal therapy as observed by significant decrease in levels after one month but even at this period diabetics showed the highest levels. Visfatin levels are highest in individuals with both periodontal disease and diabetes even after periodontal therapy. Individuals with T2DM may be at higher risk of developing periodontal disease.

  2. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  3. Composite self-similar solutions for relativistic shocks: The transition to cold fluid temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Margaret [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Sari, Re' em [California Institute of Technology, MS 130-33, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2009-11-15

    The flow resulting from a strong ultrarelativistic shock moving through a stellar envelope with a polytropelike density profile has been studied analytically and numerically at early times while the fluid temperature is relativistic--that is, just before and after the shock breaks out of the star. Such a flow should expand and accelerate as its internal energy is converted to bulk kinetic energy; at late enough times, the assumption of relativistic temperatures becomes invalid. Here we present a new self-similar solution for the postbreakout flow when the accelerating fluid has bulk kinetic Lorentz factors much larger than unity but is cooling through p/n of order unity to subrelativistic temperatures. This solution gives a relation between a fluid element's terminal Lorentz factor and that element's Lorentz factor just after it is shocked. Our numerical integrations agree well with the solution. While our solution assumes a planar flow, we show that corrections due to spherical geometry are important only for extremely fast ejecta originating in a region very close to the stellar surface. This region grows if the shock becomes relativistic deeper in the star.

  4. Composite self-similar solutions for relativistic shocks: the transition to cold fluid temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The flow resulting from a strong ultrarelativistic shock moving through a stellar envelope with a polytrope-like density profile has been studied analytically and numerically at early times while the fluid temperature is relativistic--that is, just before and just after the shock breaks out of the star. Such a flow should expand and accelerate as its internal energy is converted to bulk kinetic energy; at late enough times, the assumption of relativistic temperatures becomes invalid. Here we present a new self-similar solution for the post-breakout flow when the accelerating fluid has bulk kinetic Lorentz factors much larger than unity but is cooling through $p/n$ of order unity to subrelativistic temperatures. This solution gives a relation between a fluid element's terminal Lorentz factor and that element's Lorentz factor just after it is shocked. Our numerical integrations agree well with the solution. While our solution assumes a planar flow, we show that corrections due to spherical geometry are importan...

  5. Effects of volume and composition of the resuscitative fluids in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of normal saline, hypertonic saline, and Ringer′s lactate solution followed by blood infusion in ameliorating the physiological, biochemical, and organ functions following hemorrhagic shock (HS in rats. Materials and Methods: Anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent computer-controlled HS, and were randomly divided into five groups consisting of (1 sham, (2 HS without resuscitation, (3 resuscitation with normal saline, (4 resuscitation with hypertonic saline, and (5 resuscitation with Ringer′s lactate solution. All resuscitated animals were infused with subsequent infusion of shed blood. Animals were continuously monitored for physiological, hemodynamic, biochemical parameters, and organ dysfunctions. Results: Non-resuscitated animals were unable to survive due to hypotension, poor oxygen metabolism, and lactic acidosis. Although these HS related parameters were corrected by all the fluids used in this study, additional blood infusion was more effective than fluid resuscitation alone. Also, hypertonic saline was more effective than Ringer′s lactate solution, and normal saline was the least effective in preserving the liver and kidney functions and muscle damage. Conclusions: All crystalloid fluids were significantly more effective in reversing the HS outcome when used with blood infusion, but hypertonic salinewith blood was more effective in preventing the organ damage than Lactated Ringers solutions or normal saline in the treatment of HS.

  6. Relevance of pore fluid composition for the drained strength of clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Giovanni; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás.; Arnhardt, Christian; Stanjek, Helge; Azzam, Rafig; Feinendegen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Classical soil mechanics based on the effective stress concept with water as second phase does not apply anymore for fine-grained materials. Since clays particles are per definition colloidal in size, their properties are determined and dominated by their large surface area and hence, by their surface forces. Therefore, other mechanism plays a role. Geotechnical properties of soils with different pore fluid are especially important for clays used in hydraulic barriers for landfills. Also in the petroleum engineering or in tunnelling engineering the mechanical properties of clays with different pore fluids could be very useful. Since for clays physical and chemical interactions are decisive, the pure mechanical model (e.g. shearing and contact among the particles) is coupled by other forces, typical for colloidal sized materials. If the diffuse double layer develops from the surface of the clay particles, the interactions of the layers should develop a repulsion. That would resist part of the normal stress and producing no shearing resistance. However, the clays show different properties, dependent on their mineralogy, which complicates their behaviour. Several drained shear stress with shear box have been performed on pure Kaolinite, Illite, Na-Smectite and Ca-smectite. Since the shear behaviour of clays is also controlled by chemical interactions, the clays were mixed with pore fluids with different dielectric constant (water, ethanol), electrolyte concentration (NaCl and CaCl2) and pH (ranging from 3 to 8). Different consolidation pressures (from 15 kPa to 400 kPa) have been used in order to better understand the influence of the pore fluids on the drained cohesion (c') and on friction angle (φ'). The materials were mixed with different consistency to form a paste. The consistency ranges from 0.65 to 0.85. The results show how the sensitive the clays to different pore fluids are. Besides, Kaolinite and Illite shows a shearing behaviour almost entirely controlled

  7. Chemical composition of deep hydrothermal fluids in the Ribeira Grande geothermal field (São Miguel, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. R.; Forjaz, V. H.; Almeida, C.

    2006-08-01

    The Ribeira Grande geothermal field is a water-dominated geothermal system, located within Água de Pau/Fogo Volcano in the central part of the São Miguel Island. This geothermal system is exploited for energy production by wells sustaining two power plants. The wells produce from a formation of pillow lavas divided into different aquifers, with a fairly isothermal zone from 800 to 1300 m in depth, where reservoir temperature reaches 230 to 245 °C. Below the depth of 1300 m there is a slight temperature reversal. The fluid produced has excess enthalpy and, separated at atmospheric pressure, is characterized by mineralization of sodium-chloride type up to 6-7 g/l, the concentration of dissolved silica varies between 450 and 650 mg/l and the pH ranges between 8 and 8.6. The gas phase is dominantly CO 2, at a concentration of 98% of NCG. The composition of the deep geothermal fluid was obtained by computer simulation, using the WATCH program, and was compared with the composition of the bottom-hole samples. The approximations, in this simulation, were considered the single- and multi-step steam separation. The reference temperatures were based on: (i) the measured temperature in wells; (ii) the Na/K geothermometric temperature and (iii) the enthalpy-saturation temperature. According to both the measured and geothermometric temperatures, the deep fluid of the wells has two phases with a steam fraction up to 0.34, at higher well discharges. The measured enthalpy is always greater than the calculated enthalpy. The calcite equilibrium indicates scaling, since the fluid is flashing, around 2.28 mg/l CaCO 3 at the maximum discharge. The geothermal wells exploit three different aquifers, the lower of which is liquid and slightly colder than the upper ones. The intermediate is a two-phase aquifer with a steam fraction up to 0.081. The upper aquifer is probably of steam phase. The main differences between the aquifers are the temperature and boiling; both enthalpy and

  8. Amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid in actue neuroinfections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakova, A V; Sytinsky, I A

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acids, glutamine, and glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) acids was made in 168 children, aged 1 to 14 years, with various neurological infections. The glutamic acid and glutamine concentrations in the CSF of children with severe forms of acute serous and bacterial meningitis were about three to four times as great as in controls. The indices returned almost to normal during recovery. GABA is absent in normal CSF, but appeared in the CSF of patients with bacterial meningitis. Its determination may be used as an additional test to differentiate between serous and bacterial meningitis.

  9. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  10. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva : Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, Diederik; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; de Vries, Marcel P; Weening, Desiree; Vonk, Roel J; Roelofsen, Han

    2008-01-01

    Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh

  11. Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Body Fluid Composition in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study to Evaluate the Relationship between Volume Overload and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yasushi; Saito, Akinobu; Yamazaki, Keisuke; Tai, Reibin; Matsukiyo, Tatsuru; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Fluid volume overload occurs in chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to the compensatory release of natriuretic peptides. However, the elevated cardiac peptides may also be associated with malnutrition as well as volume overload. Body fluid composition was measured in 147 patients with CKD between 2009 and 2015, and its relationship to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels was examined. Body fluid composition was separated into three components: (a) a water-free mass consisting of muscle, fat, and minerals; (b) intracellular water (ICW) content, and (c) extracellular water (ECW) content. Excess fluid mass was calculated using Chamney's formula. The measured BNP levels in the tertile groups were 10.9 ± 5.4, 36.3 ± 12.5, and 393 ± 542 pg/ml, respectively. Patients in a higher log-transformed BNP level tertile were more likely to be older, to have a higher frequency of cardiac comorbidities, pulse pressure, C-reactive protein levels, and proteinuria, and to have lower serum sodium, kidney function, and serum albumin (p < 0.05). In body fluid composition, decreased body mass was significantly associated with the ECW-to-ICW ratio in relation to the downward ICW slope (r = -0.235, p = 0.004) and was strongly correlated with excess fluid mass (r = -0.701, p < 0.001). The ECW-to-ICW ratio and excess fluid mass was independently associated with the BNP levels. Fluid volume imbalance between intra- and extracellular water regulated by decreased cell mass was independently associated with BNP levels, which may explain the reserve capacity for fluid accumulation in patients with CKD.

  12. Major and trace-element composition and pressure-temperature evolution of rock-buffered fluids in low-grade accretionary-wedge metasediments, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, George D.; Wagner, Thomas; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition of fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from Alpine fissure veins was determined by combination of microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and LA-ICPMS analysis. The veins are hosted in carbonate-bearing, organic-rich, low-grade metamorphic metapelites of the Bündnerschiefer of the eastern Central Alps (Switzerland). This strongly deformed tectonic unit is interpreted as a partly subducted accretionary wedge, on the basis of widespread carpholite assemblages that were later overprinted by lower greenschist facies metamorphism. Veins and their host rocks from two locations were studied to compare several indicators for the conditions during metamorphism, including illite crystallinity, graphite thermometry, stability of mineral assemblages, chlorite thermometry, fluid inclusion solute thermometry, and fluid inclusion isochores. Fluid inclusions are aqueous two-phase with 3.7-4.0 wt% equivalent NaCl at Thusis and 1.6-1.7 wt% at Schiers. Reproducible concentrations of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Cl, Br, and S could be determined for 97 fluid inclusion assemblages. Fluid and mineral geothermometry consistently indicate temperatures of 320 ± 20 °C for the host rocks at Thusis and of 250 ± 30 °C at Schiers. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbar for Thusis, and of 3.3-3.4 kbar for Schiers. Pressure-temperature estimates are confirmed by pseudosection modeling. Fluid compositions and petrological modeling consistently demonstrate that chemical fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during vein formation, indicating that the fluids originated locally by metamorphic dehydration during near-isothermal decompression in a rock-buffered system.

  13. Major element compositions of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal vein-type deposits record eroded sedimentary units in the Schwarzwald district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin F.; Burisch, Mathias; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    Mixing of sedimentary formation fluids with basement-derived brines is an important mechanism for the formation of hydrothermal veins. We focus on the sources of the sediment-derived fluid component in ore-forming processes and present a comprehensive fluid inclusion study on 84 Jurassic hydrothermal veins from the Schwarzwald mining district (SW Germany). Our data derive from about 2300 fluid inclusions and reveal differences in the average fluid composition between the northern, central, and southern Schwarzwald. Fluids from the northern and southern Schwarzwald are characterised by high salinities (18-26 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), low Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.1-0.4), and variable Cl/Br mass ratios (30-1140). In contrast, fluids from the central Schwarzwald show even higher salinities (23-27 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), higher Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.2-0.9), and less variable Cl/Br mass ratios (40-130). These fluid compositions correlate with the nature and thickness of the now eroded sedimentary cover rocks. Compared to the northern and the southern Schwarzwald, where halite precipitation occurred during the Middle Triassic, the sedimentary basin in the central Schwarzwald was relatively shallow at this time and no halite was precipitated. Accordingly, Cl/Br ratios of fluids from the central Schwarzwald provide no evidence for the reaction of a sedimentary brine with halite, whereas those from the northern and southern Schwarzwald do. Instead, elevated Ca/(Ca+Na), high SO4 contents, and relatively low Cl/Br imply the presence of a gypsum dissolution brine during vein formation in the central Schwarzwald which agrees with the reconstructed regional Triassic geology. Hence, the information archived in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal veins in the crystalline basement has the potential for reconstructing sedimentary rocks in the former overburden.

  14. Impact of food and fluid intake on technical and biological measurement error in body composition assessment methods in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary J; Byrne, Nuala

    2017-02-01

    Two, three and four compartment (2C, 3C and 4C) models of body composition are popular methods to measure fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in athletes. However, the impact of food and fluid intake on measurement error has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate standardised (overnight fasted, rested and hydrated) v. non-standardised (afternoon and non-fasted) presentation on technical and biological error on surface anthropometry (SA), 2C, 3C and 4C models. In thirty-two athletic males, measures of SA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) were taken to establish 2C, 3C and 4C models. Tests were conducted after an overnight fast (duplicate), about 7 h later after ad libitum food and fluid intake, and repeated 24 h later before and after ingestion of a specified meal. Magnitudes of changes in the mean and typical errors of measurement were determined. Mean change scores for non-standardised presentation and post meal tests for FM were substantially large in BIS, SA, 3C and 4C models. For FFM, mean change scores for non-standardised conditions produced large changes for BIS, 3C and 4C models, small for DXA, trivial for BOD POD and SA. Models that included a total body water (TBW) value from BIS (3C and 4C) were more sensitive to TBW changes in non-standardised conditions than 2C models. Biological error is minimised in all models with standardised presentation but DXA and BOD POD are acceptable if acute food and fluid intake remains below 500 g.

  15. Effects of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Dynamic Response of Composite Structures: Experimental and Numerical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    effective material properties using a multiscale analysis technique. 3 Multiscale Analysis of Composite Structures The schematic diagram in Fig. 3...Strain Rate on Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanism of Structural Al-Mg Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 492, pp. 283–292. 2 Mukai, T., Ishikawa ...A, 492, pp. 283–292. 2 Mukai, T., Ishikawa , K., and Higashi, K., 1995, “Influence of Strain Rate on the Mechanical Properties in Fine-Grained

  16. Supercritical fluid assisted production of micrometric powders of the labile trypsin and chitosan/trypsin composite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Bin; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2015-07-15

    Supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM) was used to prepare micrometric particles of a labile protein, i.e., trypsin from aqueous solution without use of any organic solvents. The trypsin particles precipitated had various morphologies under different process conditions, with particle diameters ranging from 0.2 to 4 μm. FTIR, SDS-PAGE, CD and fluorescence spectra were performed to analyze the structural stability of the protein, and trypsin retained above 70% of the biological activity. Besides, chitosan was selected as the polymer carrier in an effort to prepare trypsin composite microparticles via SAA-HCM process. The influences of chitosan molecular weight, polymer/protein ratio and solution concentration on the particle morphology and size distribution were investigated in detail. Non-coalescing spherical composite microparticles with a narrow particle distribution (0.2-3 μm) could be obtained. The SAA-HCM prepared particles were amorphous as demonstrated by XRD and had a loading efficiency about 90%. The protein release profiles of the composite microparticles were evaluated using both the immersion condition and a Franz diffusion cell. Finally, the distribution of the protein within the particles was characterized through CLSM analysis of FITC-labeled trypsin-loaded chitosan microparticles. The SAA-HCM process is demonstrated to be a protein-friendly and promising technique for production of protein and polymer/protein composite particles formulations from aqueous solutions for drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability-based aeroelastic optimization of a composite aircraft wing via fluid-structure interaction of high fidelity solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbay, M.; Fakkusoglu, N.; Kuru, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    We consider reliability based aeroelastic optimization of a AGARD 445.6 composite aircraft wing with stochastic parameters. Both commercial engineering software and an in-house reliability analysis code are employed in this high-fidelity computational framework. Finite volume based flow solver Fluent is used to solve 3D Euler equations, while Gambit is the fluid domain mesh generator and Catia-V5-R16 is used as a parametric 3D solid modeler. Abaqus, a structural finite element solver, is used to compute the structural response of the aeroelastic system. Mesh based parallel code coupling interface MPCCI-3.0.6 is used to exchange the pressure and displacement information between Fluent and Abaqus to perform a loosely coupled fluid-structure interaction by employing a staggered algorithm. To compute the probability of failure for the probabilistic constraints, one of the well known MPP (Most Probable Point) based reliability analysis methods, FORM (First Order Reliability Method) is implemented in Matlab. This in-house developed Matlab code is embedded in the multidisciplinary optimization workflow which is driven by Modefrontier. Modefrontier 4.1, is used for its gradient based optimization algorithm called NBI-NLPQLP which is based on sequential quadratic programming method. A pareto optimal solution for the stochastic aeroelastic optimization is obtained for a specified reliability index and results are compared with the results of deterministic aeroelastic optimization.

