WorldWideScience

Sample records for creosote bush leaves

  1. Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (pyrocatechol and gallic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, J; Gutiérrez-Sanchez, G; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Aguilar, C N

    2009-01-01

    'Tar bush' and 'creosote bush' were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after 5 d. Higher level of tannase activity was detected in tar bush fermentation. Biotransformation of tannins to gallic acid was high (93 % in creosote bush and 89 % in tar bush). Pyrocatechol was released poorly. Kinetic parameters of tannin conversion were calculated.

  2. Lizard community structure across a grassland - creosote bush ecotone in the Chihuahuan Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Sean B

    2003-01-01

    I investigated the distribution and abundance of lizard species (Aspidoscelis inornatus, Aspidoscelis tesselatus, Aspidoscelis tigris, Aspidoscelis uniparens, Cophosaurus texanus, Crotaphytus collaris, Eumeces obsoletus, Gambelia wislizenii, Holbrookia maculata, Phrynosoma cornutum, Sceloporus magister, and Uta stansburiana) across a desert grassland - creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) ecotone in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. The ecotonal area in the Jomada del Muerto basin has increased drama...

  3. The floral hosts and distribution of a supposed creosote bush specialist, Colletes stepheni Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletes stepheni Timberlake, previously thought to be a narrow oligolege of Larrea (creosote bush) of limited distribution in the Sonoran Desert, is found to be a much more widely distributed psammophile of the Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin Deserts that utilizes two unrelated plant pollen sources...

  4. Creosote bush lignans for human disease treatment and prevention: Perspectives on combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gnabre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of the most successful plant in the deserts of the western hemisphere, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata, are evidenced by the long traditional usage of the plants by the Native Americans Indian tribes in Southwestern North America and the Amerindians from South America. The plant is rich in simple bisphenyl lignans and tricyclic lignans known as cyclolignans. These compounds are responsible for many of the pharmacological activities of extracts of the plants. Some of these activities, namely antiherpes, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, were known a century ago. Only recently have further studies revealed other crucial activities of the same plant molecules as powerful agents against human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and symptoms of aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral and anticancer activities have been elucidated and involve the inhibition of SP1 dependent gene transcription. This review summarizes the recent findings on creosote bush lignans. We introduce the concept of a cocktail of safe well-characterized natural products from the creosote bush that would represent a bridge between oriental herbal medicines and Western drug-based therapies.

  5. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  6. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  7. Use of neutron activation analysis to determine arsenic and antimony concentrations in creosote bushes collected near a lead smelter in El Paso, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.; Tiemann, K.J.; Parsons, J.G.; Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D.

    2001-01-01

    It his been found that some soils adjacent to a lead smelter in El Paso, Texas possess lead and copper concentrations as high as 5,067 mg/kg (parts per million) and 4,955 mg/kg, respectively. These concentrations are at least one order of magnitude higher than naturally occurring levels. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of metal accumulation within creosote bush, as it is found naturally growing in metal contaminated soils through analysis of soil and plant tissue samples. (R.P.)

  8. Estimating Tritium Fluxes from the Shallow Unsaturated Zone to the Atmosphere in an Arid Environment Dominated by Creosote Bush (USGS-ADRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. A.; Andraski, B. J.; Wheatcraft, S. W.; Johnson, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of tritium is essential when evaluating options for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) isolation. The magnitude and spatio-temporal variability of tritium transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere are being investigated adjacent to a LLRW facility at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Southern Nevada. Site and community-scale tritium fluxes from the subsurface to the atmosphere were quantified using a simple gas-phase diffusive loading approach combining evaporation and transpiration fluxes with mass fractions of gas-phase tritium concentrations. A Priestly-Taylor model, calibrated with quarterly bare-soil evaporation measurements, was used to estimate continuous bare-soil evaporation from measured continuous eddy-covariance evapotransporation. Continuous transpiration was computed as the difference between measured evapotranspiration and estimated bare-soil evaporation. Tritium concentrations in plant water and soil-water vapor were measured along two transects perpendicular to the LLRW using azeotropic distillation of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) foliage and soil vapor extraction from 0.5 and 1.5 m depths below land surface. A preliminary daily tritium flux estimate at a single plant site was 1.66 × 10-11 gm-2. Spatio- temporal variability over a 75-ha area and 2-yr period will be quantified using a combination of tritium concentration maps and continuous evaporation and transpiration flux estimates. Quantifying tritium fluxes from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere on a site and community-scale will improve knowledge and understanding of vertical contaminant transport in arid environments.

  9. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36, and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors. Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt, AMPK activity (P-AMPK, MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1. These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation.

  10. The Bush Administration's Policy on Haitian Migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baptista, A. L

    1995-01-01

    ... (notably the French and U S Ambassador). Aristide was allowed to leave for exile, setting up a long-running crisis that spanned both the latter half of the Bush Administration and part of the Clinton Administration's tenure The purpose...

  11. Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung-Mo Kang; Jeffrey J. Morrell; John Simonsen; Stan Lebow

    2005-01-01

    Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models...

  12. Site Closure Strategy Model for Creosote Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, F.R.; Gray, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)

  13. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OF BUSH TEA AND SPECIAL TEA USING DIFFERENT SELECTED. EXTRACTION ... 3,3'digallate and caffeine). Tea leaves have ..... Effects of solvent extraction on phenolic content and ... Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,.

  14. Reidid Venemaale / Jason Bush

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bush, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Korruptsioonist Venemaal Samara piirkonnas, ettevõtte-vaenulikest ülevõtmiskatsetest ja riigiametnike osast selles, Venemaa presidendi algatusest korruptsiooni väljajuurimisel. Vt. samas Jason Bush. BP rasked ajad Venemaal

  15. Exposure to creosote bush phenolic resin causes avoidance in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini La exposición a la resina fenólica de jarilla causa deterrencia en la hormiga cortadora de hojas Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I MEDINA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We focused our study on the effects of Larrea cuneifolia phenolic resin on leaf-cutting ants from two populations (Sierra de las Quijadas National Park and San Roque of Acromyrmex lobicornis in San Luis, Argentina. We conducted two bioassays of food choice (field and laboratory to compare the effects of phenolic resin on ant workers from these two populations. Results of the field experiment indicated that there were no differences in preference for either leaves treated with resin or untreated leaves among colonies from both localities. However, results of the laboratory experiments with individual ants indicated a significant effect of population and treatment on the time spent in different treatments. While leaf-cutting individual workers from Quijadas preferred the phenolic resin, workers from San Roque avoided it. These results evidence that ants respond according to time of exposure to chemicals from plants (presence or absence and that the effects of resin among a population can be observed and measured on individual ant workers, even in the absence of fungus garden influences in the nest.Este estudio se ha centrado en los efectos que produce la resina fenólica de Larrea cuneifolia sobre dos poblaciones distintas (Parque Nacional de Sierra de las Quijadas y la localidad de San Roque de Acromyrmex lobicornis en San Luis, Argentina. Se disenaron dos tipos de bioensayos (a campo y en laboratorio para comparar los efectos de la resina fenólica sobre las hormigas obreras de estas dos poblaciones. Los resultados de los experimentos de elección de la oferta alimentaria en el campo, indicaron que no hubo ninguna diferencia de preferencia entre las colonias, ni por las hojas tratadas con resina ni por las hojas sin tratar para ambas localidades. Sin embargo, los resultados de los experimentos de laboratorio con las hormigas obreras individualmente indicaron efectos significativos entre las poblaciones y entre los tratamientos. Mientras que las

  16. Influence of air pollution by compounds of fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen on changes of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaves of trees and bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prysedskyj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The productive activity of man results in contamination of the environment which causes substantial damage to ecosystems, upsetting their balance, species composition, etc. Within industrial areas, plants suffer significant harm. At the same time, plant organisms play an important role in optimization of the environment, performing sanitary-hygienic, landscaping and aesthetic functions. In this context, we investigated the influence of industrial contamination of air by fluorine, sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in ten types of arboreal and shrub plants which differ in their resistance to air pollution. Our research was conducted on the basis of a full multivariate experiment with two levels of factors. Peroxidase activity was determined by a colorimetric method according to the duration of oxidization of benzidine. For determination of polyphenoloxidase activity we determined the duration of oxidization of p-phenilendiamin according to the change in optical density of the solution. Pollutants have a significant influence on activity of the investigated enzymes in the leaves of the plant species studied, which depends on the resistance of the plants to contamination, and also the composition and concentrations of pollutants. With resistant species (Ligustrum vulgare L., Quercus robur L., Lonicera tatarica L., Eleagnus angustifolia L., Philadelphus coronaria L. peroxidase activity either did not change or rose by 11.2–64.1% compared to the control, depending on the composition of pollutants, their concentrations and the duration of their activity. Polyphenoloxidase activity in these plants did not significantly change in most variants of the experiment, although high concentrations of pollutants resulted in suppression of the activity of this enzyme by 26.1–37.6%. In species with variable tolerance which did not experience damage, peroxidase function did not change. Species sensitive to

  17. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  18. Bush and the Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommaerts, C.; Barre, N.; Riche, P.

    2001-01-01

    Facing the increase of the energy demand, Bush the President of the USA, decided to give a new impetus to the nuclear industry. These papers present the economic and the political analysis of this policy from the french point of view showing the anxiety facing the environmental impacts. (A.L.B.)

  19. Genes encoding chavicol/eugenol synthase from the creosote bush Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Kim, Sung -Jin; Vassao, Daniel Giddings; Patten, Ann M.; Eichinger, Dietmar

    2015-09-15

    Particular aspects provide novel methods for redirecting carbon allocation in plants or cell culture from lignification to inherently more useful and tractable materials, and to facilitate the generation of, e.g., biofuels from the remaining plant ro culture biomass. Particular aspects provided novel methods for converting monolignols into allyl/propenyl phenols, and for chavicol/eugenol formation or production. Additional aspects relate to the discovery of novel chavicol/eugenol synthases that convert p-coumaryl/coniferyl alcohol esters into chavicol/eugenol, and to novel compositions (e.g., novel proteins and nucleic acids encoding same), and novel methods using same for producing or forming chavicol/eugenol and other derivatives in cell culture and/or genetically modified plants, and for re-engineering the composition of plant biomass. Particular aspects provide novel methods for generation in culture or in planta of liquid/combustible allyl/propenyl phenols, and these phenolic products are utilized for (non-ethanol) biofuel/bioenergy purposes, while the remaining plant biomass facilitates the generation of other biofuels.

  20. Bush telegraph readings in writing

    CERN Document Server

    Strongman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    A ""bush telegraph"" is an antipodean slang noun phrase for a ""grapevine"" or an informal network of communication. The title of this book on English language use comes from the fact that the book is written from the southern hemisphere (where the idea of a ""bush telegraph"" is more widely-known) and because the concept of a ""bush telegraph"" describes what the book provides - a discussion of salient points in English language use and tertiary teaching across branches of interrelated interests. Each chapter of Bush Telegraph describes aspects of English writing culture. Separately and toget

  1. Biodegradation of creosote compounds: Comparison of experiments at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2001-01-01

    of the pyrroles on the biodegradation of benzene, and the biodegradation of benzothiophene occurs only in the presence of a primary substrate. The experiments show that some biodegradation processes of organic compounds may be common to different microorganisms.......This paper compares the results of biodegradation experiments with creosote compounds performed at different scales. The experiments include field observations, field experiments, large-scale intact laboratory column experiments, model fracture experiments, and batch experiments. Most...... of the experiments were conducted with till or ground water from the field site at Ringe on the island of Funen. Although the experiments were conducted on different scales, they revealed that some phenomena-e.g., an extensive biodegradation potential of several of the creosote compounds, the inhibitory influence...

  2. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Creosote-contaminated groundwater contains a complex mixture of phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-, sulphur- or oxygen-containing heterocyclic, aromatic compounds. One of the most important factors that limits the spreading of these contaminants in groundwater aquifers is degradation by...... enhancement of the native population of subsurface micro-organisms to degrade the contaminants (in situ treatment) and withdrawal of the groundwater followed by treatment by various wastewater treatment processes (above-ground treatment)....

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon migration from creosote-treated railway ties into ballast and adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Brooks

    2004-01-01

    Occasionally, creosote-treated railroad ties need to be replaced, sometimes in sensitive environments such as wetlands. To help determine if this is detrimental to the surrounding environment, more information is needed on the extent and pattern of creosote, or more specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), migration from railroad ties and what effects this...

  4. Bush and the Energy; Bush et l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommaerts, C.; Barre, N.; Riche, P

    2001-07-01

    Facing the increase of the energy demand, Bush the President of the USA, decided to give a new impetus to the nuclear industry. These papers present the economic and the political analysis of this policy from the french point of view showing the anxiety facing the environmental impacts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  6. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  7. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  8. Creosote-contaminated sites: their potential for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J G; Chapman, P J; Pritchard, P H [US EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA)

    1989-10-01

    Coal tar creosote contamination is generally associated with surface soils, waters in treatment lagoons or evaporation areas, and groundwater contaminated with leachate from the above sources. The basic principle of bioremediation is to exploit the ability of microorganisms to catabolize a wide range of organic substrates. There are limitations which much be addressed if in situ bioremediation is to be successful: the pollutant must be in a chemical state conducive to microbial utilization, aeration and nutrient supplementation are essential elements of many in situ treatments, and there must be present an acclimated microbial population capable of degrading the pollutant. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. The creosote content of used railway crossties as compared with European stipulations for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfelder, Tomas; Sandstroem, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar have supported the rails. With impregnated crossties having a lifespan of approximately 50 years, their creosote content is considered as quite safely stored while in dug-down usage. This situation of relative safety does, however, change into acute risk upon replacement and destruction. Carrying a highly flammable content, creosote crossties discharge a pulse of carcinogenic PAH compounds if burnt as ordinary waste. Safe destruction is therefore required if concentrations exceed a critical limit stipulated by the European Union. Since safe destruction is a process of considerable expense, there is a tendency among financial stakeholders to underestimate the creosote content of used railway crossties. In order to actually test whether concentrations generally exceed the critical limit, a set of used creosote ties was therefore sampled while still situated in the railway embankment. With a standard sum of sixteen PAH compounds used as an expression of their total creosote content, the generic concentration was formally inferred and found to significantly exceed the critical limit. The same applies to the fraction of seven carcinogenic PAH compounds, that alone exceed the stipulated limit for hazardous waste. It was also found that the material of railway embankments, whether or not the crossties were used in switches and/or railway yards, and sample depth within the crosstie, has a significant effect on creosote concentrations. Regardless of the status of these factors, the concentrations significantly exceed the critical limit that defines hazardous waste within the European Union

  10. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP AND CREOSOTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  11. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  12. How Bush Was 'Churchilled' in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... Since it took office, the Bush administration has argued that the United States should return to strategies of preemption, unilateralism, and hegemony that characterized American national security...

  13. Effect of aging on mass transfer naphthalene from creosotes to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshafie, M.; Ghoshal, S.

    2002-01-01

    Semi-gelatinous interfacial films or 'skins' have been observed to form at the interface of creosote and water when creosote is aged (contacted over an extended time period) in water under quiescent conditions for a few days. The objective of the research is to investigate whether aging of creosote-water interfaces and the formation of interfacial films retard dissolution of a target solute, naphthalene, from samples of creosote. Mass transfer experiments were conducted in gently stirred flow-through reactors where the NAPL was coated on glass beads so as to keep the NAPL and the aqueous phases segregated. The aqueous concentration in the reactor effluent was determined in samples collected at different time points and the equilibrium partitioning coefficients and area-independent mass transfer coefficients were calculated. Over the period of one week, the mass transfer rate coefficients of the naphthalene from creosote to water underwent approximately 30% reduction. Further reduction was observed up to 3 weeks of aging. This significant reduction in mass transfer coefficient has important implications on potential rates of dissolution of the solutes, and thus on rates of clean up of creosote-contaminated sites. (author)

  14. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  15. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  16. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

  17. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves ( Hyptis suaveolens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  18. HVDC wall bushing performance in wet weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a history of flashovers of wall bushings in rain, even when they are relatively clean. These flashovers appear to be associated generally with a non- uniform rain distribution because of the shielding effect of the valve hall. This paper reports that a study has been made of this problem involving the development of laboratory test techniques to simulate the critical conditions, and also verification that the rapid flashover clean fog test can be used for evaluating a polluted DC bushing. Using these techniques a conventional bushing has been assessed and a method of improving its performance has been found by fitting it with supplementary silicone-rubber sheds, (booster sheds). The effects of various numbers of such sheds on the bushing have been measured, as have the effects of modifications to the booster shed

  19. Bush favours research at Pentagon and NIH

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    2001-01-01

    The first budget from George W. Bush increases funding for military research and the NIH, while environmental work is drastically cut. The rest of civilian science funding is essentially frozen (1 page).

  20. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of potential quality of creosote-treated piles removed from service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot

    2001-01-01

    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood from creosote-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles removed from service. Stress-wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress-wave propagation speeds were obtained to estimate the MOE of the wood. Tests were then...

  2. Bond quality of phenol-based adhesives containing liquefied creosote-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2009-01-01

    Liquefaction of spent creosote-treated wood was studied to determine the technological practicability of its application in converting treated wood waste into resin adhesives. A total of 144 plywood panels were fabricated with experimental variables included 2 phenol to wood (P/W) ratios in liquefaction, 6 resin formulations (3 formaldehyde/liquefied wood (F/...

  3. The Fate of Dissolved Creosote Compounds in an Intact Fratured Clay Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Asger

    1995-01-01

    The fate of 16 different organics typical for creosote was studied under aerobic conditions in a large intact fractured clay column experiment. Some of the organics (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, phenol, and o-cresol) were transported at the same rate as bromide through the fractured clay, whereas ...

  4. Electrical bushing for a superconductor element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirebeau, Pierre; Lallouet, Nicolas; Delplace, Sebastien; Lapierre, Regis

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical bushing serving to make a connection at ambient temperature to a superconductor element situated in an enclosure at cryogenic temperature. The electrical bushing passes successively through an enclosure at intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and cryogenic temperature, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, and it comprises a central electrical conductor surrounded by an electrically insulating sheath. According to the invention, an electrically conductive screen connected to ground potential surrounds the insulating sheath over a section that extends from the end of the bushing that is in contact with the enclosure at cryogenic temperature at least as far as the junction between the enclosure at intermediate temperature and the enclosure at ambient temperature. The invention is more particularly applicable to making a connection to a superconductor cable.

  5. George W. Bush in Political Time: The Janus Presidency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This essay places George W. Bush's presidency and the Bush administration in some historical context by applying the model of “political time” developed in recent books by Stephen Skowronek (2008) and Keith Whittington (2007). My thesis is that Bush's political failure during his second term was

  6. ACHP | News | Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget First Preserve America Communities Also Announced ) Jan. 15, 2004, Washington, DC—Mrs. Laura Bush announced today that the President's budget for FY 2005

  7. Bush and Gore Focus on Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2000-01-01

    In the 2000 presidential race, education seems a top priority for Vice-President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush. Although both candidates are promising billions of federal-aid dollars to raise standards, many believe they are ignoring factors such as student motivation and funding inequities. (MLH)

  8. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  9. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  10. Bush skazal ne sovsem to, tshto skazal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Euroopa ja Euraasia küsimustes Daniel Fried teatas, et NATO riigid toetavad Gruusia, Moldova ja Aserbaidžaani territoriaalset terviklikkust, kuid ei luba neil seda taastada relva abil. Abiminister selgitab, mida pidas USA president George W. Bush silmas, kui ta avaldas Riia tippkohtumisel toetust Gruusiale tema püüdlustes liituda NATO-ga

  11. Development of ceramic roller bush for diesel fuel injection pump; Nenryo funsha pump yo ceramics sei roller bush no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K; Kamiya, S; Fujimura, M; Tsuzuki, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Taniguchi, K [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics have been applied to roller bush for diesel fuel injection pump in order to improve the seizure resistance. It was found that ceramic roller bush made it possible to improve the seizure load by more than three times as compared to conventional metal roller bush when the kerosene was used as lubricant The ceramic roller bush proved to be durable under engine operating conditions. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of a compact bushing for NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Simonin, A.; Grand, C.; Lepetit, B.; Lemoine, D.; Márquez-Mijares, M.; Minea, T.; Caillault, L.; Seznec, B.; Jager, T.; Odic, E.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Teste, Ph.; Dessante, Ph.; Almaksour, K.

    2017-08-01

    Research into a novel type of compact bushing is being conducted through the HVIV (High Voltage holding In Vacuum) partnership between CEA-Cadarache1, GeePs-Centralesupélec4, LPGP3 and LCAR2. The bushing aims to concentrate the high electric field inside its interior, rather than in the vacuum tank. Hence the field emission current is also concentrated inside the bushing and it can be attempted to suppress this so-called dark current by conditioning the internal surfaces and by adding gas. LCAR have performed theoretical quantum mechanical studies of electron field emission and the role of adsorbates in changing the work function. LPGP studied the ionization of gas due to field emission current and the behavior of micro particles exposed to emissive electron current in the vacuum gap under high electric fields. Experiments at Geeps have clarified the role of surface conditioning in reducing the dark current. Geeps also found that adding low pressure nitrogen gas to the vacuum is much more effective than helium in reducing the field emission. An interesting observation is the growth of carbon structures after exposure of an electrode to the electric field. Finally, IRFM have performed experiments on a single stage test bushing that features a 36 cm high porcelain insulator and two cylindrical electrode surfaces in vacuum or low-pressure gas. Using 0.1 Pa N2 gas, the voltage holding exceeded 185 kV over a 40 mm "vacuum" gap without dark current. Above this voltage, exterior breakdowns occurred over the insulator, which was in air. The project will finish with the fabrication of a 2-stage compact bushing, capable to withstand 400 kV.

  13. Bioavailability of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons following enhanced natural attenuation of creosote-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: albert.juhasz@unisa.edu.a [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Smith, Euan [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Waller, Natasha [CSIRO Land and Water, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Stewart, Richard [Remediate, Kent Town, SA 5067 (Australia); Weber, John [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The impact of residual PAHs (2250 +- 71 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) following enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 +- 1286 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) was assessed using a variety of ecological assays. Microtox{sup TM} results for aqueous soil extracts indicated that there was no significant difference in EC{sub 50} values for uncontaminated, pre- and post-remediated soil. However, in studies conducted with Eisenia fetida, PAH bioaccumulation was reduced by up to 6.5-fold as a result of ENA. Similarly, Beta vulgaris L. biomass yields were increased 2.1-fold following ENA of creosote-contaminated soil. While earthworm and plant assays indicated that PAH bioavailability was reduced following ENA, the residual PAH fraction still exerted toxicological impacts on both receptors. Results from this study highlight that residual PAHs following ENA (presumably non-bioavailable to bioremediation) may still be bioavailable to important receptor organisms such as earthworms and plants. - Residual PAHs in creosote-contaminated soil following enhanced natural attenuation impacted negatively on ecological receptors.

  14. Bioavailability of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons following enhanced natural attenuation of creosote-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Albert L.; Smith, Euan; Waller, Natasha; Stewart, Richard; Weber, John

    2010-01-01

    The impact of residual PAHs (2250 ± 71 μg total PAHs g -1 ) following enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 ± 1286 μg total PAHs g -1 ) was assessed using a variety of ecological assays. Microtox TM results for aqueous soil extracts indicated that there was no significant difference in EC 50 values for uncontaminated, pre- and post-remediated soil. However, in studies conducted with Eisenia fetida, PAH bioaccumulation was reduced by up to 6.5-fold as a result of ENA. Similarly, Beta vulgaris L. biomass yields were increased 2.1-fold following ENA of creosote-contaminated soil. While earthworm and plant assays indicated that PAH bioavailability was reduced following ENA, the residual PAH fraction still exerted toxicological impacts on both receptors. Results from this study highlight that residual PAHs following ENA (presumably non-bioavailable to bioremediation) may still be bioavailable to important receptor organisms such as earthworms and plants. - Residual PAHs in creosote-contaminated soil following enhanced natural attenuation impacted negatively on ecological receptors.

  15. Biomonitoring for creosote and pentachlorophenol in nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, J. [UCLA School of Medicine, CA (United States); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, TX (United States); Phillips, D.H.; Hewer, A. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Takhar, H. [Comprehensive Health Screening Services, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Warshaw, R. [Workers' Disease Detection Services, Inc. (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminated wood treatment sites can result in adverse health effects to nearby residents. Environmental exposure can be estimated by measuring concentrations of pollutants in air, water, food, or wipe tests. This environmental exposure value can be used as a surrogate to estimate individual exposure. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not pentachlorophenol (PCP) could be found in potentially exposed residents and if the dioxin levels are consistent with PCP exposure. A further objective of the study was to determine whether or not PAH-DNA adducts could be found in the potentially exposed residents. We present results of biomonitoring studies in residents living near a wood treatment plant that used coal-derived creosote and PCP to process and treat wood for over 100 years. The plant was built in 1904 and used creosote and PCP. Creosote is a complex mixture that contains numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCP is contaminated with polychlorinated dioxin and furans. The residents' exposure pathways include air, soil and surface water.

  16. Characterizing creosote immunotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: A mesocosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karrow, N.A.; Dixon, D.G.; Bols, N.C.; Whyte, J.J.; Magdic, S. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Boermans, H.J.; Solomon, K.R. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Immunocompetence was assessed in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed on days 103 to 131 of a mesocosm study using initial liquid creosote concentrations of 0, 5, 9, 17, 31 and 56 ul/l. Oxidative burst, phagocytic activity, and lymphocyte blastogenic response were measured, as indicators of exposure, using pronephros leukocytes. Peripheral blood was used to measure surface immunoglobulin-positive (slg{sup +}) leukocyte count and lysozyme activity. Tissue residue and water concentration were used as dose surrogates. Pronephros leukocyte phagocytic activity and oxidative burst exhibited a significant dose-response relationship, as measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst was inhibited, while phagocytic activity was enhanced. A concentration dependent reduction in the number of slg + peripheral blood leukocytes was also observed using flow cytometry. Although no measurable change in lymphocyte proliferation was detected in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin-A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced blastogenesis was significantly inhibited. No change in lysozyme activity was observed at 28 d. The results from this study indicate that sediment bound creosote has the potential to alter immune response. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a major constituent of liquid creosote, are the suspected immunoalterating agents. PAHs are known to predispose fish to disease resulting from their immunosuppressive potentiality.

  17. Evaluation of leachate quality from pentachlorophenol, creosote and ACA [ammoniacal chromium arsenate] preserved wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, D.M.; Letourneau, L.; Konasewich, D.

    1994-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the leachability characteristics of pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, and ammoniacal chromium arsenate (ACA) wood preservatives from freshly treated wood products. Test products included PCP-treated utility poles, creosote-treated timbers and marine pilings, and ACA-treated utility poles. Bundles of test products were placed over collection trays to collect the leachate generated by natural rainfall and by sprinkling with tap water. The sampling schedule was based on accumulated rainfall with samples taken at about every 15 mm from 15 mm to 150 mm. Analyses included pH, oil and grease, total organic carbon, ammonia, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and nonchlorinated phenols, resin acids, and fish toxicity. The study indicated that leachates from wood products freshly treated with ACA, creosote, and PCP have potential for aquatic toxicity if released to the environment. A decreasing trend was noted in both the arsenic and copper releases as cumulative precipitation increased. PCP releases remained constant over the course of the study while PAH releases showed no significant trend. Phenanthrene was found to be the main component in the releases. 28 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Elecciones en Estados Unidos: Bush contra Kerry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Valverde Loya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In November 2004, presidential elections took place in the United States. President George W. Bush, a Republican, confronted Democratic candidate John F. Kerry. A very close race was expected, focusing on the economic situation of the country and national security, but it was the latter the one which prevailed during the campaign, even as significant participation was motivated by the issue of “moral values”. It was thought that due to the closeness of the contest, any of the sides could appeal to judicial tribunals, just like four years before. At the end, President Bush achieved a clear victory; both in the popular vote and the electoral college, and his party increased its majorities in both chambers of Congress.

  19. Development of Bushing Compounds for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    unwanted stepchild - part of called anti patented NBR -12 formulation the family (system), but devoid of needed indicated that service life could be...as Development and Engineering Center’s long. Bushings currently used in the M I track Rubber and Coated Fabrics Research Group assembly typically fail...formulations of should be improved. Numerous selected candidate natural rubber , propylene formulations-based on natural rubber , oxide, and silicone

  20. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Influence of environmental pollution with creosote oil or its vapors on biomass and selected physiological groups of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyśko-Łupicka, Teresa; Cybulska, Krystyna; Kołosowski, Paweł; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Sudoł, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Survival of microorganisms in soils from treatment facility and landfill of wooden railway sleepers contaminated with creosote oil as well as in two types of soils with different content of organic carbon, treated with creosote oil vapors, was assessed. Microbiological assays including determination of: the biomass of living microorganisms method and the number of proteolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic microorganisms were carried out under laboratory conditions. Chromatography analysis of the soil extract from railway sleepers treatment facility was performed using GC/MS. The highest biomass and the number of tested microorganisms were determined in soils from wooden railway sleepers landfill, while the lowest in soil from the railway sleepers treatment facility. Vapors of creosote oil, regardless of the soil type, significantly increased only the number of lipolytic bacteria.

  2. Remarks by president Bush and president Ilves, June 24, 2007 / George W. Bush, Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bush, George W., 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president George W. Bush ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves annavad lühiülevaateValge Maja ovaalkabinetis peetud kõnelusest, mille põhiteemadeks olid olukord Afganistanis ja Iraagis, viisavabadus ning küberrünnakud. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  3. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  4. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  5. Rhetorical and Linguistic Analysis of Bush's Second Inaugural Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameer, Imad Hayif

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze Bush's second inaugural speech. It aims at investigating the use of linguistic strategies in it. It resorts to two models which are Aristotle's model while the second is that of Atkinson's (1984) to draw the attention towards linguistic strategies. The analysis shows that Bush's second inaugural speech is successful…

  6. 'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the hermeneutical dialectic of belonging and distanciation 'Shakespeare in the Bush' is an account of an anthropologist's hermeneutical experience among the Tiv people of Nigeria that serves as an illustration o f a hermeneutical circle which results in transforming ...

  7. Injection molding of bushes made of tribological PEEK composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK composites have been extensively studied because of the excellent tribological behavior among plastics. However, laboratory specimens and tests are generally discussed, whereas application studies on industrial components are infrequent. In this paper, an injection molded bush made of tribological PEEK was analyzed to correlate wear behavior and molded material structure. Bushes were tested under unlubricated sliding conditions by means of a short wear test. Surface analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical microscopy were used to evaluate the distribution of the different composite fillers (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, graphite particles and carbon microfibers and their effect on the final bush behavior. A significant lack of homogeneity was observed in the molded bush and black bands appeared on the shaft surface after testing due to the sliding. The bush geometry and the injection molding process should be optimized to allow the best tribological behavior of the molded material under working conditions.

  8. Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Goeran; Toerneman, Niklas; Yang Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5-100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20-30% of the variance of their biodegradation. Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated. The spatial uncoupling between biodegradation and soil respiration seemed to be governed by the aging of PAHs in the soil, since biodegradation of added 13 C phenanthrene covaried with both soil respiration and microbial biomass. The latter two were also correlated with high concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that are common in gram-negative bacteria. However, several of the hotspots of biodegradation coincided with hotspots for the distribution of a PLFA indicative of fungal biomass. - Hotspots of PAH biodegradation in a creosote contaminated soil do not coincide with hotspots of PAH concentration, microbial biomass and respiration.

  9. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

    2008-11-14

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the

  10. Assessment of the environmental effects associated with wooden bridges preserved with creosote, pentachlorophenol, or chromated copper arsenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Brooks

    Timber bridges provide an economical alternative to concrete and steel structures, particularly in rural areas with light to moderate vehicle traffic. Wooden components of these bridges are treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA), pentachlorophenol, or creosote to prolong the life of the structure from a few years to many decades. This results in reduced...

  11. Fast pyrolysis of creosote treated wood ties in a fluidized bed reactor and analytical characterization of product fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su-Hwa; Koo, Won-Mo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of creosote treated wood ties was pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char-separation system at different temperatures. Analyses of each pyrolysis product, especially the oil, were carried out using a variety of analytical tools. The maximum oil yield was obtained at 458 °C with a value of 69.3 wt%. Oils obtained were easily separated into two phases, a creosote-derived fraction (CDF) and a wood-derived fraction (WDF). Major compounds of the WDF were acetic acid, furfural and levoglucosan, while the CDF was mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration of PAHs of the CDF obtained at 458 °C constituted about 22.5 wt% of the oil. - Highlights: • Creosote treated wood ties was stably pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. • Pyrolysis oil contained extremely low metal content due to the char removal system. • Bio-oil components was quantitatively analyzed by relative response factor. • Creosote-derived pyrolysis oil fraction was composed of PHAs and has a high caloric value (39 MJ/kg)

  12. DELTA-13C VALUES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) COLLECTED FROM TWO CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater samples were collected from the American Creosote Works (ACW) Superfund site in Pensacola, Florida in June and September 1994. Sampling wells were located along a transect leading away from the most contaminated area. PAHs were extracted from the groundwater samples w...

  13. Development of bushing material with higher corrosion and wear resistance; Taishoku taimamosei dogokin bush zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, T; Yokota, H; Kamiya, S [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recent diesel engines require a higher performance and a longer life. Due to higher cylinder pressure, the operating load and temperature of piston pin bushings become higher. Therefore, higher load capacity, higher wear resistance and higher corrosion resistance are required for piston pin bushings. For this reason, we have studied the effect of components added to copper alloy upon the corrosion resistance and the effect of hard particles dispersed in copper matrix upon the wear resistance and the influence of hard particles on the machinablity of materials. Based on the experimental results, we have developed a new bushing material improving wear and corrosion resistance. 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The migration and monitoring of viscous NAPLs (coal tar and creosote) in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Heidelberg, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The high viscosity of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as creosote and coal tar complicates efforts to monitor their mobility at contaminated sites. Viscous NAPLs can remain mobile for many decades after their application as a wood preservative, or after the closure of the facilities in which they were generated. NAPL-wet pathways in the subsurface can also lead to errors in residual saturation measurements. This abstract discussed issues related to creeping flow and the low seepage rates that are not accounted for using traditional measuring methods. Examples of creeping flow and the monitoring techniques used to assess it were presented for sites in British Columbia and Florida. The drainage of viscous NAPLs during water table declines was also considered, and a case study of a coal tar-removal procedures using polymer surfactant flooding was presented.

  15. Determination of coal tar and creosote constituents in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, R.C.; Aneiro, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Creosote and its parent material, coal tar, are complex mixtures. Assessment of their fate and concentrations in the environment needs to consider a wide variety of both compounds and matrices. Analyses are typically complicated, consisting of sample extraction, purification and chromatography-based final characterization steps. Several new techniques have been introduced to reduce or simplify the number of steps, solvent and time required. Recently developed extraction methods include supercritical fluid, accelerated solvent, microwave and solid-phase microextraction. On-line purification and coupling of extraction and chromatography have also emerged. HPLC and GC remain the major tools for performing the final separations. Application of mass spectrometry has increased as more reliable, versatile and less expensive units have become available, such as the ion trap and mass selective detectors. Fluorescence and diode array UV, in concert with HPLC, and C-, S- and N-selective gas chromatographic detectors are also being applied

  16. Greaseless Bushings for Hydropower Applications: Program, Testing, and Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) bushings at its hydropower and navigation facilities. Products of this type currently on the market, however, were not specifically developed for the high-load, low-speed oscillating operating conditions typical for power-generation machinery...

  17. Bush asub uue Iraagi-poliitikaga vigu parandama / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush tutvustas uut Iraagi-strateegiat. Iraaki saadetakse paarkümmend tuhat USA sõdurit, küsitluse andmeil on 61% ameeriklastest lisasõdurite saatmise vastu. Lisa: USA plaanid Iraagis ja Iraagiga

  18. Bush moves to bolster U.S. industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that President Bush, in an election campaign appearance in Oklahoma City, the his administration is taking several steps to help the U.S. oil industry. Bush the, I known full well how difficult times have been in the past few years in this state for the oil and gas business. Our domestic oil and gas industry is important to our national economy. It's important, it's vital, to our national security. Bush vowed to work with Congress for passage of an omnibus energy policy bill and to get the oil industry some relief from the alternative minimum tax. The AMT, as applied to the energy industry, is hurting our economy and helping no one, Bush the. It is unfair to independent producers. And it's costing us jobs

  19. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  20. Baltic leaders jockey with Bush to get their message across

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    USA president George Bush lubas pärast kõnelemist Mart Laari ning Vaira Vike-Freibergaga arutada kohtumisel president Vladimir Putiniga suhteid Venemaa ja Balti riikide vahel. Lisa: Vladimir Putini arvamus Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakti kohta

  1. Bush Pledges Increased Science Research and Education Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-02-01

    In his 31 January State of the Union address, U.S. President George W. Bush announced two new initiatives aimed at galvanizing scientific research and education. For the American Competitiveness Initiative, Bush proposes to ``double the federal commitment to the most critical basic research programs in the physical sciences in the next 10 years. . .[and to] make permanent the research and development tax credit to encourage bolder private-sector initiative in technology.''

  2. Contributions on Computer Aided Manufacturing of Drill-Jig Bushings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for computer aided manufacturing (CAMof the bushings technological class parts: design of the part in CADsoftware; generation of the parametrical link with MSExcel files; extract of the useful information for the technological design (mass, volume, surfaces; setting of the CNC lathe and necessary tools; programming of the CNC code for manufacturing. Given the large variety of the bushingsshapes and dimensions, the application focused on the jig bushings used in drilling processes.

  3. Bush jätkab maailma dirigeerimist / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush peab oma tagasivalimise kindlustajaks elluviidud välispoliitikat. Autori hinnangul on Bush varasematest presidentidest jõulisemalt muutmas USA-d kapitalismi lipulaevaks, Bushi USA vastandab end euroopalikule mudelile, kus riik tagab kodanikele turvatunde. Kavandatavatest muudatustest USA sisepoliitikas. Vt. samas: Arko Olesk. Verine aasta Iraagi sõjas; Aivar Reinap. USA majandus mustas augus; Andres Keil. Tsivilisatsiooni häirekell

  4. Insulation design of cryogenic bushing for superconducting electric power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.Y., E-mail: koojy@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.J.; Shin, W.J.; Kim, Y.H. [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W. [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H., E-mail: k720lsh@kins.re.kr [Expert Group Electric and Control Department, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. ► We focused on the comparative study of breakdown characteristics of different electrode materials. ► Puncture and creepage breakdown characteristics were analyzed based on the withstand voltage. ► We obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing. ► We obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic environment. -- Abstract: Recently, the superconductivity projects to develop commercial superconducting devices for extra high voltage transmission lines have been undergoing in many countries. One of the critical components to be developed for high voltage superconducting devices, including superconducting transformers, cables, and fault current limiters, is a high voltage bushing, to supply high current to devices without insulating difficulties, that is designed for cryogenic environments. Unfortunately, suitable bushings for HTS equipment were not fully developed for some cryogenic insulation issues. Such high voltage bushings would need to provide electrical insulation capabilities from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. First, the dielectric strength of three kinds of metals has been measured with uniform and non-uniform electrodes by withstand voltage of impulse and AC breakdown test in LN{sub 2}. Second, puncture breakdown voltage of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) plates has been analyzed with non-uniform electrodes. Finally, creepage discharge voltages were measured according to the configuration of non-uniform and uniform electrode on the FRP plate. From the test results, we obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic

  5. The Bush administration climate proposal: rhetoric and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.

    2003-03-01

    This paper examines the Bush administration proposal and subsequent actions in terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It has four sections. Section one describes the main features of the Bush Administration climate proposal. Section 2 identifies the main underlying factors that shape this proposal. Section 3 rebuts the Administration critique in deciding to reject the Kyoto protocol. Section 4 explores the prospects of the US climate mitigation actions over the next few years. (A.L.B.)

  6. Hybrid neural network bushing model for vehicle dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seung Kyu; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2008-01-01

    Although the linear model was widely used for the bushing model in vehicle suspension systems, it could not express the nonlinear characteristics of bushing in terms of the amplitude and the frequency. An artificial neural network model was suggested to consider the hysteretic responses of bushings. This model, however, often diverges due to the uncertainties of the neural network under the unexpected excitation inputs. In this paper, a hybrid neural network bushing model combining linear and neural network is suggested. A linear model was employed to represent linear stiffness and damping effects, and the artificial neural network algorithm was adopted to take into account the hysteretic responses. A rubber test was performed to capture bushing characteristics, where sine excitation with different frequencies and amplitudes is applied. Random test results were used to update the weighting factors of the neural network model. It is proven that the proposed model has more robust characteristics than a simple neural network model under step excitation input. A full car simulation was carried out to verify the proposed bushing models. It was shown that the hybrid model results are almost identical to the linear model under several maneuvers

  7. Modelling of HVDC wall bushing flashover in nonuniform rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, F.A.M.; Kamel, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first mathematical model to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for flashover of an HVDC wall bushing under nonuniform rain. The suggested mechanism is initiated by streamer bridging of the dry zone enhanced by nonuniform voltage distribution along the bushing and within the dry zone. Fast voltage collapse across the dry zone die to energy stored in the bushing stray capacitance to ground leads to impulsive stressing of the wet part of the bushing. The nonuniform distribution of the impulse stress and the process of streamer bridging, fast voltage collapse as well as subsequent recharging of the bushing capacitances can lead to continued discharge propagation and flashover of the complete bushing. The findings of the model have been satisfactorily compared with previous experiments and field observations and can, for the first time, account for the following aspects of the flashover mechanism: critical dry zone length, polarity effect, specific leakage path, wet layer conductance per unit leakage length as well as the DC system voltage

  8. Bush blasts 'filth' on TV, school condom handouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-18

    President Bush complained yesterday about the "filth and indecent material" that Americans are exposed to through televised trials. Mr. Bush also criticized programs to combat AIDS that give condoms to teenagers and clean needles to drug addicts. He said such efforts undermine traditional values. He expressed hope that Earvin "Magic" Johnson's revelation that he is HIV positive "will teach people that wayward lifestyles or just kind of unsafe sex at random is not the way it ought to work." Mr. Bush made the comments in a series of satellite television interviews with ABC affiliates in major cities. In an apparent reaction to graphic testimony at the recent Palm Beach rape trial of William Kennedy Smith, Mr. Bush said, "I think the American people have a right to be protected against some of these excesses." Mr. Smith, a nephew of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., was acquitted last week. The Cable News Network and Court TV provided virtually gavel-to-gavel coverage. Mr. Bush took a dim view of a plan to distribute condoms to juniors and seniors in Philadelphia city high schools as part of a program to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome. "This is a disease that can be controlled for the most part by individual behavior," Mr. Bush said. "Indeed, I must tell you I'm worried about it. I'm worried about so much filth and indecent material coming in through the airwaves and through these trials into people's homes," he said. full text

  9. Microbial Degradation of Phenols and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Creosote-contaminated Groundwater Under Nitrate-reducing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    of toluene, 2,4-DMP, 3,4-DMP and p-cresol depended on nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptors. 40–80% of the nitrate consumed during degradation of the aromatic compounds was recovered as nitrite, and the consumption of nitrate was accompanied by a production of ATP. Stoichiometric calculations indicated......Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture...... that in addition to the phenols are toluene other carbon sources present in the groundwater contributed to the consumption of nitrate. If the groundwater was incubated under anaerobic conditions without nitrate, sulphate-reducing conditions evolved after ∼ 1 month at 20°C and ∼2 months at 10°C. In the sulphate...

  10. The characterization of petroleum and creosote-contaminated soils: Class component analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Alex, R.F.; Holloway, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The assessment and reclamation of coal tar, creosote and petroleum-contaminated sites is emerging as a major challenge to industry and the federal and provincial Canadian governments. Contaminants frequently include polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), several high molecular weight analogues of which are documented carcinogens. Adaptation of thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection for the analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is described. The method is directly applicable to the analysis of oily waste extracts from petroleum and creosote wood preservative site soils and is capable of distinguishing between the saturate, aromatic and polar components of waste residues. The method provides a rapid, low cost class component analysis of heavy hydrocarbon waste extracts and is particularly useful for estimating the extent of weathering experienced by chronically exposed hydrocarbon wastes in the soil environment. As such, it is useful as a screening tool for a preliminary assessment of the biotreatability or inherent recalcitrance of hydrocarbon waste mixtures. 11 refs., 5 figs

  11. Composition and Dissolution of a Migratory, Weathered Coal Tar Creosote DNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin E. Scherr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opaque, viscous tars derived from the carbonization of fossile carbon feedstocks, such coal tars and creosote, are long-term sources of groundwater contamination, predominantly with poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. The dissolution, ageing and migratory behavior of dense, non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL coal tar blobs and pools forming at the aquitard is not sufficiently understood to estimate the risk and adequately design groundwater treatment measures at a contaminated site. In this study, we investigate the composition and dissolution of a migrated, aged creosote DNAPL and corresponding experimental and groundwater profiles using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC-MS. GC-FID unresolved compounds were attributed to methylated homocyclic species using GCxGC-MS in the Methylanthracene weight range. Equilibrium concentrations were estimated using Raoult’s law, assuming non-ideal behavior. Low molecular weight compounds were found to be prevalent even after decades of weathering, with Naphthalene (8% by mass representing the most abundant identified compound, contrary to the expected preferential depletion of hydrophilic compounds. Morevoer, dimethylnaphthalenes were relatively more abundant in the aqueous boundary layer than in the DNAPL. DNAPL migration over 400m with the groundwater flow effected lower viscosity and specific gravity of the migrated phase body in a superposition of weathering, transport and aquifer chromatography effects. Based on a decomposition of analysed and estimated constituents using the group contribution approach, reference DNAPL values for activity coefficients γi were used to model aqueous solubilities for selected compounds. Anthracene was close to its theoretical precipitation limit in the bulk DNAPL. While laboratory and modelled DNAPL dissolution behavior agree well, field data imply the presence of specific interfacial in situ processes significantly impacting dissolution

  12. Simulation of Bimetallic Bush Hot Rolling Bonding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional model of bimetallic bush was established including the drive roller and the core roller. The model adopted the appropriate interface assumptions. Based on the bonding properties of bimetallic bush the hot rolling process was analyzed. The optimum reduction ratio of 28% is obtained by using the finite element simulation software MARC on the assumption of the bonding conditions. The stress-strain distribution of three dimensions was research assumptions to interface deformation of rolling. At the same time, based on the numerical simulation, the minimum reduction ratio 20% is obtained by using a double metal composite bush rolling new technology from the experiment research. The simulation error is not more than 8%.