  18. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  19. He, Ne and Ar isotope compositions of fluid inclusions in hy-drothermal sulfides from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Helium, neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclusionshave been measured in hydrothermal sulfide samples from the TAG hydrothermal field at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid-inclusion 3He/4He ratios are 2.2-13.3 times the air value (Ra), and with a mean of 7.2 Ra. Com-parison with the local vent fluids (3He/4He=7.5-8.2 Ra) and mid-ocean ridge basalt values (3He/4He=6-11 Ra) shows that the variation range of 3He/4He ratios from sulfide-hosted fluid inclu-sions is significantly large. Values for 20Ne/22Ne are from 10.2 to 11.4, which are significantly higher than the atmospheric ratio (9.8). And fluid-inclusion 40Ar/36Ar ratios range from 287 to 359, which are close to the atmospheric values (295.5). These results indicate that the noble gases of fluid inclu-sions in hydrothermal sulfides are a mixture of mantle- and seawater-derived noble gases; the partial mantle-derived components of trapped hydrothermal fluids may be from the lower mantle; the helium of fluid inclusions is mainly from upper mantle; and the Ne and Ar components are mainly from seawater.

  20. Evolutionary development of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid composition and regulation: an open research field with implications for brain development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, David; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2016-03-15

    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, including behaviour. The central nervous system is one of the most intriguing systems in complex metazoans, as it controls all body and mind functions. Its failure is responsible for a number of severe and largely incurable diseases, including neurological and neurodegenerative ones. Moreover, the evolution of the nervous system is thought to be a critical step in the adaptive radiation of vertebrates. Brain formation is initiated early during development. Most embryological, genetic and evolutionary studies have focused on brain neurogenesis and regionalisation, including the formation and function of organising centres, and the comparison of homolog gene expression and function among model organisms from different taxa. The architecture of the vertebrate brain primordium also reveals the existence of connected internal cavities, the cephalic vesicles, which in fetuses and adults become the ventricular system of the brain. During embryonic and fetal development, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with a complex, protein-rich fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, CSF has not been widely analysed from either an embryological or evolutionary perspective. Recently, it has been demonstrated in higher vertebrates that embryonic cerebrospinal fluid has key functions in delivering diffusible signals and nutrients to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. Moreover, it has been shown that the composition and homeostasis of CSF are tightly controlled in a time-dependent manner from the closure of the anterior neuropore, just before the initiation of primary neurogenesis, up to the formation of functional choroid plexuses. In

  1. Differential Muon Tomography to Continuously Monitor Changes in the Composition of Subsurface Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Max; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Spooner, Neil J.; Fung, Cora; Gluyas, John

    2013-01-01

    Muon tomography has been used to seek hidden chambers in Egyptian pyramids and image subsurface features in volcanoes. It seemed likely that it could be used to image injected, supercritical carbon dioxide as it is emplaced in porous geological structures being used for carbon sequestration, and also to check on subsequent leakage. It should work equally well in any other application where there are two fluids of different densities, such as water and oil, or carbon dioxide and heavy oil in oil reservoirs. Continuous monitoring of movement of oil and/or flood fluid during enhanced oil recovery activities for managing injection is important for economic reasons. Checking on leakage for geological carbon storage is essential both for safety and for economic purposes. Current technology (for example, repeat 3D seismic surveys) is expensive and episodic. Muons are generated by high- energy cosmic rays resulting from supernova explosions, and interact with gas molecules in the atmosphere. This innovation has produced a theoretical model of muon attenuation in the thickness of rock above and within a typical sandstone reservoir at a depth of between 1.00 and 1.25 km. Because this first simulation was focused on carbon sequestration, the innovators chose depths sufficient for the pressure there to ensure that the carbon dioxide would be supercritical. This innovation demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using the natural cosmic-ray muon flux to generate continuous tomographic images of carbon dioxide in a storage site. The muon flux is attenuated to an extent dependent on, amongst other things, the density of the materials through which it passes. The density of supercritical carbon dioxide is only three quarters that of the brine in the reservoir that it displaces. The first realistic simulations indicate that changes as small as 0.4% in the storage site bulk density could be detected (equivalent to 7% of the porosity, in this specific case). The initial

  2. Three-dimensional microstructural investigation of high magnetization nano-micro composite fluids using x-ray microcomputed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbáth, T.; Borbáth, I.; Günther, S.; Marinica, O.; Vékás, L.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-05-01

    X-ray microcomputed tomography was used in a three-dimensional investigation of the microstructure of suspensions of multi-domain soft iron particles in magnetic nanofluids. The measurements were performed using two different approaches: with the sample kept frozen, and with the sample under the effect of an external magnetic field. Results show that even a relatively low magnetic field gradient drives the micron-sized iron particles towards the stronger field and thus leads to a redistribution of the ferromagnetic particles in the magnetic nanofluid. Three-dimensional images of the internal microstructure of the composite magnetizable fluid (CMF) were obtained not only for the nano-micro composite system placed in a closed sample holder, but also for the spikes formed at the CMF free surface. It was demonstrated that x-ray microcomputed tomography is an efficient way to investigate the distribution and chain formation of ferromagnetic microparticles in a magnetic nanofluid carrier allowing an analysis even at a single particle level.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks.

  4. Helium isotopic compositions in fluid inclusions of the Gangxi fault belt in the Huanghua Depression, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Weiwei; DAI Jinxing; YANG Chiyin; TAO Shizhen; HOU Lu

    2005-01-01

    The authors obtained 30 core samples from 15 wells in Gangxi fault belt, Huanghua Depression. Using a VG5400 mass spectrometer, the helium isotopic compositions in fluid inclusion of these samples were analysed. Interpretation of results suggests a significant amount of mantle-derived helium in the inclusions, which were likely trapped during Neocene. Mantle-derived helium have mostly accumulated in the intersections of the NWW trending Xuzhuangzi and NE trending Gangxi faults, and decreased away from the intersections. This pattern implied a close relationship to the local tectonic setting. Gangxi fault belt experienced intensive neo-tectonic activities in the Cenozoic. Widespread faulted-depressions and strong volcanic eruptions manifested its tectonic status of extensional stress field. Mantle uplift caused the movement of magma that carried mantle-derived gas, and the deep-rooted tension faults provided the passages for the gases to shallow crust levels. High-content abiogenic CO2 pools occurred in the study area, hence, using the helium isotopic compositions is of great significance to the exploration of abiogenic natural gases.

  5. Biochemical composition of the fluid of ovarian cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles compared to the serum in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biochemical composition of follicular cysts, pre-ovulatory follicles and serum in sows. The research involved multiparous sows (cysts-bearing sows, n = 21; non-cysts-bearing sows, n = 22). Concentration of glucose, protein, cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the samples was determined. Glucose concentration in serum was higher than in cysts and follicles (p sows (p sows and non-cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p sows was higher than the one in non-cysts-bearing sows (p sows was also higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p sows had a higher concentration of HDL in the serum than non-cysts-bearing sows. Differences were also observed between the concentration of HDL in cysts and the one in follicles (p sows was higher than the one in the serum of non-cysts-bearing sows (p < 0.05). Differences were also detected between the TAG concentrations in cysts and in follicles (p < 0.01). The differences in the biochemical composition of the fluid in follicular cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles point to the variable intensification of the course of metabolic processes in pathological and physiological ovarian structures.

  6. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Roelofsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fl uid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

  7. The δ 34S composition of sulfates and sulfides at the Los Humeros geothermal system, Mexico and their application to physicochemical fluid evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Serrano, Raymundo G.; Jacquier, Bertrand; Arnold, Michel

    1996-09-01

    The δ 34S isotopic composition of sulfur was determined in more than 105 pyrite samples found in volcanic formations as well as in the sulfates and sulfides dissolved in the present-day geothermal fluids in the Los Humeros system, Mexico. Analysis of the isotopic values demonstrated that the sulfur compounds of the geothermal system were derived from a magmatic source (δ 34S ΣS — 1%.). The calculation of the different pH-FO 2-(FS 2) diagrams showed that the sulfates and sulfides dissolved in the present-day fluids from well H1 do not show chemical equilibrium conditions as was indicated previuosly by Arnold and Gonzalez-P. (1987). The reason for this is that the physicochemical characteristics of the system have been evolving almost continuously as a result of the exploration and exploitation of the thermal fluids from the system. The residence time of the fluids in the geothermal reservoir is now reduced and the chemical and isotopic reactions that occur between fluids and minerals are not carried out completely. Due to the thermodynamic evolution of the fluids, equilibrium among the sulfur phases dissolved in the fluids could not be demonstrated. The δ 34S values of pyrite sampled at different depths in the geothermal system display evidence for different isotopic fractionation produced by boiling, fluid mixing, and vapor condensation in meteoric waters. The δ 34S values of sulfates in the present-day fluids suggest that these were derived from the oxidation of H 2S at relatively shallow depths (< 600 m). In fact, the isotopic compositions of these sulfates trend towards δ 34S values of sulfides found in the steam phase.

  8. Factors influencing the microbial composition of metalworking fluids and potential implications for machine operator's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Batchili, Adam; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Thaon, Isabelle; Millon, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as "machine operator's lung" (MOL), has been related to microorganisms growing in metalworking fluids (MWFs), especially Mycobacterium immunogenum. We aimed to (i) describe the microbiological contamination of MWFs and (ii) look for chemical, physical, and environmental parameters associated with variations in microbiological profiles. We microbiologically analyzed 180 MWF samples from nonautomotive plants (e.g., screw-machining or metal-cutting plants) in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France and 165 samples from three French automotive plants in which cases of MOL had been proven. Our results revealed two types of microbial biomes: the first was from the nonautomotive industry, showed predominantly Gram-negative rods (GNR), and was associated with a low risk of MOL, and the second came from the automotive industry that was affected by cases of MOL and showed predominantly Gram-positive rods (GPR). Traces of M. immunogenum were sporadically detected in the first type, while it was highly prevalent in the automotive sector, with up to 38% of samples testing positive. The use of chromium, nickel, or iron was associated with growth of Gram-negative rods; conversely, growth of Gram-positive rods was associated with the absence of these metals. Synthetic MWFs were more frequently sterile than emulsions. Vegetable oil-based emulsions were associated with GNR, while mineral ones were associated with GPR. Our results suggest that metal types and the nature of MWF play a part in MWF contamination, and this work shall be followed by further in vitro simulation experiments on the kinetics of microbial populations, focusing on the phenomena of inhibition and synergy.

  9. The evolution of the Waiotapu geothermal system, New Zealand, based on the chemical and isotopic composition of its fluids, minerals and rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Browne, Patrick R. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Waiotapu geothermal system is hosted by silicic rocks of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Exploration drilling in the late 1950s down to 1100 m provided physical information on the system. Measured temperatures show a boiling profile to 295 °C, with shallow inversions, particularly in the north. Total discharge fluid samples were collected; the geothermometry and measured temperatures show that fluids derive mainly from a shallow (~400 m deep) reservoir at about 225°C. Petrologic study of drillcore samples recovered from seven wells reveals an alteration assemblage of quartz and albite + adularia, with a variable distribution of chlorite, pyrite, calcite, zeolites, epidote, pyrrhotite, sphene, leucoxene, apatite and minor base metal sulfides; white mica is a late overprint, particularly well developed at shallow depths. Surficial alteration of kaolin, cristobalite, alunite and smectite clays reflect alteration by acid sulfate, steam-heated waters. The activities of components in minerals (determined from microprobe analyses and composition-activity relations) and fluids (speciated to reservoir conditions) indicate equilibrium now exists between the fluids and white mica; the Na/K ratio of the fluid is being controlled by dissolution of albite and adularia, while its H 2/H 2S ratio is buffered by pyrite replacing pyrrhotite. The fluids are now slightly undersaturated with respect to calcite. The present deep fluids boil adiabatically from at least 300°C to 230°C; at depths of ≤500 m, this ascending chloride fluid is variably diluted by a steam-heated water (of zero chloride) that lies over, and occurs on the margin of, the system like a discontinuous umbrella; the steam-heated water is relatively CO 2-rich (≤0.1 m). The cooling at shallow levels by this mixing has shifted the alteration from albite-adularia stability to white mica stability; this shift is enhanced by the CO 2-rich nature of the diluent. Dilution of ascending chloride fluids by

  10. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  11. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Activities in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Gloiopeltis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Zheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical, compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 3.9 mg/mL, Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL, and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO2-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing.

  12. Oral fluid and hepatitis A, B and C: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, Nima; Porter, Stephen R; Karayiannis, Peter; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2012-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a significant global health problem that, depending upon the virus, affects individuals of the developing and/or developed world. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in whether oral fluids can be considered as a source of viral hepatitis transmission and whether oral fluid, in particular, whole saliva, may be a useful source for viral detection as part of the diagnosis and monitoring of viral hepatitis. The aim of this article was to review current data concerning the possible carriage of the hepatitis A, B and C viruses within saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. Such knowledge will indicate if (i) oral fluid is a possible source of infection and (ii) whether oral fluid can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of viral hepatitis. A literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), EMBASE/Excerpta medica, the Cochrane database and Scopus. The results were limited to published material after 2000. Relevant material was evaluated and reviewed. There is some evidence that hepatitis viruses A, B and C are present in oral fluids, particularly whole saliva and gingival crevicular fluid and may thus be possible sources of viral detection in clinical diagnosis and monitoring. However, the data are inconsistent and warrant the need for well-planned longitudinal studies to explore the precise frequency of oral carriage of such viruses and to determine the virological and host factors that may influence the oral presence of hepatitis A, B and C viruses. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid on activated bleaching earth-chitosan-SDS composites: Optimization, kinetics, isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naowanat, Nitiya; Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich; Pongstabodee, Sangobtip

    2016-03-15

    The adsorption of emulsified oil from metalworking fluid (MWF) on activated bleaching earth (BE)-chitosan-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) composites (BE/MCS) was investigated under a statistical design of experiments at a 95% confidence interval to identify the critical factors and to optimize the adsorption capacity. The BE/MCS adsorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption/desorption isotherms, contact angle analysis (sessile drop technique) and their zeta potential. From the results of a full 2(5) factorial design with three center points, the adsorbent weight and initial pH of the MWF had a significant antagonistic effect on the adsorption capacity while the initial MWF concentration and BE:chitosan:SDS weight ratio had a synergistic influence. Temperature factor has no discernible effect on the capacity. From the FCCC-RSM design, the optimal capacity range of 2840-2922.5 mg g(-1) was achieved at sorbent weight of 1.6-1.9 g, pH of 5.5-6.5, initial MWF concentration of 52-55 g l(-1) and BE:chitosan:SDS (w/w/w) ratio of 4.7:1:1-6.2:1:1. To test the validation and sensitivity of RSM model, the results showed that the estimated adsorption capacity was close to the experimental capacity within an error range of ±3%, suggesting that the RSM model was acceptable and satisfied. From three kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order model and Avrami's equation) and two adsorption isotherms (Langmuir model and Freundlich model), assessed using an error function (Err) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)), Avrami's equation and Freundlich isotherm model provided a good fitting for the data, suggesting the presence of more than one reaction pathway in the MWF adsorption process and the heterogeneous surface adsorption of the BC/ABE-5.5 composite.

  14. Decrepitation Thermometry and Compositions of Fluid Inclusions of the Damoqujia Gold Deposit,Jiaodong Gold Province,China:Implications for Metallogeny and Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liqiang; Deng Jun; Zhang Jing; Guo Chunying; Gao Bangfei; Gong Qingjie; Wang Qingfei; Jiang Shaoqing; Yu Haijun

    2008-01-01

    The recently discovered Damoqujia (大磨曲家) gold deposit is a large shear zone-hosted gold deposit of disseminated sulphides located in the north of the Zhaoping (招平) fault zone, Jiaodong (胶东) gold province, China. In order to distinguish the temperature range of cluster inclusions from different mineralization stages and measure their compositions, 16 fluid inclusions and 5 isotopic geochemistry samples were collected for this study. Corresponding to different mineralization stages, the multirange peaks of quartz decrepitation temperature (250-270, 310-360 and 380-430℃(2) indicate that the activity of ore-forming fluids is characterized by multistage. The ore-forming fluids were predominantly of high-temperature fluid system (HTFS) by CO2-rich, and SO2-4-K+ type magmatic fluid during the early stage of mineralization and were subsequently affected by low-temperature fluid system (LTFS) of CH4-rich, and Cl--Na+/Ca2+ type meteoric fluid during the late stage of mineralization. Gold is transferred by Au-HS- complex in the HTFS, and Au-Cl- complex can be more important in the LTFS. The transition of fluids from deeper to shallow environments results in mixing between the HTFS and LTFS, which might be one of the most key reasons for gold precipitation and large-scale mineralization. The ore-forming fluids are characterized by high-temperature, strong-activity, and superimposed mineralization, so that there is a great probability of forming large and rich ore deposit in the Damoqujia gold deposit. The main bodies are preserved and extend toward deeper parts, thereby suggesting a great potential in future.