  13. The George W. Bush administration: a new environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalonick, M.C.

    2004-05-01

    Bush rejection of the Kyoto protocol and refusal to regulate carbon dioxide emissions was one of many moves that has been unpopular with American environmentalists. In the last four years, they have criticized Bush and his administration for pushing changes to clean air law, forestry policy and endangered species laws. The administration has also come under fire for proposals to drill for oil in sensitive lands. These groups have found some potent allies in Congress, including some moderate Republicans, and in the states. Supporters of Bush environmental initiatives, including most Republican congressional leaders, industry groups and conservative organizations, have called his policy balanced and say that he brings a ''common sense'' approach to industry regulation. These two sides have found little in common in the last four years, and have compromised on almost nothing. As a result, the environment, once a bi-partisan issue, has become more and more a polarizing one. (author)

  14. Diet of the crayfish Paranephrops zealandicus in bush and pasture streams : insights from stable isotopes and stomach analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollows, J.W.; Townsend, C.R.; Collier, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    Crayfish (Paranephrops zealandicus White) stomachs from streams in both native bush (mainly tree leaves and dicotyledonous seeds) and exotic pasture settings (mainly grass stems and monocotyledonous seeds) were dominated by allochthonous material. More detritus occurred in stomachs in autumn-winter than in spring-summer, but quantities were similar in crayfish from native bush and pasture streams. The stomachs of larger crayfish contained a significantly greater proportion of detritus than smaller individuals. Aquatic invertebrates were the second most abundant dietary category by volume, with highest values in winter, but there were no significant differences between land uses or crayfish size classes. A wide range of invertebrates was eaten by crayfish, with mayfly nymphs, chironomid larvae, and snails predominating. The latter were numerically more prominent in crayfish from bush than pasture streams. Terrestrial invertebrates were recorded from 4% of stomachs, but there were no significant differences in relation to land use, season, or crayfish size class. Despite aquatic invertebrates making up 13 C and perhaps of microfloral origin, seems to be an important energy source for crayfish in both stream types. (author). 52 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, V; Banyr, J

    1980-11-15

    The bushing described is characterized by a hollow with a joining member provided inside of at least one of the bushing's electrically conductive core soldered or embedded into a bore in the insulator. Thus, the concentration is limited of the material of the electrically conductive core in the area of the soldered or embedded joint of the support of the electrically conductive core and the insulator, and the resulting force effect is reduced of the difference in thermal dilatations of the materials of the electrically conductive core and the insulator.

  16. Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, V.; Banyr, J.

    1980-01-01

    The bushing described is characterized by a hollow with a joining member provided inside of at least one of the bushing's electrically conductive core soldered or embedded into a bore in the insulator. Thus, the concentration is limited of the material of the electrically conductive core in the area of the soldered or embedded joint of the support of the electrically conductive core and the insulator, and the resulting force effect is reduced of the difference in thermal dilatations of the materials of the electrically conductive core and the insulator. (J.B.)

  17. Electrokinetic enhancement of phenanthrene biodegradation in creosote-polluted clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niqui-Arroyo, Jose-Luis; Bueno-Montes, Marisa; Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio

    2006-01-01

    Given the difficulties caused by low-permeable soils in bioremediation, a new electrokinetic technology is proposed, based on laboratory results with phenanthrene, to afford bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in clay soils. Microbial activity in a clay soil historically polluted with creosote was promoted using a specially designed electrokinetic cell with a permanent anode-to-cathode flow and controlled pH. The rates of phenanthrene losses during treatment were tenfold higher in soil treated with an electric field than in the control cells without current or microbial activity. Results from experiments with Tenax-assisted desorption and mineralization of 14 C-labeled phenanthrene indicated that phenanthrene biodegradation was limited by mass-transfer of the chemical. We suggest that the enhancement effect of the applied electric field on phenanthrene biodegradation resulted from mobilization of the PAH and nutrients dissolved in the soil fluids. - Electrokinetic bioremediation is a potentially effective technology to treat PAH-polluted, clay-rich soils

  18. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  19. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  20. Field distribution on an HVDC wall bushing during laboratory rain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, W.; Wikstrom, D.; Jacobson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that an efficient counter-measure to suppress flashovers across HVDC wall bushings is to make their surfaces hydrophobic. This laboratory investigation reports the measured electric field along such a bushing under different environmental conditions. A significantly reduced radial field strength has been found for the hydrophobic bushing. Moreover, the total field strength distribution becomes almost independent of the prevailing dry zone. The flashover voltage for bushings with a hydrophobic surface is therefore significantly increased

  1. Northward extension of the known range of the Bush Pipit Anthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The Bush Pipit Anthus caffer is a partly nomadic African species whose movements coincide with the onset of rains. Across the continent, the distribution and geographic extent of the five Bush Pipit subspecies are poorly known. In Kenya, the documented range of the Bush Pipit is along the Tanzanian border in ...

  2. The Gore/Bush Records on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Compares the records of presidential candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore on higher education issues and, specifically, those of interest to the Black community. Concludes that Al Gore's record makes him an overall better choice in the 2000 campaign. (DB)

  3. Bush kutsub ühte hoidma / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2004-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush kutsus liitlasriike hoidma oma väeüksusi Iraagis. Hispaania tulevane peaminister Jose Luis Rodriquez Zapatero lubas Hispaania sõjaväelased Iraagist ära tuua, kui operatsioonide juhtimine ei lähe USA-lt üle ÜRO-le. Vt. samas: Rumsfeld: hispaanlaste asemele tulevad teised

  4. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  5. Oliver Stone : "Bush oli paadialune!" / Oliver Stone ; interv. Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stone, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Kreekas, Thessaloniki filmifestivalil antud intervjuu. Festivalil linastus režissööri mängufilm "W", mille peaosas George Bush jun. (mängib Josh Brolin). Lisaks filmist : ""W" - ümbersündinud mehe kentsakas portree"

  6. Bush annab kinga kindralitele Iraagis, vahetub ka luurejuht / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Vaatlejate hinnangul esitab president Bush uue Iraagi-strateegia, mis näeb ette lisaks kuni 20 000 sõjaväelase Iraaki saatmist ning muudatusi sõjalises juhtkonnas. Ametist lahkuvad Iraagis vägesid juhatav kindral George Casey ning Iraagi ja Afganistani operatsioonide üldjuht John Abizaid

  7. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  8. Age determination in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi cepapi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth eruption and wear, measurements of skulls, eye-lens mass determination and different aspects of phallic morphology were used in an attempt at age classification in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus c. cepapi. The first method proved the most practical and allowed for three immature and three adult age classes.

  9. Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees' Right to Habeas Corpus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    In the consolidated cases of Boumediene v. Bush and Al Odah v. United States, decided June 12, 2008, the Supreme Court held in a 5-4 opinion that aliens designated as enemy combatants and detained at the U.S...

  10. The Invasive Shrub, Buddleja davidii (Butterfl y Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name Butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas in temperate locations worldwide. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from c...

  11. Budgets come first as Bush chooses NASA head

    CERN Multimedia

    Schrope, M

    2001-01-01

    President Bush has nominated a budget expert with no aerospace or scientific background as the agency's administrator. Sean O'Keefe, formerly scrutinized overspending in the International Space Station programme. If appointed, he will have to implement reforms he himself recommended (1/2 page).

  12. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston Philander, Lisa

    2011-11-18

    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  13. Bush doctrine in the Middle East; The US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the George W. Bush presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hoder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009. The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

  14. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  15. Beyond Bush: Environmental politics and prospects for US climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    The United States was a pioneer in domestic environmental lawmaking, and it was a leader in international environmental cooperation in the final decades of the last century. During the current decade, however, it has moved away from cooperating with other states in finding new ways to protect the global environment. While its early efforts to address climate change were no worse, and often better than, other developed countries, it has fallen far behind as a number of European states and the European Union have started to implement robust policies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. This chapter recounts this evolution in US policy from environmental leader to environmental laggard. It summarizes the US climate change-related policies and diplomacy, recounting significant events during the presidential administrations of George HW Bush, Bill Clinton and George W Bush. It then extends this summary of events to assess the prospects for US climate policy in the near future

  16. Bushes of vibrational modes for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, G. M.; Novikova, N. V.; Abramenko, A. A.

    2002-06-01

    Some exact solutions and multimode invariant submanifolds were found for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU)- β model by Poggi and Ruffo [Physica D 103 (1997) 251]. In the present paper we demonstrate how results of such a type can be obtained for an arbitraryN-particle chain with periodic boundary conditions with the aid of our group-theoretical approach [Physica D 117 (1998) 43] based on the concept of bushes of normal modes in mechanical systems with discrete symmetry. The integro-differential equation describing the FPU- α dynamics in the modal space is derived. The loss of stability of the bushes of modes for the FPU- α model, in particular, for the limiting case N→∞ for the dynamical regime with displacement pattern having period twice the lattice spacing ( π-mode) is studied. Our results for the FPU- α chain are compared with those by Poggi and Ruffo for the FPU- β chain.

  17. Does the Bush Administration's climate policy mean climate protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Odile; Perkaus, James F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyzes the two major components of the Bush Administration's climate policy, namely an emission intensity target and a technology strategy. The question is whether those components will generate net emission reductions that will contribute to the stabilization of the greenhouse gas concentration at a safe level in the long run. It comes out that the Bush Administration climate policy does not guarantee any meaningful contribution to climate protection. The lenient emission intensity target set by the Administration will most likely allow near term emissions to grow. In the long run, the Bush Administration places a big bet on future climate-friendly technological breakthroughs to cost-effectively compensate for the current and near term net emission increases. But the outcomes of those technological developments are uncertain in terms of emission reduction potential, cost, and timing. The way towards enhanced climate protection will most likely not come from the policies of the current Administration, but rather from the growing concern about the climate issue in Congress and at the state, corporate and civil society levels. These combined forces may raise the playing field at the federal level in the near future

  18. George Bush peab sõjalist jõudu viimaseks valikuks / George W. Bush ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bush, George W., 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 7. mai 2005, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 7. mai, 2005, lk. 2. USA president George Bush andis 5. mail Valges Majas intervjuu kuuele Euroopa ajakirjanikule. 9. mai pidustustest Moskvas, USA-Läti, Venemaa-Balti riikide suhetest, demokraatiast Venemaal, Ameerika Ühendriikide ning Baltimaade viisarežiimist, vabaduse mõistestst, kinnipeetavate kohtlemisest Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis, relvade kasutamise vajadusest, terrorismist. Vt. samas: Kuidas usutlus võimalikuks sai

  19. Experience with on-line diagnostics for bushings and current transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The application of on-line diagnostic techniques is advocated as an alternative, under certain conditions, for the conventional off-line power factor test used to evaluate the condition of bushings and current transformers. Bushings which are tied to critical system apparatus or which cannot be readily removed from service are considered to be excellent candidates for on-line diagnostics. A case history involving 138-KV bushings is used to demonstrate the value of the on-line diagnostic system which, by taking into account power factor capacitance values along with the rate of change, not only detected the high power factor associated with the bushings, but allowed the high power factor bushings to continue operating with a known problem for over a year. With conventional testing, bushings that exhibited this level of power factor would typically be removed from service. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  1. The Bush Doctrine: The Foreign Policy of Republican Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Michael W. Doyle, ‘‘Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs,’’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer, 1983, pp. 205–235 and ‘‘Kant...Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, Part 2,’’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Autumn, 1983, pp. 323–353, as well as Doyle, Ways of War and Peace (New...so-called libertarians and OWENS 41 George Bush, Graduation Speech at the US Air Force Academy, June 2, 2004, http:// www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases

  2. Prototype high voltage bushing: Configuration to its operational demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sharma, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Parmar, D.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, K.; Shishangiya, H.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-12-15

    High Voltage Bushing (HVB) is the key component of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) system of ITER as it provides access to high voltage electrical, hydraulic, gas and diagnostic feedlines to the beam source with isolation from grounded vessel. HVB also provides primary vacuum confinement for the DNB system. Being Safety Important Class (SIC) component of ITER, it involves several configurational, technological and operational challenges. To ensure its operational performance & reliability, particularly electrostatic behavior, half scale down Prototype High Voltage Bushing (PHVB) is designed considering same design criteria of DNB HVB. Design optimization has been carried out followed by finite element (FE) analysis to obtain DNB HVB equivalent electric stress on different parts of PHVB, taking into account all design, manufacturing & space constraints. PHVB was tested up to 60 kV without breakdown, which validates its design for the envisaged operation of 50 kV DC. This paper presents the design of PHVB, FEA validation, manufacturing constraints, experimental layout with interfacing auxiliary systems and operational results related to functional performance.

  3. Economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    The results of calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals for fuel and energy purposes has been presented. The two variants of disposal of bushes are considered burning and conversion into fuel chips. (authors)

  4. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National... evaluate and make improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The... proposes clearance of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation. The 60-day Notice for...

  5. Morphological Characterization of African Bush Mango trees (Irvingia species) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the morphological characters of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) was investigated in the Dahomey Gap which is the West African savannah woodland area separating the Upper and the Lower Guinean rain forest blocks. African bush mangoes have been rated as

  6. Fatigue Analysis of an Outer Bearing Bush of a Kaplan Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Frunzaverde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the fatigue analysis of an outer bearing bush of aKaplan turbine. This outer bush, together with an inner one, bear thepin lever - trunion - blade subassembly of the runner blade operatingmechanism. For modeling and simulation, SolidWorks software is used.

  7. Assessing the Debt: George W. Bush's Legacy and the Future of Public Education under Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex; Taylor, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    This article utilizes Gloria Ladson-Billings' notion of educational debt in order to explore the historical, economic, and cultural politics of education reform under George W. Bush and Barack Obama. It tracks the No Child Left Behind Act across a number of fields in order to claim that Bush's expansion of the educational debt should be understood…

  8. Naine kohtub Hundiga - püüne peal / Kaja Kann, Bush Hartshorn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Kaja, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Kanuti Gildi saalis etendub 26.-28. veebr. Kaja Kanni ja Bush Hartshorni lavaduett "Naine ja Hunt". Autorid räägivad, kuidas nad käisid Pärnumaa laantes oma lavaloole õiget tunnetust otsimas. Lisatud andmed Bush Hartshorni kohta

  9. The economics of landscape restoration: Benefits of controlling bush encroachment and invasive plant species in South Africa and Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush encroachment and alien plant invasions alter the composition and/or balance of species in natural ecosystems and impact biodiversity, land productivity and water availability. Therefore, the appropriate control and management of bush...

  10. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment

  11. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Ju, E-mail: shinwooju@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  12. The Bush/Cheney Energy Strategy: Implications for U.S. Foreign and Military Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klare, Michael T. [Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). Peace and World Security Studies

    2003-07-01

    The 'National Energy Policy' (NEP) released by the Bush Administration on May 17, 2001 was supposedly intended to meet growing U.S. energy requirements in the first two decades of the 21st Century while also diminishing U.S. dependence on imported oil. This was to be accomplished, the White House suggested, by increasing production at existing oil fields in the United States and by commencing drilling on the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. So great was the furor over drilling on ANWR that most people never bothered to examine the NEP closely. This is unfortunate, as a close reading of the NEP report reveals a very different picture than that suggested by White House pronouncements: far from promoting energy 'independence', the NEP assumes that the United States will become MORE, not less dependent on imported petroleum in the years ahead and therefore calls on the Federal Government to take whatever steps are necessary to promote enhanced U.S. access to foreign oil. In particular, the NEP calls on the U.S. Government to seek additional petroleum from the Persian Gulf area, Russia, the Caspian Sea basin, Mexico, Venezuela, Angola, and Nigeria. As is implied by the report, the United States must acquire more oil from these countries in order to permit increased oil consumption in the United States at a time of declining domestic production. Even leaving aside the question of whether these countries will be able to boost their production sufficiently to satisfy steadily rising demand in the United States, this strategy poses enormous challenges for the United States because most of these areas are highly unstable and house anti-American governments and forces. It is likely, then, that U.S. efforts to acquire more oil from these countries will entail the increased presence of U.S. military forces in the area and periodic U.S. military intervention. Indeed, the requirement for increased military action in support of U.S. foreign

  13. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  14. High Throughput Phenotyping of Blueberry Bush Morphological Traits Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping morphological traits of blueberry bushes in the field is important for selecting genotypes that are easily harvested by mechanical harvesters. Morphological data can also be used to assess the effects of crop treatments such as plant growth regulators, fertilizers, and environmental conditions. This paper investigates the feasibility and accuracy of an inexpensive unmanned aerial system in determining the morphological characteristics of blueberry bushes. Color images collected by a quadcopter are processed into three-dimensional point clouds via structure from motion algorithms. Bush height, extents, canopy area, and volume, in addition to crown diameter and width, are derived and referenced to ground truth. In an experimental farm, twenty-five bushes were imaged by a quadcopter. Height and width dimensions achieved a mean absolute error of 9.85 cm before and 5.82 cm after systematic under-estimation correction. Strong correlation was found between manual and image derived bush volumes and their traditional growth indices. Hedgerows of three Southern Highbush varieties were imaged at a commercial farm to extract five morphological features (base angle, blockiness, crown percent height, crown ratio, and vegetation ratio associated with cultivation and machine harvestability. The bushes were found to be partially separable by multivariate analysis. The methodology developed from this study is not only valuable for plant breeders to screen genotypes with bush morphological traits that are suitable for machine harvest, but can also aid producers in crop management such as pruning and plot layout organization.

  15. Low-Cost Production of Composite Bushings for Jet Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this research program were to reduce the manufacturing costs of variable stator vane bushings by 1) eliminating the expensive carbon fiber braiding operation, 2) replacing the batch mode impregnation, B-stage, and cutting operations with a continuous process, and 3) reducing the molding cycle and machining operations with injection molding to achieve near-net shapes. Braided bushings were successfully fabricated with both AMB-17XLD and AMB-TPD resin systems. The composite bushings achieved high glass transition temperature after post-cure (+300 C) and comparable weight loss to the PNM-15 bushings. ANM-17XLD bushings made with "batch-mode" molding compound (at 0.5 in. fiber length) achieved a +300 lb-force flange break strength which was superior to the continuous braided-fiber reinforced bushing. The non-MDA resin technology developed in this contract appears attractive for bushing applications that do not exceed a 300 C use temperature. Two thermoplastic polyimide resins were synthesized in order to generate injection molding compound powders. Excellent processing results were obtained at injection temperatures in excess of 300 C. Micro-tensile specimens were produced from each resin type and the Tg measurements (by TMA) for these samples were equivalent to AURUM(R). Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) conducted at 10 C/min showed that the non-MDA AMB-type polyimide thermoplastics had comparable weight loss to PMR-15 up to 500 C.

  16. Rain and contamination tests on HVDC wall bushings with and without RTV coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.M.; Hall, J.F.; Nellis, C.L.; Low, S.S.; Lorden, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of tests made to determine the ability of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coatings to improve the performance of HVDC wall bushings are described. The behavior of uncoated full scale ± 500 kV wall bushings is first determined in wetting conditions consisting of nonuniform rain and fog with various amounts of pre-deposited surface contamination. Parameters affecting flashover performance, such as polarity, rain conductivity, and contamination severity are discussed. Results of nonuniform rain tests on an RTV coated wall bushing are reported

  17. Integrated funnel-and-gate/GZB product recovery technologies for in situ management of creosote NAPL-impacted aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.G.; Borchert, S.M.; Klingel, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An in situ source management system was modeled and designed for the containment and recovery of creosote non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a former wood treating facility in Nashua, New Hampshire. The conceptual system was based on the integration of patented technologies for physical source containment and management (ie., funnel-and-gate technology) with patented in situ product recovery (i.e, GZB technology - described below). A funnel-and-gate physical barrier was proposed to mitigate the continued flow of NAPL into the Merrimack River. The purpose of the funnel was to divert groundwater (and potential NAPL) flow through two gate areas. Where required, an in situ system for product recovery was integrated. Mathematical modeling of the combined technologies led to the selection of a metal sheet pile barrier wall along 650 feet of the river's shoreline with the wall anchored into an underlying zone of lesser permeability. Multiple GZB wells were placed strategically within the system. This combination of technologies promised to offer a more effective, cost-efficient approach for long-term management of environmental concerns at Nashua, and related sites

  18. Functional genes reveal the intrinsic PAH biodegradation potential in creosote-contaminated groundwater following in situ biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Kapanen, Anu; Piskonen, Reetta; Lukkari, Tuomas; Itävaara, Merja

    2009-08-01

    A small-scale functional gene array containing 15 functional gene probes targeting aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways was used to investigate the effect of a pilot-scale air sparging and nutrient infiltration treatment on hydrocarbon biodegradation in creosote-contaminated groundwater. Genes involved in the different phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation were detected with the functional gene array in the contaminant plume, thus indicating the presence of intrinsic biodegradation potential. However, the low aerobic fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes closely similar to sulphate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria and the negligible decrease in contaminant concentrations showed that aerobic PAH biodegradation was limited in the anoxic groundwater. Increased abundance of PAH biodegradation genes was detected by functional gene array in the monitoring well located at the rear end of the biostimulated area, which indicated that air sparging and nutrient infiltration enhanced the intrinsic, aerobic PAH biodegradation. Furthermore, ten times higher naphthalene dioxygenase gene copy numbers were detected by real-time PCR in the biostimulated area, which was in good agreement with the functional gene array data. As a result, functional gene array analysis was demonstrated to provide a potential tool for evaluating the efficiency of the bioremediation treatment for enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation in field-scale applications.

  19. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  20. Conductive core of radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing, especially for nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, V

    1981-09-01

    A radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing was developed featuring a conductive core consisting of a hollow moulding. At the point of attachment to the bushing insulator the core moulding is widened, thus forming a ring support of a diameter larger by at least 10% than the diameter of the conductive core cylindrical section. On the outer side of the pressure body the core cavity is narrowed and tightly closed with the conductor. On the side facing the medium of higher pressure, the conductive core is provided with a thread. Core manufacture and connection of the conductor to the bushing is very simple. The bushing can be used for an environment with pressures exceeding 10 MPa.

  1. Conductive core of radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing, especially for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, V.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing was developed featuring a conductive core consisting of a hollow moulding. At the point of attachment to the bushing insulator the core moulding is widened, thus forming a ring support of a diameter larger by at least 10% than the diameter of the conductive core cylindrical section. On the outer side of the pressure body the core cavity is narrowed and tightly closed with the conductor. On the side facing the medium of higher pressure, the conductive core is provided with a thread. Core manufacture and connection of the conductor to the bushing is very simple. The bushing can be used for an environment with pressures exceeding 10 MPa. (J.B.)

  2. Energy and Climate Change. The Policy of the Bush Administration and the American Public Debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Reiner, David

    2008-01-01

    In its oil and energy security policy, the Bush Administration has shown a willingness to serve industrial and regional interests while relying on rhetoric of crisis - energy crisis and national security crisis. The 'Bush energy plan' of stimulating internal energy production by weakening environmental and other regulations has failed politically. In climate change policy, the Bush Administration decided not to sign the Kyoto protocol as well as not to regulate greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. This policy has had far reaching adverse consequences for the Bush Administration, in both domestic and foreign politics. The Administration has failed at making its technology-only approach accepted as a credible alternative to regulating emissions

  3. Design of Hydraulic Bushing and Vehicle Testing for Reducing the Judder Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Youngman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, judder vibration is a low-frequency vibration phenomenon caused by a braking force imbalance that occurs when a vehicle is lightly decelerated within a range of 0.1 to 0.2g at a speed of 120 to 60 km/h. This comes from the change in the brake disk thickness (DTV, which is mainly caused by the side run-out (SRO and thermal deformation. The adoption of hydro-bushing in the low arm G bushings of the vehicle front suspension has been done in order to provide great damping in a particular frequency range (<20Hz in order to prevent this judder vibration from being transmitted to the body. The hydro bushing was formulated using a lumped parameter model. The fluid passage between the two chambers was modelled as a nonlinear element such as an orifice, and its important parameters (resistance, compliance were measured using a simplified experimental setup. The main design parameters are the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the chamber to the fluid passage, the length of the fluid passage, etc., and their optimal design is such that the loss angle is greater than 45 ° in the target frequency range of 10 to 20 Hz. The hydro bushing designed for reducing the judder vibration was prepared for the actual vehicle application test and applied to the actual vehicle test. In this study, the proposed hydro bushing was applied to the G bushing of the low arm of the front suspension system of the vehicle. The loss angle of the manufactured hydro bushing was measured using acceleration signals before and after passing through the bushing. The actual vehicle test was performed on the noise dynamometer for the performance analysis of the judder vibration reduction.

  4. Simulation of Stress Distribution in a Thick- Walled Bushing Produced by Die-Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallographic investigations and a computer simulation of stresses in a gravity die-casting bushing were performed. Simulation of the casting process, solidification of the thick-walled bushing and calculations of the stress was performed using MAGMA5.3 software. The size variability of phases κII affecting the formation of phase stresses σf, depending on the location of the metallographic test area, was identified. The distribution of thermal σt and shrinkage stresses σs, depending on the location of the control point SC in the bushing's volume, was estimated. Probably the nature of these stresses will change slightly even after machining. This can cause variations in operating characteristics (friction coefficient, wear. Due to the strong inhomogeneity of the stress distribution in the bushing's casting, it is necessary to perform further tests of the possibility to conduct thermal treatment guaranteeing homogenization of the internal stresses in the casting, as well as to introduce changes in the bushing' s construction and the casting technology. The paper presents the continuation of the results of research aimed at identifying the causes of defects in the thick-walled bushing, die-casting made of CuAl10Fe5Ni5Cr aluminium bronze.