  15. Multi-Fluid Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme: Magnetospheric Composition and Dynamics During Geomagnetic Storms, Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkocer, A.; Toth, G.; Ma, Y.; Gombosi, T.; Zhang, J. C.; Kistler, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetosphere contains a significant amount of ionospheric O{+}, particularly during geomagnetically active times. The presence of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere has a notable impact on magnetospheric composition and processes. We present a new multifluid MHD version of the BATS-R-US model of the magnetosphere to track the fate and consequences of ionospheric outflow. The multi-fluid MHD equations are presented as are the novel techniques for overcoming the formidable challenges associated with solving them. Our new model is then applied to the May 4, 1998 and March 31, 2001 geomagnetic storms. The results are juxtaposed with traditional single- fluid MHD and multispecies MHD simulations from a previous study, thereby allowing us to assess the benefits of using a more complex model with additional physics. We find that our multi-fluid MHD model (with outflow) gives comparable results to the multi-species MHD model (with outflow), including a more strongly negative Dst, reduced CPCP, and a drastically improved magnetic field at geosynchronous orbit, as compared to single-fluid MHD with no outflow. Significant differences in composition and magnetic field are found between the multi-species and multi-fluid approach further away from the Earth. We further demonstrate the ability to explore pressure and bulk velocity differences between H{+} and O(+}, which is not possible when utilizing the other techniques considered.

  16. Preparation of (Ti, Sn)O2 Nano-Composite Photocatalyst by Supercritical Fluid Dry Combination Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang ZHANG; Qing LI; Weiliang CAO

    2005-01-01

    A series of TiO2-SnO2 nano-sized composite photo-catalysts containing Sn (9.3%~30.1%) were prepared from TiCl4and SnCl4.5H2O by using sol-gel, supercritical fluid dry and solid-phase reaction (SCFD) combination technology.Characterizations with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that, in addition to anatase type TiO2, a new active phase (Ti, Sn)O2 (with particle size of 2.0~4.3 nm) formed, and there were no SnO2 crystals observed in the range of the doping concentration studied. Photo-catalytic reaction of phenol was used as a model reaction to evaluate the catalytic activities of the obtained catalysts. Compared with pure TiO2 or Ti-Sn catalyst prepared with general sol-gel method, Ti-Sn nanocomposite photo-catalyst thus obtained showed significant improvement in catalytic activity. The photo-catalytic degradation rate of phenol could reach as high as 93.5% after 7 h. The preparation conditions of the new phase (Ti, Sn)O2 were investigated and its catalytic mechanism was proposed. The photo-catalytic particles prepared using SCFD combination technology exhibited small particle size, large surface area and high activity.

  17. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of Cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Mariod, A.; Bagalkotkar, G.; Ling, H. S

    2010-07-01

    The effect of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) fractionation of three oil fractions (1st, 2nd, 3rd fraction) on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of cantaloupe were investigated. Rock melon oil (RMO) and Golden Langkawi oil (GLO) were extracted using SFE and the major fatty acids for both cultivars were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. The SFA decreased from 15.78 to 14.14% in RMO 1st fraction, and MUFA decreased from 18.30 to 16.56% in RMO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 65.9 to 69.30% in RMO 3rd fraction. On the other hand SFA decreased from 16.35 to 13.91% in GLO 1{sup s}t fraction, and MUFA decreased from 17.50 to 15.57% in GLO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 66.15 to 70.52% in GLO 3rd fraction. The different fractions of the two oils showed high antioxidant activity in reducing the oxidation of {beta}-carotene in beta-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and the quenching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). (Author) 41 refs.

  18. The composition of fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits Poland: Genetic and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; Hofstra, A.H.; Emsbo, P.; Kozlowski, A.

    1996-01-01

    The composition of fluids extracted from ore and gangue sulfide minerals that span most of the paragenesis of the Silesian-Cracow district was determined using a newly developed ion chromatographic (IC) technique. Ionic species determined were Na+, NH+4, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Rb+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Cl-, Br-, F-, I-, PO3-4, CO2-3, HS-, S2O2-3, SO2-4, NO-3, and acetate. Mineral samples included six from the Pomorzany mine and one from the Trzebionka mine which are hosted in the Triassic Muschelkalk Formation, and two samples of drill core from mineralized Upper Devonian strata. Nine paragenetically identifiable sulfide minerals occur throughout the Silesian-Cracow district. These include from earliest to latest: early iron sulfides, granular sphalerite, early galena, light-banded sphalerite, galena, dark-banded sphalerite, iron sulfides, late dark-banded sphalerite with late galena, and late iron sulfides. Seven of the minerals were sampled for fluid inclusion analysis in this study. Only the early iron sulfides and the last galena stage were not sampled. Although the number of analyses are limited to nine samples and two replicates and there is uncertainty about the characteristics of the fluid inclusions analyzed, the data show clear temporal trends in the composition of the fluids that deposited these minerals. Fluid inclusions in minerals deposited later in the paragenesis have significantly more K+, Br-, NH+4, and acetate but less Sr2+ than those deposited earlier in the paragenesis. The later minerals are also characterized by isotopically lighter sulfur and significantly more Tl and As in the solid minerals. The change in ore-fluid chemistry is interpreted to reflect a major change in the hydrologic regime of the district. Apparently, the migrational paths of ore fluids from the Upper Silesian basin changed during ore deposition and the fluids which deposited early minerals reacted with aquifers with very different geochemical characteristics than those that deposited

  19. Amphibolitization of eclogites in a subduction channel (Sistan belt, E. Iran): Monitoring changes in fluid composition during exhumation and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Melanie; Angiboust, Samuel; Pourteau, Amaury; Omrani, Jafar

    2016-04-01

    Fluids released from subducting slabs are important for improving our understanding of mass transfer within subduction zones. Eclogites from the Sistan ophiolitic suture zone (eastern Iran) have a well preserved structure and a rather simple metamorphic history, making them an interesting target to monitor changing in fluid composition throughout their journey from eclogite-facies conditions towards the surface. The Sistan suture formed by the closure of a branch of the Neotethys during Cretaceous times. It comprises a stack of tectonic slices detached from various depths of this paleo-subduction complex. One of these slices is made of 10-meter sized blocks of eclogite wrapped by serpentinite schist (Angiboust et al., 2013). The eclogite assemblage (~550°C, 2.4 GPa), only visible in exposed block cores, has been strongly retrogressed by an amphibolite-facies paragenesis (~650°C, 1.2 GPa). The thermal overprint during exhumation has been ascribed to the juxtaposition of this unit to the overlying sub-continental serpentinized mantle. In the present study, one of the eclogitic blocks has been investigated for chemical changes associated with the amphibolitisation of the eclogite, in order to get an idea about the geochemical signature of retrograde fluids. Petrographic and geochemical observations point to high element mobility and multiple fluid-rock interaction events, visible in the sample as dissolution textures, mineral chemical oscillations and pervasive replacement by amphibolite-facies minerals. Whole-rock mass balance calculations and LA-ICP-MS measurements reveal at least two successive metasomatic events associated with the retrograde metamorphic overprint of the eclogitic block. Deep fluids (1.5-2.0 GPa) were apparently rather enriched in Mg, Cr, and Ni, indicating the presence of serpentinite-derived fluids, while later fluids associated with the climax of amphibolitization were clearly carriers of large ion lithophile elements (such as K, Ba, Sr

  20. Fluid composition and evolution in coesite-bearing rocks (Dora-Maira massif, Western Alps): implications for element recycling during subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Pascal; Chevallier, Pierre; Chopin, Christian; Dubessy, Jean

    1995-08-01

    Fluid inclusions and F, Cl concentration of hydrous minerals were analysed in the coesite-pyrope quartzite, the interlayered jadeite quartzite and their country-rock gneiss from the Dora-Maira massif using a combination of microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, synchrotron X-ray microfiuorescence and electron microprobe analysis. Three populations of fluid inclusions were recognized texturally and can be related to distinct metamorphic stages. A low-salinity aqueous fluid occurs in the retrogressed country gneiss and as late secondary inclusions in jadeite quartzite and chloritized pyrope. An earlier secondary population is found in matrix quartz of the jadeite- and pyro-pe-quartzites. This population can be related to the early decompression and so to incipient breakdown of garnet into phlogopite-bearing assemblages. The inclusion fluid is highly saline (up to 84 wt% equivalent NaCl) and contains Na, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn as major cations. In pyrope quartzite, additional K was found in these brines, which locally coexist with CO2-rich inclusions. The oldest fluid inclusions are preserved in kyanite grains included in fresh pyrope and in pyrope itself. In pyrope, all inclusions have decrepitated and contain magnesite, an Mg-phosphate, sheet-silicate(s), a chloride and an opaque phase, with no fluid preser ved. In contrast, the kyanite inclusions in pyrope preserve primary H2O-CO2 low-salinity fluid inclusions, probably owing to the low compressibility of the kyanite inclusions and host garnet. In spite of in-situ re-equilibration, these inclusions can be interpreted as relics of the dehydration fluid that attended pyrope growth. These correlations between textural and chemical fluid inclusion data and metamorphic stages are consistent with the fluid composition calculated from the halogen content of different generations of phlogopite and biotite. The preservation of different fluid compositions, both in time and space, is evidence for local control and possibly origin

  1. Helium,neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclu-sions in massive sulfides from the Jade hydrothermal field,the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigang; QIN Yunshan; ZHAI Shikui

    2004-01-01

    Helium, neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclusions have been measured in massive sulfide samples from the Jade hydrothermal field in the central Okinawa Trough. Huid-inclusion 3He/4He ratios are between 6.2 and 10.1 times the air value (Ra), and with a mean of 7.8Ra, which are consistent with the mid-ocean ridge basalt values [3He/4He≈(6Ra~11Ra)]. Values for 20Ne/22Ne are from 10.7 to 11.3, which are significantly higher than the atmospheric ratio (9.8).And the fluid-inclusion 40Ar/36Ar ratios range from 287 to 334, which are close to the atmosperic values (295.5). These results indicate that the noble gases of trapped hydrothermal fluids in massive sulfides are a mixture of mantle- and seawater-derived components, and the helium of fluid inclusions is mainly from mantle, the nelium and argon isotope compositions are mainly from seawater.

  2. Nano-micro composite magnetic fluids: Magnetic and magnetorheological evaluation for rotating seal and vibration damper applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinică, Oana; Susan-Resiga, Daniela; Bălănean, Florica; Vizman, Daniel; Socoliuc, Vlad; Vékás, Ladislau

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, static magnetic properties and magnetorheological behavior of a set of 12 nano-micro composite magnetic fluids (CMFs) were studied. The samples with a ferromagnetic particle volume fraction ranging in a large interval φFe = (1 ÷ 44) % were prepared by adding carbonyl iron powder in a highly concentrated transformer oil-based ferrofluid (FF). The ferrofluid has the magnetite volume fraction of φFe3O4 = 22.90 % and saturation magnetization of Ms = 74 kA / m (930 Gs). No further additives were used in order to prevent sedimentation. It was noticed an increase of the static yield stress, of about 3 orders of magnitude, with the increase of the total solid volume fraction of samples and with the increase of the magnetic field, which varied between 0 kA/m and 950 kA/m. The dynamic yield stress (Herschel-Bulkley model) τHB of the samples strongly increases with the magnetic field and shows a slight tendency of saturation for higher intensities of the magnetic field. There is a less pronounced increase of τHB, about an order of magnitude with the increasing volume fraction of the iron particles. The relative viscosity increase induced by the magnetic field reaches a maximum for both considered shear rates: γ ṡ = 7.85s-1 and γ ṡ = 88.41s-1 and it was revealed an optimal volume fraction of Fe particles, φFe = 20 % , corresponding to a total volume fraction of φtot ≈ 38 % , at which the magnetoviscous effect has its maximum value. The magnetic properties and also the magnetorheological and the magnetoviscous behavior of highly concentrated ferrofluid-based CMFs can be controlled by the addition of iron microparticles in order to attain the optimal concentration for the envisaged engineering applications, rotating seals and magnetorheological vibration dampers.

  3. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  4. Relation of compositions of deep fluids in geothermal activity of Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic fields of Lesser Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Lavrushin, Vassily; Shahinyan, Hrach; Aidarkozhina, Altin; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Ermakov, Alexander; Zakaryan, Shushan; Prasolov, Edward; Manucharyan, Davit; Gyulnazaryan, Shushan; Grigoryan, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted, that geothermal activity in the conductive heat flow processes, such as volcanism and hydrothermal activity, is manifestation of the thermal mass transfer process in the Earth's crust, where geothermal and geochemical processes are closely connected. Therefore, geochemistry and isotope compositions of thermal mineral waters within and on periphery of volcanic clusters may represent key indicators for better understanding of geothermal activity in geodynamically active zones. Geochemical features of heat and mass transport in hydrothermal systems related to active volcanic and fault systems in continental collision related orogenic elevated plateaus such as Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian highlands are still poorly understood. In this contribution we attempt to fill these gaps in our knowledge of relations of geochemical and geothermal processes in collision zones. We present new data on chemical compositions, trace element geochemistry of thermal waters of Lesser Caucasus, (Armenia) as well as isotope analysis of free gases such as {}3He/{}4He, {}40Ar/{}36Ar, δ{}13?(CO{}2), nitrogen δ{}15N(N{}2) and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water phases (δD, δ{}18O). To reveal some specific features of formation of fluid systems related to thermal activity in the areas of collision related active volcanism and active geodynamics a complex geochemical (SiO{}2, K-Na, Na-Li, Li-Mg) and isotope geothermometers (δ{}18O(CaCO{}3) - δ{}18O(H{}2O)) were applied. The distribution of δ{}13?(??{}2) values in free gases of mineral waters of Armenia demonstrates that gases related to Quaternary volcanic fields are characterized by relatively light δ{}13?(CO{}2) values close to mantle derived gases, while on periphery of volcanic systems relatively heavy values of δ{}13?(CO{}2) indicate strong influence of metamorphic and sedimentary derived carbon dioxide. Distribution of nitrogen isotopes δ{}15N(N{}2) demonstrate an inverse correlation with δ{}13?(CO{}2

  5. Evaluation of cortisol levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in anxious and non-anxious patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Umesh Nayak

    2013-01-01

    State - Trait anxiety inventory and Hamilton Anxiety rating scale were used to assess the anxiety levels of all the subjects. Clinical measures such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded. GCF and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, and cortisol levels were determined using ELISA kit. Results: PI, GI, PPD, and CAL were higher in Group 3. Hormone level was significantly higher in Group 3. A positive correlation was found among salivary and GCF cortisol and CAL in Group 3. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results individuals with high-levels of anxiety seem to be more prone to have periodontal disease. Salivary and GCF cortisol levels can be used as biomarker for evaluating part of the etiopathogenesis of chronic periodontitis.

  6. Expression of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Wound Healing after Gingivectomy in Postorthodontic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Marie Rauten; Isabela Silosi; Stefan Ioan Stratul; Liliana Foia; Adrian Camen; Vasilica Toma; Daniel Cioloca; Valeriu Surlin; Petra Surlin; Maria Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wound healing is a tissue repair process after an injury, and two of its main components are inflammation and angiogenesis, in which course a cascade of mediators is involved. The aim of this research was to evaluate the involvement of Pentraxin 3 and Thrombospondin 1 in wound healing after periodontal surgery (gingivectomy) for gingival overgrowth during orthodontic treatment with or without magnification devices, by assessing their levels in GCF. Methods. From 19 patients with g...

  7. Design and Manufacturing of a Novel Shear Thickening Fluid Composite (STFC) with Enhanced out-of-Plane Properties and Damage Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F.; Meo, M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to absorb a large amount of energy during an impact event without generating critical damages represents a key feature of new generation composite systems. Indeed, the intrinsic layered nature of composite materials allows the embodiment of specific hybrid plies within the stacking sequence that can be exploited to increase impact resistance and damping of the entire structure without dramatic weight increase. This work is based on the development of an impact-resistant hybrid composite obtained by including a thin layer of Non-Newtonian silica based fluid in a carbon fibres reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate. This hybrid phase is able to respond to an external solicitation by activating an order-disorder transition that thickens the fluid increasing its viscosity, hence dissipating the energy impact without any critical failure. Several Shear Thickening Fluids (STFs) were manufactured by changing the dimensions of the particles that constitute the disperse phase and their concentrations into the continuous phase. The dynamic viscosity of the different STFs was evaluated via rheometric tests, observing both shear thinning and shear thickening effects depending on the concentration of silica particles. The solutions were then embedded as an active layer within the stacking sequence to manufacture the hybrid CFRP laminates with different embedded STFs. Free vibration tests were carried out in order to assess the damping properties of the different laminates, while low velocity impact tests were used to evaluate their impact properties. Results indicate that the presence of the non-Newtonian fluid is able to absorb up to 45 % of the energy during an impact event for impacts at 2.5 m/s depending on the different concentrations and particles dimensions. These results were confirmed via C-Scan analyses to assess the extent of the internal delamination.

  8. Orientation, composition, and entrapment conditions of fluid inclusions in the footwall of the northern Snake Range detachment, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Matthew J.; Siebenaller, Luc; Teyssier, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Footwall rocks of the northern Snake Range detachment fault (Hampton and Hendry's Creeks) offer exposures of quartzite mylonites (sub-horizontal foliation) that were permeated by surface fluids. An S-C-C‧ mylonitic fabric is defined by dynamically recrystallized quartz and mica. Electron backscatter diffraction analyses indicate a strong preferred orientation of quartz that is overprinted by two sets of sub-vertical, ESE and NNE striking fractures. Analyses of sets of three perpendicular thin sections indicate that fluid inclusions (FIs) are arranged according to macroscopic fracture patterns. FIs associated with NNE and ESE-striking fractures coevally trapped unmixed CO2 and H2O-rich fluids at conditions near the critical CO2-H2O solvus, giving minimum trapping conditions of T = 175-200 °C and ˜100 MPa H2O-rich FIs trapped along ESE-trending microcracks in single crystals of quartz may have been trapped at conditions as low as 150 °C and 50 MPa indicating the latest microfracturing and annealing of quartz in an overall extensional system. Results suggest that the upper crust was thin (4-8 km) during FI trapping and had an elevated geotherm (>50 °C/km). Footwall rocks that have been exhumed through the brittle-ductile transition in such extensional systems experience both brittle and crystal-plastic deformation that may allow for circulation of meteoric fluids and grain-scale fluid-rock interactions.

  9. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of Cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Ling, Hoe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE fractionation of three oil fractions (1st, 2nd, 3rd fraction on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of cantaloupe were investigated. Rock melon oil (RMO and Golden Langkawi oil (GLO were extracted using SFE and the major fatty acids for both cultivars were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. The SFA decreased from 15.78 to 14.14% in RMO 1st fraction, and MUFA decreased from 18.30 to 16.56% in RMO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 65.9 to 69.30% in RMO 3rd fraction. On the other hand SFA decreased from 16.35 to 13.91% in GLO 1st fraction, and MUFA decreased from 17.50 to 15.57% in GLO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 66.15 to 70.52% in GLO 3rd fraction. The different fractions of the two oils showed high antioxidant activity in reducing the oxidation of β-carotene in beta-carotene bleaching assay (BCB and the quenching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.El efecto del fraccionamiento mediante extracción con fluido supercrítico de tres fracciones (fracción 1ª, 2ª y 3ª sobre la composición de ácidos grasos y actividad antioxidante de aceites de dos variedades de melón fué investigado. Aceites de melón de los cultivares Rock (RMO y Golden Langkawi GLO fueron extraídos usando SFE y los principales ácidos grasos en cada cultivar fueron ácido linoleico, oleico, palmítico y esteárico. Los ácidos grasos saturados (SFA disminuyeron desde 15.78 a 14.14% en la 1ª fracción de RMO y los ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA disminuyeron desde 18.30 a 16.56% en la 2ª fracción de RMO, mientras que los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA aumentaron de 65.9 a 69.30% en la 3ª fracción de RMO. Por otra parte, SFA disminuyo de 16.35 a 13.91% en la primera fracción de GLO y MUFA disminuyo de 17.50 a 15.57% en la 2ª fracción de GLO, mientras que PUFA aumento de 66.15 a 70.52% en la 3ª fracción de GLO. Las diferentes

  10. Computational study of fluid flow and heat transfer in composite packed beds of spheres with low tube to particle diameter ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jian, E-mail: yangjian81@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiangquan [CSR Research of Electrical Technology and Material Engineering, Zhuzhou, Hunan 412001 (China); Zhou, Lang; Wang, Qiuwang [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer in composite packed beds with low d{sub t}/d{sub pe} are investigated. • The wall effect would be restrained with radially layered composite packing (RLM). • Heat flux and overall heat transfer efficiency can be improved with RLM packing. - Abstract: The effect of the tube wall on the fluid flow and heat transfer would be important in the packed bed with low tube to particle diameter ratio, which may lead to flow and temperature maldistributions inside, and the heat transfer performance may be lowered. In the present paper, the flow and heat transfer performances in both the composite and uniform packed beds of spheres with low tube to particle diameter were numerically investigated, where the composite packing means randomly packing with non-uniform spheres and the uniform packing means randomly packing with uniform spheres, including radially layered composite packing (RLM), axially layered composite packing (ALM), randomly composite packing (RCM) and randomly uniform packing (RPM). Both the composite and uniform packings were generated with discrete element method (DEM), and the influence of the wall effect on the flow and heat transfer in the packed beds were carefully studied and compared with each other. Firstly, it is found that, the wall effect on the velocity and temperature distributions in the randomly packed bed of uniform spheres (RPM) with low tube to particle diameter ratio were obvious. The average velocity of the near-tube-wall region is higher than that of the inner-tube region in the bed. When the tube wall is adiabatic, the average temperature of the near-tube-wall region is lower. With radially layered composite packing method (RLM), smaller pores would be formed close to the tube wall and big flow channels would be formed in the inner-tube region of the bed, which would be benefit to restrain the wall effect and improve heat transfer in the bed with low tube to particle diameter ratio. Furthermore, it

  11. The effect of CO2 and N2 on phase relations, fluid composition, and quartz solubility in amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artimenko, Margaret V.

    2016-12-01

    Phase equilibria in the system SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-MnO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-H2O-CO2-N2 are calculated to illustrate phase relations in amphibolite facies metasediments over a wide range of X[H2O-CO2-N2] conditions at 600 °C and 4.4 kb. Calculations are performed using the Gibbs free energy minimization technique. Results are presented in plots showing stable mineral assemblages as a function of total carbon in the system at varying water (a_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}} = 1) content in the presence/absence of N2 in the fluid. The calculations indicate that the typical assemblage plagioclase—quartz—biotite—ilmenite—garnet—apatite is restricted to the rocks with CO2 saturation and X_{{{{H}}_{ 2} {{O}}}} higher than 60% in the fluid. Significant decrease in X_{{{{CO}}2 }} favors the stability of muscovite rather than garnet, whereas the decrease in X_{{{{H}}_{ 2} {{O}}}} leads to the stability of microcline over all range of X_{{{{CO}}2 }}. This paper also presents the composition and parameters (pH, Eh) of the fluid equilibrated with mineral assemblage. It is shown that the presence of low concentrations of N2 causes the fluid to consist of two phases when an aqueous supercritical solution (AS) coexists with a supercritical fluid with gas-like properties (SF). At high concentration of N2, the fluid consists of SF alone; in the absence of nitrogen, the fluid consists of AS alone. The solubility of monomer SiO 2 0 and dimer Si2O 4 0 decreases with increasing CO2 and after CO2 saturation point is held constant. The magnitude of the silica solubility at CO2 saturation depends upon the water content in AS. The effect of nitrogen on quartz solubility has been demonstrated to be negligible.

  12. Improved pregnancy rate in human in vitro fertilization with the use of a medium based on the composition of human tubal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P; Kerin, J F; Warnes, G M

    1985-10-01

    Significantly more mouse zygotes developed to blastocysts in culture in a medium formulated on the composition of human tubal fluid (HTF) than in modified Tyrode's medium (T6). In a randomized 2 X 2 factorial trial of human in vitro fertilization that compared the two media and culture under oil versus culture in loosely capped tubes, significantly more clinical pregnancies (30% of 60 transfers) were obtained with HTF medium than with T6 medium (11% of 53 transfers). Decreasing the K+ content of HTF medium to that present in T6 medium significantly decreased the number of mouse zygotes that developed in culture. Modifying Ca++ levels had no effect. It is therefore likely that the higher K+ content in HTF medium is primarily responsible for the superiority of HTF medium over T6 medium, but other differences in the composition of the two media could contribute to the results observed.

  13. Effects of Stirring and Fluid Perfusion on the In Vitro Degradation of Calcium Phosphate Cement/PLGA Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, J.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro degradation rates of calcium phosphate bioceramics are investigated using a large variation of soaking protocols that do not all match the dynamic conditions of the perfused physiological environment. Therefore, we studied the effect of stirring and fluid perfusion on the in vitro degradati

  14. Chemical Compositions of Fluid Inclusions in the Jalal –Abad iron oxide deposit, North West of Zarand, Using LA-ICP-MS Microanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Karimi Shahraki

    2017-07-01

    /K between 1 to 100 (Yardley, 2005. The amounts of Fe and Cu in magmatic fluids are commonly above 10000 and 1000 ppm, respectively. However, it depends on chlorinity (Fisher and Kendrick, 2008; Gillen, 2010; Appold and Wenz, 2011. Mn concentrations are 424 to 3645 ppm, with an average concentration of 7581 ppm. Mn/Fe ratio is varied from 0.21 to 1.87 with an average of 0.60.The wide range of homogenization temperature (170 -450 °C and salinity (31- 52 wt % NaCl equiv of the fluid inclusions and ratios of K/Ca in fluid inclusions indicate different fluid sources with magmatic and basinal type fluids (Yardley, 2005. Mn/Fe ratios in fluid inclusions are in wide ranges (0.21 -1.87 which indicate the presence of both reduced type and oxidized type fluids (Fisher and Kendrick, 2008. Results In addition to iron oxide, economical Cu mineralization occurs in the Jalal Abad deposit with Au, Bi and As mineralzation with insignificant apatite. The K, Fe, Ca, Na and Cu concentrations in fluid inclusions are most probably related to the mixing of magmatic and basinal fluids. The mineralogical, microthermometry and chemistry of fluid inclusions data show that magmatic-hydrothermal metal bearing fluids, nonmagmatic hydrothermal fluids and mixing of them are responsible for iron-Cu-Au mineralization (IOCG in the Jalal- Abad deposit. References Appold, M.S. and Wenz, Z.J., 2011. Composition of Ore Fluid Inclusions from the Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri District, United States: Implications for Transport and Precipitation Mechanisms. Economic Geology, 106(1: 55-78. Fisher, L.A. and Kendrick, M.A., 2008. Metamorphic fluid origins in the Osborne Fe oxide–Cu–Au deposit, Australia: Evidence from noble gases and halogens. Mineralium Deposita, 43(5: 483–497. Gillen, D., 2010. A study of IOCG-related hydrothermal fluid in the Wernecke Mountains, Yukon Territory, Canada. Ph.D. thesis, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, 562 pp. S Stosch, H.G., Romer, R.L. and Daliran, F., 2011

  15. Secretory proteins characteristic of environmental changes in cellular signal transduction: Expression in oral fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, M. I.; Burke, J. C.; Sivakumar, T. P.; Hand, A. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Past studies have shown that both hypo- and hyper-gravity have significant consequences on a variety of tissues and organ systems. It is not known if the effects of environmental stimuli such as altered gravity are beneficial or detrimental, and if the effects can be prevented or reversed. Animal experiments from the Space Lab and Cosmos missions indicate that events that are mediated by cyclic AMP, such as cellular responses to catecholamine and peptide hormone action, are significantly altered in a number of tissues as a consequence of space flight. A secretory cyclic AMP-receptor protein (cARP), is present in saliva, and can serve as an indicator of individual responses to physiologic and environmental stress. Animal experiments have shown that the hypergravity component of space flight is a significant stress factor. In humans, cARP levels in each individual are constant under normal conditions, but elevated after acute stress. Additionally, the levels of cARP in secreted saliva can be compared to those in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), which reflects the protein composition of serum. The ratio of cARP in saliva to that in GCF can be used as a measure of basal compared to hyper-or hypo-gravity values. An ultimate goal is to test hyper and zero G responses in human saliva to determine if cARP is a suitable index of acute and chronic stress. A miniaturized test kit for saliva collection has been designed. Samples can be collected and stored till analyses are carried out that will distinguish the effects of increased gravity from those of one and zero G. Such tests can serve as an individualized monitoring system for physiologic responses either in space or on earth. .

  16. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  17. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  18. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  19. The cationic composition and pH in the moulting fluid of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) during calcium carbonate deposit formation and resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Before moulting, terrestrial isopods resorb calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) from the posterior cuticle and store it in sternal deposits. These consist mainly of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) spherules that develop within the ecdysial space between the anterior sternal epithelium and the old cuticle. Ions that occur in the moulting fluid, including those required for mineral deposition, are transported from the hemolymph into the ecdysial space by the anterior sternal epithelial cells. The cationic composition of the moulting fluid probably affects mineral deposition and may provide information on the ion-transport activity of the sternal epithelial cells. This study presents the concentrations of inorganic cations within the moulting fluid of the anterior sternites during the late premoult and intramoult stages. The most abundant cation is Na(+) followed by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+). The concentrations of these ions do not change significantly between the stages whereas the mean pH changed from 8.2 to 6.9 units between mineral deposition in late premoult, and resorption in intramoult, respectively. Measurements of the transepithelial potential show that there is little driving force for passive movements of calcium across the anterior sternal epithelium. The results suggest a possible role of magnesium ions in ACC formation, and a contribution of pH changes to CaCO(3) precipitation and dissolution.

  20. Preparation of TiO2-MoO3 nano-composite photo-catalyst by supercritical fluid dry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-chang; LI Qing; CAO Wei-liang

    2005-01-01

    A series of TiO2-MoO3 nano-composite photocatalysts were prepared by supercritical fluid dry method (SCFD) and an XRD, TEM and UV-Vis. Methyl orange was used as model compound for the evaluation of their catalytic activities. The results indicated that the photo-catalyst prepared by SCFD had the advantages of small size( 12.84 nm), narrow distribution and good dispersivity. The presence of small amount of Mo in composite catalyst gives rise to the red shift of its absorbance wavelength, decrease of its energy gap and increase of the utility of visible light. Furthermore, higher surface acidity of the photo-catalyst was obtained as the result of the addition of MoO3. Compared with pure TiO2, the catalytic activity of the TiO2-MoO3 nano-composite photo-catalyst was improved significantly. As the doping concentration of the composite catalysts was controlled at 0.6% (molar percentage), 100% degradation of methyl orange was achieved with in 1.2 h irradiation time.

  1. Fretting wear behaviour of hydroxyapatite-titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with 5 g l-1 bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-10-01

    Damaged articulating joints can be repaired or replaced with synthetic biomaterials, which can release wear debris due to articulation, leading to the osteolysis. In a recent work, it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a better combination of flexural strength/fracture toughness as well as in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties in spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) composites. Although hydroxyapatite and titanium are well documented for their good biocompatibility, nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) particles can cause severe toxicity to cells. In order to address this issue, fretting wear study of HA-Ti composites under dry and wet (1× SBF, supplemented with 5 g l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA)) condition was performed to assess the wear resistance as well as wear debris formation, in vitro. The experimental results reveal one order of magnitude lower wear rate for HA-10 wt% Ti (7.5 × 10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1) composite than monolithic HA (3.9 × 10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1) in simulated body fluid. The difference in the tribological properties has been analyzed in the light of phase assemblages and mechanical properties. Overall, the results suggest the potential use of HA-Ti composites over existing HA-based biocomposites in orthopedic as well as dental applications.

  2. Fluid and diet patterns associated with weight cycling and changes in body composition assessed by continuous monitoring throughout a college wrestling season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingor, Ryan J; Olson, Amy

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the methods used to meet certification weight for wrestling and to measure the changes in body composition during 1 season for Division III college wrestlers. Nine college wrestlers completed this study. Body composition was analyzed by underwater weighing (UWW) and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance before and throughout the competitive season. Hydration status was measured by urine osmolality (Uosm) and urine specific gravity (Usg). Nutritional intake was measured for 2 1-week periods, once at the beginning and again near the end of the season. Subjects' fat-free mass (FFM) increased an average of 1.8 kg, whereas fat mass (FM) decreased 2.2 kg as indicated by UWW from the beginning to the end of the season. Wrestlers on average cycled their weight 3.4 kg (4.7% of body weight) per week. The majority of wrestlers cut weight by reducing calories and restricting fluids starting 2 days before the competition. Uosm and body weights on Friday suggested that for wrestlers to achieve the necessary weight loss by dehydration to "make weight" for a Saturday meet, wrestlers would approach a 5% level of dehydration. No loss of FFM because of weight cycling (WC) was evident to achieve competitive weight. Most wrestlers significantly restricted fluids and caloric intake in the 48 hours before weigh-in.

  3. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Aircraft Fluid Exposure on T800H/3900-2 Composites Bonded with AF-555M Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Lowther, Sharon E.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Connell, John W.; Blasini, Sheila Roman

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites and structural adhesives have found increased usage on commercial and military aircraft in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance has not been well established. In this study, single lap shear specimens (SLS) were fabricated by secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminates. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of the SLS specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually using an optical microscope for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C (180 F) and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The effect of this exposure on lap shear strength and failure modes to date is reported. In addition, the effects of water, saline water, deicing fluid, JP-5 jet fuel and hydraulic fluid on both the composite material and the adhesive bonds were investigated. The up to date results on the effects of these exposures will be discussed.