  5. Grow tubes change microclimate and bush architecture but have little effect on bush biomass allocation at the end of the establishment year in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microclimate variables were integrated over a six-month period during which blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Liberty) bushes were grown in 51-cm high, 20-cm diameter round grow tubes (opaque or translucent) on a sawdust mulch-covered raised bed with the mulch incorporated into tilled soil. Grow t...

  6. Application of desirability function for optimizing the performance characteristics of carbonitrided bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a product is generally characterized by more than one response variable. Hence the management often faces the problem of simultaneous optimization of many response variables. This study was undertaken to simultaneously optimize the surface hardness and case depth of carbonitrided bushes. Even though lots of literature has been published on various methodologies for tackling the multi-response optimization problem, the simultaneous optimization of heat treated properties of carbonitrided bushes are not reported yet. In this research the effect of four factors and two interactions on surface hardness and case depth of carbontirded bushes were studied using design of experiments. Based on the experimental results, the expected values of the heat treated properties of the bushes were estimated for all possible combination of factors. Then the best combination which, simultaneously optimized the response variables, was arrived at using desirability function. The study showed that the optimum combination obtained through desirability function approach not only minimized the variation around the targets of surface hardness and case depth but also was superior to the ones obtained by optimizing the response variables separately. Moreover this study provides a useful and effective approach to design the production process to manufacture bushes with customer specified surface hardness and case depth targets.

  7. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  8. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  9. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, R.

    1973-01-01

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14 C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14 C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK) [de

  10. Corrosão de parafusos fixados à madeira tratada com soluções de creosoto vegetal Corrosion of screws fixed into wood treated with wood tar creosote solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a corrosão de parafusos auto-rosqueáveis fixados à madeira tratada com soluções preservativas preparadas com creosoto vegetal, em condições de campo. Obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto por meio da destilação à temperatura de 110 - 255ºC do alcatrão vegetal. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se o creosoto vegetal purificado. Ambas as frações foram enriquecidas com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tubutil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Foram preparadas 16 soluções, sendo 14 enriquecidas, além do creosoto vegetal bruto e do creosoto vegetal purificado. Estacas confeccionadas com madeira de alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula- cheia (processo Bethell. Após o tratamento, parafusos auto-rosquéaveis de ferro zincado foram fixados às estacas. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. A corrosividade das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada à causada pelo creosoto mineral. As soluções preparadas com creosoto vegetal purificado foram menos corrosivas que suas similares preparadas com creosoto vegetal bruto, assemelhando-se ao creosoto mineral.The objective of this research was to evaluate the corrosion of screws fixed into wood treated with preservative solutions of wood tar creosote. The crude wood tar creosote was obtained through distillation of wood tar at 110 - 255ºC. A fraction of this product was washed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate at 9%, resulting in purified wood tar creosote. Both fractions were enriched with 3% of copper naphtenate, 3% of zinc naphtenate, 3% of cobalt naphtenate, 2% of TBTO, 2% of tributhyl-tin tribromophenate, 2% of pentachlorophenol, or with 0.4% of arsenic trioxide. A total

  11. Pauvreté et politique sociale : le bilan des années Bush  Poverty and Public Policy: An Assessment of the Bush Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Djebali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuf jours après son investiture, G. W. Bush lançait son programme relatif aux Faith-Based Initiatives (FBI, une partie prenante de son « conservatisme compatissant ». Les FBI constituent une rupture avec la tradition monétariste reaganienne, même si elles s’appuient sur le rejet de l’État et la réduction du budget social. Le rôle des FBI est d’aider les organisations caritatives, notamment religieuses, à s’investir davantage dans le travail social.  Le bilan de la politique sociale de G. Bush est plutôt mitigé. La pauvreté a fortement augmenté et les promesses budgétaires en faveur des Faith-Based Organizations n’ont pas été tenues. Pire, les accusations contre les dérives des FBI fusent. L’administration Bush est accusée d’avoir utilisé les FBI et l’argent public pour obtenir des gains politiques et mettre en place un système de financement occulte en faveur des républicains et leurs alliés.Nine days after he was sworn in, Bush launched his social program, the Faith-Based Initiatives (FBI, a major component of his “compassionate conservatism.” The FBI constituted a break with the Reagan monetarist tradition, even if they are motivated by the withdrawal of the State and the reduction of the social budget. The role of the FBI is to help charities, in particular religious organizations, to invest more in social work. On the whole, the social policy implemented during the Bush years is evaluated negatively. Poverty increased rapidly and the financial promises in favor of the Faith-Based Organizations were not kept. Worse, new revelations have been disclosed. The Bush administration is accused of having used the FBI and public money to make political gains and set up an obscure funding system that benefited the Republicans and their political allies.

  12. Methods and techniques for obtaining significant discharge measurements on high-voltage bushings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, H E.W.

    1965-05-01

    Forms of discharge tests are described and compared. The use of the Arman and Starr discharge bridge with cathode-ray-tube display is shown to be practicable for bushing testing up to 600 kV. Spurious discharge effects and the precautions necessary to eliminate them are discussed. Consideration is given to calibration methods and to the errors to be expected with various practical circuits. The problem of establishing safe discharge limits for bushings is considered on the basis of a large number of test results and on service experience.

  13. Prosperity against ecology? The environment in the America of G.W. Bush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbard, O.

    2006-03-01

    The author analysis replaces the Bush administration positions in their socio-cultural context and shows the two faces of the USA, the choice of the prosperity facing the ecology and in parallel a country of many free spaces with powerful groups for the environment preservation. After a presentation of the Bush policy in favor of the prosperity facing the environment, he shows the initiatives of movements in favor of the ecology and the environment, and concludes on the today mutations of the public opinion and some enterprises in theses domains. (A.L.B.)

  14. RECORDANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE SEGURIDAD DE GEORGE W.BUSH EN LA ERA DE DONALD TRUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Llanos Sierra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la estrategia de seguridad del presidente George W. Bush y su posible vinculación con el comportamiento internacional de Donald Trump, ahondando en las similitudes de ambos casos, tanto en sus objetivos como contexto internacional. Sobre la base del accionar de Trump durante los primeros meses de su mandato, este trabajo sugiere que el actual mandatario estadounidense está desarrollando, y consolidará, una estrategia de seguridad sustentada en principios, valores y objetivos comparables a aquellos defendidos por George W. Bush a inicios del presente siglo.

  15. George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    The appeal of Bush's post-September 11 discourse lies in its similarities with the Puritan rhetoric of covenant renewal by which ministers brought second- and third-generation Puritans into the church. Through this epideictic discourse, Bush implored younger Americans to uphold the national covenant of their "elders," the World War II generation,…

  16. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  17. "One More Time, Let Me Justify This War": An Analysis of President Bush's Declaration of Days of Thanksgiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.

    President Bush's declaration of April 5-7, 1991 as National Days of Thanksgiving is a unique example of Presidential civil religious discourse: no other President has ever made such a declaration to thank God for a victory in war. Whether he intended to or not, President Bush engaged in a rhetorical form which allowed him to manipulate a very…

  18. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  19. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  20. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB 1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB 1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. La politique commerciale de George W. Bush : rupture ou continuité ? American Trade Policy under George W. Bush: Continuity or Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Velut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de dresser un bilan critique de la politique commerciale du Président George W. Bush. Dans un premier temps, il compare les perspectives idéologiques et les ambitions politiques du leader républicain à celles de son prédécesseur démocrate, Bill Clinton, avant de mettre l’accent sur les nouvelles données du contexte politique et économique des années 2000. Ces éléments introductifs serviront de fondations, d’une part, pour l’étude de la gestion des relations commerciales entre les États-Unis et leurs principaux partenaires économiques, et d’autre part pour l’analyse de la stratégie de « libéralisation compétitive » adoptée par George W. Bush aux niveaux multilatéral, régional et bilatéral. L’objectif est double : déterminer les lignes de rupture et de continuité entre le président républicain et son prédécesseur ; et établir un bilan des principales initiatives commerciales lancées par l’administration Bush dans le but de mieux comprendre les nouveaux défis intérieurs et internationaux auxquels son successeur sera confronté.This article offers a critical assessment of American trade policy under George W. Bush. It begins by comparing his views and political ambitions with those of his Democratic predecessor, Bill Clinton, before highlighting the new political and economic context of the 2000s. These elements provide crucial background, first to study the evolution of America’s relations with its top trading partners and second to analyze the strategy of “competitive liberalization” undertaken by the administration at the multilateral, regional and bilateral levels. This article has two objectives: 1 determining trends of continuity and change between George W. Bush and his predecessor; 2 assessing the trade policy initiatives undertaken by the Republican administration in order to understand the domestic and international challenges with which the next President

  2. I'm Not Sure What George Bush Has to Do with Hitler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelskin, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Alexis Pogorelskin, an associate professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth and chair of the History Department, recounts her experience in 2004 after making a controversial comment in her History of the Holocaust and 20th Century Russia class. Her comment was in reference to President Bush making no mention in the 2000 campaign about the…

  3. The political impact of WTO rules : steel tariffs and the Bush administration / William L Burns

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burns, William L

    2004-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush kuulutas märtsis 2002 välja 30-protsendilise tolli kehtestamise suurele osale teraseimpordist eesmärgiga aidata Ameerika terasetööstusel kohaneda välismaise terase sisseveoga. Poliitiliselt mõjuvõimas Ühendriikide terasetööstus on tollide rakendamist nõudnud juba neli aastat

  4. The effect of gibberellins on sprouting of cuttings and quality of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total polyphenols were determined using Folin Ciocalteau method, total tannins were determined using the Vanillin HCL method and total antioxidants were determined using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. The results of this study showed favourable response of bush tea growth to increased rates ...

  5. Self-orthogonal codes from some bush-type Hadamard matrices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By means of a construction method outlined by Harada and Tonchev, we determine some non-binary self-orthogonal codes obtained from the row span of orbit matrices of Bush-type Hadamard matrices that admit a xed-point-free and xed-block-free automorphism of prime order. We show that the code [20; 15; 4]5 obtained ...

  6. Superheroes and the Bush doctrine: narrative and politics in post­-9/11 discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Dan Hassler-Forest onderzocht de manier waarop de Amerikaanse politiek samenvloeit met populaire cultuur. De centrale figuur hierin is de superheld, die fungeert als een symbolische belichaming voor de conflicterende fantasieën die de jaren van het presidentschap van George W. Bush in de Verenigde

  7. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles…

  8. effect of bush burning on herbaceous plant diversity in lagos state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to assess the effect of bush burning on plant species diversity. Three frequently burnt ... also believed to rid the grassland of parasitic insects and to prevent the encroachment of ..... The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and ...

  9. A Functional Analysis of the 1988 Bush-Dukakis Presidential Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Brazeal, LeAnn M.

    2002-01-01

    Applies the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse to the 1988 presidential debates between George Bush and Michael Dukakis. Challenges the notion that this campaign was mostly negative. Concludes that despite the belief that modern campaigns are devoid of substance, these debates stressed policy about twice as much as character. (SG)

  10. Bush jättis püüne Putinile / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2007-01-01

    Politoloog tõdeb, et USA president George W. Bush lahkus enne lõppu Aasia-Vaikse ookeani majanduskoostöö organisatsiooni (APEC) tippkohtumiselt ja külastas Iraaki, et kinnitada maailmale Iraagi sõja vajalikkust. Vene president Vladimir Putin tugevdas Vene positsioone maailmas, andes krediiti Indoneesiale Vene laevade ja lennukite ostuks ning sõlmides uraaniostulepingu Austraaliaga

  11. Indigenous knowledge system of bush tea from the local people in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article provides a report on a survey conducted in selected villages of Thohoyandou and Nzhelele in Venda, Limpopo Province of South Africa by means of personal interviews. The aim of the survey was to gather indigenous knowledge and to validate the uses of bush tea as claimed by the local people. The interviews ...

  12. Sweet resin bush on the Santa Rita Experimental Range: An eradication effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Howery; Bruce D. Munda; Dan G. Robinett; Harry H. Buck

    2003-01-01

    Sweet resin bush (Euryops subcarnosus DC ssp. vulgaris B. Nord; or, Euryops multifidis (L. f.) DC.), a South African shrub introduced to Arizona in the 1930s, was discovered on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) in 1998. Due to the threat of spread of this invasive plant and its potential to cause adverse environmental and economic effects, and because it posed a...

  13. Obamas opgør med Bush låser ham i dronekrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    En helt central del af Obamas valgkamp i 2008 var et opgør med dele af Bush administrationens krig mod terror. Obama er dog blevet fanget i en kontroversiel dronepolitik på grund af hans manglende succes med de indenrigspolitiske aspekter af opgøret...

  14. Bush mõistis hukka moslemite vägivaldsed meeleavaldused / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    USA president Georg W. Bush ja välisminister Condoleezza Rice mõistavad hukka moslemite vägivaldsed meeleavaldused, kuid mitte nende ajendiks olnud Muhamedi pilavad karikatuurid ning leiavad, et Iraan ja Süüria kasutavad pilapiltide skandaali oma poliitiliste eesmärkide saavutamiseks

  15. Migration (Bush-falling) as a form of insurance for Cameroonians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a livelihood strategy and in the eyes of most Cameroonians bush-falling remains a contestable and an inevitable pathway for those seeking to lead a better lifestyle. Migration among most Cameroonian families has become a form of insurance in which families pool their resources to support the migration of kin, mindful of ...

  16. Putin, Bush issue statement on advancing US-Russian human contacts

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "In addition to interstate, bilateral, regional and global issues discussed by Russian President Vladimir Putin and US President George Bush during their Kremlin summit on 24 May, the two leaders considered issues related to people-to-people contacts, ties between cities, states and regions, institutions and organizations" (1 page).

  17. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafalian, A.

    2003-01-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Bush Offers "Blueprint" for NCLB: Partisan Split Expected as Strategies Diverge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports how President Bush's new blueprint for the No Child Left Behind Act will create a partisan debate on educational strategies. In its plans for NCLB, the administration said it wants private and charter schools to create competition that would spur improvement in substandard schools. Democrats, however, have their own priorities…

  19. 70 Bush Meat Trading in the Oban Hills Region of South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... diversity of faunal species of the region can be found in ... B. The traditional inclination of rural people to bush ... (types and kinds) or species of animals involved in the .... Apes and/or. Prosimians, Reptiles; Rodents; birds, etc).

  20. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdylo, Josephine V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vogelbein, Wolfgang [The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Bain, Lisa J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AHR-related activities in creosote-adapted adult killifish were examined. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated intestine CYP1A. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated liver COX2 mRNA expression. • Most creosote-adapted adult killifish have lesions varying in severity. • Liver lesions in creosote-adapted adult killifish express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins. - Abstract: Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a

  1. Applicability of fiber model in seismic response analysis for center-clamp type bushings on transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A bushing is a device for insulation and support of a conductor. Especially it is called center-clamp type when it is connected with a metal holder through clamping force. As a consequence of damage of center-clamp type bushings in Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, refinement of the response analysis method and review of the seismic design procedure became necessary. In the present report, the fiber model, which can evaluate non-linear behavior in the section subjected to axial force and bending moment, was implemented to the CRIEPI's finite element analysis program 'Mastrd' considering following characteristics of center-clamp type bushings. a) The gasket section between a porcelain tube and a metal holder has a torus shape. b) Springs around the top of the bushing give clamping force, but they lock in excessive base rotation. c) The gasket does not resist against tension. d) Local resistance against compression due to bending increases in use of very thin gaskets. The developed program was verified through comparison with the shaking table test result for real bushings whose voltage classes were 154 kV and 275 kV. Deformation indices as rotation angle and base opening due to bending were influenced by damping conditions. Though there was not the condition which brought about remarkable underestimation, reduction of damping for a fiber model element was preferable for safety. On the other hand, bending moment was consistent with experimental results because it tended not to fluctuate in the non-linear region. (author)

  2. [Soil basal respiration and enzyme activities in the root-layer soil of tea bushes in a red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; He, Zhenli; Zhang, Rongguang; Chen, Guochao; Huang, Changyong

    2003-02-01

    Soil basal respiration potential, metabolic quotient (qCO2), and activities of urease, invertase and acid phosphomonoesterase were investigated in the root-layer of 10-, 40-, and 90-yr-old tea bushes grown on the same type of red soil. The soil daily basal respiration potential ranged from 36.23 to 58.52 mg.kg-1.d-1, and the potentials in the root-layer of 40- or 90-yr-old were greater than that of 10-yr old tea bushes. The daily qCO2, ranging from 0.30 to 0.68, was in the reverse trend. The activities of test three enzymes changed differently with tea bushes' age. Urease activity in the root-layer of all age tea bushes ranged from 41.48 to 47.72 mg.kg-1.h-1 and slightly decreased with tea bushes' age. Invertase activity was 189.29-363.40 mg.kg-1.h-1 and decreased with tea bushes' age, but its activity in the root-layer of 10-year old tea bushes was significantly greater than that in the root-layer soil of 40- or 90-year old tea bushes. Acid phosphomonoesterase activity (444.22-828.32 mg.kg-1.h-1) increased significantly with tea bushes' age. Soil basal respiration potential, qCO2 and activities of 3 soil enzymes were closely related to soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and C/N ratio, total soluble phenol, and microbial biomass carbon, respectively.

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  4. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  5. Neotropical echinococcosis: second report of Echinococcus vogeli natural infection in its main definitive host, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Pereira Soares, Manoel; Souza de Souza, Alex Junior; Pinheiro Malheiros, Andreza; Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Almeida Carneiro, Liliane; Alves, Max Moreira; Farias da Conceição, Bernardo; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Marins Póvoa, Marinete

    2014-04-01

    The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) acts as the natural definitive host in the life cycle of Echinococcus vogeli, the causative agent of polycystic hydatid disease, a zoonotic neglected disease in the South America. We report a case of natural infection by Echinococcus vogeli in a bush dog from the Brazilian Amazon, confirmed by the morphological and morphometric examination of adult parasites and their hooks obtained from the small intestine of the canid. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis corroborated these findings. This is the second report of natural infection by E. vogeli in a bush dog. © 2013.

  6. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  7. Bush School Capstone course support : the regional impact of climate change on transportation infrastructure and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Master of Public Service and Administration program at Texas A&Ms Bush School of Government : and Public Service requires that all second year graduate students participate in a two semester Capstone : course. These courses represent the pract...

  8. Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

  9. Some ecological side-effects of chemical and physical bush clearing in a southern African rangeland ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haussmann, N. S.; Kalwij, Jesse; Bezuidenhout, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 102, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 234-239 ISSN 0254-6299 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Acacia giraffae * bush encroachment * physical soil disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016

  10. Persia lost : how the foreign policy hawks of the George W. Bush administration blocked rapprochement with Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fagernes, Therese

    2011-01-01

    The presidency of George W. Bush was a period of controversy. The foreign policy that the administration implemented would be criticized both inside of the United States and across the world. The purpose of this thesis is to look at how the senior members of the Bush administration’s foreign policy team influenced the foreign policy process during President George Walker Bush’s first term. It will apply the interaction and bitter opposition between these individuals and the defining events th...

  11. Bush encroachment monitoring using multi-temporal Landsat data and random forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, E.; Higginbottom, T.

    2014-11-01

    It is widely accepted that land degradation and desertification (LDD) are serious global threats to humans and the environment. Around a third of savannahs in Africa are affected by LDD processes that may lead to substantial declines in ecosystem functioning and services. Indirectly, LDD can be monitored using relevant indicators. The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands, and the subsequent conversion of savannahs and open woodlands into shrublands, has attracted a lot of attention over the last decades and has been identified as a potential indicator of LDD. Mapping bush encroachment over large areas can only effectively be done using Earth Observation (EO) data and techniques. However, the accurate assessment of large-scale savannah degradation through bush encroachment with satellite imagery remains a formidable task due to the fact that on the satellite data vegetation variability in response to highly variable rainfall patterns might obscure the underlying degradation processes. Here, we present a methodological framework for the monitoring of bush encroachment-related land degradation in a savannah environment in the Northwest Province of South Africa. We utilise multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ (SLC-on) data from 1989 until 2009, mostly from the dry-season, and ancillary data in a GIS environment. We then use the machine learning classification approach of random forests to identify the extent of encroachment over the 20-year period. The results show that in the area of study, bush encroachment is as alarming as permanent vegetation loss. The classification of the year 2009 is validated yielding low commission and omission errors and high k-statistic values for the grasses and woody vegetation classes. Our approach is a step towards a rigorous and effective savannah degradation assessment.

  12. The Second Administration of George W. Bush and U.S.-Russia Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybalko Olga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of changes in the U.S.-Russia relationships during the presidency of George W. Bush and to the detection of the origins of these changes. The attention is paid to conceptual foreign policy views of the most influential members of administration. The renewal of staff in U.S. administration was one of the important factors of toughening the Russian course of the American foreign policy. At the beginning of the second presidency of George Bush the ratio of forces in the American Congress changed. Opposition forces received the majority in the Congress. This circumstance became the other reason of change of the U.S.-Russia relationships. The bilateral relations during the specified period were complicated by aspiration of the USA to strengthen the influence on the territories of the Post-Soviet states. It caused discontent of Moscow. At the same time, some aspects of the Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation caused criticism of Washington. The role of personal diplomacy is noted as a factor of forming bilateral relations. During the second term of the presidency of George W. Bush this factor didn't lose its value in comparison with the first term. The article gives the assessment of work of the Bush’s second administration at the Russian direction. The author notes the American focus on the strategy of “selective partnership” with Russia. The conclusion is drawn on George Bush's aspiration to preservation of balance in the U.S.-Russia relations under the conditions of increasing strains.

  13. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum , may utilize ?trample burr? dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic ?Dioicum Complex? lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent ?trample burr? seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Aus...

  14. Active vibration reduction of rigid rotor by kinematic excitation of bushes of journal bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ondrouch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of active lateral vibration reduction of a symmetric, rigid rotor supported by journal bearings are given. They were obtained by computational modelling. Efficiency of the feedback P and PD controllers in the stable revolution interval was examined. The linearized rotor system model was used. The results of the theoretical analysis are assigned for a testing stand where the bearing bush motions are deactivated by piezoelectric actuators connected to the controllers.

  15. Bush püüdis leevendada tšehhide Vene-hirmu / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 6. juuni 2007, lk. 9. Prahat külastanud USA president George W. Bush kinnitas oma kõnes, et külm sõda on läbi ning Tšehhi ei pea valima USA ja Venemaa sõbraks olemise vahel, samas kritiseeris ta Venemaad demokraatia puudumise pärast. Vt. samas: Poola langetab raketikilbi otsuse pärast Bushi visiiti

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet. 

  17. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  18. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  19. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  20. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  1. Les relations économiques États-Unis / Amérique latine pendant les années Bush : la nouvelle donne Economic Relations between the United States and Latin America in the Bush Years: Changing Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Azuelos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alors que l’élection de George B. Bush à la présidence des États-Unis avait pu autoriser certains à nourrir l’espoir d’une relance du processus d’intégration économique entre l’Amérique latine et l’Amérique du Nord, le bilan de ces huit années est mitigé et bien des incertitudes pesaient sur l’avenir de ce processus au moment de l’entrée en fonction de Barack Obama. Pour éclairer cette évolution, l’article replace les années Bush dans le contexte du recentrage sur la dimension économique de la relation qui fut consécutif à la fin de la guerre froide. La première partie, fondée sur l’étude des données chiffrées disponibles concernant les échanges commerciaux et des mouvements de capitaux, met en évidence une progression en trompe l’œil de ces flux, suggérant un désintérêt relatif des États-Unis pour leur traditionnelle arrière-cour. Pour rendre compte de cette nouvelle donne, la seconde partie revient sur le cadre géopolitique et géoéconomique dans laquelle s’inscrit la relation à partir de 2001.While George W. Bush’s election had promised to revive the drive towards further economic integration in the Americas, as he was leaving office eight years later the achievements of his presidency seemed rather mixed and the future of U.S.-Latin America relations uncertain. To shed light on this turnaround, this paper sets the Bush years in the wider context of post-Cold War renewed U.S. emphasis on the economic dimension of its relationship to Latin America. The first part, which focuses on quantitative data, concludes that although two-way trade and capital flows did grow significantly between 2000 and 2007, the momentum of the 1990s was largely lost. In an attempt to account for this trend, the second part focuses on the geopolitical and geoeconomic background which led to the United States’ relations with Latin America taking a new direction after 2001.

  2. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2. Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1 was

  3. Evaluation of effect of low opening operation on increasing wear of bearing bushings of guide vanes used in hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Se Na

    2012-01-01

    A guide vane plays a key role in controlling the flow rate of water supplied to the turbine of a hydropower plant. It has been reported that guide vane bearing bushings are subjected to considerable wear, which requires them to be maintained. An ancillary service such as frequency control and black start causes cyclic low opening operation of the guide vanes. It is empirically well known that such operation increases the wear rate of the guide vane bearing bushing. In this study, the effect of low opening operation on the increasing wear of the guide vane bearing bushing is quantitatively assessed via finite element flow analysis, finite element stress analysis, and relative wear evaluation. As a result of the assessment, it is identified that the pressure applied on the guide vane surface increases and the contact length between the outer surface of the guide vane stem and the inner surface of the bearing bushing decreases with a decrease in the opening of the guide vane. In addition, low opening of the guide vanes results in an increase in the relative wear owing to the generation of high contact pressure on the bearing bushing surfaces

  4. Production components and yield of bushing snap bean in conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Renato Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production systems influence crops differently, mainly in terms of yield. However, there are few studies that have evaluated different bushing snap bean genotypes in different systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the production components and yield of bushing snap beans in conventional and organic production systems. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in a factorial 6 × 2 arrangement, corresponding to six genotypes and two production systems, with three replications. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo®, Isla Macarrão Baixo®, Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo®, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli®, UEL 1, and UEL 2 were submitted to the following determinations: days to flowering; plant height; medium number of pods per plant; average pod mass, length, and diameter; and yield of commercial pods. A joint analysis of variance was conducted by applying the F test, with mean comparison performed using the Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Anthesis of the genotypes Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo, UEL 2, Isla Macarrão Baixo, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli is anticipated in the conventional production system. The genotype UEL 2 shows higher precocity in anthesis within the conventional system. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo and UEL 1 produce more pods per plant in the conventional system. In the organic system, the genotype Feltrin Macarrão Napoli produces double the number of pods per plant compared with Isla Manteiga Baixo. The organic system leads to greater plant height and average mass, length, and diameter of pods in relation to the conventional system. The commercial pod yield of bushing snap bean is not altered by differences in the production system or genotype.

  5. Rose bush leaf and internode expansion dynamics: analysis and development of a model capturing interplant variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eDemotes-Mainard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bush rose architecture, among other factors, such as plant health, determines plant visual quality. The commercial product is the individual plant and interplant variability may be high within a crop. Thus, both mean plant architecture and interplant variability should be studied. Expansion is an important feature of architecture, but it has been little studied at the level of individual organs in bush roses. We investigated the expansion kinetics of primary shoot organs, to develop a model reproducing the organ expansion of real crops from non destructive input variables. We took interplant variability in expansion kinetics and the model’s ability to simulate this variability into account. Changes in leaflet and internode dimensions over thermal time were recorded for primary shoot expansion, on 83 plants from three crops grown in different climatic conditions and densities. An empirical model was developed, to reproduce organ expansion kinetics for individual plants of a real crop of bush rose primary shoots. Leaflet or internode length was simulated as a logistic function of thermal time. The model was evaluated by cross-validation. We found that differences in leaflet or internode expansion kinetics between phytomer positions and between plants at a given phytomer position were due mostly to large differences in time of organ expansion and expansion rate, rather than differences in expansion duration. Thus, in the model, the parameters linked to expansion duration were predicted by values common to all plants, whereas variability in final size and organ expansion time was captured by input data. The model accurately simulated leaflet and internode expansion for individual plants (RMSEP = 7.3% and 10.2% of final length, respectively. Thus, this study defines the measurements required to simulate expansion and provides the first model simulating organ expansion in rosebush to capture interplant variability.

  6. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  7. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  8. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  9. BUSH: A computer code for calculating steady state heat transfer in LWR rod bundles under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code BUSH has been developed for the calculation of steady state heat transfer in a rod bundle. For a given power, flow and geometry it can calculate the temperatures in the rods, coolant and shroud assuming that at any axial level each rod can be described by one temperature and the coolant fluid is also radially uniform at this level. Heat transfer by convection and radiation are handled and the geometry is flexible enough to model nearly all types of envisaged shroud design for the SUPERSARA test series. The modular way in which BUSH has been written makes it suitable for future development, either within the present BUSH framework or as part of a more advanced code

  10. The Evolution of Missile Defense Plan from Bush to Obama. Implications for the National Security of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Laura BOSILCA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 Romania officially became part of the Obama administration’s missile defense system in Europe which has significantly changed the strategic military relations both in Europe and worldwide. The Bush approach has been revised and progress in several sections has been achieved, both strategically and technically. For Romania, the participation in the missile defence plan, ensures more solid security guarantees, especially in an unpredictable and risk-prone international environment where the U.S. reconsiders its presence in Europe under the pressure of the economic crisis and of a relative decline in power; it has also become a more visible actor – alongside Bulgaria – which were initially excluded by the Bush missile defence plan. This paper’s purpose is to review the main evolutions of the missile defense plan from the Bush to the Obama administration and to outline its implications on the national security of Romania.

  11. Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Rinas, Miguel; Irazu, Lucia; Miyagi, Adriana; Argüelles, Carina F; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2016-10-01

    Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scats, we determined that the parasitic prevalence was 63.0% (n = 17) with 8 (47.1%) having mixed infections with 2-4 parasitic genera. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between sampling areas, sex, and parasite taxa were found. We were able to summarize the predominant nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, and Lagochilascaris spp.), cestodes (Taenia spp. and Spirometra spp.), and apicomplexa (Cystoisospora caninum) found in these bush dogs. With the copro-ELISA technique, 14.8% (n = 4) of the samples were positive for Echinococcus spp. This study represents the first comprehensive study about parasitic fauna with zoonotic potential in the free-ranging bush dog. This information combined with the innovative set of techniques used to collect the samples constitute a valuable contribution that can be used in control programs, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and wildlife conservation, both regionally and across the bush dog's broad distribution.

  12. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  13. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  14. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  15. Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Riya C.; Jayarajan, Aditi; Shanker, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums. PMID:27534957

  16. Auditory DUM neurons in a bush-cricket: A filter bank for carrier frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Paule Chloé; Seifert, Marvin; Stumpner, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    In bush-crickets the first stage of central auditory processing occurs in the prothoracic ganglion. About 15 to 50 different auditory dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM neurons) exist but they have not been studied in any detail. These DUM neurons may be classified into seven different morphological types, although, there is only limited correlation between morphology and physiological responses. Ninety seven percent of the stained neurons were local, 3% were intersegmental. About 90% project nearly exclusively into the auditory neuropile, and 45% into restricted areas therein. Lateral extensions overlap with the axons of primary auditory sensory neurons close to their branching point. DUM neurons are typically tuned to frequencies covering the range between 2 and 50 kHz and thereby may establish a filter bank for carrier frequency. Less than 10% of DUM neurons have their branches in adjacent and more posterior regions of the auditory neuropile and are mostly tuned to low frequencies, less sensitive than the other types and respond to vibration. Thirty five percent of DUM show indications of inhibition, either through reduced responses at higher intensities, or by hyperpolarizing responses to sound. Most DUM neurons produce phasic spike responses preferably at higher intensities. Spikes may be elicited by intracellular current injection. Preliminary data suggest that auditory DUM neurons have GABA as transmitter and therefore may inhibit other auditory interneurons. From all known local auditory neurons, only DUM neurons have frequency specific responses which appear suited for local processing relevant for acoustic communication in bush crickets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work.

  18. MARIOLA: A model for calculating the response of mediterranean bush ecosystem to climatic variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uso-Domenech, J.L.; Ramo, M.P. [Department of Mathematics, Campus de Penyeta Roja, University Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Villacampa-Esteve, Y. [Department of Analysis and Applied Mathematics, University of Alicante (Spain); Stuebing-Martinez, G. [Department of Botany, University of Valencia (Spain); Karjalainen, T. [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu (Finland)

    1995-07-01

    The paper summarizes the bush ecosystem model developed for assessing the effects of climatic change on the behaviour of mediterranean bushes assuming that temperature, humidity and rain-fall are the basic dimensions of the niche occupied by shrub species. In this context, changes in the monthly weather pattern serve only to outline the growth conditions due to the nonlinearity of response of shrubs to climatic factors. The plant-soil-atmosphere system is described by means of ordinary non-linear differential equations for the state variables: green biomass, woody biomass, the residues of green and woody biomasses, faecal detritus of mammals on the soil, and the total organic matter of the soil. The behaviour of the flow variables is described by means of equations obtained from non-linear multiple regressions from the state variables and the input variables. The model has been applied with success to the behaviour of Cistus albidus in two zones of the Province of Alicante (Spain). The data base for the parametrical locations (zone 1) and validation (zone 2) is based upon measurements taken weekly over a 2-year period. The model is used to simulate the response of this shrub to a decreasing tendency in precipitation combined with a simultaneous rise in temperature. A period of 10 years is simulated and it is observed that plants with woody biomass smaller than 85 g die between the first and the third month and other plants` biomass decreases during this period, and strongly thereafter

  19. APPLIED BOTANY, I. PROTECTION OF TREES AND BUSHES IN THE INVESTMENT PROCESS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Garczyńska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are the benefits resulting from resources and processes in nature. Trees and stand densities constitute a significant element of the landscape (both in urban and rural areas and serve a number of ecosystem functions, forming an inherent part of each group of benefits singled out on the basis of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In the thesis, selected ecosystem services of trees and stand densities were detailed - provisioning, regulatory, supporting and cultural functions. Diagnosis of services performed by trees and their valuation may contribute to taking increased care of them and protection during performing various investments, it is therefore appropriate to launch multifaceted ecological education to each person, particularly to those directly responsible for trees and bushes in towns and rural areas. In order to restrict construction stress to trees and bushes, environmental impact assessment has to be made as soon as the construction planning is being made (natural, cultural and landscape conditions should be provided additionally, it is advisable to conduct a dendrological inventory for planning purposes. Appropriate protection of trees and standing densities is also legally regulated by the Nature Conservation Act and the Construction Law. During the investment process, the trees and their settlement conditions should be adequately secured , so that it will not affect their viability. After completed investment, the condition of the tree stand should be monitored.

  20. Design optimization of the 100 kV HV bushing for ITER-DNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Rajesh, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Srusti, B. [DesignTech Systems Ltd, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500034 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M.J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A.K. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2011-10-15

    The 100 kV bushing of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector is a cylindrical feedthrough which forms the interface between the gas insulated transmission line and the torus primary vacuum and provides all necessary services to the beam source. All conventions for safety, voltage holding requirement, vacuum compatibility and the choice of materials have been addressed in the design. Finite Element Analyses (FEAs) for the electrostatic and the structural configuration is carried out to validate the design of the High Voltage Bushing (HVB). Several iterations and optimizations of the stress shields are carried out to meet electrostatic criteria, especially at the triple point (the ceramic, metal and vacuum joint), which is critical for good voltage holding. Structural analyses is carried out to assess the stress distribution in the fiber reinforced plastic insulator, the alumina insulator and the integrated HVB for different load cases like operational orientation (horizontal), normal operation and accidental case. Design is further validated for seismic conditions for Seismic Loading-2 (SL-2).

  1. Design optimization of the 100 kV HV bushing for ITER-DNB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Sejal; Rajesh, S.; Srusti, B.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M.J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 100 kV bushing of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector is a cylindrical feedthrough which forms the interface between the gas insulated transmission line and the torus primary vacuum and provides all necessary services to the beam source. All conventions for safety, voltage holding requirement, vacuum compatibility and the choice of materials have been addressed in the design. Finite Element Analyses (FEAs) for the electrostatic and the structural configuration is carried out to validate the design of the High Voltage Bushing (HVB). Several iterations and optimizations of the stress shields are carried out to meet electrostatic criteria, especially at the triple point (the ceramic, metal and vacuum joint), which is critical for good voltage holding. Structural analyses is carried out to assess the stress distribution in the fiber reinforced plastic insulator, the alumina insulator and the integrated HVB for different load cases like operational orientation (horizontal), normal operation and accidental case. Design is further validated for seismic conditions for Seismic Loading-2 (SL-2).

  2. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  3. Ilves ja Bush - üks rantšopidajast president kutsus teise külla / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi kohtumisest president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega. Kõne all oli viisavabadus ja NATO küberkaitsekeskuse loomine Eestisse. G.W. Bush avaldas kaastunnet Afganistanis hukkunud Eesti sõdurite omastele. Riigikogu liikmete Marko Mihkelsoni ja Sven Mikseri kommentaarid presidentide kohtumisele. Vt. samas: Esimene riigipea pärjaga. T.H. Ilves asetas pärja kommunismiohvrite mälestusmärgile, mille president G.W. Bush avas 12. juunil 2007. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  4. Micromycetes colonizing and damaging leaves of evergreen rhododendron (Rhododendron L. in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In May and October 2010–2012, mycological studies were conducted on 10 cultivars of rhododendron bushes growing in containers in the nursery of ornamental plants. Out of 3000 specimens of infested leaf fragments, 2566 fungal colonies belonging to 41 species were isolated. The following species colonizing the leaves and causing their necrosis were extracted in the largest number of colonies: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Epicoccum nigrum, Humicola grisea, Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Phoma pomorum, Sordaria fimicola, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma polysporum, Truncatella truncata, Umbelopsis isabellina and others. The research showed that the micromycetes colonies colonizing and damaging rhododendron leaves varied in species composition and number of colonies in different years and at different times. The study determined which rhododendron cultivars were characterized by good health and which had the greatest susceptibility to infection by micromycetes.

  5. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush; L'evolution de la politique americaine dans la region de la mer Caspienne de Clinton a Bush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafalian, A

    2003-07-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  6. Candidates stick to party guns. In lieu of new healthcare plans, Bush, Gore follow party reform proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J; Hallam, K

    2000-07-03

    As the Democratic and GOP nominating conventions approach next month, presumptive nominees Al Gore and George W. Bush are offering no new healthcare plans, both preferring to ride the healthcare waves already set in motion by their respective party's leadership. And the really interesting thing is, the plans aren't that different. Call it creeping incrementalism.

  7. President Bush : langenud nõuavad, et me jätkame võitlust! / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Salt Lake Citys USA sõjaveteranidele peetud kõnes ütles USA president George W. Bush, et tuleb jõuda eesmärgile, mille eest USA sõdurid oma elu andsid. Samas toimus sõjavastaste demonstratsioon

  8. Relações Brasil e Estados Unidos no período Bush: expectativas e frustrações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2012-09-01

    The article deals with the political and economic relationship between Brazil and United States during the George W Bush mandate (2001-2008. It  discusses the failed attempt to establish a hemispheric free trade agreement, due to the American protectionism, and to expand the use of biofuel. Finally, it also discusses the creation of the Fourth Fleet.

  9. Livelihoods, economic contribution and sustainability of the bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) value chain from three provinces of Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iponga, D.M.; Yobo, C.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Bengone, N.N.; Ngoye, A.

    2018-01-01

    In the Congo Basin, the economic, social and environmental value of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), such as bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) is widely acknowledged. However, knowledge of the volumes traded, extent and distribution of revenues along the value chain is limited while little is

  10. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  11. Comparing damage on retrieved total elbow replacement bushings with lab worn specimens subjected to varied loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan

    2018-01-09

    Complication rates following total elbow replacement (TER) with conventional implants are relatively high due to mechanical failure involving the UHMWPE bushings. Unfortunately, there are no standardized pre-clinical durability testing protocols for assessing the durability of TER components. This study examines the damage observed on retrieved humeral bushings, and then uses in vitro durability testing with two different loading protocols to compare resulting damage. Damage on 25 pairs of retrieved humeral bushings was characterized using micro-computed tomographic imaging techniques. The damage was compared with that of in vitro test specimens which were subjected to 200 K cycles of either high joint reaction force (high JRF) or high varus moment (high VM) loading. Material removal (mass loss) from bushing components was measured using gravimetric techniques. Thinning was less for retrieved bushings which were still assembled in their humeral component, versus bushings which were loose (0.3 ± 0.3 mm vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mm, p = 0.02). Comparing in vitro test specimens, thinning due to high VM loading was 0.9 ± 0.3 mm, versus 0.2 ± 0.0 mm for high JRF loading (p = 0.08); however, the actual material removal rates from the humeral bushings were not different between the two protocols (48 ± 5 mm 3 /Mc vs. 43 ± 2 mm 3 /Mc, p = 1). Neither loading protocol could produce damage patterns fully representative of the spectrum of damage patterns observed on clinical retrievals. Pre-clinical testing should employ multiple loading protocols to characterize implant performance under a broader spectrum of usage. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Heller

    Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string and mirror ( =  soundbox.

  13. Fruit quality parameters of some southern high bush blueberries (Vaccinium xcorymbosum L.) grown in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. M.; Calvo, D.; Medina, J. J.; Barrau, C.; Romero, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical and chemical parameters of fresh berries from three southern high bush (ONeal, Sharp blue and Misty) blueberry cultivars grown in Huelva (Southwestern Spain) under two production systems were measured and evaluated. ANOVA applied to data yielded significant differences between production systems for mean fruit size and mean fruit fresh weight (P<0.05), although main effects on physical and chemical characteristics of fruit were due to cultivar. All three cultivars showed significantly different means (P<0.05) for fruit fresh weight, and all chemical characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) for classification and identification of the cultivars based on physico-chemical properties of samples of fruits was performed. The model obtained gave high percentages of correct classification and prediction (81.1% and 78.4%, respectively). The variables with higher discriminating power were fruit titratable acidity, fruit size and fruit sugar content. (Author)

  14. Fiddler on the Tree - A Bush-Cricket Species with Unusual Stridulatory Organs and Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Hemp, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string) and mirror ( =  soundbox). PMID:24643071

  15. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA.

  16. Wolves at the Door: Musical persuasion in a 2004 Bush-Cheney advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Killmeier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many journalists and scholars overlook the discursive role of music in TV political advertisements. But we argue that music is a potent means of political persuasion. Music in advertisements is determinative; all other elements—images, voiceovers, sound effects, written text, and so on—are circumscribed by the music and interpreted in relation to it. Music determines an advertisement’s character through framing and underscoring; musical frames establish interpretative categories and generate expectations, while underscoring comprises music that closely coordinates with images and voiceovers to form a persuasive aesthetic and rhetorical unity. A close reading of a 2004 Bush-Cheney advertisement applies this theory of frames and underscoring to explain the advertisement’s effectiveness. Without music, the advertisement would not only fail to persuade, it would also make no sense.

  17. Wolves at the Door: Musical persuasion in a 2004 Bush-Cheney advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Killmeier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many journalists and scholars overlook the discursive role of music in TV political advertisements. But we argue that music is a potent means of political persuasion. Music in advertisements is determinative; all other elements—images, voiceovers, sound effects, written text, and so on—are circumscribed by the music and interpreted in relation to it. Music determines an advertisement’s character through framing and underscoring; musical frames establish interpretative categories and generate expectations, while underscoring comprises music that closely coordinates with images and voiceovers to form a persuasive aesthetic and rhetorical unity. A close reading of a 2004 Bush-Cheney advertisement applies this theory of frames and underscoring to explain the advertisement’s effectiveness. Without music, the advertisement would not only fail to persuade, it would also make no sense.

  18. Penerapan Metode DMAIC dalam Peningkatan Acceptance Rate untuk Ukuran Panjang Produk Bushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Hwi Chie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bushing is one of the eminent product of PT Indokarlo Mighty. The company requires some suppliers of iron cutting services to continue providing high qualified raw materials. The quality is the accuracy of the intended length of the products which is able to meet the requirements of the requested length. The purpose of this study is to determine what factors caused the defect on the length of the products. In addition, it is objected to provide appropriate solutions to eliminate to the factors, so that the number of defected products can be reduced. This study uses the methodology of Six Sigma improvement models Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC to make improvements in the quality of services provided by PT Argatama Multi Agung, while the improvement phase uses Design of Experiment (DOE to find the machine configuration that can produce the best quality products. A significant increase in sigma is obtained from the conducted research.

  19. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  20. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  1. Analysis of the Causes of Cracks in a Thick-Walled Bush Made of Die-Cast Aluminum Bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B.P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the die casting conditions of aluminium bronzes assumed based on the literature data, a thick-walled bush was cast, made of complex aluminium bronze (Cu-Al-Fe-Ni-Cr. After the cast was removed from the mould, cracks were observed inside it. In order to identify the stage in the technological production process at which, potentially, the formation of stresses damaging the continuity of the microstructure created in the cast was possible (hot cracking and/or cold cracking, a computer simulation was performed. The article presents the results of the computer simulation of the process of casting the material into the gravity die as well as solidifying and cooling of the cast in the shape of a thick-walled bush. The simulation was performed with the use of the MAGMA5 program and by application of the CuAl10Ni5,5Fe4,5 alloy from the MAGMA5 program database. The results were compared with the location of the defects identified in the actual cast. As a result of the simulation of the die-casting process of this bush, potential regions were identified where significant principal stresses accumulate, which can cause local hot and cold cracking. Until now, no research has been made of die-cast aluminium bronzes with a Cr addition. Correlating the results of the computer simulation validated by the analysis of the actual cast made it possible to clearly determine the critical regions in the cast exposed to cracking and point to the causes of its occurrence. Proposals of changes in the bush die casting process were elaborated, in order to avoid hot tearing and cold cracking. The article discusses the results of preliminary tests being a prologue to the optimization of the die-casting process parameters of complex aluminium bronze thick-walled bushs.

  2. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Anne Alexander

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana.Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000 were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA and included the African buffalo (247, bushbuck (1, eland (5, elephant (25, gemsbok (1, giraffe (9, hartebeest (12, impala (171, kudu (27, red lechwe (10, reedbuck (1, rhino (2, springbok (5, steenbok (2, warthog (24, waterbuck (1, wildebeest (33, honey badger (1, lion (43, and zebra (21. Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006.Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96% and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43% were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46% occurring in children (<14 years old and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector.Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from

  3. Political Struggle Over The Immigration Reform During G.W.Bush Presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Filippenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By the beginning of the XXI century, the US had about 12 million illegal aliens and the immigration reform was evidently much needed. The Immigration Act of 1990 was significantly outdated and required revision. Additional regulations that passed in the 1990-s had to be systematized. The White House and the president George W. Bush inclined to the comprehensive immigration reform that would include an amnesty for the certain part of the illegal aliens. Some lawmakers were ready to strike a deal, but than happened the 9/11 tragedy. Immigration reform was shelved and turned into a matter of national security. Immigration reform bills were taken into consideration only in conjunction with boarder security bills. Edward Kennedy was very much aware of the issue's complexity and the need for reform; he did all he could to reach a compromise with his fellow Republicans. John McCain became his closest ally in the reform. Democrats made considerable concessions, while moderate Republicans were willing to meet them halfway, but the conservatives would not let the Congress adopt a new legislation, calling any attempt at comprehensive immigration reform an amnesty for the criminals. During the 107-110 Congresses the immigration reform was thoroughly worked through from both sides, but the proposed bills rarely got to the floor and never passed both Houses. Even though the time has passed, suggestions offered and deals reached during the Bush presidency did not lose the edge and any new immigration legislation is going be based on the 2002-2008 bills.