  4. Aqueous geochemistry in icy world interiors: Equilibrium fluid, rock, and gas compositions, and fate of antifreezes and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2017-09-01

    The geophysical evolution of many icy moons and dwarf planets seems to have provided opportunities for interaction between liquid water and rock (silicate and organic solids). Here, we explore two ways by which water-rock interaction can feed back on geophysical evolution: the production or consumption of antifreeze compounds, which affect the persistence and abundance of cold liquid; and the potential leaching into the fluid of lithophile radionuclides, affecting the distribution of a long-term heat source. We compile, validate, and use a numerical model, implemented with the PHREEQC code, of the interaction of chondritic rock with pure water and with C, N, S-bearing cometary fluid, thought to be the materials initially accreted by icy worlds, and describe the resulting equilibrium fluid and rock assemblages at temperatures, pressures, and water-to-rock ratios of 0-200 ° C, 1-1000 bar, and 0.1-10 by mass, respectively. Our findings suggest that water-rock interaction can strongly alter the nature and amount of antifreezes, resulting in solutions rich in reduced nitrogen and carbon, and sometimes dissolved H2, with additional sodium, calcium, chlorine, and/or oxidized carbon. Such fluids can remain partially liquid down to 176 K if NH3 is present. The prominence of Cl in solution seems to hinge on its primordial supply in ices, which is unconstrained by the meteoritical record. Equilibrium assemblages, rich in serpentine and saponite clays, retain thorium and uranium radionuclides unless U-Cl or U-HCO3 complexing, which was not modeled, significantly enhances U solubility. However, the radionuclide 40 K can be leached at high water:rock ratio and/or low temperature at which K is exchanged with ammonium in minerals. We recommend the inclusion of these effects in future models of the geophysical evolution of ocean-bearing icy worlds. Our simulation products match observations of chloride salts on Europa and Enceladus; CI chondrites mineralogies; the observation of

  5. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2013-03-01

    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  6. Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Ibrahim; Zhou, Zhou; Dunn, Claire; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin

    2015-01-25

    A drug's solubility and dissolution behaviour within the gastrointestinal tract is a key property for successful administration by the oral route and one of the key factors in the biopharmaceutics classification system. This property can be determined by investigating drug solubility in human intestinal fluid (HIF) but this is difficult to obtain and highly variable, which has led to the development of multiple simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) recipes. Using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) technique this paper has investigated the effects and interactions on equilibrium drug solubility of seven typical SIF components (sodium taurocholate, lecithin, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, pH, pancreatin and sodium oleate) within concentration ranges relevant to human intestinal fluid values. A range of poorly soluble drugs with acidic (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, and piroxicam), basic (aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil) or neutral (fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine and probucol) properties have been investigated. The equilibrium solubility results determined are comparable with literature studies of the drugs in either HIF or SIF indicating that the DoE is operating in the correct space. With the exception of pancreatin, all of the factors individually had a statistically significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds and drug specific interactions were evident. Interestingly for the neutral compounds pH was the factor with the second largest solubility effect. Around one third of all the possible factor combinations showed a significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in interaction significance and magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds. The least number of significant media component interactions were noted for the acidic compounds with three and the greatest for the neutral compounds at seven

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis for a Fluid-Loaded, Simply Supported Plate Covered by a Damping and Decoupling Composite Acoustic Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baihua Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a vibroacoustic response model for a fluid-loaded, simply supported rectangular plate covered by a composite acoustic coating consisting of damping and decoupling layers. The model treated the damping layer and base plate as a unified whole under pure bending moments and the decoupling layer as a three-dimensional, isotropic, linear elastic solid. The validity of the model was verified by both numerical analysis and experiments and was shown to accurately extend previous studies that were limited to a plate covered by a single damping or decoupling layer with an evaluation confined solely to numerical analysis. The trends of the numerical and experimental results are generally consistent, with some differences due to the influences of water pressure and the frequency dependence of the material parameters, which are not taken into account by the numerical analysis. Both experimental and numerical results consistently show that the radiated noise reduction effect of the composite coating is superior to that of single-type coatings, which is attributed to the fact that the composite coating combines the merits of both the high vibration suppression performance of the damping layer and the superior vibration isolation performance of the decoupling layer.

  8. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (Pextraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  9. Biomineralization of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibrous scaffold by using a supersaturated simulated body fluid with continuous CO{sub 2} bubbling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qing; Xu Qingqing; Feng Qiaofang; Cao Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang Xiaoping, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Deng Xuliang [School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-09-15

    To promote the biomineralization, supersaturated simulated body fluids (SBFs), e.g. five times SBF (5 x SBF), were usually applied. In these SBFs, however, homogeneous nucleation of Ca-P mineralites and deposition unavoidably took place owing to the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} decomposition and the pH value increment, which made the prediction of bone bioactivity of substrates controversial. In this study, the classically prepared 5 x SBF was continuously bubbled with CO{sub 2} to keep the pH value stable at 6.4 and the solution transparent, and a kind of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibers was used for the biomineralization study. In such a modified 5 x SBF, heterogenenous nucleation occurred dominantly and thermodynamical unstable brushites (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were detected shortly on both electrospun PLLA fibers and PLLA/gelatin (1:1 in weight) composite fibers. In comparison with electrospun PLLA fibers, the sheet-like DCPD mineralites transformed into flaky carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) within 24 h on the PLLA/gelatin composite fibers due to the accelerating effect of gelatin component. The formed apatite coating contained much less Mg{sup 2+} ions than that deposited in the classical 5 x SBF. The results of this study showed that supersaturated SBFs buffered with gassy CO{sub 2} were expected good choices for the accelerated biomineralization, and for the prediction of the bone bonding bioactivity of substrates.

  10. Changing composition of microbial communities indicates seepage fluid difference of the Thuwal Seeps in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Bo

    2015-06-10

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Cold seeps are unique ecosystems that are generally characterized by high salinity and reducing solutions. Seepage fluid, the major water influx of this system, contains hypersaline water, sediment pore water, and other components. The Thuwal cold seeps were recently discovered on the continental margin of the Red Sea. Using 16S rRNA gene pyro-sequencing technology, microbial communities were investigated by comparing samples collected in 2011 and 2013. The results revealed differences in the microbial communities between the two sampling times. In particular, a significantly higher abundance of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota was coupled with lower salinity in 2013. In the brine pool, the dominance of Desulfobacterales in 2011 was supplanted byMGI Thaumarchaeota in 2013, perhaps due to a reduced supply of hydrogen sulfide from the seepage fluid. Collectively, this study revealed a difference in water components in this ecosystem between two sampling times. The results indicated that the seawater in this cold seep displayed a greater number of characteristics of normal seawater in 2013 than in 2011, which might represent the dominant driving force for changes in microbial community structures. This is the first study to provide a temporal comparison of the microbial biodiversity of a cold seep ecosystem in the Red Sea.

  11. Is there any relation between helium isotope composition of underground fluids and heat flow in continental areas?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋

    2001-01-01

    The regression formula between 3He/4He ratio of underground fluids and terrestrial heat flow in continental areas is tested by data sets from the former Soviet Union and the mainland of China. The results show that there is no close relation between the two values. The heat-He relation might estimate the regional heat flow value with ±25% accuracy at best. We propose that the ratio of crust/mantle component of continental heat flow (qc/qm) be inversely related to the 3He/4He ratio of underground fluids. Based on data sets of 3He/4He ratio and qc/qm in the Eurasia and Canadian Shield, we obtain the regression relation between qc/qm and 3He/4He: qc/qm = 0.815-0.300*loge(3He/4He), in which the unit of 3He/4He is Ra (atmospheric 3He/4He ratio). The crust and mantle heat flow components can be taken from surface heat flow and qc/qm ratio. Based on this formula and heat flow data in major basins of China, the crustal, mantle heat flow values and the average crustal heat production rates were estimated. The es

  12. Changing composition of microbial communities indicates seepage fluid difference of the Thuwal Seeps in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Weipeng; Tian, Renmao; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Cold seeps are unique ecosystems that are generally characterized by high salinity and reducing solutions. Seepage fluid, the major water influx of this system, contains hypersaline water, sediment pore water, and other components. The Thuwal cold seeps were recently discovered on the continental margin of the Red Sea. Using 16S rRNA gene pyro-sequencing technology, microbial communities were investigated by comparing samples collected in 2011 and 2013. The results revealed differences in the microbial communities between the two sampling times. In particular, a significantly higher abundance of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota was coupled with lower salinity in 2013. In the brine pool, the dominance of Desulfobacterales in 2011 was supplanted by MGI Thaumarchaeota in 2013, perhaps due to a reduced supply of hydrogen sulfide from the seepage fluid. Collectively, this study revealed a difference in water components in this ecosystem between two sampling times. The results indicated that the seawater in this cold seep displayed a greater number of characteristics of normal seawater in 2013 than in 2011, which might represent the dominant driving force for changes in microbial community structures. This is the first study to provide a temporal comparison of the microbial biodiversity of a cold seep ecosystem in the Red Sea.

  13. Shallow vs. Deep Fluid Sources In Hydrothermal Systems: New Insights From VOC Composition In Fumarolic Discharges And Soil Gases Of Yellowstone National Park (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Montegrossi, G.; Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Vaselli, O.

    2008-12-01

    The origin of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in hydrothermal fluids is related to two distinct mechanisms regulated by different thermodynamic conditions (e.g. Des Marais et al., 1981; Mango, 2000; Capaccioni and Mangani, 2001): i) thermogenic reactions, such as catalytic reforming and/or thermal cracking, which proceed within the main reservoir at medium-to-high temperature (150-350°C) and reduced conditions; ii) biodegradation processes, occurring at relatively shallow depth, where uprising fluids have oxidizing conditions. According to these considerations, the main aim of the present investigation is to discriminate the different fluid sources feeding the hydrothermal system on the basis of the C2-C15 organic compounds in fumarolic discharges and soil gases collected at the Yellowstone National Park (USA). A total of 64 and 66 different species were identified in the gas discharges and in the soil gas samples, respectively. The composition of the organic gas fraction in the fumarolic fluids is relatively homogeneous, being dominated by C2-C6 alkanes (81 %) and showing relatively high concentrations of alkenes (13 %), aromatics (3.7 %) and cyclics (1.4 %). Differently, the relative percentages of alkanes and alkenes in the soil gas, where VOC abundances are about two orders of magnitude less abundant than those in the gas discharges, are significantly lower (64 and 6.8 %, respectively) and cyclics are absent. On the other hand, oxygenated species (17.8 %), aromatics (5.6 %) and Cl-bearing compounds (4.5 %) results to be enriched with respect to those measured in the gas vents. Such compositional differences are likely to be due to the bacterial activity in the soil that causes the production of ketones, esters, alcohols, aldehydes and organic acids from the C-H species (hydrocarbons sensu strictu). Organic acids, mainly constituted by ossalic acid and traces of tartaric, malonic citric and succinic ones, were also determined in the fumarolic

  14. [Analyze on chemical compositions of Dalbergia odorifera essential oils extracted by CO2-supercritical-fluid-extraction and steam distillation extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Feng; Liao, Mei-Jin; Luo, Shu-Yuan

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Dalbergia odorifera essential oils extacted by CO2-supercritical-fluid-extraction (SFE-CO2) and steam distillation extraction (SD). The essential oils of Dalbergia odorifera were extracted by steam distillation extraction and SFE-CO2. The chemical components were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 12 compounds were identified in SFE sample. The major components from essential oils were 2-propenoic acid-3(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethyl ester (14.53%), nerolidol (14.95%), ageratochromene (1.33%). 9 compounds were identified in SD sample. The major components from essential oils were nerolidol (26.61%), cedrol (1.65%). The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and suitable for essential oils extraction of Dalbergia odorifera.

  15. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  16. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils and fatty acids from flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Jowkarderis, Mina; Raofie, Farhad

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils and fatty acids of Descurainia sophia L. seed were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation methods. The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, dynamic and static extraction timeon the extraction yield were optimized using a central composite design after a 2 (n-1) fractional factorial design. The results showed that under the pressure of 355 bar, temperature of 65 °C, methanol volume of 150 μL, dynamic and static extraction times of 35 and 10 min, respectively, the major components were methyl linoleate (18.2 %), camphor (12.32 %), cis-thujone (11.3 %) and trans-caryophyllene (9.17 %). The results indicated that by using the proper conditions, the supercritical fluid extraction is more selective than the steam distillation method. Extraction yields based on supercritical fluid extraction varied in the range of 0.68 to 17.1 % (w/w), and the extraction yield based on the steam distillation was 0.25 % (v/w).

  17. Origin of the deep fluids in the paleosubduction zones in western Tianshan: Evidence from Pb- and Sr-isotope compositions of high-pressure veins and host rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Dezhi; GAO; Jun; DAI; Tageng; ZOU; Haiyang; XIONG; X

    2005-01-01

    Fluids in the deep subduction zones play an important role in crust-mantle exchange related to the subduction process. Identification of fluids origin, internal or external, can help us to evaluate the contribution of crust materials to mantle during this process. High-pressure veins, which developed in the western Tianshan HP-metamorphic belt extensively, are the direct products of the fluids in subduction zones. In western Tianshan, high-pressure veins and host rocks have overall Pb- and Sr-isotope compositions. At t = 340 Ma, the high-pressure metamorphic time, the ratios of 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr of high pressure veins are 17.122―18.431, 15.477―15.611, 37.432―38.689 and 0.70529―0.70705, and are 17.605―17.834, 15.508―15.564, 37.080―38.145 and 0.70522―0.70685 for host rocks. However, high-pressure veins show a much larger variation in Pb-isotope compositions than host rocks. Plots of samples are distributed roughly along a line parallel to and far away from the Northern Hemisphere reference line (NHRL) on the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 207Pb/204Pb. On the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 208Pb/204Pb, plots of data are distributed nearby mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORB) area or along a line parallel to and not far away from NHRL, which shows that the data plots are farther away from MORB and ocean island basalts (OIB) areas on the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 207Pb/204Pb than on the plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs 208Pb/204Pb. The compositions of Pb- and Sr-isotopes of these high-pressure metamorphic rocks are between that of enriched mantle 1(EMI) and of sediments or upper crust. A notable characteristic can be seen from plots of Pb-isotope ratio vs Pb-isotope ratio and 206Pb/204Pb vs 87Sr/86Sr that array of plots shows an evident tendency of mixture of two end members. Ratios of Rb/Ba, Ce/Pb, Nb/U and Ta/U of high-pressure veins and host rocks are between that of OIB or MORB and that of continental crust, which indicates that continental crust

  18. Fullerene-C60-MWCNT composite film based ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing platform for the trace analysis of pyruvic acid in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman, Pradeep Kumar; Pandey, Nidhi; Topkaya, Seda Nur; Singhai, Rashmi

    2015-03-01

    We propose development of a novel electrochemical sensor based on fullerene-multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film for the sensitive determination of the pyruvic acid in biological fluids. The developed sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The nanocomposite film of C60-MWCNTs on GCE exhibits electrocatalytic activity towards pyruvic acid reduction and also decreases the reduction overpotential. The influence of the optimization parameters such as pH and effect of loading of composite mixture of C60 and MWCNTs on the electrochemical performance of the sensor were evaluated. Various kinetic parameters such as electron transfer number (n=2), proton transfer number (m=2) and charge transfer coefficient (α=0.56) were also calculated. Under optimized conditions, the squarewave reduction peak current was linear over the concentration range of 2.0-55 nM with the detection and quantification limit of 0.1 nM and 0.8 nM respectively. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to the detection of pyruvic acid in biological samples with good recovery ranging from 97.6% to 103.6%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Chen, L J

    2009-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  20. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, L J, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shengyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  1. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  2. The protein composition of the digestive fluid from the venus flytrap sheds light on prey digestion mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-11-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition.

  3. The Protein Composition of the Digestive Fluid from the Venus Flytrap Sheds Light on Prey Digestion Mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Waltraud X.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D.; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R.; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

  4. Experimental determination of barite dissolution and precipitation rates as a function of temperature and aqueous fluid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Wu, B. Y.; Dideriksen, K.; Olsson, J.; Raahauge, P. J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2016-12-01

    Barite dissolution and precipitation rates were investigated in closed system reactors, in which total aqueous NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 1.5 molal, pH from 2 to 9, and temperature from 25 to 90 °C. Measured barite dissolution and precipitation rates exhibited a reaction order of 0.2 and 1, respectively, with respect to the barite saturation state. Although these different reaction orders suggest distinctly different mechanisms for dissolution and precipitation, the rates for both processes approach equilibrium with a similar slope on a rate versus saturation state plot, consistent with the concept of micro-reversibility. Barite dissolution rate constants increase as a linear function of the square root of ionic strength but vary only slightly with pH. The dissolution rate dependence on temperature is consistent with an activation energy of 25 ± 2 kJ mol-1. Barite dissolution and precipitation rates are not significantly affected by the presence of aqueous calcium, magnesium or strontium. The rates measured in the study were generated in fluids similar to those found in sedimentary basins, ocean floor sediments and oil field reservoirs so the data may provide close estimates for the reactivity of barite during a variety of natural and industrial processes.