  4. POLITICAL STRUGGLE OVER THE IMMIGRATION REFORM DURING G.W.BUSH PRESIDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Filippenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By the beginning of the XXI century, the US had about 12 million illegal aliens and the immigration reform was evidently much needed. The Immigration Act of 1990 was significantly outdated and required revision. Additional regulations that passed in the 1990-s had to be systematized. The White House and the president George W. Bush inclined to the comprehensive immigration reform that would include an amnesty for the certain part of the illegal aliens. Some lawmakers were ready to strike a deal, but than happened the 9/11 tragedy. Immigration reform was shelved and turned into a matter of national security. Immigration reform bills were taken into consideration only in conjunction with boarder security bills. Edward Kennedy was very much aware of the issue's complexity and the need for reform; he did all he could to reach a compromise with his fellow Republicans. John McCain became his closest ally in the reform. Democrats made considerable concessions, while moderate Republicans were willing to meet them halfway, but the conservatives would not let the Congress adopt a new legislation, calling any attempt at comprehensive immigration reform an amnesty for the criminals. During the 107-110 Congresses the immigration reform was thoroughly worked through from both sides, but the proposed bills rarely got to the floor and never passed both Houses. Even though the time has passed, suggestions offered and deals reached during the Bush presidency did not lose the edge and any new immigration legislation is going be based on the 2002-2008 bills.

  5. LA IDEOLOGÍA NEOCONSERVADORA Y EL GOBIERNO DE GEORGE W. BUSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Saxe Fernández

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available El 15 de Septiembre de 2002, casi al año de los ataques contra las Torres Gemelas y el Pentágono,el Sunday Herald informó sobre la existencia de un plan elaborado por un instituto “neo-conservador”,ese es el término usado en la nota periodística,identificado como el “Proyecto para un Nuevo Siglo Estadounidense”, que empezó a funcionar en1997.Este instituto se orientó al impulso de lo que su documento fundacional califica como “una política reaganiana de fortaleza militar y de claridad moral”, considerada como algo “necesario para que EUA, basado en los éxitos del siglo pasado, consolide nuestra seguridad y nuestra grandeza en el próximo siglo”. El documento, de línea ultranacionalista, plantea la “creación de una Pax Americana Global”, y fue endosado por DickCheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, JeffBush y Lewis Lobby, jefe del personal de Cheney, con la participación de operadores políticos eideólogos como Elliott Abrams y Francis Fukuyama. El Sunday Herald enfatizó que, según el documento, “antes de que asumiera la presidencia en Enero de 2000, Bush y su gabineteya estaban contemplando y planeando un “cambio de régimen” en Irak por medio de un ataque premeditado contra ese país.

  6. U.S. energy policy and the Bush administration's North American energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, K.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined the energy policy in the United States and its impact on frontier development in Alaska, deepwater offshore fields and in the western oil shale resources. The energy strategy focuses on technologies that increase domestic production from existing resources as well as technologies that create new sources of energy. In addition to emphasizing the cooperation between Canada and the United States in ensuring energy supply security and stability, this paper discussed the importance of overall bilateral trade between the 2 countries. It was noted that Canada is the United State's most secure and reliable energy partner and is the number 1 supplier of imported oil, natural gas, electricity and uranium. The Bush administration's energy policy is based on the mandate to supply stable, reliable, secure, affordable and environmentally sound energy for the country's growing economy. The energy strategy focuses on increasing energy supplies, promoting energy conservation, repairing and modernizing the energy infrastructure, protecting the environment and improving energy security. Basic changes to the way energy is produced and used will be needed in order to meet these challenges. Energy security can be met through efficiency gains, diversification and use of alternative energy sources. The strategy involves a balance of supply sources, ranging from increasing domestic oil and gas production to such sources as clean coal generation, nuclear power and hydropower. The policy also balances the use of traditional energy sources with renewables such as geothermal, solar, wind and hydrogen. The United States, Canada and Mexico have identified the following 9 areas as critical for interaction on energy: energy data, electricity, regulatory cooperation, energy efficiency, natural gas, oil sands, nuclear and energy science and technology. Construction of the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline is also one of the Bush administration's highest priorities, along with

  7. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  8. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  9. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  10. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  11. Aislador tipo bushing de fabricación nacional para transformadores de 15 kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón González Guevara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del trabajo es la fabricación, validación técnica en condiciones de laboratorio ypuesta en operación del aislador tipo bushing para transformadores de 15 kV fabricado con materia primanacional. La metodología de trabajo se basa en la selección de los perfiles de aisladores de acuerdo conlos criterios establecidos por el cliente, fabricación de probetas de material cerámico y prototipos deaisladores, comprobación de su competencia técnica mediante la realización de ensayos de laboratorio,procesamiento estadístico de los resultados y su evaluación en condiciones de operación. Lasconsideraciones económicas demuestran que es posible obtener un efecto económico del orden de los32 000,00 USD, teniendo como soporte de cálculo la producción de transformadores planificada para elpróximo año. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos, hasta estos momentos, relativos a los ensayoseléctricos de la primera serie de prototipos y las recomendaciones para la realización de trabajos futuros  The fundamental objective of the work is the fabrication, technical validity in the laboratory conditions andputting into operation of the bushing type insulator for 15 kV transformers manufactured with national rawmaterial.The work methodology is supported in the selection of the insulator profiles taking into accountthe establish criteria by the costumer, fabrication of ceramic material test piece and insulator prototypes,verification of its technical competence by means of carrying out of laboratory tests, statistical processingof the results and its evaluation in operation conditions. The economic considerations demonstrate that ispossible obtain an economic effect in the order of 32 000, 00 USD, taking as calculus support the transformersplaned production for the next year. The obtained results, so far, are presented, relative to the electricaltest of the first series of the prototypes and the recommendations for performing

  12. New imperialism and beyond: why the new imperialism will fail and unseat the Bush Administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras los atentados terroristas del 11S de 2001, los Estados Unidos implantaron una política de nuevo imperialismo y de construcción de un nuevo tipo de imperio mundial. Las políticas globales norteamericanas pueden dividirse en economista, cooperativista y reglada por el idealismo Wilsoneano, y el imperialismo Rooseveltiano, basado en un nacionalismo agresivo, militarismo, unilateralismo y governanza global  basada en reglas directas, presencia física y coerción. Las políticas de la administraciones Bush representan esta última vertiente y la Guerra contra el Terror puede ser interpretada como una Primera Guerra Mundial y una guerra civil en los Estados Unidos. Se proclama que un nuevo imperialismo fracasará debido a diversas razones de tipo económica, política, étnica e histórica, y que esta política está debilitando la posición global de Estados Unidos. Al final, se explica cómo en el contexto de una Nueva Contención Pacífica, los ciudadanos norteamericanos y los ciudadanos del resto del mundo pueden utilizar la democracia en contra del nuevo imperialismo y apoyar un cambio de régimen democrático en Estados Unidos, procediendo a la construcción conjunta de un  mundo democrático y justo.________________ABSTRACT:After the terrorist attacks of S-11-2001 the US engaged in the policies of new imperialism and in the construction of a new kind of world-empire. US global policies can be divided in detached, economist, cooperative, rule-based Wilsonian Idealism and Theodore Rooseveltian Imperialism, based on aggressive nationalism, militarism, unilateralism and global governance based on direct rule, physical presence and coercion. The Bush administrations policies represent the latter and the War on Terror and Non-White Others can be seen as a First World War and an Internal Civil War in the US. It is claimed that the new imperialism will fail due to various economic, political, ethical and historical reasons and that this

  13. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  14. Reduction of eddy current losses around bushing holes on the top-plate of a high efficient transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aytaç ÇINAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage winding leads cause local eddy current losses in top-plate of the transformer tank. In this paper, this loss component which also causes local hot spots is investigated. Top-plate design is modified using stainless steel non-magnetic material, around the low voltage bushing holes. Manufacturing issues and cost as well as power losses are considered as main criteria during modification study. Magnetic flux distributions and eddy current losses are analysed and compared for different designs. Comparisons are based on 3D finite element simulations and experimental studies. Obtained results show that, insertion of single I-shaped stainless steel plate reduces eddy current losses around low voltage bushing holes to nearly zero.

  15. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  16. Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P S; Soave, Semíramis A; Turchetti, Andréia P; Pinheiro, Guilherme R G; Pessanha, Angela T; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Figueiredo, Luiza A; Gontijo, Nelder F; Paixão, Tatiane A; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santos, Renato L

    2015-09-15

    Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is the cause of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The disease is transmitted mostly through the bite of the invertebrate vector, the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis in the New World. Although the domestic dog is considered the most important reservoir of the disease, other mammalian, including wildlife, are susceptible to infection. The goal of this study was to perform xenodiagnosis to evaluate the capacity of naturally infected maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to transmit Leishmania infantum to female sand flies (L. longipalpis). Xenodiagnoses were performed in February and August, 2013, when 77.7% (three maned wolves and four bush dogs) or 100% of the animals were positive, respectively. However, parasite loads in the engorged sand flies was low (longipalpis, although the parasite loads in engorged phlebotomines exposed to these animals were very low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  18. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  19. Marksmen and the bush: The affective micro-politics of landscape, sex and technology in precolonial South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. de Luna

    Full Text Available This essay explores what we can know about the micro-politics of knowledge production using the history of bushcraft as a case study. In many societies in central, eastern and southern Africa, practitioners of technologies undertaken away from the village, in the bush, enjoy a special status. Among the Botatwe-speaking societies of south-central Africa, the status accorded hunters, smelters and other technicians of the bush was crafted in the centuries around the turn of the first millennium by combining old ideas about the blustery character of fame and spirits, and the talk that engendered both with the observation that technicians working in the bush shared a kinesthetic experience of piercing, poking and prodding into action during the generative activities of working smelts and taking down game. Yet the micro-politics of bushcraft knowledge also involved the bodies and feelings of spearmen and metallurgists' wives, lovers, mothers, sisters, and sometimes those of the entire neighbourhood. The invention of a new landscape category, isokwe, and the novel status of these seasonal technicians marks the development of a new kind of virile masculinity available to some men; it was a status with deeply sensuous, material and social meanings for women as well.

  20. Floristics and Reproductive Phenology of Trees and Bushes in Central West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Vivian A; Casagrande, José C; Sartori, Angela L B

    2014-04-29

    Environmental conditions such as temperature, soil, photoperiodic factors and precipitation can determine the physical environment favoring the occurrence of given species and interfere with the reproductive period of plants. This work involved monthly excursions to a slope in the Serra de Maracaju between December 2009 and November 2010. Samples were collected in eight 25 x 50 m plots, transverse to the slope, totaling 1 ha sampled. Floristic richness included 79 species distributed into 58 genera and 31 families. Floristic Similarity Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the occurrence of two plant formations on the slope: seasonal deciduous forest and cerradão on the eutrophic soil of the slope. Flowering and fruiting occured in the rainy season; correlation with rainfall, mean temperature and photoperiod were negative for flowering and positive for fructification. Trees and bushes presented uniform flowering and a moderately seasonal fructification, which is unexpected in seasonal environments. We discuss the implications of the patterns found and make comparisons with others studies.

  1. Experimental reintroduction of the federally endangered Santa Cruz Island bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nestioticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, D.H.; McEachern, K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus were begun in 1995 to understand its distribution, reproductive biology and ecological requirements. After 100+ years of depredation by sheep, two known populations of fewer than 20 plants each survived in 1995. Molecular studies showed that each of the two populations was composed of 1–3 genets. During our study, two additional populations of similar size were discovered. Plants are self-compatible but require insect visitation to augment pollination. Based on seed set, viable embryos, and germination rates, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression. Bush mallow also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes, the primary means of establishment and persistence in natural populations, and a key feature for maximizing recovery success. Ex situ observations and trial in situ outplantings suggested that supplemental watering was critical to initial survival. We developed a recovery strategy composed of four plots located at varying elevations and aspects. Each plot was enclosed to exclude feral pigs, which posed a continuing threat. Each plot was planted with twelve rooted plants derived from each of three natural populations. Plants were provided supplemental watering for four months. Survivorship after one year ranged from 46% to 91%. Significant differences in survivorship were observed relative to source of plants. After twelve months some plants were flowering and reproducing vegetatively.

  2. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  3. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  4. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  6. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea), Monsonia burkeana (special tea) and synergistic effects of both combined herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell

    2014-09-01

    To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3

  7. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  8. Genotypic differences in architectural and physiological responses to water restriction in rose bush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Marchetti, Camille; Le Bras, Camille; Relion, Daniel; Citerne, Sylvie; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Sakr, Soulaiman; Morel, Philippe; Crespel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20 and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones [abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA)], sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype × watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction – weak, moderate and strong – represented by Hw336, ‘Baipome’ and ‘The Fairy,’ respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of ‘Baipome’ compared to ‘The Fairy,’ but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses in ‘Baipome’ could be related to: (i) the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK) and to a lower concentration in SA; (ii) a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to water restriction. PMID

  9. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  10. O factor de coberto vegetal, para árvores e Arbustos, em modelos de erosão hídrica The vegetation cover factor, for tree and bush canopies, in models of water erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rolo Antunes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo primordial do presente trabalho consiste na análise do comportamento de cobertos arbóreos e arbustivos, em termos do processo de intercepção da precipitação, designadamente, retenção e gotejo, e no estabelecimento de uma componente a incluir em modelos de erosão, que permita quantificar o factor de coberto vegetal em caso de ocupação do solo por estes cobertos, associados a culturas arvenses, em subcoberto, particularmente, na Equação Universal da Perda de Solo Revista (RUSLE. O trabalho experimental utilizou um simulador de chuva, tendo-se obtido valores do diâmetro das gotas (gotejo das folhas de espécies características dos sistemas de uso do solo mais comuns no Sul de Portugal, nomeadamente sobreiro (Quercus suber L., azinheira (Quercus ilex L. ssp. rotundifolia Lam e carrasco (Quercus coccifera L., e quantificado valores de retenção nas folhas. A partir dos resultados obtidos estimou-se a energia cinética para diferentes alturas de queda e, consequentemente, valores correctivos a aplicar aos valores de C tradicionalmente considerados, relativos às culturas agrícolas.The main objective of this work consists on the analyzes of tree and bush canopies behavior, in terms of the rainfall interception process, namely, leave retention, and dripping, and the establishment of a erosion model component to include in to quantify the cover factor (C of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE for mixed land covered systems with arable crops, in association with trees and bushes. In the experimental work a rainfall simulator was used and the characteristic values for the diameter of the dripping drops and retention of the leaves from characteristic species of the more common mixed land-use systems in Southern of Portugal, particularly with Cork oak (Quercus suber L., Holm or evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L. ssp. rotundifolia Lam and Kermes or wild oak (Quercus coccifera L., were obtained. From the obtained results

  11. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  12. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  13. Design status and procurement activities of the High Voltage Deck 1 and Bushing for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Marco; De Lorenzi, Antonio; Decamps, Hans; Grando, Luca; Simon, Muriel; Toigo, Vanni

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ITER Neutral Beam Injector includes several non-standard components. ► The design status of the −1 MV dc HVD1 and Bushing is described. ► The paper reports also on the integrated layout of the two components. ► Preliminary electrostatic and thermal analyses are presented. ► Procurement activities are outlined. -- Abstract: The ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) power supply system includes several non-standard components, whose ratings go beyond the present industrial practice. Two of these items, to be procured by Fusion for Energy, are: 1.A −1 MV dc air-insulated Faraday cage, called High Voltage Deck 1 (HVD1), hosting the Ion Source and Extractor Power Supplies (ISEPS) and the associated diagnostics. 2.A −1 MV dc feedthrough, called HVD1-TL Bushing, aimed at connecting the HVD1 to the gas (SF 6 ) insulated Transmission Line (TL), containing inside its High Voltage (HV) conductor all ISEPS power and control cables coming from the HVD1 to be connected to the NBI Ion Source services. The paper deals with the status of the design of the HVD1 and HVD1-TL Bushing, focusing on insulation, mechanical and thermal issues as well as on their integration with the other components of the power supply system. In particular, the insulation issue of the integrated system has been addressed by means of an electrostatic Finite Element (FE) analysis whilst a FE thermal simulation has been carried out to assess the impact of the dissipation of the proposed design of the inner conductors (ISEPS conductors) not actively cooled. Finally, the paper describes the status of procurement strategy and execution

  14. Design status and procurement activities of the High Voltage Deck 1 and Bushing for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldrin, Marco, E-mail: marco.boldrin@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); De Lorenzi, Antonio [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Grando, Luca [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Simon, Muriel [Fusion For Energy, c/ Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► ITER Neutral Beam Injector includes several non-standard components. ► The design status of the −1 MV{sub dc} HVD1 and Bushing is described. ► The paper reports also on the integrated layout of the two components. ► Preliminary electrostatic and thermal analyses are presented. ► Procurement activities are outlined. -- Abstract: The ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) power supply system includes several non-standard components, whose ratings go beyond the present industrial practice. Two of these items, to be procured by Fusion for Energy, are: 1.A −1 MV{sub dc} air-insulated Faraday cage, called High Voltage Deck 1 (HVD1), hosting the Ion Source and Extractor Power Supplies (ISEPS) and the associated diagnostics. 2.A −1 MV{sub dc} feedthrough, called HVD1-TL Bushing, aimed at connecting the HVD1 to the gas (SF{sub 6}) insulated Transmission Line (TL), containing inside its High Voltage (HV) conductor all ISEPS power and control cables coming from the HVD1 to be connected to the NBI Ion Source services. The paper deals with the status of the design of the HVD1 and HVD1-TL Bushing, focusing on insulation, mechanical and thermal issues as well as on their integration with the other components of the power supply system. In particular, the insulation issue of the integrated system has been addressed by means of an electrostatic Finite Element (FE) analysis whilst a FE thermal simulation has been carried out to assess the impact of the dissipation of the proposed design of the inner conductors (ISEPS conductors) not actively cooled. Finally, the paper describes the status of procurement strategy and execution.

  15. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Tiepolo

    Full Text Available Abstract We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil.

  16. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  17. Rusia a lo largo de los mandatos presidenciales de George W. Bush y Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Deyermond

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto sobre la idea de democracia fue un factor clave en el deterioro de las relaciones bilaterales entre los Estados Unidos y Rusia a lo largo de la segunda etapa del mandato presidencial de George W. Bush (2005-2009. El apoyo gubernamental y no gubernamental estadounidense a la democratización de la región postsoviética fue visto por Rusia como un encubrimiento de los avances de los intereses nacionales estadounidenses en la zona, a expensas de los de Rusia. Como respuesta Rusia desarrolló estrategias prácticas y discursivas para contrarrestarlos. Los debates sobre el estado de la democracia Rusa, sobre la idea de «democracia soberana» y sobre la guía democrática (u otra de las relaciones exteriores de los Estados Unidos emergieron durante esta etapa como lugares –y evidencia– de las disputas entre ambos estados. Este artículo sostiene que la retórica de fomento de la democracia estadounidense combinada con un patrón claro de instrumentalización del concepto de democracia que alentó –en los contextos de una más general política exterior asertiva estadounidense y de las «revoluciones de colores»– la respuesta de la instrumentalización de la idea y uso de «democracia» por las élites políticas rusas, que emplearon el concepto como la base de un reto discursivo al dominio global estadounidense. Como consecuencia, no solo es el contenido del término «democracia» motivo de discusión sino que, de modo crítico, la disputa ha quedado unida a temas como la identidad estatal, la seguridad estatal y conceptos de relaciones internacionales. «Democracia», por lo tanto, parece que se mantendrá como una fuente y como un medio de articular el descontento en la relación de los Estados Unidos con Rusia y los estados de Asia Central en un futuro previsible.

  18. Effects of aging on the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the silicone rubber current transformer insulation bushing for a 500 kV substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigao; Zhang, Xinghai; Wang, Fangqiang; Lan, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yiqian

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the cracking and aging reason of the silicone rubber current transformer (CT) insulation bushing used for 8 years from a 500 kV alternating current substation, characteristics including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical properties analysis, hardness, and thermo gravimetric analysis have been carried out. The FTIR results indicated that the external surface of the silicone rubber CT insulation bushing suffered from more serious aging than the internal part, fracture of side chain Si-C bond was much more than the backbone. Mechanical properties and thermal stability results illustrated that the main aging reasons were the breakage of side chain Si-C bond and the excessive cross-linking reaction of the backbone. This study can provide valuable basis for evaluating degradation mechanism and aging state of the silicone rubber insulation bushing in electric power field.

  19. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  20. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  1. FINITE-ELEMENT MODELING OF HOT FORMING OF BUSHES MADE FROM HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH A GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION OF GRAPHITE INCLUSIONS OVER CROSS-SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imitation modeling of direct hot extrusion of bushes made from high-strength cast iron is performed using finite-element method. The evolution of stress and strain fields during processing and the probability of crack formation are evaluated. The specific feature of the work is that during hot forming a special technique was used which permitted obtaining a gradient distribution of graphite inclusions over the cross-section of bushes. The results of modeling are used in certain technologies which are implemented in industrial practice.

  2. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  3. Using the Purdue University Public Affairs (C-SPAN) Video Archives in the Classroom To Study President George Bush and the Language of Aggression during the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper describes the methodology employed to study videotapes of presentations made by President George Bush during the crisis in the Persian Gulf. Analysis of President Bush's language in relation to the events of the Gulf War was undertaken. Videotapes were used because they allowed for analysis of nonverbal communication as well as verbal…

  4. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  5. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  6. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  7. Characterization of African Bush Mango trees with emphasis on the differences between sweet and bitter trees in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.

    2012-01-01

     African bush mango trees (ABMTs) are economically the most important species within the family of Irvingiaceae. They are priority trees producing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and widely distributed in the humid lowland forests of West and Central Africa. To boost their production and

  8. Contact sensitization to calocephalin, a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii, Compositae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Hindsén, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Cushion bush [Leucophyta brownii Cass. = Calocephalus brownii (Cass.) F. Muell.] is an Australian Compositae shrub that has been introduced into Scandinavia as a pot plant. The first case of sensitization occurred in a gardener, and the main allergen was identified as the guaianolide calocephalin....

  9. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic

  10. Does a rival’s song elicit territorial defense in a tropical songbird, the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjeevan Dadwal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of bird song and the way in which it is delivered has been argued to be adapted mainly for territorial defense. We performed a field experiment with the combination of playbacks and a model to test how much song actually relates to increased territorial defense in the territorial tropical songbird, the Pied Bush Chat, during breeding season (Feb–May, 2015 at Haridwar, Himalayan Foothills, India. As expected, the results of the experiment indicated that song was the major cue used by territory holders to cope with rival intrusions. The song rate was particularly escalated during simulated territorial interactions when the model was presented with a playback song of conspecifics. Behaviors such as restlessness (perch change, the height of perch, and distance from the model appeared to be of relatively lesser importance. To our knowledge, no avian species from the Indian subcontinent has been studied to provide evidence that song can escalate aggressive response by a territory owner.

  11. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife

  13. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  14. Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of Calotropis procera leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. L. Neto

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day, vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c. or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.

  15. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  16. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  17. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  18. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  19. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  20. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  2. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  4. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  5. Effect of canopy cover and canopy background variables on spectral profiles of savanna rangeland bush encroachment species based on selected Acacia species (mellifera, tortilis, karroo) and Dichrostachys cinerea at Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of woody plant species on savanna rangelands (i.e. bush encroachment) degrades rangeland quality, thereby threatening the biodiversity conservation effort as well as pastoral farming. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers...

  6. Tracking discourse complexity preceding Alzheimer's disease diagnosis: a case study comparing the press conferences of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Herbert Walker Bush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Visar; Wang, Shuai; LaCross, Amy; Liss, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Changes in some lexical features of language have been associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Here we describe a method to extract key features from discourse transcripts, which we evaluated on non-scripted news conferences from President Ronald Reagan, who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, and President George Herbert Walker Bush, who has no known diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Key word counts previously associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease were extracted and regression analyses were conducted. President Reagan showed a significant reduction in the number of unique words over time and a significant increase in conversational fillers and non-specific nouns over time. There was no significant trend in these features for President Bush.