  5. Microbial communities in bulk fluids and biofilms of an oil facility have similar composition but different structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S; Drilling, Heather S; Lawson, Paul A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Parisi, Victoria A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2011-04-01

    The oil-water-gas environments of oil production facilities harbour abundant and diverse microbial communities that can participate in deleterious processes such as biocorrosion. Several molecular methods, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA libraries, were used to characterize the microbial communities from an oil production facility on the Alaskan North Slope. The communities in produced water and a sample from a 'pig envelope' were compared in order to identify specific populations or communities associated with biocorrosion. The 'pigs' are used for physical mitigation of pipeline corrosion and fouling and the samples are enriched in surface-associated solids (i.e. paraffins, minerals and biofilm) and coincidentally, microorganisms (over 10(5) -fold). Throughout the oil production facility, bacteria were more abundant (10- to 150-fold) than archaea, with thermophilic members of the phyla Firmicutes (Thermoanaerobacter and Thermacetogenium) and Synergistes (Thermovirga) dominating the community. However, the structure (relative abundances of taxa) of the microbial community in the pig envelope was distinct due to the increased relative abundances of the genera Thermacetogenium and Thermovirga. The data presented here suggest that bulk fluid is representative of the biofilm communities associated with biocorrosion but that certain populations are more abundant in biofilms, which should be the focus of monitoring and mitigation strategies.

  6. In vitro study of hydroxyapatite-based photocurable polymer composites prepared by laser stereolithography and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John J A; Evseev, Alexandr V; Markov, Mikhail A; Upton, Clare E; Scotchford, Colin A; Popov, Vladimir K; Howdle, Steven M

    2008-11-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) structures using computer-controlled ultraviolet (UV) photopolymerization of acrylates (laser stereolithography) often results in the trapping of residual unreacted monomer and initiator. These residuals can leach from the finished structure and affect the biological response of cells and tissues. Thus the potential applications of these structures for tissue engineering have not been fully realized. In this paper we demonstrate that conventional post-lithography treatments followed by processing in the environmentally benign solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)), dramatically increased biocompatibility. The scCO(2) processing of pure polyacrylate and polyacrylate/hydroxyapatite composite structures extracts residuals from all structures including those that had received full conventional post-lithography treatment (acetone washing/UV drying). Human osteoblast cells seeded on the extracted surfaces of these structures demonstrated increased cell attachment and proliferation on the scCO(2)-treated materials.

  7. Avaliação da expressão do receptor tipo 2 ativado por protease (PAR2) e da atividade proteolítica presente no fluido crevicular de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    OpenAIRE

    José Américo Gonçalves Fagundes

    2010-01-01

    O receptor tipo 2 ativado por protease (PAR2) é um receptor pro-inflamatório que pode ser ativado por tripsina, triptase, protease 3 produzida pelo neutrófilo e pela gingipaína (produzida por Porphyromonas gingivalis). Objetivo: o objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a expressão do PAR2 na periodontite crônica em humanos, e avaliar se esta expressão está relacionada com a presença de atividade proteolítica no fluido crevicular. Metodologia: foram coletadas amostras de fluido crevicular ...

  8. Exploring the impact of temperature and fluid chemistry on Ca and Sr isotope composition of Arctica islandica shells via experimental alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Manuela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Liebetrau, Volker; Böhm, Florian; Fietzke, Jan; Nehrke, Gernot; Buhl, Dieter; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    concentrations were observed in the experimental solutions. Changes of Sr isotopic composition are observed in the solutions. At 175r{ } δ 88/86Sr increased by up to 0.04‰ and 87Sr/86Sr increased by 7.5x10-4. At 100r{ }C δ 88/86Sr increased by up to 0.31‰ and 87Sr/86Sr increased by1.6 x10-4. On the other hand shell analyses show no significant changes in isotopic composition (δ 88/86SrSRM987 0.25 to 0.3‰ 87Sr /86Sr= 0.70915 before and after experiments). This indicates that Sr is primarily released by dissolution of shell material without isotopic fractionation. Ca isotopes show no significant changes in the solutions for 100r{ }C experiments (δ 44/40CaSRM915a=1.7 to 1.9± 0.1perthou). However, for experiments at 175r{ }C Ca isotopic composition of the fluids decreases by around 1‰. In the shell fragments no significant changes of the Ca isotopic composition were detected. Similar to Sr isotopes results this indicates dissolution of Ca without fractionation. Under these experimental conditions Sr and Ca isotopes are relatively stable proxies, while changes in elemental composition and strong changes in mineralogy were observed. Allison, N., et al. (2007). "Palaeoenvironmental records from fossil corals: The effects of submarine diagenesis on temperature and climate estimates." GCA 71: 4693-4703. Schöne, B. R., et al. (2005). "Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah (Arctica islandica, Mollusca; Iceland)." Palaeo3 228: 130-148

  9. Actividad de metaloproteinasa de matriz extracelular-9 en fluido crevicular gingival durante la respuesta reparativa en periodontitis apical asintomática

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón Miano,Fabián A; Garrido, Mauricio; Dezerega,Andrea; Hernández Ríos,Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Los procesos destructivos del periodonto apical están en su mayoría mediados por proteasas específicas. Existe evidencia de que los niveles de metaloproteinasa de matriz extracelular-9 (MMP-9) en el fluido crevicular gingival (FCG) podrían reflejar la presencia de periodontitis apical asintomática (PAA). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad de MMP-9 durante la respuesta reparativa periapical en controles postendodóncicos entre una semana y 6 meses y en controles sanos...

  10. Detección de herpesvirus y bacterias periodontopatógenas en muestras de fluido crevicular gingival y saliva en periodontitis crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Sánchez, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    En los últimos 15 años, se ha sugerido que ciertos herpesvirus, en particular, el citomegalovirus (CMV) y el virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB), podrían tener cierto papel en el inicio y progresión de las enfermedades periodontales. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de los trabajos, no se han podido obtener resultados concluyentes. Por otro lado, aunque el método de referencia actual para el estudio microbiológico de los patógenos periodontales es la toma de muestras en fluido crevicular gingival (FCG), se...

  11. Efecto antiinflamatorio de apitoxina de Apis mellifera sobre prostaglandina E2 del fluido crevicular gingival de pacientes con y sin enfermedad periodontal, sometidos a apiterapia: ensayo preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    W Faúndez Poblete; Narváez Carrasco,CG; Burgos Arias,A

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La apitoxina que es producida por la Apis mellifera posee efecto antiinflamatorio sobre una serie de marcadores biológicos. La prostaglandina E2 forma parte de ellos, estando presente en el fluido gingival crevicular (FGC). La prostaglandina E2 es evidenciada en la enfermedad periodontal. Objetivo: En este estudio se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de la apitoxina sobre la concentración de prostaglandina E2 del FGC de un paciente sin enfermedad periodontal (SEP) y otro con enf...

  12. Asociación entre niveles de TNF-α en fluido crevicular gingival de dientes con periodontitis apical asintomática

    OpenAIRE

    M Garrido Flores; Ordenes Vitali,T; Segú Cabrera,C; M Baeza Paredes; J García-Sesnich; Hernández Ríos,M

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Como consecuencia de necrosis pulpar séptica, el ingreso de productos bacterianos en el periápice induce la producción de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias como el Factor de Necrosis Tumoral (TNF)- a, que entre otras funciones participa en la diferenciación y activación de los osteoclastos para inducir reabsorción ósea, fenómeno característico de la periodontitis apical asintomática (PAA). El fluido crevicular gingival (FCG) ofrece un gran potencial como fuente de factores asociados ...

  13. He, Ne and Ar isotope compositions of fluid inclusions in hy-drothermal sulfides from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG; Zhigang; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Rona, P. A. , Klinkhammer, G. , Nelsen, T. A. et al. , Black smokers, massive sulphides and vent biota at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature, 1986, 321: 33.[2]Edmonds, H. N. , German, C. R. , Green, D. R. H. et al. , Continuation of the hydrothermal fluid chemistry time series at TAG, and the effects of ODP drilling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1996, 23: 3487.[3]Charlou, J. L. , Donval, J. P. , Jean-Baptiste, P. et al. , Gases and helium isotopes in high temperature solutions sampled before and after ODP Leg158 drilling at TAG hydrothermal field (26°N, MAR), Geophys. Res. Lett., 1996, 23: 3491. [4]Rudnicki, M. D. , Elderfield, H. , Helium, radon and manganese at the TAG and Snakepit hydrothermal vent fields, 26°and 23°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1992, 113: 307. [5]Butterfield, D. A. , Massoth, G. J. , McDuff, R. E. et al. , Geochemistry of fluids from Axial Seamount hydrothermal emissions study vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Subseafloor boiling and subsequent fluid-rock interaction, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95: 12895. [6]Baker, E. T. , Lupton, J. E. , Changes in submarine hydrothermal 3He/heat ratios as an indicator of magmatic/tectonic activity, Nature, 1990, 346: 556. [7]Jean-Baptiste, P. , Fouquet, Y. , Abundance and isotopic composition of helium in hydrothermal sulfides from the East Pacific Rise at 13°N, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1996, 60: 87. [8]Stuart, F. M. , Turner, G. , Duckworth, R. C. et al. , Helium isotopes as tracers of trapped hydrothermal fluids in ocean-floor sulfides, Geology, 1994, 22: 823. [9]Stuart, F. M. , Duckworth, R. , Turner, G. et al. , Helium and sulfur isotopes in sulfide minerals from Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 1994, 139: 387. [10]Turner, G. , Stuart, F. , Helium/heat ratios and deposition temperatures of sulphides from the ocean floor, Nature, 1992, 357: 581.[11

  14. Evaluation of argon ages and integrity of fluid-inclusion compositions: Stepwise noble gas heating experiments on 1.87 Ga alunite from Tapajós Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Snee, L.W.; Juliani, Caetano

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analyses are reported for active (N2, CH4, CO, CO2, H2, O2, HF, HCl, H2S, SO2) and noble (He, Ar, Ne) gases released by crushing and step heating of magmatic-hydrothermal alunite from the Tapajós gold province in Brazil. This is the oldest known alunite (40Ar/39Ar age of 1.87 Ga), and because it has undergone minimal postdepositional thermal or tectonic strain, it is excellent material to test the retention of gas species in fluid inclusions and within the crystal structure over geological time. The gas compositions of a single sample, in combination with Ar age-spectrum data derived from stepwise heating of 10 related samples, have been used to constrain the limits of modification of primary gas compositions in fluid inclusions and the possible extent of the loss of radiogenic Ar. The observed variations in the isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar released by stepwise heating have been used to identify the residence sites and determine the diffusion coefficients of the gases in the mineral. The data suggest that the only modification to primary gas compositions after entrapment in fluid inclusions and formation of the mineral is due to radiogenic and nucleogenic processes which affect the noble gas isotopic compositions.

  15. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  16. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  17. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A; Fagan, Anne M; Duchek, Janet M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Morris, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms, and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within 2 years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and amyloid tracer Pittsburgh compound-B scan for amyloid imaging. Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be used to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change.

  18. Characterizing the scent and chemical composition of Panthera leo marking fluid using solid-phase microextraction and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A

    2017-07-11

    Lions (Panthera leo) use chemical signaling to indicate health, reproductive status, and territorial ownership. To date, no study has reported on both scent and composition of marking fluid (MF) from P. leo. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a novel method for simultaneous chemical and scent identification of lion MF in its totality (urine + MF), 2) identify characteristic odorants responsible for the overall scent of MF as perceived by human panelists, and 3) compare the existing library of known odorous compounds characterized as eliciting behaviors in animals in order to understand potential functionality in lion behavior. Solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous chemical-sensory analyses with multidimensional gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry improved separating, isolating, and identifying mixed (MF, urine) compounds versus solvent-based extraction and chemical analyses. 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine, 4-methylphenol, and 3-methylcyclopentanone were isolated and identified as the compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of lion MF. Twenty-eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from MF were identified, adding a new list of compounds previously unidentified in lion urine. New chemicals were identified in nine compound groups: ketones, aldehydes, amines, alcohols, aromatics, sulfur-containing compounds, phenyls, phenols, and volatile fatty acids. Twenty-three VOCs are known semiochemicals that are implicated in attraction, reproduction, and alarm-signaling behaviors in other species.

  19. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzyme activities and electrolyte composition in the small intestinal fluid of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yongchang; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Wang, Shenshen; Yang, Zhipeng; Wang, Wence

    2017-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition in jejunum of geese. A 3×3 factorial and completely randomized design was adopted with three protein levels and three energy levels. The experiment included four replicates for each treatment, and three geese for each replicate. Isovolumetric supernate from centrifugal jejuna fluid were mixed in each replicate. Activities of digestive enzymes and ions were analyzed. The results showed trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (Penergy levels. However, no significant differences were found for the activities of amylase and cellulase, as well as the concentration of Na(+) among groups with different protein and energy levels. In conclusion, digesta enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestine adapted to the protein and energy levels. The activities of protease, rather than amylase and cellulase were induced with increasing of protein and energy levels. The imbalance of positive and negative ions was possibly adjusted by the fluctuant concentrations of K(+) , Cl(-) and Ca(2+) for maintaining normal physiological function.

  20. Equations of state, transport properties, and compositions of argon plasma: combination of self-consistent fluid variation theory and linear response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, W L; Chen, Q F; Fu, Z J; Sun, X W; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J

    2015-02-01

    A consistent theoretical model that can be applied in a wide range of densities and temperatures is necessary for understanding the variation of a material's properties during compression and heating. Taking argon as an example, we show that the combination of self-consistent fluid variational theory and linear response theory is a promising route for studying warm dense matter. Following this route, the compositions, equations of state, and transport properties of argon plasma are calculated in a wide range of densities (0.001-20 g/cm(3)) and temperatures (5-100 kK). The obtained equations of state and electrical conductivities are found in good agreement with available experimental data. The plasma phase transition of argon is observed at temperatures below 30 kK and density about 2-6g/cm(3). The minimum density for the metallization of argon is found to be about 5.8 g/cm(3), occurring at 30-40 kK. The effects of many-particle correlations and dynamic screening on the electrical conductivity are also discussed through the effective potentials.

  1. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  2. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  3. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  4. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  5. 超瓷材/复合纤维修复年轻的恒牙牙体缺损%Targis/composite fiberisused to repairyoung permanent tooth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁治; 陈一晖

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Targis/composite fiber is a new type of non-metalic repair material that has good hardness and strength, but it is rarely reported on its application in the repair of young permanent tooth defects. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical effect of Targis/composite fiber in repairing young permanent tooth defects. METHODS:Sixty cases of young permanent teeth defects 10-17 years of age were enroled, including 27 males and 33 females. Al cases were subjected to Targis/composite fiber repairing. After 36 months of folow-up, alkaline phosphatase level, probing depth, gingival sulcus bleeding index, tooth mobility, plaque index, gingival crevicular fluid volume and aspartate aminotransferase level in patients were detected; the integrity and edge of dental prosthesis and the color matching. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After 36 months, the alkaline phosphatase level in the patients had no significant changes (P> 0.05), but the probing depth, gingival sulcus bleeding index, tooth mobility, plaque index, gingival crevicular fluid volume and aspartate aminot ransferase level were decreased significantly compared with those before repair (P  目的:观察超瓷材/复合纤维修复年轻恒牙牙体缺损的临床效果。  方法:纳入60例年轻恒牙牙体缺损患者,其中男27例,女33例,年龄10-17岁,均接受超瓷材/复合纤维修复治疗。修复后随访36个月,检测患者牙周碱性磷酸酶水平、牙周探诊深度、龈沟出血指数、牙齿松动度、菌斑指数、龈沟液量和天冬氨酸转氨酶水平,以及观察修复体完整性、边缘适合性及颜色匹配情况。  结果与结论:修复后36个月,患者牙周碱性磷酸酶水平与修复前比较差异无显著性意义(P >0.05),牙周探诊深度、龈沟出血指数、牙齿松动度、菌斑指数、龈沟液量和天冬氨酸转氨酶水平均较修复前明显下降(P<0.05);2例修复体不完整,6例修复体颜色不匹配,2例

  6. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  7. [Detection of human papillomavirus in gingival fluid of Venezuelan HIV patients with periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Laura; Correnti, María; Veitía, Dayahindira; Perrone, Marianella

    2011-09-01

    Evidence suggests that viruses may be involved in the activation of periodontal disease, allowing the overgrowth of periodontal pathogens. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in HIV+ Venezuelan patients with periodontal disease. We evaluated GCF samples from 20 HIV+ patients with periodontal disease from the Infectious Disease Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Central University of Venezuela, and were clinically examined to establish their periodontal conditions, 13 under HAART (antiretroviral therapy) and 7 without HAART. Seven seronegative patients with chronic periodontitis and 7 seronegative patients, without periodontal disease were included. DNA extraction was performed, the consensus primers MY09 and MY11 for the HPV L1 region were used for PCR amplification. Genotipification was made for the 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 45 genotypes. HPV were detected in 46% of HIV+ patients under therapy. The CD4 cell counts in the IIPV+ patients were not significantly different from the HPV-group. The viral load in the HPV+ group was significantly higher (200,470 +/- 324,244 copy/mL) than in the HPV-patients (10,246 +/- 23,805 copy/mL). Genotypes 6 and 11 were observed in the HPV positive samples, of which 4/6 (66.6%) presented coinfection with both types. No significant differences in the periodontal conditions were observed between patients with IIPV-HIV infection related to patients with only HIV. HPV was detected only in the gingival crevicular fluid of HIV+ patients under HAART independently of the periodontal conditions.