  7. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  8. Wing mechanics, vibrational and acoustic communication in a new bush-cricket species of the genus Copiphora (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarria-S, Fabio; Buxton, Kallum; Jonsson, Thorin; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Male bush-crickets produce acoustic signals by wing stridulation to call females. Several species also alternate vibratory signals with acoustic calls for intraspecific communication, a way to reduce risk of detection by eavesdropping predators. Both modes of communication have been documented mostly in neotropical species, for example in the genus Copiphora. In this article, we studied vibratory and acoustic signals and the biophysics of wing resonance in C. vigorosa, a new species from the ...

  9. EFECTO DE LA ALTURA DEL MANGUITO EN UNIONES SOLDADAS EN CAÑERÍAS DE COBRE BUSHING HEIGHT EFFECT IN SOLDERED COPPER PIPE JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carmona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se perforó un tubo de cobre de 28,6 mm de diámetro, por el proceso de taladrado por fluencia térmica (TFT. Se prepararon manguitos de diferentes alturas, haciendo un preperforado con brocas convencionales HSS de diferentes diámetros. Se seleccionaron manguitos de dos alturas diferentes. Se determinó la circularidad de la perforación. Se soldó un tubo cobre de ø 12,7 mm en forma perpendicular a un tubo de cobre de ø 28,6 mm y se determinó la resistencia a la tracción de la unión soldada, para lo cual se diseñó un dispositivo mecánico que fue adaptado en la máquina universal de ensayos. Se hicieron ensayos de microdureza y metalografía de la unión. Se concluyó que el manguito de menor altura es suficiente para que la unión alcance la máxima resistencia.Copper tubes were drilled with thermal flow drilling. Conventional HSS drills diameters were used to make pre drilling holes. Different height bushings were made. Two of the bushing heights were selected. The bushing circularity was measured. A ø 12,7 mm tube was welded perpendicularly on a ø 28,6 mm tube. A especial support device was designed and it was adapted to the Universal Test Machine, to determine the tensile stress of the brazing joint. The micro hardness and metallographic test were made in the brazing zone. As a conclusion the lower height bushing is enough to reach the maximum resistance.

  10. First record of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in Italy: invasion from an established Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Huemer, Hartwig P; Indra, Alexander; Capelli, Gioia; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-05-16

    In 2011 we identified the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) for the first time in northern Slovenia and in the bordering Austrian federal state of Styria. Between May and July 2012 the distribution area of Ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into Carinthia and eastwards towards Burgenland and bordering Hungary. In August 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of Hungary. In subsequent years, follow-up field studies demonstrated an active spread westwards throughout Carinthia, reaching the border to northern Italy. In July 2015 several aquatic-stage specimens of the species were discovered at three different sites in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, north-eastern Italy. In September 2015, co-occurrence of Ae. j. japonicus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) was observed in the same sample in that region. Ae. j. japonicus actively extended its geographic range from an established population in Carinthia (Austria) southwards to northern Italy by crossing Alpine ranges. Since Ae. albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) are already well established in northern Italy, it will be pivotal to monitor the consequences of a third invasive mosquito species trying to populate the same geographic region.

  11. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize “trample burr” dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic “Dioicum Complex” lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent “trample burr” seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum ‘Tanami.’ Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  12. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  13. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  15. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  16. L’évolution de l’affirmative action aux États-Unis sous la présidence de George W. Bush Evolution of Affirmative Action in the United States during the Presidency of George W. Bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Pauwels

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’offensive contre l’affirmative action engagée depuis les années 1980 s’est accrue pendant les deux mandats de la présidence Bush, et l’opinion publique s’est radicalisée, percevant désormais de plus en plus fréquemment ces programmes comme une série d’avantages indûment octroyés à un certain nombre de « privilégiés ». Tout programme d’affirmative action doit désormais être étayé par des disparity studies démontrant la réalité de la discrimination, et seules des mesures très ciblées (narrowly tailored sont autorisées pour y remédier. La charge de la preuve a été en quelque sorte inversée. Mais contrairement aux idées reçues, l’affirmative action n’est pas sur le point de disparaître aux États-Unis et malgré son hostilité de principe, le gouvernement Bush n’a pris aucune mesure concrète pour démanteler ces programmes. L’affirmative action connaît aujourd’hui plusieurs transformations majeures, l’évolution la plus marquante étant l’effacement du critère ethno-racial au profit de critères plus neutres et moins idéologiquement polarisants, essentiellement d’ordre géographique et territorial. Dans l’enseignement supérieur par exemple, des procédures d’admission codées ont vu le jour pour favoriser l’accès des minorités ethniques sous-représentées aux campus d’élite, et diverses stratégies de contournement ont été mises en place dans l’adjudication des marchés publics. Ces transformations sont également intéressantes à analyser d’un point de vue transnational, puisque l’on observe une convergence croissante avec le modèle français de discrimination positive, lui aussi fondé sur le camouflage et l’euphémisation de l’identité ethno-raciale et sur une logique de territoire.This article examines the fate of affirmative action in the United States during the eight years of the Bush administration. After a brief reminder of the major landmarks

  17. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  18. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  19. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  20. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  2. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  3. Les relations économiques sino-américaines pendant les années Bush (2001-2008 : vers une stratégie de « dissuasion économique » ? US-China Relations during the Bush Presidency, 2001-2008: Towards a Strategy of “Economic Deterrence”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Bourdin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de la présidence de George W. Bush, les relations économiques sino-américaines se sont caractérisées par une interdépendance croissante, tant au niveau des enjeux commerciaux que des enjeux financiers. Si les questions du déficit de la balance commerciale et des droits de la propriété intellectuelle faisaient déjà débat pendant la présidence de Bill Clinton, en revanche les questions financières de la valeur du renminbi et des réserves chinoises de bons du Trésor sont apparues pendant les années Bush. Alors que l’administration Bush prônait initialement une stratégie de « congagement » (endiguement/ engagement et définissait la Chine comme un « concurrent stratégique », non seulement le 11-Septembre a modifié les priorités immédiates de Washington mais, du fait de l’interdépendance économique sino-américaine, il semble que la « dissuasion économique » soit désormais la seule stratégie réaliste dans les relations entre Washington et Pékin.During the presidency of George W. Bush, the main characteristic of US-China economic relations was an increasing interdependency in the field of trade as well as over financial issues. If trade imbalance and intellectual property rights were already matters for debate during the presidency of Bill Clinton, the issues of the value of the renminbi and of Chinese holdings of US Treasury bonds emerged during the Bush years. While the Bush administration had initially advocated a strategy of “congagement” (containment/ engagement and had defined China as a “strategic competitor”, not only did 9/11 change Washington’s immediate priorities, but, with the US-China economic interdependency, the only realistic strategy between Washington and Beijing seemed to consist in “economic deterrence.”

  4. Evidence for functional convergence in genes upregulated by herbivores ingesting plant secondary compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years ago, Freeland and Janzen predicted that liver biotransformation enzymes dictated diet selection by herbivores. Despite decades of research on model species and humans, little is known about the biotransformation mechanisms used by mammalian herbivores to metabolize plant secondary compounds (PSCs). We investigated the independent evolution of PSC biotransformation mechanisms by capitalizing on a dramatic diet change event—the dietary inclusion of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)—that occurred in the recent evolutionary history of two species of woodrats (Neotoma lepida and N. bryanti). Results By comparing gene expression profiles of two populations of woodrats with evolutionary experience to creosote and one population naïve to creosote, we identified genes either induced by a diet containing creosote PSCs or constitutively higher in populations with evolutionary experience of creosote. Although only one detoxification gene (an aldo-keto reductase) was induced by both experienced populations, these populations converged upon functionally equivalent strategies to biotransform the PSCs of creosote bush by constitutively expressing aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases, Cytochromes P450s, methyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases and sulfotransferases. The response of the naïve woodrat population to creosote bush was indicative of extreme physiological stress. Conclusions The hepatic detoxification system of mammals is notoriously complex, with hundreds of known biotransformation enzymes. The comparison herein of woodrat taxa that differ in evolutionary and ecological experience with toxins in creosote bush reveals convergence in the overall strategies used by independent species after a historical shift in diet. In addition, remarkably few genes seemed to be important in this dietary shift. The research lays the requisite groundwork for future studies of specific biotransformation pathways used by woodrats to metabolize the

  5. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  6. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  8. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  9. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers' take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  10. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  11. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  12. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  13. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  14. Insights into the dynamics of in situ gas hydrate formation and dissociation at the Bush Hill gas hydrate field, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A.; Kastner, Miriam; Robertson, Gretchen; Jannasch, Hans; Weinstein, Yishai

    2005-07-01

    Four newly designed flux meters called the MOSQUITO (Multiple Orifice Sampler and Quantitative Injection Tracer Observer), capable of measuring fluid flow rates and sampling pore fluid chemistry simultaneously, and two temperature loggers were deployed for 430 days adjacent to the Bush Hill hydrate mound in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GC 185). The main objective of the deployment was to understand how chemistry, temperature, and subsurface hydrology dynamically influence the growth and dissociation of the gas hydrate mound. The flux meters were deployed in a mussel field, in bacterial mats, in a tubeworm field, and at a background site approximately 100 m southwest of the hydrate mound. Results from the longterm chemical monitoring suggest that this system is not in dynamic equilibrium. Gas hydrate actively formed within the mussel field adjacent to the most active gas vent, in the tubeworm field, and at the background site. The hydrology is variable with upward flow rates ranging from 1-90 cm/yr and downward flow rates from 3-130 cm/yr. Two distinct hydrologic pulsing events were sampled across the three mound sites, which advect a fluid from depth that further stabilizes the gas hydrate deposit. The hydrogeochemistry at Bush Hill seems to be influenced by multiple mechanisms such as active formation of gas hydrate, fluid influx and outflux due to active venting of CH4 at transient methane seeps at and near the mound, local salt tectonics, and density driven convection. The fluxes of fluid, solutes, and methane may have a significant impact on the seafloor biochemical environment and the water column chemistry at Bush Hill. (Author)

  15. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  16. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  17. A high sensibility technique to detect the incipient defects in high tension bushings; Una tecnica de alta sensibilidad para detectar defectos incipientes en boquillas de alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar; Mestizo Rivera, Antolin; Romero Camberos, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this article a testing technique to locate incipient faults in transformer bushings is reported, specifically the one related to the internal disconnection of the capacitive tap, which is exemplified with a device having a problem of this kind. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de prueba para localizar fallas incipientes en las boquillas de los transformadores, especificamente la relacionada con la desconexion interna del tap capacitivo, lo cual se ejemplifica con un dispositivo que padece un problema de ese tipo.

  18. TPA: Freie Hand für freien Handel? : US-Präsident Bushs Auseinandersetzung mit dem Kongress um seine handelspolitische Autorität

    OpenAIRE

    Braml, Josef; Schmucker, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    "Am 1. Juli 2007 endet die Vereinbarung, wonach der Kongress die vom amerikanischen Präsidenten vorgelegten internationalen Handelsabkommen nur noch als ganzes, das heißt ohne Änderungsanträge annehmen oder ablehnen kann. Damit wird auch die Verhandlungsmacht des Präsidenten auf internationaler Ebene (u.a. im Rahmen der Doha-Runde in der Welthandelsorganisation, WTO) berührt, nämlich Vereinbarungen ohne Wenn und Aber politisch durchsetzen zu können. Wie gut stehen Bushs Chancen, parteiü...

  19. A high sensibility technique to detect the incipient defects in high tension bushings; Una tecnica de alta sensibilidad para detectar defectos incipientes en boquillas de alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar; Mestizo Rivera, Antolin; Romero Camberos, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this article a testing technique to locate incipient faults in transformer bushings is reported, specifically the one related to the internal disconnection of the capacitive tap, which is exemplified with a device having a problem of this kind. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de prueba para localizar fallas incipientes en las boquillas de los transformadores, especificamente la relacionada con la desconexion interna del tap capacitivo, lo cual se ejemplifica con un dispositivo que padece un problema de ese tipo.

  20. L’environnement naturel et le changement climatique pendant les années Bush : la pertinence d’une différenciation des échelles territoriales Climate Change and the Natural Environment in the Bush Years: The Relevance of Territorial Scale Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’attitude de l’administration fédérale au cours des huit années de l’administration Bush contraste avec celle du contexte des années 1960-1970 pour ce qui concerne la prise en compte de l’environnement naturel dans les décisions économiques. Toutefois, cet engagement limité du président Bush sur la question du changement climatique dans les débats internationaux n’a pas pour autant réduit les capacités de mobilisation des États et des villes sur ce thème.On the issue of whether climate change should be taken into account in economic decisions, the federal administration’s attitude during the Bush Presidency sharply contrasted with the attitudes of earlier administrations, particularly in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The limited concern for climate change which the federal government exhibited in the international arena did not reduce, however, the mobilization of states and local communities on this issue.

  1. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  2. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  3. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  4. Crimes et châtiments dans le monde de la finance pendant les années Bush Crime and Punishment in the World of Finance during the Bush Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régine Hollander

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le premier mandat de George W. Bush est ébranlé par une série de scandales dans le monde de l’entreprise et de la finance qui provoque une vague de réformes au sein du Congrès et des autorités de réglementation. La loi Sarbanes-Oxley, votée en 2002, a pour but d’accroître les contrôles financiers et de prévenir la fraude. Simultanément un dispositif répressif, destiné à prouver que le crime ne paie pas et à redonner confiance aux petits investisseurs, est mis en place. Les entreprises paient de lourdes amendes, mais les individus sont aussi mis au banc des accusés. Armé du Martin Act qui lui donne de larges pouvoirs, le Procureur Général de l’État de New York, Eliot Spitzer, poursuit sans relâche les coupables. On fait appel au sens moral de chacun et encourage la dénonciation. Cependant Sarbanes-Oxley a des effets pervers sur l’activité des marchés financiers. Elle décourage les introductions en bourse sur la place de New York et incite les entreprises à sortir de la cote. Des voix s’élèvent pour réclamer une déréglementation qui rendrait la place de New York plus attractive pour les entreprises. Mais voilà qu’en septembre 2008, la tourmente née de la titrisation des crédits à risque déclenche un maelström qui engouffre les institutions les plus prestigieuses de Wall Street. Les régulateurs reprennent l’avant de la scène et le risque est nationalisé, punissant les contribuables d’un crime dont ils ne se sentent pas responsables. L’effet de la crise financière sur l’économie réelle impose un changement de paradigme. Il ne s’agit plus de châtier, mais de sauver un secteur bancaire en désarroi pour préserver le mode de vie des Américains.George W. Bush’s first presidential term was shaken by a series of scandals in the corporate and financial world. Congress and regulatory authorities responded by enacting a wave of reforms. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, passed in 2002, aimed at

  5. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  6. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from th...

  7. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  8. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  9. Modelling the distribution of the invasive Roesel’s bush-cricket (Metrioptera roeselii in a fragmented landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Preuss

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of conservation strategies to mitigate the impact of invasive species requires knowledge of the species ecology and distribution. This is, however, often lacking as collecting biological data may be both time-consuming and resource intensive. Species distribution models can offer a solution to this dilemma by analysing the species-environment relationship with help of Geographic information systems (GIS. In this study, we model the distribution of the non-native bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii in the agricultural landscape in mid-Sweden where the species has been rapidly expanding in its range since the 1990s. We extract ecologically relevant landscape variables from Swedish CORINE land-cover maps and use species presence-absence data from large-scale surveys to construct a species distribution model (SDM. The aim of the study is to increase the knowledge of the species range expansion pattern by examining how its distribution is affected by landscape composition and structure, and to evaluate SDM performance at two different spatial scales. We found that models including data on a scale of 1 × 1 km were able to explain more of the variation in species distribution than those on the local scale (10 m buffer on each side of surveyed road. The amount of grassland in the landscape, estimated from the area of arable land, pasture and rural settlements, was a good predictor of the presence of the species on both scales. The measurements of landscape structure – linear elements and fragmentation - gave ambivalent results which differed from previous small scaled studies on species dispersal behaviour and occupancy patterns. The models had good predictive ability and showed that areas dominated by agricultural fields and their associated grassland edges have a high probability being colonised by the species. Our study identified important landscape variables that explain the distribution of M. roeselii in Mid-Sweden that may also

  10. Final configuration with assembly assessment of the 100 kV high voltage bushing for the Indian test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Dheeraj Kumar; Shah, Sejal; Venkata Nagaraju, M.; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Chakraborty, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Test Facility (INTF) of Neutral Beam (NB) system is an Indian voluntary effort for the full characterization of the diagnostic neutral beam which is the part of ITER's neutral beam system. The design activities of INTF NB system are completed. The INTF High Voltage Bushing (HVB), which is one of the component of NB system, is designed to connect all the required feedlines, e.g. electrical busbars, RF co-axial lines, diagnostic lines and hydraulic and gas feed lines, carried by the transmission line from the HV deck to the Beam Source of NB system. It forms the primary vacuum boundary and provides 100 kV isolation for INTF beam operation. The entire feedlines pass through a metallic plate of HVB called Dished Head (DH) where all the feedlines converge. The overall diameter of DH is 847 mm which is governed by the diameter of the Porcelain insulator which is meant for 100 kV isolation. The effective diameter where all the feedlines converge at the dished head is ∼ 600 mm which is quite a challenge to accommodate 26 feedlines each of average diameter 60 mm. Electrical feedlines require Vacuum-Electrical feedthroughs for voltage isolation whereas water and gas lines are considered to be directly welded with the DH except one water line which requires 12 kV voltage isolation with respect to DH. For RF lines, different scheme is considered which includes separate Electrical Feedthrough and Vacuum Barrier. To provide connection to electrical cables of heaters and thermocouples, 4 numbers of multipin vacuum compatible electrical feedthroughs are provided which can accommodate ∼250 cables. Due to space constraints, Vacuum-Electrical Feedthroughs are considered to be welded with the DH and therefore they shall be of metal-ceramic-metal configuration to allow welding. To avoid undue loading on the ceramic part, the feedlines are supported additionally at DH using vacuum compatible and electrically insulating material. One more important aspect of the INTF

  11. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  12. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  13. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  14. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  15. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tang; Y. Wang; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; W. Hao; X. Ning; K. Lv; Z. Shi; M. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which ar...

  16. Ilves, Bush discuss cybersecurity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    25. juunil 2007 Washingtonis toimunud USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kohtumisel oli kõne all NATO küberkaitsekeskuse loomine Eestisse. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  17. Birds in a bush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the avian tree of life has become one of the major goals in ornithology. The use of genomic tools seemed a promising approach to reach this goal, but, instead, phylogenetic analyses of large numbers of genes uncovered high levels of incongruence between the resulting gene trees.

  18. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  19. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  20. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  1. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. by 2,4-D and BA action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. is a bush species of the Crassulaceae that is distinguished by its important medicinal properties. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique. At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D and benzylaminopurine (BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. pinnata. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar and factorial combinations of 2,4-D (0.00, 4.52, 9.06, 18.12 µM and BA (0.00, 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 µM. The cultures were kept in the darkness at 24±2ºC for 50 days. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated. In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The highest percentage of callus induction was 100%, obtained with the combination of 9.06 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, but the calluses covered only 25% of the leaf area. The most efficient combination was 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, resulting in 91% callus induction with 50 to 100% of the explants being covered by callus cells.

  2. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  3. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  4. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  5. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  6. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  7. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  8. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries... Medical Leave Act of 1993, Final Rule on November 17, 2008 (2008 final rule). 73 FR 67934. A. What the... covered servicemember (referred to as ``military caregiver leave''). These two leave entitlements are...

  9. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Kakai, R.G.; Bongers, F.; Andel, van T.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims – Bitter and sweet African bush mango trees belong to the family Irvingiaceae and produce valuable non-timber forest products in humid lowland areas of West and Central Africa. The bitter and sweet types are treated as distinct taxa at the variety or species level. They have not

  10. American Presidents and Their Attitudes, Beliefs, and Actions Surrounding Education and Multiculturalism. A Series of Research Studies in Educational Policy. Sixth Installment: Examining Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, H. Prentice; Orvosh-Kamenski, Heidi; Kamenski, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent presidencies of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton and is the sixth installment in a series that examines how presidents, through their office of power, have impacted U.S. citizens by their actions and policies. By viewing the presidents through a multicultural lense we can more…

  11. La influencia del marketing político en el electorado estadounidense. Un análisis a las elecciones presidenciales del 2004 : George Walker Bush Vs John Forbes Kerry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Aragón, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio de caso, pretende analizar el uso de las herramientas de marketing político, desde las elecciones primarias hasta la elección presidencial en el 2004 en Estados Unidos, en la que George W. Bush del Partido Republicano busca la reelección frente a su rival John F. Kerry del Partido Demócrata.

  12. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  13. An Internatioal Comparison and Assessment of Maternity Leave Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Alewell, Kerstin Pull

    2001-01-01

    Provisions for maternity leave are common among industrialized countries, but their institutional design varies distinctly from country to country. Developing our theory on the impact on maternity leave regulations on women's labor market situation, we argue that a woman on leave creates a re-organization problem for her employer. The costs of re-organization will not simply increase with the duration of maternity leave, but display a hump-shaped curvature which peeks at medium-leave duration...

  14. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  15. leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The volume of the cathodic hydrogen gas evolved was also plotted as a .... prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. The volume .... Clivia nobilis leaves extract on the flow of current ... behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green ...

  16. Borneol from Leaves of Blumea balsamifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and organic solvent of low boiling-point extract. At present ... localized at 800 m altitude, 25° 04´ N and 106°. 28´ E. The ... In HDSE, leaves and water were used in similar amounts .... rate of (–)-borneol did not increase significantly. (p > 0.05) ...

  17. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  18. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  19. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  20. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...

  1. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  2. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  3. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  4. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Dikio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for separating chlorophyll a from spinach leaves by column chromatography and solvent extraction techniques has been developed. The purity and identity of the chlorophyll a have been confirmed by UV-Vis, IR and mass spectrometry. Yields from 100 g of freeze-dried spinach were 23 – 24 mg of chlorophyll a.

  5. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  6. Talking Leaves, Volume 4, No. 4

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    2000-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 2000, Articles: Classroom and Schoolwide Observation Under the Microscope Observing School Restructuring in Multicultural, Multilingual Contexts From the Other Side of the Classroom Looking for Findings in all the Right Places The Classroom Observation Schedule and the Teacher Roles Observation Schedule The Standards Performance Continuum: Measuring CREDE's Standards for Effective Pedagogy The Kentu...

  7. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  8. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.