  8. Experimental design applied to the study of composition effect of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Part I: binary compositions; Utilizacao do planejamento experimental no estudo do efeito da composicao de misturas de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuracao. Parte I: composicoes binarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, L.F.A.; Amorim, L.V.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais]. E-mail: liszandra@labdes.ufcg.edu.br

    2006-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to apply experimental design to the study of composition effect binary mixtures of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Through the experimental design were defined the components proportions in the binary clays mixtures and then adjusted regression models relating the parameters, apparent and plastic viscosities and filtrate volume, with the proportion of each clay. The application of this tool allowed to delimit a strip of compositions that favors the improvement of the rheological properties of the dispersions of bentonite clays. (author)

  9. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  10. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  11. Automatic evaluation of drilling fluid properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is structured in two main parts. First part covers the fundamental role of drilling fluid in the drilling process. It provides a description of the mud circulating system for conventional drilling operations, outlines the basic composition of drilling fluids, and describes the main functions and properties of drilling fluids. Furthermore it describes the current testing procedures and equipment and illustrates how testing is used in the evaluation of drilling fluid ...

  12. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  13. S- and Sr-isotopic compositions in barite-silica chimney from the Franklin Seamount, Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea: constraints on genesis and temporal variability of hydrothermal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Durbar; Banerjee, Ranadip; Balakrishnan, S.; Paropkari, Anil L.; Mukhopadhyay, Subir

    2016-08-01

    Isotopic ratios of strontium and sulfur in six layers across a horizontal section of a hydrothermal barite-silica chimney from Franklin Seamount of western Woodlark Basin have been investigated. Sr-isotopic ratios in barite samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70478-0.70493) are less radiogenic than seawater (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70917) indicating that substantial leaching of sub-seafloor magma was involved in the genesis of hydrothermal fluid. The SO2 of magma likely contributed a considerable amount of lighter S-isotope in fluid and responsible for the formation of barite, which is isotopically lighter (δ34S = 19.4-20.5 ‰) than modern seawater (δ34S ~ 21 ‰). The systematic changes in isotopic compositions across the chimney wall suggest temporal changes in the mode of mineral formation during the growth of the chimney. Enrichment of heavy S- and Sr-isotopes (δ34S = 20.58 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70493) in the outermost periphery of the chimney indicates that, at the initial stage of chimney development, there was a significant contribution of seawater sulfate during barite mineralization. Thereafter, thickening of chimney wall occurred due to precipitation of fluid carrying more magmatic components relative to seawater. This led to a gradual enrichment of lighter isotopes (δ34S = 20.42-19.48 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70491-0.704787) toward the inner portion of the chimney wall. In contrast, the innermost layer surrounding the fluid conduit is characterized by heavier and more radiogenic isotopes (δ34S = 20.3 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049). This suggests there was increasing influence of percolating seawater on the mineral paragenesis at the waning phase of the chimney development.

  14. In situ optical and Raman spectroscopic observations of the effects of pressure and fluid composition on liquid-liquid phase separation in aqueous cadmium sulfate solutions (≤400 °C, 50 MPa) with geological and geochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ye; Wang, Xiaolin; Hu, Wenxuan; Chou, I.-Ming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Ying; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the first description of liquid-liquid phase separation in a vapor-saturated CdSO4 solution at temperatures above 222.2 °C in fused silica capillary tubing, in which a sulfate-rich liquid (Srich) phase separates from an initially homogeneous aqueous solution and coexists with the remaining sulfate-poor liquid (Spoor) phase and a vapor phase. This phase behavior is characterized by a lower critical solution temperature (∼222.2 °C), which is a macroscale property of polymer mixtures. In situ Raman spectroscopy shows an increase in Cd2+-SO42- associations with increasing temperature, especially in the immiscible Srich phase. Phase behavior observations and in situ Raman spectroscopic analyses confirm our previous conclusion that strong ion associations are responsible for the liquid-liquid phase separation in inorganic solutions. The effects of pressure and the fluid composition on liquid-liquid phase separation are also investigated. The temperature of liquid-liquid phase separation increases almost linearly with pressure at a rate of ∼0.5 °C/MPa and decreases with the addition of methanol. Both decreases in pressure and increases in the methanol concentration decrease the dielectric constant of the solutions, favoring the Cd2+-SO42- interaction and thus liquid-liquid phase separation. The capillary size also exerts a strong influence on liquid-liquid phase separation because the immiscible Srich phase is more stable in fused silica capillary tubing with an inner diameter of ≤300 μm. Therefore, liquid-liquid phase separation can occur in hydrothermal fluids hosted in porous rocks/sediments, especially those that are rich in low-dielectric-constant components and/or at low pressures. Liquid-liquid phase separation may play an important role in the formation of Mississippi-valley-type ore deposits because the ore-forming fluids are enriched in low-dielectric-constant components. The occurrence of liquid-liquid phase separation can promote

  15. Fluid composition of the sediment-influenced Loki's Castle vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, Tamara; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Hamelin, Cédric; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Okland, Ingeborg E.; Pedersen, Rolf B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal vent field Loki's Castle is located in the Mohns-Knipovich bend (73°N) of the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) close to the Bear Island sediment fan. The hydrothermal field is venting up to 320° C hot black smoker fluids near the summit of an axial volcanic ridge. Even though the active chimneys have grown on a basaltic ridge, geochemical fluid data show a strong sedimentary influence into the hydrothermal circulation at Loki's Castle. Compelling evidence for a sediment input is given by high alkalinity, high concentrations of NH4+, H2, CH4, C2+ hydrocarbons as well as low Mn and Fe contents. The low δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 and the thermogenic isotopic pattern of the C2+ hydrocarbons in the high-temperature vent fluids clearly point to thermal degradation of sedimentary organic matter and illustrate diminution of the natural carbon sequestration in sediments by hydrothermal circulation. Thus, carbon-release to the hydrosphere in Arctic regions is especially relevant in areas where the active Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge system is in contact with the organic matter rich detrital sediment fans.

  16. Grouped fluid inclusion composition analysis and application in Shaya Uplift%群体包裹体成分分析法及在沙雅隆起的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锦; 郑伦举; 贾存善; 席斌斌

    2011-01-01

    改进后的群体包裹体成分分析方法,能够同时收集油气包裹体中气体、轻烃和重质烃组分.液氮快速冷冻法能将样品破碎至单个颗粒矿物,较好地保持了矿物晶型;球磨法打开包裹体,不会导致包裹体成分性质的变化.沙雅隆起9个储层样品游离烃、吸附烃和油气包裹体全组分的制备和分析结果表明,根据包裹体烃中气体和轻烃可大致判断样品的成熟度;3种赋存状态液态烃的生物标志物和碳同位素分析结果揭示了沉积环境和油气成藏过程的差异.%The improved composition analysis method for grouped fluid inclusion may collect gas, light and heavy hydrocarbons at the same time.Liquid nitrogen is used to freeze samples and break them into single minerals, keeping crystal form unchanged.Ball milling is applied to open fluid inclusion whose components and properties are protected during this process.Composition analyses of free hydrocarbon,adsorbed hydrocarbon and petroleum inclusion in 9 reservoir samples from the Shaya Uplift have indicated that, the compositions of gas and light hydrocarbon in inclusions may be used judge sample maturity.The biomarker and carbon isotope of liquid hydrocarbons may show the differences in sedimentary environment and accumulation.

  17. Amniotic fluid composition analysis of gestational diabetes mellitus patients with amniotic fluid volume abnormality and its effect on pregnancy outcome%妊娠期糖尿病患者羊水量异常羊水成分分析及其对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅; 白润芳; 李艳川; 石紫云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the composition of amniotic fluid in gestational diabetes mellitus patients with amniotic fluid volume abnormality and its effect on pregnancy outcome. Methods A total of 133 cases of gesta-tional diabetes mellitus patients with abnormal amniotic fluid volume, who admitted to Department of Obstetrics of our hospital from February 2013 to August 2015, were selected and divided into the amniotic fluid too much group (n=108) and the amniotic fluid too little group (n=25) according to amniotic fluid volume. At the same period, 30 cases of normal delivery of women with normal amniotic fluid volume were selected as the control group. Amniotic fluid com-position was analyzed, and the patients were followed up to the end of pregnancy to analyze the gestational age distri-bution and clinical pregnancy outcome. Results The gestational distribution of abnormal amniotic fluid in the amni-otic fluid too much group was in 33~36 weeks and after 36 weeks, and the gestational distribution of abnormality am-niotic fluid in the amniotic fluid too little group was after 36 weeks. Na+, Ca2+and Osm levels in the amniotic fluid of the amniotic fluid too little group were significantly lower than those of the control group, with (121.45±5.49) mmol/L vs (124.72±4.91) mmol/L, (1.58±0.16) mmol/L vs (1.68±0.17) mmol/L, (241.23±10.09) mOsm/L vs (247.67±11.12) mOsm/L, respectively, P36周,羊水过少组孕妇的羊水量异常孕周主要分布在>36周;羊水过少组孕妇的羊水成分中,Na+(121.45±5.49) mmol/L、Ca2+(1.58±0.16) mmol/L及Osm (241.23±10.09) mOsm/L的水平明显低于对照组的(124.72±4.91) mmol/L、(1.68±0.17) mmol/L、(247.67±11.12) mOsm/L,而Crea (223.36±54.24)μmol/L及Glu (6.42±1.33) mmol/L的水平明显高于对照组的(191.98±29.64)μmol/L、(1.09±1.21) mmol/L,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);羊水过多组和羊水过少组孕妇的胎位异常(17.59%,20.00%)、胎儿窘迫(37.96%,24.00%)、早产(23.15%

  18. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  19. Diamond growth in mantle fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Hélène; Frost, Daniel J.; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Leroy, Clémence; Esteve, Imène; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    In the upper mantle, diamonds can potentially grow from various forms of media (solid, gas, fluid) with a range of compositions (e.g. graphite, C-O-H fluids, silicate or carbonate melts). Inclusions trapped in diamonds are one of the few diagnostic tools that can constrain diamond growth conditions in the Earth's mantle. In this study, inclusion-bearing diamonds have been synthesized to understand the growth conditions of natural diamonds in the upper mantle. Diamonds containing syngenetic inclusions were synthesized in multi-anvil presses employing starting mixtures of carbonates, and silicate compositions in the presence of pure water and saline fluids (H2O-NaCl). Experiments were performed at conditions compatible with the Earth's geotherm (7 GPa, 1300-1400 °C). Results show that within the timescale of the experiments (6 to 30 h) diamond growth occurs if water and carbonates are present in the fluid phase. Water promotes faster diamond growth (up to 14 mm/year at 1400 °C, 7 GPa, 10 g/l NaCl), which is favorable to the inclusion trapping process. At 7 GPa, temperature and fluid composition are the main factors controlling diamond growth. In these experiments, diamonds grew in the presence of two fluids: an aqueous fluid and a hydrous silicate melt. The carbon source for diamond growth must be carbonate (CO32) dissolved in the melt or carbon dioxide species in the aqueous fluid (CO2aq). The presence of NaCl affects the growth kinetics but is not a prerequisite for inclusion-bearing diamond formation. The presence of small discrete or isolated volumes of water-rich fluids is necessary to grow inclusion-bearing peridotitic, eclogitic, fibrous, cloudy and coated diamonds, and may also be involved in the growth of ultradeep, ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic diamonds.

  20. Fluid sources and metallogenesis in the Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Idaho, U.S.A.: Insights from major-element and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, R.B.; Slack, J.F.; Krienitz, M.-S.; Belkin, H.E.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tourmaline is a widespread mineral in the Mesoproterozoic Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Idaho, where it occurs in both mineralized zones and wallrocks. We report here major-element and B-isotope compositions of tourmaline from stratabound sulfide deposits and their metasedimentary wallrocks, from mineralized and barren pipes of tourmaline breccia, from late barren quartz veins, and from Mesoproterozoic granite. The tourmalines are aluminous, intermediate in the schorl-dravite series, with Fe/(Fe + Mg) values of 0.30 to 0.85, and 10 to 50% X-site vacancies. Compositional zoning is prominent only in tourmaline from breccias and quartz veins; crystal rims are enriched in Mg, Ca and Ti, and depleted in Fe and Al relative to cores. The chemical composition of tourmaline does not correlate with the presence or absence of mineralization. The ??11B values fall into two groups. Isotopically light tourmaline (-21.7 to-7.6%o) occurs in unmineralized samples from wallrocks, late quartz veins and Mesoproterozoic granite, whereas heavy tourmaline (-6.9 to +3.2%o) is spatially associated with mineralization (stratabound and breccia-hosted), and is also found in barren breccia. At an inferred temperature of 300??C, boron in the hydrothermal fluid associated with mineralization had ??11B values of-3 to +7%o. The high end of this range indicates a marine source of the boron. A likely scenario involves leaching of boron principally from marine carbonate beds or B-bearing evaporites in Mesoproterozoic strata of the region. The ??11B values of the isotopically light tourmaline in the sulfide deposits are attributed to recrystallization during Cretaceous metamorphism, superimposed on a light boron component derived from footwall siliciclastic sediments (e.g., marine clays) during Mesoproterozoic mineralization, and possibly a minor component of light boron from a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The metal association of Bi-Be-Y-REE in the Blackbird ores suggests some magmatic input

  1. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults : implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370819071; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu–Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The

  2. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults : implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, J.; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu–Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fa

  3. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  4. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  5. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  6. Sulfide composition and microthermometry of fluid inclusions in the leg 111 sheeted dike section of Ocean Drilling Program hole 504B, Costa Rica rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeps, D. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (West Germany)); Herzig, P.M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-06-10

    Hole 504B of the Ocean Drilling Program is dedicated to the study of crustal structure and hydrothermal processes in 5.9-m.y.-old oceanic basement. Continuing the work of previous legs, hole 504B was extended 212.3 m to a total depth of 1,562.3 m below seafloor (bsf) during leg 111 in 1986. Quartz-sulfide veins occur at a depth of 1,369-1,388 m bsf in basalts of the sheeted dike complex. The ore minerals are predominantly pyrite, less chalcopyrite, rare Co-rich Cu-Fe-S phases, and a thiospinel (linnaeite/carrollite). Microprobe analyses yield a high Co content in zoned vein pyrites (>8 wt%) as well as in the Cu-Fe-S phases (>5 wt%). Up to 35.8 wt% CO was detected in the thiospinel. A Co/Ni ratio of > 100 distinguishes the vein pyrite from pyrite in the basaltic wall rock and from pyrite formed as an alteration product of olivine (Co/Ni < 5). The Co/Ni ratios correlate positively with Cu and negatively with As. Co-rich, nonstoichiometric Cu-Fe-S sulfides in chalcopyrite are interpreted as metastable phases which have been quenched at a high temperature and prohibited from exsolution of the stable products chalcopyrite and pyrite. Fluid inclusions in quartz from the quartz-sulfide veins are two-phase and vary from liquid- to vapor-dominated. Their salinities range from 4.2 to 7.2 wt% equivalent NaCl and average 5.5 wt%. Pressure (360 bars) corrected average filling temperatures vary from 271 to 408 C with a maximum of 486 C. This is consistent with calculated quartz formation temperatures for a single quartz separate (+4.2{per thousand} {delta}{sup 18}O) using oxygen isotope thermometry. The {delta}{sup 18}O value of the hydrothermal fluid was determined to be +1.7{per thousand}. The temperature data indicate fluid alteration of the sheeted dikes at about 350 to 500 C.

  7. Process Study on Disposal Solid Composite Propellant in Applying Critical Fluid Extraction Technology%用临界液萃取技术处理复合固体推进剂的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴勇; 巩永校; 杜仕国; 刘国庆

    2001-01-01

    Foreign country has been successful in applying critical fluid extraction technology for demilitarization of solid propellant and explosive. This paper introduced the process of critical fluid extraction technology through demilitarization of rocket motors containing ammonium percholrate (AP) composite propellants. The demilitarization process consists of four-step. Step one involves removing the AP propellant from the rocket motor. Step two extracts AP and separates the AP/liquid ammonia solution from binder residue. Step three recovers the AP by evaporating the ammonia. Step four condenses the ammonia vapor and recycles the liquid ammonia for a continuous removal/extraction operation.%通过对火箭发动机含高氯酸铵(AP)的复合推进剂用临界液氨销毁来介绍这一工艺方法。销毁工艺由四个连续的步骤构成:第一步采用临界液氨把含AP的复合推进剂从火箭发动机中取出;第二步萃取AP并将含AP的液氨和粘结剂残渣分离开;第三步从氨水中蒸发出AP;第四步将氨蒸气冷凝并重新循环使用。

  8. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  9. Investigation of Thermal and Thermomechanical Properties of Biodegradable PLA/PBSA Composites Processed via Supercritical Fluid-Assisted Foam Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Aditya Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based polymer foams have been gaining immense attention in recent years due to their positive contribution towards reducing the global carbon footprint, lightweighting, and enhancing sustainability. Currently, polylactic acid (PLA remains the most abundant commercially consumed biopolymer, but suffers from major drawbacks such as slow crystallization rate and poor melt processability. However, blending of PLA with a secondary polymer would enhance the crystallization rate and the thermal properties based on their compatibility. This study investigates the physical and compatibilized blends of PLA/poly (butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA processed via supercritical fluid-assisted (ScF injection molding technology using nitrogen (N2 as a facile physical blowing agent. Furthermore, this study aims at understanding the effect of blending and ScF foaming of PLA/PBSA on crystallinity, melting, and viscoelastic behavior. Results show that compatibilization, upon addition of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, led to an increase in molecular weight and a shift in melting temperature. Additionally, the glass transition temperature (Tg obtained from the tanδ curve was observed to be in agreement with the Tg value predicted by the Gordon–Taylor equation, further confirming the compatibility of PLA and PBSA. The compatibilization of ScF-foamed PLA–PBSA was found to have an increased crystallinity and storage modulus compared to their physically foamed counterparts.

  10. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  11. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental peritonitis in horses: peritoneal fluid composition Peritonite experimental em eqüinos: composição do líquido peritoneal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.N. Mendes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen adult horses were randomly divided into four equal groups of four animals and each group was injected intraperitoneally with one of the following suspension: Group I, 100×10(7 colony-forming units (CFU of E. coli diluted in 500ml of 0.9% saline; Group II, 100×10(7 CFU of Bacteroides fragilis in 500ml of 0.9% saline; Group III, 100×10(7 CFU of E. coli in combination with 100×10(7 CFU of B. fragilis in 500ml of 0.9% saline; Group IV, 500ml of 0.9% saline. A significant increase in leukocyte number was observed in the peritoneal fluid by four hours after the inoculations in animals of Group I and II, and by eight hours in animals of Group III. The highest cell count observed was 516×10³ leukocytes/mm³. Significant increases in peritoneal fluid fibrinogen (1g/dl and total protein (9.1% concentrations were also observed. Horses inoculated with pure cultures of either E. coli or B. fragilis demonstrated mild and self-limiting peritonitis, while those inoculated with a combination of both bacteria demonstrated laboratory findings of higher intensity and duration.Dezesseis eqüinos adultos foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos de quatro animais que receberam inoculação intraperitoneal das seguintes suspenções: grupo I, 100×10(7 unidades formadoras de colônias (CFU de E. coli diluídas em 500ml de solução salina a 0,9%; grupo II, 100×10(7 CFU de Bacteroides fragilis em 500ml de solução salina a 0,9%; grupo III, 100×10(7 CFU de E. coli combinados com 100×10(7 CFU de B. fragilis em 500ml de solução salina a 0,9%; grupo IV, 500ml de solução salina a 0,9%. Observou-se aumento significativo do número de leucócitos no líquido peritoneal quatro horas após as inoculações dos animais dos grupos I e II, e oito horas após as inoculações dos animais do grupo III. A contagem mais elevada foi de 516×10³ leucócitos/mm³. Aumentos significativos nas concentrações de fibrinogênio (1g/dl e proteína total (9

  13. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  14. Utilização do planejamento experimental no estudo do efeito da composição de misturas de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração. Parte II: composições ternárias Experimental design applied to the study of composition effect of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Part II: ternary compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. A. Campos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental para avaliar o efeito da composição de misturas ternárias de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo. Por meio do planejamento foram determinadas as proporções dos componentes nas misturas ternárias das argilas e então ajustados modelos de regressão relacionando viscosidade aparente, viscosidade plástica e volume de filtrado com a proporção de cada argila. A aplicação da modelagem de misturas, incluindo composições ternárias, aliada a metodologia de superfícies de resposta e otimização matemática e gráfica permitiu delimitar uma gama de composições de argilas que favorece a melhoria das propriedades reológicas e de filtração dos fluidos estudados.The purpose of this work was to study of composition effect of ternary bentonite mixtures on the rheology of drilling fluids. Through the experimental design were defined the components proportions in the ternary clays mixtures and then adjusted regression models relating apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss, with the proportion of each clay. The application of mixture experimental design, include ternary composition, response surface methodology, graphic and mathematical optimization allowed to delimit a strip of compositions that favors the improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling fluids.

  15. Polypyrrole/magnetic nanoparticles composite as an efficient sorbent for dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of antidepressant drugs from biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Karami, Sara; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Shekari, Nafiseh; Jalilian, Niloofar

    2015-10-15

    In this study, polypyrrole/magnetic nanoparticles composites in the presence of two different dopants were synthesized with the aid of chemical oxidative polymerization process for dispersive-μ-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE). The synthesized magnetic sorbents were characterized by various techniques. The results exhibited that the nanocomposite modified by polypyrrole with sodium perchlorate as a dopant demonstrated higher extraction efficiency for citalopram (CIT) and sertraline (STR) as the model compounds. This nanosorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection was applied for extraction, preconcentration and determination of CIT and STR in urine and plasma samples. The effect of various parameters on the extraction efficiency including: sample pH, amount of sorbent, sorption time, eluent and its volume, salt content, and elution time were investigated and optimized. The opted conditions were: sample pH, 9.0; sorbent dosage, 10mg; sorption time, 7 min; elution solvent and its volume, 0.06 mol L(-1) HCl in methanol, 120 μL; elution time, 2 min and without addition of salt to the sample. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 1-800 μg L(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg L(-1) for CIT and 0.3-0.7 μg L(-1) for STR, respectively. The percent of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 93.4-99, 4.8-8.4 for CIT and 94-98.4, 4.3-9.2 for STR, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of CIT and STR in human urine and plasma samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  17. Vieillissement du polyamide 11 utilisé dans les conduites flexibles : influence de la composition du fluide transporté Influence of the Chemical Nature of the Environment on the Aging of Polyamide 11 Used for Offshore Flexible Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrich E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le polyamide 11 est utilisé comme gaine d'étanchéité interne des conduites flexibles de transport de produits pétroliers. Dans certaines conditions d'utilisation, celui-ci subit une dégradation de ses propriétés mécaniques et physico-chimiques initiales. Des échanges de matières s'établissent entre le matériau et le fluide transporté : des composés constitutifs du fluide (eau, hydrocarbures peuvent être absorbés par le polyamide tandis que le principal additif du matériau (le plastifiant est extrait. Cette étude, entreprise pour déterminer l'influence de la composition du milieu chimique sur les propriétés du polyamide 11, a permis : 1 De développer une nouvelle méthode d'analyse des matières diffusant dans le polyamide 11. Le principe de cette méthode consiste à réaliser une thermodésorption des différentes matières présentes dans le polymère et à les analyser en ligne par spectrométrie de masse à moyenne résolution (résolution = 3000. Cette méthode permet l'analyse quantitative simultanée du plastifiant résiduel, de l'eau et des hydrocarbures absorbés ainsi que la détermination de la répartition par familles chimiques de ces hydrocarbures. 2 De proposer un modèle prédictif du vieillissement du polyamide 11 dans des milieux modèles constitués d'eau, d'une coupe gazole principalement aliphatique et d'une coupe gazole principalement aromatique. La composition de ces différents milieux de vieillissement a été choisie à l'aide d'un plan d'expériences appliqué aux mélanges. L'influence de l'eau sur les propriétés mécaniques (diminution de l'allongement à la rupture et physico-chimiques (diminution de la masse moléculaire moyenne et augmentation du taux de cristallinité a été mise en évidence. Par ailleurs, quel que soit le milieu de vieillissement, à 140°C, le plastifiant est extrait du polyamide. L'influence du milieu aromatique sur la plastification du matériau a été d

  18. Utilização do planejamento experimental no estudo do efeito da composição de misturas de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração. Parte I: composições binárias Experimental design applied to the study of composition effect of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Part I: binary compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. A. Campos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental, aplicado ao estudo de misturas, para avaliar o efeito da composição de misturas binárias de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo. Por meio do planejamento foram determinadas as proporções dos componentes nas misturas binárias das argilas e então ajustados modelos de regressão relacionando viscosidade aparente (VA, viscosidade plástica (VP e volume de filtrado (VF com a proporção de cada argila. A aplicação desta ferramenta permitiu delimitar uma faixa de composições que favorece a melhoria das propriedades reológicas e de filtração das dispersões estudadas.The purpose of this work was to apply experimental design to the study of composition effect binary mixtures of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Through the experimental design were defined the components proportions in the binary clays mixtures and then adjusted regression models relating the parameters, apparent and plastic viscosities and filtrate volume, with the proportion of each clay. The application of this tool allowed to delimit a strip of compositions that favors the improvement of the rheological properties of the dispersions of bentonite clays.

  19. Soluble-oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; Whitby, R.D.; White, J.

    1989-04-11

    A composition for the preparation of a soluble oil for use in a cutting fluid comprises a mineral oil and, as an emuslifier, an effective amount of a sulfonate of a branched polymer of a C/sub 3/ to C/sub 5/ olefin. Preferably the polyolefin chain of the sulphonate has an average molecular weight in the range 275 to 560 and the polyolefin is polyisobutene. A soluble oil can be prepared from the above composition by the addition of a conventional corrosion inhibitor and diluted with water to make a cutting fluid. Advantages of the novel emulsifier are that it is resistant to breakdown by micro-organisms and does not require the addition of a coupling agent.

  20. A thermodynamic model for calculating methane solubility, density and gas phase composition of methane-bearing aqueous fluids from 273 to 523 K and from 1 to 2000 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhenhao; Mao, Shide

    2006-07-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented to calculate methane solubility, liquid phase density and gas phase composition of the H 2O-CH 4 and H 2O-CH 4-NaCl systems from 273 to 523 K (possibly up to 573 K), from 1 to 2000 bar and from 0 to 6 mol kg -1 of NaCl with experimental accuracy. By a more strict theoretical approach and using updated experimental data, this model made substantial improvements over previous models: (1) the accuracy of methane solubility in pure water in the temperature range between 273 and 283 K is increased from about 10% to about 5%, but confirms the accuracy of the Duan model [Duan Z., Moller N., Weare J.H., 1992a. Prediction of methane solubilities in natural waters to high ionic strength from 0 to 250 °C and from 0 to 1600 bar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta56, 1451-1460] above 283 K up to 2000 bar; (2) the accuracy of methane solubility in the NaCl aqueous solutions is increased from >12% to about 6% on average from 273 K and 1 bar to 523 K and 2000 bar; (3) this model is able to calculate water content in the gas phase and liquid phase density, which cannot be calculated by previous models; and (4) it covers a wider range of temperature and pressure space. With a simple approach, this model is extended to predict CH 4 solubility in other aqueous salt solutions containing Na +, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Cl - and SO42-, such as seawater and geothermal brines, with excellent accuracy. This model is also able to calculate homogenization pressure of fluid inclusions (CH 4-H 2O-NaCl) and CH 4 solubility in water at gas-liquid-hydrate phase equilibrium. A computer code is developed for this model and can be downloaded from the website: www.geochem-model.org/programs.htm.

  1. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  2. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  3. Videotapes and Movies on Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bobbie; Young, Virginia E.

    1996-01-01

    Chapter 17 of Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 11. A list of videorecordings and 16mm motion pictures about Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines.

  4. Microfabrication of hybrid fluid membrane for microengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutani, R.; Formosa, F.; de Labachelerie, M.; Badel, A.; Lanzetta, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the microfabrication and dynamic characterization of thick membranes providing a technological solution for microengines. The studied membranes are called hybrid fluid-membrane (HFM) and consist of two thin membranes that encapsulate an incompressible fluid. This work details the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scalable fabrication and characterization of HFMs. The membranes are composite structures based on Silicon spiral springs embedded in a polymer (RTV silicone). The anodic bonding of multiple stacks of Si/glass structures, the fluid filling and the sealing have been demonstrated. Various HFMs were successfully fabricated and their dynamic characterization demonstrates the agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  5. Geochemistry of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks in a serpentinite mélange (Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic): Constraints on fluid composition in a subduction channel environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baese, Rauno; Maresch, Walter V.; Schenk, Volker; Schertl, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Jadeitites are excellent rock types for obtaining information on fluid composition in subduction zones. Recent studies indicate that many jadeitites appear to have formed by direct precipitation from a fluid [1]. In almost all localities worldwide (see e.g. Harlow and Sorensen, 2005) jadeitites are found either as allochthonous blocks or as veins and lenses directly within the serpentinite country rock of serpentinite mélanges. In the Rio San Juan Complex on the other hand jadeitite also frequently occurs as veins (cm to some dm in thickness) within lawsonite-blueschist blocks [2,3,4] entrained in the serpentinite mélange. The mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex also contains blocks (m to 10m scale) of different metamorphic grade and lithology (eclogites, blueschists, orthogneisses and very low grade rocks) showing contrasting but interrelated P-T-t paths. The consistency of such interrelated P-T-t paths with those obtained by numerical models led Krebs et al. [5] to interpret the mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex as a former subduction channel. So far, two types of jadeitite have been found in the blueschist blocks: either as discordant veins cutting the foliation, or as concordant layers. In some cases the jadeitites contain large amounts of lawsonite and should then better be called jadeite-lawsonite rocks. The latter rock type may form a network of thin (nephrite and jadeitite) and serpentinite: Metasomatic connections. International Geology Review 47:113-146. 2) Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V., Krebs, M., Draper, G. (2007) The Rio San Juan serpentinite complex and its jadeitites (Dominican Republic). In: Martens U., García-Casco A. (eds) High-pressure belts of Central Guatemala: the Motagua suture and the Chuacús Complex. IGCP 546 Special Contribution, 1. 3) Schertl, H.-P., Krebs, M., Maresch, W.V., Draper, G. (2007) Jadeitite from Hispaniola: a link between Guatemala and Antigua? 20th Colloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences, Kiel, Germany, Abstract

  6. Composição de argilas organofílicas obtida com tensoativo não-iônico para fluidos de perfuração base orgânica Compositions of organoclays obtained with nonionic surfactant for organic base drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. A. Sousa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo do efeito da composição de misturas de argilas bentoníticas organofílicas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração base orgânica. As composições foram estudadas por meio de delineamento de misturas, viscosidade aparente, plástica e limite de escoamento e dos testes recomendados pelo Instituto Americano de Petróleo, API (peso específico, estabilidade elétrica e volume de filtrado. Os resultados foram comparados aos obtidos com fluido padrão utilizado pela Petrobrás. Dentre as composições desenvolvidas, duas apresentaram potencial de utilização em fluidos de perfuração base orgânica, atendendo a maioria das propriedades. Foram desenvolvidas composições contendo as argilas de qualidade "inferior" (Bofe e verde-lodo em maior quantidade e o mínimo da argila Chocolate UBM, considerada como a melhor argila da região das minas de Boa Vista, PB, para uso em fluidos de perfuração.This paper aims to study the effect of compositions of bentonite organoclays for drilling fluids containing organic base. The compositions were studied using the mixture design of experiment methodology and their performance evaluated by rheological behavior (flow curves, the initial gel, final gel apparent viscosity, plastic, and flow limit and the tests recommended by API (specific gravity, electrical stability and filtrate volume. Results were compared to those obtained with standard fluid used by Petrobrás. The results showed that among the developed compositions, two compositions showed promising potential for use in organic drilling fluids, achieving most of the limits of the normalization. Compositions containing high amount of low quality clays (Bofe and verde-lodo and a minimum of high quality clay (Chocolate of the mines of Boa Vista PB were developed for using in drilling fluids operation.

  7. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursae (fluid-filled sacs in the joints), and tendon sheaths. After the joint area is cleaned, the ... HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes ...

  8. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  9. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose the cause of inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) and/or fluid accumulation around the heart ( ... pressure within blood vessels or inflammation of the pericardium. An initial set of tests, including fluid protein ...