  9. Access to paid parental leave for academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itum, Dina S; Oltmann, Sarah C; Choti, Michael A; Piper, Hannah G

    2018-01-31

    Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies. "Paid leave" was defined as leave without the mandated use of personal time off. Institutions were categorized based on geographical region, funding, and ranking to determine trends regarding availability and duration of paid parental leave. Among the top 91 ranked medical schools, 48 (53%) offer paid parental leave. Availability of a paid leave policy differed based on private versus public institutions (70% versus 38%, P leaves (>6 wk) than public institutions (67% versus 33%; P = 0.02). No difference in paid leave duration was noted based on region (P = 0.60) or rank (P = 0.81). Approximately, 50% of top academic medical centers offer paid parental leave. Private institutions are more likely to offer paid leave and leave of longer duration. There is considerable variability in access to paid parenteral leave for academic surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito da variação do ph e da temperatura de síntese no desempenho de adesivos à base de creosoto vegetal desmetilado-formaldeído Effect ph variation and synthesis temperature on the performance of thermosetting adhesive formulations based on demethylated wood creosote-formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crístian Bacelar Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de adesivos para madeira a partir de creosoto desmetilado. Para isto, foram sintetizadas diferentes formulações de adesivos para madeira a partir de creosoto desmetilado e paraformaldeído, variando-se o pH inicial da formulação (12,00, 12,25, 12,50, 12,75, 13,00, 13,25 e 13,50 e a temperatura de síntese (60 e 70 °C, para possibilitar a verificação dos melhores pHs e da melhor temperatura para elaboração do adesivo. Foi verificado, por meio da avaliação do gel time, que a melhor temperatura de síntese foi 70 °C. Foram realizadas, então, análises por DSC (calorimetria diferencial exploratória, para obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos e caracterização das formulações adesivas de creosoto desmetilado sintetizadas a 70 °C. Os adesivos foram utilizados para colagem, a quente (160 °C e sob pressão (12 kgf/cm², de lâminas de Araucaria angustifolia. Após a colagem, foram realizados os ensaios de resistência mecânica ao cisalhamento por tração, para condição seca e úmida. Verificou-se que a resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para os adesivos de creosoto desmetilado sintetizados a 70 °C foram inferiores às do adesivo de fenol-formaldeído sintetizado em laboratório, que foi utilizado como padrão.The objective of this work was the production of adhesives based on demethylated creosote for bonding of wood. Different formulations of demethylated wood bcreosote/formaldehyde were evaluated aiming at improving their bonding properties. The initial pH value and the synthesis temperature were varied in order to obtain the best values for producing the adhesives. Thus, seven pH values (12.00, 12.25, 12.50, 12.75, 13.00, 13.25, and 13.50 and two different temperatures (60 °C and 70 °C were applied. It was observed by gel time evaluation that the best synthesis temperature was 70 °C. The kinetic parameters were obtained through DSC analysis

  11. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  12. Guaianolides and a seco-eudesmane from the resinous exudates of cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) and evaluation of their cytostatic and anti-inflammatory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Purup, Stig; Bond, Andrew David

    2015-01-01

    A detailed phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the resinous exudates of the cushion bush plant (Leucophyta brownii) resulted in the isolation of the new 8,12-guaianolides leucophytalins A (5) and B (6), the new 1,10-seco-eudesmane leucophytalin C (10), six rare 8......,12-guaianolides (1–4, 7, and 8), and the xanthanolide tomentosin (9). The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The structures of compounds isolated in crystalline form, including leucophytalins A and C, were further confirmed by X....../mL for thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 production, respectively. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytostatic activity against MCF-7 and HT-29 cells (1, 3–10) and their anti-inflammatory activity against RAW 264.7 cells (1–10). All isolated compounds are most likely derived from (+)-germacrene A...

  13. A new, morphologically cryptic bush-cricket discovered on the basis of its song in the Carpathian Mountains (Insecta, Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Ştefan Iorgu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new, morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterine bush-crickets is described from the grasslands of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians. Despite the morphological and acoustic similarities with the recently described Isophya nagyi Szövényi, Puskás & Orci, I. bucovinensis sp. n. is characterized by a peculiar male calling song, with faster syllable repetition rate (160–220 syllables per minute, at 22–27°C and less complex syllable structure (composed of only two elements instead of three observable in I. nagyi. The morphological description of the new species is supplemented with an oscillographic and spectrographic analysis of the male calling song and male–female pair-forming acoustic duet. An acoustic signal-based identification key is provided for all the presently known species of the Isophya camptoxypha species group, including the new species.

  14. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  15. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  16. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  17. Policy of George W. Bush administration and Barak Obama first administration towards the Russian Federation and other states of the CIS (2001-2012: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Solovey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of policies of the two latest American presidents George W. Bush (2001-2008 and Barack Obama (his fi rst administration, 2009-2012 towards Russian Federation and its neighbors – states of the CIS. The author in detail considers main milestones of this policy, its aims, ways, methods and results. The author highlights and analyzes main reasons of degradation of bilateral relations during George W. Bush presidency and considers positive results of “Reset” policy of fi rst Barack Obama’s administration, at the same time noting their limitation and maintenance of disagreements in a few important problems. Policy of the USA towards Russia and other states of the CIS is considered in broader context of fundamental attitudes in foreign policy of neoconservative Republican George W. Bush’ administration and Democratic Barack Obama’s administration. The author makes the main conclusion that as a whole policy of the Democrats towards the Russian Federation and its neighbors was more reasonable, fl exible and effective and let the United States because of softening of rhetoric and a few small compromises return relations with Russia to constructive cooperation and get from this country assistance in all key areas. But by the end of the fi rst Barack Obama’s term a few negative trends became obvious, and these trends developed during the second term of Obama’s presidency. Post-Soviet area has remained potential “battlefi eld” in relations between the two countries, and later this fact has led to the crisis in Crimea and Ukraine, which continues nowadays.

  18. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers could bring about equality in the division of leave between men and women by focusing on the pioneers in the field, the Nordic countries – the first nations to offer fathers parental leave and introduce quotas. First, we......European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... describe the extent to which parental leave policies have been established and implemented in a way that is likely to promote equal sharing of leave. Next, we evaluate the impact of particular configurations of gender equality incentives in present parental leave policies for the actual division of leave...

  19. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  20. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  1. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  2. ANTIANAPHYLACTIC ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    M Shenoy Ashoka; C. Shastry Shashidhar

    2011-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of Heliotropium indicum leaves was evaluated using Wistar rats and Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. The antianaphylactic activity was investigated in rats using the active anaphylaxis model. The effect on mast cell stabilization was performed by ex vivo challenge of antigen in sensitized rat intestinal mesenteries. Antihistaminic activity was studied in guinea pigs using histamine-induced bronchospasm where preconvulsive dyspnea was used as an end point following exposure to ...

  3. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  4. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  5. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  6. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  7. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...

  8. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Resumo: Objetivos: Descrever perfil das mulheres com filhos menores de 4 meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal segundo situação de trabalho e analisar a influência da licença-maternidade sobre o aleitamento materno exclusivo entre as mulheres trabalhadoras. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados extraídos da II Pesquisa Nacional de Prevalência do Aleitamento Materno realizada em 2008

  9. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  10. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... medical treatment, the employee shall provide notice to the agency of his or her intention to take leave... placement or planned medical treatment requires leave to begin within 30 calendar days, the employee shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of leave. 630.1206 Section 630...

  11. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from the.... (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any calendar year may be... such military leave has been approved in advance by the cognizant Mission Director or Assistant...

  12. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  13. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Extension of... on the proposed revisions to certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA... Family and Medical Act (FMLA) regulations to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the...

  14. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  15. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  16. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  17. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...... of salaries, better health, less crime, higher social cohesion, lower public and social costs and higher productivity. This is why ESL is a policy focal point. In these terms, lifelong guidance has a key role to play in terms of both prevention, intervention, and of compensation strategies....

  18. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  19. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  20. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  1. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz

    2005-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylopyranoside. The...

  2. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz; HASAN, Aurangzeb

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylo...

  3. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da; Resende, Ubirazilda M.

    2004-01-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3α- and 3β-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4β,10α-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and α- and δ-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  4. Flavones from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Daniel F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 5 -hydroxy -7,5' -dimethoxy -3',4' -methylenedioxyflavone and 5 -hydroxy -7,3',5' -trimethoxy -4' -(3,3 -dimethylallyloxy flavone, as well as three known flavones: 5,6,7,3',4',5' -hexamethoxyflavone, 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4' -trimethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone and 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4',5' -tetramethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone were isolated from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  5. Effect of trace elements (ZnSO/sub 4/, MnSO/sub 4//sub /and Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/) on soil Ph, Zinc and manganese concentrations in case of mature teat bushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, M.; Riaz, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of trace elements on growth and yield of mature tea bushes, at National Tea Research Inst., Shinkiari, Mansehra, Pakistan, during 2003. The treatments included control (no fertilizer), recommended dose of NPK (432:111:74 kg ha/sup -1/ alone and NPK in combination with either two doses of (5.5 and 11 kg ha/sup -1/) ZnSO/sub 4/ or (2.0 and 4.0 kg ha/sup -1/)MnSO/sub 4/ or (0.225 and 0.45 kg ha/sup -1/) Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ to soil and one dose of each (11 kg ha/sup -1/) ZnSO/sub 4/, (4.0 kg ha/sup -1) MnSO/sub 4/ and (0.45 kg ha/sup -1/) Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ applied as spray solution. Treatments including soil application of NPK alone and NPK + either ZnSO/sub 4/, MnSO/sub 4/ or Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ significantly (P < 0.001) increased tea yield (fresh weight of three leaves + bud), shoot height and tissue Zn and Mn concentrations with significant interactions (T x t) on tissue Zn and Mn levels. As compared to control the yield increased by 7.0,30,.37,42,37 and 34% with NPK alone, NPK + 5.5, + 11.0 ZnSO/sub 4/, + 2.0, + 4.0 MnSO/sub 4/, + 0.225, + 0.45 kg ha/sup -1/ Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, respectively during fist three months while the yield of six months plucking showed similar response to treatments but was significantly lower than the first three months. Soil pH, Zn and Mn concentrations were significantly affected by treatments, time of sampling, and depth of sampling. Except ZnSO/sub 4/, lower doses of MnSO/sub 4/ (2.0 kg ha-l) and Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (0.225 kg ha/sup -1/), were more effective as compared to their higher doses when applied to soil, regarding tea yield and shoot height. Foliar application of 11 kg ha-l ZnSO/sub 4/ significantly increased yield as compared to its both levels when applied to soil. It is concluded that MnSO/sub 4/ and Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ should be applied at the rate of 2.0 and 0.225 kg ha/sup -l/. (author)

  6. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; de Bruin-Weller, MS

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify

  7. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  8. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  9. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  11. Maternity leave policies in academic and private radiology practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirt, B.A.; Rauth, V.; Price, A.P.F.; Pagani, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, the American Association of Women Radiologists surveyed both academic and private radiology departments regarding pregnancy and maternity leave policies. One hundred academic institutions (70% response), 30 radiotherapy departments (38% response), and 31 private practices responded. Details were obtained regarding maternity leave policy for residents and attending physicians; availability of paternity leave; policies regarding on-call time, fluoroscopy time and intracavitary/interstitial applications during pregnancy; and problems that occurred during resident or attending physician pregnancies. There was a wide range of responses regarding paid leave time, availability of additional time, and the use of vacation time during maternity leave

  12. Flow measurements in the core of the FRJ-2 research reactor after the installation of flow regulators in the locating bushes in the grid and investigation of the consequences for the safety of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.P.

    1975-04-01

    Early in June, 1974, radial flow regulators were installed in the locating bushes in the grid of the FRJ-2 reactor in order to reduce the flow irregularities in certain positions and thus to mobilize additional safety reserves. The success of these measures was tested by flow measurements in all 25 fuel element positions. The results are presented in this paper, their consequences for safety engineering are analyzed, and a flexible inlet temperature is proposed. (orig./AK) [de

  13. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  14. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  15. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  16. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K.L.; Betancourt, J.L.; Riddle, B.R.; Van Devender, T. R.; Cole, K.L.; Geoffrey, Spaulding W.

    2000-01-01

    1 A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26-10 14C kyr BP or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ???4.0 14C kyr BP. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr BP. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr BP in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (???37??N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr BP. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture. ?? 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  17. Analysis of land degradation processes on a tiger bush plateau in South West Niger using MODIS and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Edoardo; Maselli, Fabio; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing digital image analysis has been applied to monitor land clearing and degradation processes on a plateau covered by tiger bush near Niamey in South West Niger, where signs of severe landscape degradation due to fuelwood supply have been observed in the last decades. A MODIS NDVI dataset (2000-2015) and five LANDSAT images (1986-2012) were used to identify spatial and temporal dynamics and to emphasize areas of greater degradation. The study indicates that the land clearing found by previous investigations in the second part of the 20th century is still ongoing, with a decreasing trend of MODIS NDVI values recorded in the period 2000-2015. This trend appeared to be linked to an increase in bare soil areas that was demonstrated by analysis of LANDSAT SAVI images. The investigation also indicated that rates of degradation are stronger in more deteriorated areas like those located nearer Niamey; degradation patterns also tend to increase from the inner areas to the edges of the plateau. These results attest to the urgency to develop effective environmental preservation policies and find alternative solutions for domestic energy supply.

  18. Dissuasão, redução de armas nucleares e defesas antimísseis nos governos Bush e Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é analisar as perspectivas das administrações de George W. Bush e Barack Obama com relação à dissuasão, à redução de armas nucleares e às defesas antimísseis. Sustenta-se que ambas as administrações reafirmaram o papel fundamental das armas nucleares para a dissuasão, comprometeram-se com a redução de armas nucleares acompanhada de iniciativas para modernização e reconheceram a importância de defesas antimísseis na proteção dos EUA e de aliados. Tais perspectivas estão relacionadas à necessidade contínua de ampliar a flexibilidade para lidar com ameaças contemporâneas e à manutenção de opções diversificadas para o enfrentamento desses desafios.

  19. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  20. Bush Physics for the 21st Century, A Distance Delivery Physics Course to Bridge the Gap in Rural Alaska and Across the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solie, D. J.; Spencer, V.

    2009-12-01

    Bush Physics for the 21st Century brings physics that is culturally connected, engaging to modern youth, and mathematically rigorous, to high school and college students in the remote and often road-less villages of Alaska. The primary goal of the course is to prepare rural (predominantly Alaska Native) students for success in university science and engineering degree programs and ultimately STEM careers. The course is currently delivered via video conference and web based electronic blackboard tailored to the needs of remote students. Practical, culturally relevant kinetic examples from traditional and modern northern life are used to engage students, and a rigorous and mathematical focus is stressed to strengthen problem solving skills. Simple hands-on-lab experiments are delivered to the students with the exercises completed on-line. In addition, students are teamed and required to perform a much more involved experimental study with the results presented by teams at the conclusion of the course. Connecting abstract mathematical symbols and equations to real physical objects and problems is one of the most difficult things to master in physics. Greek symbols are traditionally used in equations, however, to strengthen the visual/conceptual connection with symbol and encourage an indigenous connection to the concepts we have introduced Inuktitut symbols to complement the traditional Greek symbols. Results and observations from the first two pilot semesters (spring 2008 and 2009) will be presented.

  1. Bush Physics for the 21st Century, A Distance Delivery Physics Course Targeting Students in Rural Alaska and Across the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solie, D. J.; Spencer, V. K.

    2010-12-01

    Bush Physics for the 21st Century brings physics that is engaging to modern youth, and mathematically rigorous, to high school and college students in the remote and often road-less villages of Alaska where the opportunity to take a physics course has been nearly nonexistent. The primary goal of the course is to prepare rural (predominantly Alaska Native) students for success in university science and engineering degree programs and ultimately STEM careers. The course is delivered via video conference and web based electronic blackboard tailored to the needs of remote students. Kinetic, practical and culturally relevant place-based examples from traditional and modern northern life are used to engage students, and a rigorous and mathematical focus is stressed to strengthen problem solving skills. Simple hands-on-lab experiment kits are shipped to the students. In addition students conduct a Collaborative Research Experiment where they coordinate times of sun angle measurements with teams in other villages to determine their latitude and longitude as well as an estimate of the circumference of the earth. Connecting abstract mathematical symbols and equations to real physical objects and problems is one of the most difficult things to master in physics. We introduce Inuktitut symbols to complement the traditional Greek symbols in equations to strengthen the visual/conceptual connection with symbol and encourage an indigenous connection to the physical concepts. Results and observations from the first three pilot semesters (spring 2008, 2009 and 2010) will be presented.

  2. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  4. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  5. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  6. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M.

    2004-02-01

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  7. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Juba, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-02-15

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  8. a Modeling Method of Fluttering Leaves Based on Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, W.; Ning, X.; Lv, K.; Shi, Z.; Zhao, M.

    2017-09-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  9. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  10. Contaminação do solo com antraceno e creosoto e o crescimento vegetal e a colonização micorrízica pelo Glomus etunicatum Soil contamination with anthracene and creosote: impact on plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus etunicatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Monteiro de Paula

    2007-08-01

    -derived, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, is a growing problem with serious environmental consequences. To evaluate the environmental impact of these products it is important to understand their effects on plants and the associated microbiota. The effects of PAHs on growth and mycorrhizal colonization of Brachiaria brizantha and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated here. Two PAHs, anthracene and creosote, were applied to a soil infested with the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum at varied concentrations: anthracene (0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1 g kg-1 soil and creosote (0; 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 g kg-1 soil. This soil was packed into plastic tubes (290 cm³ where test plants were sown and grown for six weeks. It was found that anthracene did not affect pueraria growth and had a slight stimulus on brachiaria growth at the lowest concentration, whereas creosote had no effect on pueraria either, but inhibited brachiaria growth. Both contaminants inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in pueraria by about 90 %, compared to the control. At concentrations below those found in contaminated soils, AM colonization was inhibited by 50 %. The potential impact of these products on plant-AM fungus relationships is quite evident here. No colonization was found in brachiaria, regardless of the presence of PAHs. The results showed a differentiated sensitivity of the plants to the contaminants and their marked negative effect on G. etunicatum root colonization. In the evaluated concentration range, pueraria was insensitive to both compounds, which indicates the species for further studies on phytoremediation of areas under the impact of these contaminants.

  11. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  12. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  13. Abscisic acid protects bean leaves from ozone-induced phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, R.A.; Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1972-01-01

    Abscisic acid treatment of primary bean leaves caused a partial closure of stomates and thus considerably reduced the phytotoxicity of ozone. The symptoms of ozone-induced phytotoxicity in the water-treated leaves are a marked decrease in chlorophyll and slight decreases in the levels of protein and RNA. The evidence indicates that ozone injury to leaves is not metabolically related to normal leaf senescence.

  14. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  15. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  16. Parental Leave Policies and Pediatric Trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avika; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga A

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that each residency program should have a clearly delineated, written policy for parental leave. Parental leave has important implications for trainees' ability to achieve their breastfeeding goals. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and awareness among members of the AAP Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees (SOMSRFT) regarding parental leave. An online survey was emailed to SOMSRFT members in June 2013. Quantitative data are presented as percentage of respondents. Awareness of leave policies was analyzed based on having children and the sex of respondents. Nine hundred twenty-seven members responded to the survey. Among those with children, 40% needed to extend the duration of their training in order to have longer maternity leave, 44% of whom did so in order to breastfeed longer. Thirty percent of respondents did not know if their program had a written, accessible policy for parental leave. Trainees without children and men were more unaware of specific aspects of parental leave such as eligibility for the Family Medical Leave Act as compared to women and those with children. Despite the fact that United States national policies support parental leave during pediatrics training, and a majority of programs comply, trainees' awareness regarding these policies needs improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  18. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  19. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  20. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  1. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  2. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  3. THE EFFECT OF HARVESTING TIME AND DEGREE OF LEAVES MATURATION ON VITEKSIKARPIN LEVEL IN LEGUNDI LEAVES (Vitex trifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Bayu Murti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legundi (Vitex trifolia L. is one of Indonesia’s traditional crops that have not been studied and developed into fitofarmaka. Legundi leaves can be used for therapy in asthmatics with optimum level. Therefore it is necessary for optimization of harvesting Legundi leaves which includes time and degree of maturation of the leaves. Harvesting time optimization by means of harvesting the leaves at the different times i.e. morning, noon, and evening, while the leaf maturation level optimization by way of harvesting leaves numbered one through five of the youngest end, then the time of harvesting and leaves that provide optimum levels of viteksikarpin were assigned. Measurements of viteksikarpin assigned using TLCdensitometry then analyzed using Wincats software and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The highest viteksikarpin levels in Legundi leaves harvested in the afternoon, then during the day, and the lowest in the morning. The highest viteksikarpin levels of Legundi leaves were on second leaf, first leaf, third leaf, fourth leaf, and the lowest on fifth leaf. Optimum levels of viteksikarpin in Legundi leaves was harvested in the afternoon by picking the first until the third leaf.

  4. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  5. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  6. Uranium: do leave it in the ground!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1990-01-01

    A previous author has argued that it would be best in the long run to consume uranium as much as possible in reactors rather than leave it in the ground in order to save the earth and generations into the far distant future from the evils of radiation. The argument is based on a comparison between the radioactive decay processes of fissioned uranium and uranium left in the earth to decay in its own time. It can be shown that from 300 days after reactor shut down onwards, the spent fuel will generate barely 1% of the radioactive energy that it would were it left untouched in the ground. Counter arguments are presented based largely on the risks to human health and life presented by uranium mining and disasters at nuclear plants such as that at Chernobyl. Illustrations are given of the suffering of people living near uranium mines arising from soil contamination by uranium tailings; the widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area and increased cancer mortality rates due to the Chernobyl accident are described. Finally, it is pointed out that uranium serves as a radioactive heat source in the gigantic recycling of rocks and the regeneration of the planet. All these arguments lead to the conclusion that uranium is best left in the earth. (UK)

  7. Anticorrosion Coating using Olea sp. Leaves Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal, W. M. K. W. M.; Yasmin, M. Y. N.; Fazira, M. F. M.; Rafizah, W. A. W.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Sabri, M. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Olive leaves extract (OLE) was evaluated as green corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel grade 316L (SS316L) in several media using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results reveals several active compound indicated by O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-OH stretch and C-N stretch which can be attributed to oleuropein and hydroxtyrosol acting as the main inhibiting sources for corrosion. The results obtained also show the inhibition efficiency of OLE increase with the increase of OLE concentration. Through its inhibitive action elucidate from the electrochemical analysis, the extract was found to act as a mixed type inhibitor. Micrographs by SEM showed that the surface of steel which has been coated with 0% and 20% of OLE coating extract possess a lot of pin holes or pores while the steel with 10% of OLE coating extract shows the surface has multiple cracks. This study clearly shows the efficiency of OLE as anticorrosion coating for control of stainless steel in marine application.

  8. The anticancer effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam, S.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Malaysia. Ocimum tenuiflorum L., (O. tenuiflorum commonly known as ruku in Malaysia, is usually cultivated as a garden ornamental plant because of its small purplish and some yellowish flower. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the anticancer of O. tenuiflorum against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblast cell line (HS-27. In addition, another objective is to determine the mineral and heavy metal determination of O. tenuiflorum. O. tenuiflorum exhibited anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line. The viability of MCF-7 cells decreased significantly after treatment with various concentrations of methanolic plant extracts (25 and 100 μg/mL, as shown via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The crude extracts show the lower IC50 (less than 100 μg/mL value against the cancer cell lines and show no effect on HS-27. The high content of calcium in the leaves of O. tenuiflorum may play a role in decreasing the risk of certain cancer. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb and As detected in O. tenuiflorum are safe for consumption.

  9. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  10. BMDO Raptor/Talon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    has been graded and covered with gravel. Vegetation adjacent to and surrounding the tower consists of low growing desert shrubs (creosote bush (Larrea...lucida) White Sands wood rat (Neotoma micropus leucophaeus) Plants Mosquito plant (Agastache cana) Supreme sage (Sälvia summa) Dune unicorn plant

  11. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time.

  12. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...

  13. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  14. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  16. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  17. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  18. Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the the literature on fathers' use of parental leave. Parental leave is a work-life reconciliation instrument with great potential to bring about a more equal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. However, policy evaluation studies reveal that simply making

  19. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  20. Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Febrilliant Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

  1. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  2. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  3. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  4. Evaluation of nutrient contents of Gmelina arborea leaves as animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of chemical and mineral composition different forms of Gmelina arborea (GA) leaves was investigated. Experiment 1 involve the determination of the chemical composition, mineral and anti-nutrient of green, yellow and brown leaves of GA. In experiment 2, a free choice intake study was carried out using fifteen ...

  5. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  6. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium ... alarm, in some cases, trace heavy metals may accumulate to an ... leaves when released can lead to serious ... shown that it can interact with different hormonal .... 17, 2012. Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral.

  7. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  8. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves ...

  9. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  10. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L leaves (control group. All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  11. Perceptions of the use of indigenous leaves as packaging materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alternative food packaging materials are available, Ghanaians still use leaves to package some ready-to-eat cornmeal products. This study examines the perceptions of a representative community sample of 70 producers, 40 sellers and 120 consumers of ready-to-eat leaves-packaged cornmeal products in ...

  12. Pharmacognostic Investigation of the Leaves and Stems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the leaves and stems of Viburnum erubescens Wall.ex DC to record parameters for identifying and differentiating various species of Viburnum. Methods: The research specimens were authenticated and preserved both in fresh and dry forms. The leaves ...

  13. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  14. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  15. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  16. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  17. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  18. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  19. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  20. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined