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Sample records for creating virtual humans

  1. Creating virtual humans for simulation-based training and planning

    Stansfield, S.; Sobel, A.

    1998-05-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a distributed, high fidelity simulation system for training and planning small team Operations. The system provides an immersive environment populated by virtual objects and humans capable of displaying complex behaviors. The work has focused on developing the behaviors required to carry out complex tasks and decision making under stress. Central to this work are techniques for creating behaviors for virtual humans and for dynamically assigning behaviors to CGF to allow scenarios without fixed outcomes. Two prototype systems have been developed that illustrate these capabilities: MediSim, a trainer for battlefield medics and VRaptor, a system for planning, rehearsing and training assault operations.

  2. Creating a Virtual Physics Department.

    Suson, Daniel J.; Hewett, Lionel D.; McCoy, Jim; Nelson, Vaughn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a solution to alleviate the low numbers of students graduating from the majority of physics programs throughout the nation. Discusses the outcome of a virtual physics department. (Author/CCM)

  3. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  4. Virtual reality haptic human dissection.

    Needham, Caroline; Wilkinson, Caroline; Soames, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to create a three-dimensional digital model of the human hand and wrist which can be virtually 'dissected' through a haptic interface. Tissue properties will be added to the various anatomical structures to replicate a realistic look and feel. The project will explore the role of the medical artist and investigate the cross-discipline collaborations required in the field of virtual anatomy. The software will be used to train anatomy students in dissection skills before experience on a real cadaver. The effectiveness of the software will be evaluated and assessed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  5. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  6. Virtual programs create e-commerce nightmares

    Carroll, C; Torres, M; Sanchez, B; Wills, E

    1999-01-01

    Pop-up consoles offer a (controversial) means of presenting ads over the Internet. If a number of pop-ups are opened using involuntary triggers located at the entrances of a number of sites, virtual programs will emerge comprised of the entire set of commands from all of the linked sites. Notably,

  7. Creating the virtual Eiger North Face

    Buchroithner, Manfred

    The described activities aim at combining the potentials of photogrammetry, remote sensing, digital cartography and virtual reality/photorealism with the needs of modern spatial information systems for tourism and for alpinism in particular (the latter aspect is, however, not covered in the paper). Since for slopes steeper than 45°, a digital relief model in nadir projection cannot adequately depict the terrain even in low-angle views, digital Steep Slope Models (SSMs) with a rather vertical reference plane are desirable. This condition very much applies to the Eiger North Face which has been chosen as a testbed for the realisation of a virtual rock face and which shall later be embedded into a lower resolution synthetic landscape of the Eiger-Moench-Jungfrau Region generated from a DTM and satellite imagery. Our "SSM approach" seems justified by the fact that except for the visualisation, commercial software was used which is very limited both in DTM modelling and texture mapping. For the creation of the actual SSM, a pair of oblique coloured air photos has been used, resulting in both a digital face model of 3.7 m grid size and an orthophoto with a resolution of 0.25 m. To demonstrate the alpinistic potential of the product, climbing routes have been inserted into the face model, thus enabling even non-experienced individuals to enjoy the "virtual reality conquest" of the Eiger North Face and potential climbing candidates to prepare themselves for the actual "real world" enterprise.

  8. Creating the Economy of Virtuality: Systemic Aspects and Educational Considerations

    Julio Rezende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss how an economy of virtuality had been created in Orlando, United States, with the great collaboration of entrepreneurs, creativists and the action of academic institutions like University of Central Florida (UCF. In UCF the Florida Interactive Entertainment Academy – FIEA is an exemplary initiative of education that aims at creating new professionals for the economy of virtuality. Examining the case of Orlando city, would be seen the economic outcomes of the operation of different activities of virtuality: creation of jobs, revenues, tax and improving the quality of life of this community. The research debates the understanding of Economy of Virtuality and as also a educational field. The virtuality can been seen as a technology (a combination of developed hardware and software and as a psychological experience (values, time/ availability, health, motivation, emotions and education. The article presents the story of virtuality and also a typical pathway in the creation of products in Economy of Virtuality taking the example of Spider-Man and the event Awesome.Con held in Washington D.C. in the period of 3 to 5 June 2016. At Central Florida Research Park (CFRP, there are 146 businesses in 59 buildings (March/2016 generating aproximally10 thousand jobs operating.

  9. Envisioning the Educational Possibilities of User-Created Virtual Worlds

    Antonacci, David M.; Modaress, Nellie

    2008-01-01

    Educational games and simulations can engage students in higher-level cognitive thinking, such as interpreting, analyzing, discovering, evaluating, acting, and problem solving. Recent technical advances in multiplayer, user-created virtual worlds have significantly expanded the capabilities of user interaction and development within these…

  10. Creating Virtual-hand and Virtual-face Illusions to Investigate Self-representation.

    Ma, Ke; Lippelt, Dominique P; Hommel, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Studies investigating how people represent themselves and their own body often use variants of "ownership illusions", such as the traditional rubber-hand illusion or the more recently discovered enfacement illusion. However, these examples require rather artificial experimental setups, in which the artificial effector needs to be stroked in synchrony with the participants' real hand or face-a situation in which participants have no control over the stroking or the movements of their real or artificial effector. Here, we describe a technique to establish ownership illusions in a setup that is more realistic, more intuitive, and of presumably higher ecological validity. It allows creating the virtual-hand illusion by having participants control the movements of a virtual hand presented on a screen or in virtual space in front of them. If the virtual hand moves in synchrony with the participants' own real hand, they tend to perceive the virtual hand as part of their own body. The technique also creates the virtual-face illusion by having participants control the movements of a virtual face in front of them, again with the effect that they tend to perceive the face as their own if it moves in synchrony with their real face. Studying the circumstances that illusions of this sort can be created, increased, or reduced provides important information about how people create and maintain representations of themselves.

  11. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  12. Creating photorealistic virtual model with polarization-based vision system

    Shibata, Takushi; Takahashi, Toru; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Sato, Yoichi; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2005-08-01

    Recently, 3D models are used in many fields such as education, medical services, entertainment, art, digital archive, etc., because of the progress of computational time and demand for creating photorealistic virtual model is increasing for higher reality. In computer vision field, a number of techniques have been developed for creating the virtual model by observing the real object in computer vision field. In this paper, we propose the method for creating photorealistic virtual model by using laser range sensor and polarization based image capture system. We capture the range and color images of the object which is rotated on the rotary table. By using the reconstructed object shape and sequence of color images of the object, parameter of a reflection model are estimated in a robust manner. As a result, then, we can make photorealistic 3D model in consideration of surface reflection. The key point of the proposed method is that, first, the diffuse and specular reflection components are separated from the color image sequence, and then, reflectance parameters of each reflection component are estimated separately. In separation of reflection components, we use polarization filter. This approach enables estimation of reflectance properties of real objects whose surfaces show specularity as well as diffusely reflected lights. The recovered object shape and reflectance properties are then used for synthesizing object images with realistic shading effects under arbitrary illumination conditions.

  13. Unexploited Dimensions of Virtual Humans

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Huang, Thomas; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentlant, Alex

    Virtual Humans are on the border of fiction and realism: while it is obvious that they do not exist in reality and function on different principles than real people, they have been endowed with human features such as being emotionally sensitive. In this article we argue that many dimensions, both

  14. Editorial: Creating, Supporting, Sustaining and Evaluating Virtual Learning Communities

    Xun Ge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to creating, building, supporting, sustaining and evaluating virtual learning communities (VLCs using emerging technologies. The contributors from diverse disciplines have come together to share their valuable experiences and findings through their research in the following themes: (a instructional models, strategies, approaches for building, supporting and evaluating VLCs, (b designing effective use of tools to promote discourse and scaffold peer interactions among members, (c iterative processes and models of designing and evaluating VLCs; and (d various variables concerning VLCs, such as virtual community behaviors, cultural factors, adoption patterns of tools. It is hoped that these articles will provide practical guidance and offer valuable experience to both educators and researchers who are interested in designing effective VLCs and examining various aspects of VLCs to advance our understanding of VLCs.

  15. Imparting Individuality to Virtual Humans

    Egges, A.; Kshirsagar, V.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated method of linking personality and emotion with the response generation and expression synthesis of Virtual Humans. The characters are powered by a dialogue system that consists of a large set of basic interactions between user and computer. These

  16. Creating technical heritage object replicas in a virtual environment

    Egorova, Olga; Shcherbinin, Dmitry

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents innovative informatics methods for creating virtual technical heritage replicas, which are of significant scientific and practical importance not only to researchers but to the public in general. By performing 3D modeling and animation of aircrafts, spaceships, architectural-engineering buildings, and other technical objects, the process of learning is achieved while promoting the preservation of the replicas for future generations. Modern approaches based on the wide usage of computer technologies attract a greater number of young people to explore the history of science and technology and renew their interest in the field of mechanical engineering.

  17. Creating virtual electrodes with 2D current steering

    Spencer, Thomas C.; Fallon, James B.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Current steering techniques have shown promise in retinal prostheses as a way to increase the number of distinct percepts elicitable without increasing the number of implanted electrodes. Previously, it has been shown that ‘virtual’ electrodes can be created between simultaneously stimulated electrode pairs, producing unique cortical response patterns. This study investigated whether virtual electrodes could be created using 2D current steering, and whether these virtual electrodes can produce cortical responses with predictable spatial characteristics. Approach. Normally-sighted eyes of seven adult anaesthetised cats were implanted with a 42-channel electrode array in the suprachoroidal space and multi-unit neural activity was recorded from the visual cortex. Stimuli were delivered to individual physical electrodes, or electrodes grouped into triangular, rectangular, and hexagonal arrangements. Varying proportions of charge were applied to each electrode in a group to ‘steer’ current and create virtual electrodes. The centroids of cortical responses to stimulation of virtual electrodes were compared to those evoked by stimulation of single physical electrodes. Main results. Responses to stimulation of groups of up to six electrodes with equal ratios of charge on each electrode resulted in cortical activation patterns that were similar to those elicited by the central physical electrode (centroids: RM ANOVA on ranks, p  >  0.05 neural spread: one-way ANOVA on Ranks, p  >  0.05). We were also able to steer the centroid of activation towards the direction of any of the electrodes of the group by applying a greater charge to that electrode, but the movement in the centroid was not found to be significant. Significance. The results suggest that current steering is possible in two dimensions between up to at least six electrodes, indicating it may be possible to increase the number of percepts in patients without increasing the number

  18. Systematic literature review of digital three-dimensional superimposition techniques to create virtual dental patients.

    Joda, Tim; Brägger, Urs; Gallucci, German

    2015-01-01

    Digital developments have led to the opportunity to compose simulated patient models based on three-dimensional (3D) skeletal, facial, and dental imaging. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an update on the current knowledge, to report on the technical progress in the field of 3D virtual patient science, and to identify further research needs to accomplish clinical translation. Searches were performed electronically (MEDLINE and OVID) and manually up to March 2014 for studies of 3D fusion imaging to create a virtual dental patient. Inclusion criteria were limited to human studies reporting on the technical protocol for superimposition of at least two different 3D data sets and medical field of interest. Of the 403 titles originally retrieved, 51 abstracts and, subsequently, 21 full texts were selected for review. Of the 21 full texts, 18 studies were included in the systematic review. Most of the investigations were designed as feasibility studies. Three different types of 3D data were identified for simulation: facial skeleton, extraoral soft tissue, and dentition. A total of 112 patients were investigated in the development of 3D virtual models. Superimposition of data on the facial skeleton, soft tissue, and/or dentition is a feasible technique to create a virtual patient under static conditions. Three-dimensional image fusion is of interest and importance in all fields of dental medicine. Future research should focus on the real-time replication of a human head, including dynamic movements, capturing data in a single step.

  19. EVEREST: Creating a Virtual Research Environment for Earth Science

    Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing trend towards researchers working together using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. The EVER-EST project is developing a range of both generic and domain specific technologies, tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, to create a virtual research environment (VRE) that supports this type of dynamic collaborative research. The EVER-EST VRE provides a suite of services to overcome the existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing researchers to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, and with other domains beyond the Earth Sciences. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling that lead to results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within their communities and more widely in the form of scholarly communications.To ensure that the EVER-EST VRE meets the specific needs of the Earth Science domain, it is being developed and validated in consultation with four pre-selected virtual research communities (VRC) that include ocean observing, natural hazards, land monitoring and volcanic risk management. The requirements of these individual VRCs for data, software, best practice and community interaction are used to customise the VRE platform This user-centric approach allows the EVER-EST infrastructure to be assessed in terms of its capability to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of Earth Science communities for more effective collaboration, greater efficiency and increasingly innovative research. EVER-EST is a three year project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 674907.

  20. Where computers disappear, virtual humans appear

    Nijholt, Antinus; Sourin, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the role of virtual humans (or embodied conversational agents) in smart and ambient intelligence environments. Research in this area can profit from research done earlier in virtual reality environments and research on verbal and nonverbal interaction. We discuss virtual

  1. An integrated pipeline to create and experience compelling scenarios in virtual reality

    Springer, Jan P.; Neumann, Carsten; Reiners, Dirk; Cruz-Neira, Carolina

    2011-03-01

    One of the main barriers to create and use compelling scenarios in virtual reality is the complexity and time-consuming efforts for modeling, element integration, and the software development to properly display and interact with the content in the available systems. Still today, most virtual reality applications are tedious to create and they are hard-wired to the specific display and interaction system available to the developers when creating the application. Furthermore, it is not possible to alter the content or the dynamics of the content once the application has been created. We present our research on designing a software pipeline that enables the creation of compelling scenarios with a fair degree of visual and interaction complexity in a semi-automated way. Specifically, we are targeting drivable urban scenarios, ranging from large cities to sparsely populated rural areas that incorporate both static components (e. g., houses, trees) and dynamic components (e. g., people, vehicles) as well as events, such as explosions or ambient noise. Our pipeline has four basic components. First, an environment designer, where users sketch the overall layout of the scenario, and an automated method constructs the 3D environment from the information in the sketch. Second, a scenario editor used for authoring the complete scenario, incorporate the dynamic elements and events, fine tune the automatically generated environment, define the execution conditions of the scenario, and set up any data gathering that may be necessary during the execution of the scenario. Third, a run-time environment for different virtual-reality systems provides users with the interactive experience as designed with the designer and the editor. And fourth, a bi-directional monitoring system that allows for capturing and modification of information from the virtual environment. One of the interesting capabilities of our pipeline is that scenarios can be built and modified on-the-fly as they are

  2. Virtual human versus human administration of photographic lineups.

    Daugherty, Brent; Babu, Sabarish; Wallendael, Lori Van; Cutler, Brian; Hodges, Larry F

    2008-01-01

    One solution to mistaken identification by a crime's victims and eyewitnesses is to use a virtual officer to conduct identification procedures. Results from a study comparing a virtual officer with a live human investigator indicate that the virtual officer performs comparably to the human in terms of identification accuracy, emotional affect, and ease of use.

  3. The virtual nose: a 3-dimensional virtual reality model of the human nose.

    Vartanian, A John; Holcomb, Joi; Ai, Zhuming; Rasmussen, Mary; Tardy, M Eugene; Thomas, J Regan

    2004-01-01

    The 3-dimensionally complex interplay of soft tissue, cartilaginous, and bony elements makes the mastery of nasal anatomy difficult. Conventional methods of learning nasal anatomy exist, but they often involve a steep learning curve. Computerized models and virtual reality applications have been used to facilitate teaching in a number of other complex anatomical regions, such as the human temporal bone and pelvic floor. We present a 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality model of the human nose. Human cadaveric axial cross-sectional (0.33-mm cuts) photographic data of the head and neck were used. With 460 digitized images, individual structures were traced and programmed to create a computerized polygonal model of the nose. Further refinements to this model were made using a number of specialized computer programs. This 3-D computer model of the nose was then programmed to operate as a virtual reality model. Anatomically correct 3-D model of the nose was produced. High-resolution images of the "virtual nose" demonstrate the nasal septum, lower lateral cartilages, middle vault, bony dorsum, and other structural details of the nose. Also, the model can be combined with a separate virtual reality model of the face and its skin cover as well as the skull. The user can manipulate the model in space, examine 3-D anatomical relationships, and fade superficial structures to reveal deeper ones. The virtual nose is a 3-D virtual reality model of the nose that is accurate and easy to use. It can be run on a personal computer or in a specialized virtual reality environment. It can serve as an effective teaching tool. As the first virtual reality model of the nose, it establishes a virtual reality platform from which future applications can be launched.

  4. An Algorithm for Creating Virtual Controls Using Integrated and Harmonized Longitudinal Data.

    Hansen, William B; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Saldana, Santiago; Ip, Edward H

    2018-06-01

    We introduce a strategy for creating virtual control groups-cases generated through computer algorithms that, when aggregated, may serve as experimental comparators where live controls are difficult to recruit, such as when programs are widely disseminated and randomization is not feasible. We integrated and harmonized data from eight archived longitudinal adolescent-focused data sets spanning the decades from 1980 to 2010. Collectively, these studies examined numerous psychosocial variables and assessed past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Additional treatment and control group data from two archived randomized control trials were used to test the virtual control algorithm. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed intentions, normative beliefs, and values as well as past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. We developed an algorithm that used percentile scores from the integrated data set to create age- and gender-specific latent psychosocial scores. The algorithm matched treatment case observed psychosocial scores at pretest to create a virtual control case that figuratively "matured" based on age-related changes, holding the virtual case's percentile constant. Virtual controls matched treatment case occurrence, eliminating differential attrition as a threat to validity. Virtual case substance use was estimated from the virtual case's latent psychosocial score using logistic regression coefficients derived from analyzing the treatment group. Averaging across virtual cases created group estimates of prevalence. Two criteria were established to evaluate the adequacy of virtual control cases: (1) virtual control group pretest drug prevalence rates should match those of the treatment group and (2) virtual control group patterns of drug prevalence over time should match live controls. The algorithm successfully matched pretest prevalence for both RCTs. Increases in prevalence were observed, although there were discrepancies between live

  5. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using d...

  6. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  7. Integrating multi-scale data to create a virtual physiological mouse heart.

    Land, Sander; Niederer, Steven A; Louch, William E; Sejersted, Ole M; Smith, Nicolas P

    2013-04-06

    While the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has made great advances in human modelling, many of the tools and insights developed as part of this initiative are also applicable for facilitating mechanistic understanding of the physiology of a range of other species. This process, in turn, has the potential to provide human relevant insights via a different scientific path. Specifically, the increasing use of mice in experimental research, not yet fully complemented by a similar increase in computational modelling, is currently missing an important opportunity for using and interpreting this growing body of experimental data to improve our understanding of cardiac function. This overview describes our work to address this issue by creating a virtual physiological mouse model of the heart. We describe the similarities between human- and mouse-focused modelling, including the reuse of VPH tools, and the development of methods for investigating parameter sensitivity that are applicable across species. We show how previous results using this approach have already provided important biological insights, and how these can also be used to advance VPH heart models. Finally, we show an example application of this approach to test competing multi-scale hypotheses by investigating variations in length-dependent properties of cardiac muscle.

  8. Semantic Representation of Individualized Reaction Movements for Virtual Human

    Garcia-Rojas, A.; Vexo, F.; Thalmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual Human (VH) creation aims to provide virtual characters with realistic behavior, which implies endowing them with autonomy in an inhabited virtual environment. Autonomous behavior consists in interacting with users or the environment and reacting to stimuli. Reactions are unconscious behaviors that are not often implemented in virtual humans. Frequently, virtual humans show repetitive and robotic movements which tend to decrease realism. To improve believability in virtual humans we ne...

  9. An Interdisciplinary Design Project in Second Life: Creating a Virtual Marine Science Learning Environment

    Triggs, Riley; Jarmon, Leslie; Villareal, Tracy A.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual environments can resolve many practical and pedagogical challenges within higher education. Economic considerations, accessibility issues, and safety concerns can all be somewhat alleviated by creating learning activities in a virtual space. Because of the removal of real-world physical limitations like gravity, durability and scope,…

  10. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  11. GUIDELINES FOR CREATING AN AUTHENTIC VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE IN ROMANIA

    Elisabeta Haba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to propose a mathematical model which can be easily used by the strategic managers of any organisation that initiates a virtual enterprise in Romania. Therefore, the first step is to identify the main characteristics a potential partner in such a specific supply chain must have. These characteristics can vary depending on the specific of the company and its position in the chain of the virtual enterprise. Some of these characteristics are mandatory requirements, some are optional requirements. We strongly advice that the mandatory requirements are observed, even when the process of gathering these data and/or information proves to be difficult. The optional requirements mentioned in the model provide a general framework as to what should be expected from a potential partner and can be changed according to the particular needs. These requirements are then inserted into a mathematical model, adaptable, flexible, customizable. The model is adaptable because it allows to insert certain issues of interest and to eliminate the unnecessary or irrelevant ones, it is flexible due to the possibility to change weights according to the relative importance of each feature and it is customizable since is based on questionnaires which are designed by each agent company, according to its specific needs. This model is based on actual observation of the Romanian market.

  12. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    Schindelin Johannes E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc. 1. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at http://www.neurofly.de2

  13. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    Jenett, Arnim; Schindelin, Johannes E; Heisenberg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc.) [1]. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy) to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel) the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at [2] PMID:17196102

  14. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans.

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD) with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001). However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively). The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels of anxiety in

  15. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  16. METHODOLOGY TO CREATE DIGITAL AND VIRTUAL 3D ARTEFACTS IN ARCHAEOLOGY

    Calin Neamtu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology to create 3D digital and virtual artefacts in the field of archaeology using CAD software solution. The methodology includes the following steps: the digitalization process, the digital restoration and the dissemination process within a virtual environment. The resulted 3D digital artefacts have to be created in files formats that are compatible with a large variety of operating systems and hardware configurations such as: computers, graphic tablets and smartphones. The compatibility and portability of these 3D file formats has led to a series of quality related compromises to the 3D models in order to integrate them on in a wide variety of application that are running on different hardware configurations. The paper illustrates multiple virtual reality and augmented reality application that make use of the virtual 3D artefacts that have been generated using this methodology.

  17. Creating Service Concepts for Finnish Elderly Care : Case: Virtual Interactive Care Service

    Nwagu, Promise

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at creating service concept by evaluating the research project of Virtual Interactive Care Service. The research project was initiated and implemented by the author together with Hovi Group Oy and Suomen kotilääkäripalvelu Oy. The goal was to provide a virtual care service business that uses interactive and stimulating activities to improve the wellbeing of elderly people in Finland. The study employed qualitative research method by reviewing existing works particularly...

  18. Estimating the gaze of a virtuality human.

    Roberts, David J; Rae, John; Duckworth, Tobias W; Moore, Carl M; Aspin, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The aim of our experiment is to determine if eye-gaze can be estimated from a virtuality human: to within the accuracies that underpin social interaction; and reliably across gaze poses and camera arrangements likely in every day settings. The scene is set by explaining why Immersive Virtuality Telepresence has the potential to meet the grand challenge of faithfully communicating both the appearance and the focus of attention of a remote human participant within a shared 3D computer-supported context. Within the experiment n=22 participants rotated static 3D virtuality humans, reconstructed from surround images, until they felt most looked at. The dependent variable was absolute angular error, which was compared to that underpinning social gaze behaviour in the natural world. Independent variables were 1) relative orientations of eye, head and body of captured subject; and 2) subset of cameras used to texture the form. Analysis looked for statistical and practical significance and qualitative corroborating evidence. The analysed results tell us much about the importance and detail of the relationship between gaze pose, method of video based reconstruction, and camera arrangement. They tell us that virtuality can reproduce gaze to an accuracy useful in social interaction, but with the adopted method of Video Based Reconstruction, this is highly dependent on combination of gaze pose and camera arrangement. This suggests changes in the VBR approach in order to allow more flexible camera arrangements. The work is of interest to those wanting to support expressive meetings that are both socially and spatially situated, and particular those using or building Immersive Virtuality Telepresence to accomplish this. It is also of relevance to the use of virtuality humans in applications ranging from the study of human interactions to gaming and the crossing of the stage line in films and TV.

  19. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Immersive Virtual Reality in a University Setting: Creating an Authentic Learning Environment Through the Virtual Golden Foods Corporation

    Ros A. Yahaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An authentic learning environment is learning that involves real world problems that are relevant to the learners and relate to their real life experience. Research indicates that Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools can facilitate in creating authentic learning environment, thus improving student learning, interaction and satisfaction. Previous research has focused on using various forms of ICT such as online learning and web-based learning into the classroom. However, little attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating immersive Virtual Reality (VR technology into the university classroom. Virtual Golden Foods Corporation (VGFC is a simulated Virtual Reality (VR organization being developed for use in teaching and learning at a large technology based university in Australia. This study focuses on authentic learning environment where students learn about decision making in complex business contexts throughout the semester which culminates in immersive VR exposure. The findings report that immersive VR environment helps to increase students’ understanding of decision making concepts.

  1. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  2. The Human Element in the Virtual Library.

    Saunders, Laverna M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the concept of the virtual library and explores how the increasing reliance on computers and digital information has affected library users and staff. Discusses users' expectations, democratization of access, human issues, organizational change, technostress, ergonomics, assessment, and strategies for success and survival. Contains 35…

  3. Developing Community and Building Knowledge Online Using a Virtual Reality Environment and Student-Created Videos

    O'Connor, Eileen A.

    2018-01-01

    Within an online science teacher education course, an important although secondary goal was to prepare students for a high-stakes licensure portfolio at some time after course completion. Thus, various communication technologies including synchronous virtual reality meetings and asynchronous student self-created video commentaries were interwoven…

  4. The Arnolfini Portrait in 3d: Creating Virtual World of a Painting with Inconsistent Perspective

    Jansen, P.H.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Arnold, D. B.; Ferko, A.

    We report on creating a 3d virtual reconstruction of the scene shown in "The Arnolfini Portrait" by Jan van Eyck. This early Renaissance painting, if painted faithfully, should confirm to one-point perspective, however it has several vanishing points instead of one. Hence our 3d reconstruction had

  5. Virtual reality: Avatars in human spaceflight training

    Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad

    2012-02-01

    With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to

  6. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Nexhmedin Morina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001. However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively. The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels

  7. Investigating the virtual representation of human resources

    Canko, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Despite all the advancements of software technologies to increase the productivity of companies, their capabilities to find solutions for certain problem domains are still limited. For the purpose of collaboratively addressing problems, which cannot be solved by algorithms alone, humans as computational units that are connected in a network of hardware and software resources, are therefore becoming increasingly popular. In this diploma thesis we investigate virtual representations of huma...

  8. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  9. Ten Steps to Create Virtual Smile Design Templates With Adobe Photoshop® CS6.

    Sundar, Manoj Kumar; Chelliah, Venkataraman

    2018-03-01

    Computer design software has become a primary tool for communication among the dentist, patient, and ceramist. Virtual smile design can be carried out using various software programs, most of which use assorted forms of teeth templates that are made based on the concept of "golden proportion." Despite current advances in 3-dimensional imaging and smile designing, many clinicians still employ conventional design methods and analog (ie, man-made) mock-ups in assessing and establishing esthetic makeovers. To simplify virtual smile designing, the teeth templates should be readily available. No literature has provided details as to how to create these templates. This article explains a technique for creating different forms of teeth templates using Adobe Photoshop® CS6 that eventually can be used for smile design purposes, either in Photoshop or Microsoft Powerpoint. Clinically speaking, various smile design templates created using set proportions in Adobe Photoshop CS6 can be used in virtual smile designing, a valuable resource in diagnosis, treatment planning, and communicating with patients and ceramists, thus providing a platform for a successful esthetic rehabilitation.

  10. Accuracy and reproducibility of virtual edentulous casts created by laboratory impression scan protocols.

    Peng, Lingyan; Chen, Li; Harris, Bryan T; Bhandari, Bikash; Morton, Dean; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2018-04-24

    Although computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs) have gained popularity, conventional impressions are still common for CAD-CAM CRDP treatment. These need to be digitized and converted into virtual edentulous casts with a laboratory impression scan protocol during prosthesis fabrication. How this can best be accomplished is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy and reproducibility of virtual edentulous casts created by a dental laboratory laser scanner and a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner with a digitized master cast. A master cast was digitized as the virtual reference cast. Ten polyvinyl siloxane impressions were made on the master cast and scanned with the dental laboratory laser scanner and CBCT scanner. The impressions were sprayed with antiglare spray and rescanned. Four groups of virtual study casts (N=40) were created from the impression scans. All virtual study casts and the reference cast were registered with surface-matching software, and the root mean square (RMS) values (representation of overall accuracy) and percentage of measurement data points within 1 standard deviation (SD) of mean RMS values (%, representation of overall reproducibility) among the 4 study groups were measured. Additionally, 95 numeric distance differences (representation of accuracy at each region) were measured in 5 distinct regions: the apex of the denture border, 6 mm from denture border, crest of the ridge, palate, and posterior palatal seal. The repeated-measures ANOVA and post hoc test (t grouping) were used to determine statistical differences (α=.05). The laboratory scanner group had a significantly larger RMS value (4.0 ±0.3 μm, Pvirtual edentulous casts, and the antiglare spray only significantly improved the accuracy and reproducibility of virtual edentulous casts created by the dental laboratory laser scanner. The accuracy of the virtual edentulous

  11. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  12. Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods

    Lehdonvirta, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling virtual goods for real money is an increasingly popular revenue model for massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs, social networking sites (SNSs and other online hangouts. In this paper, we argue that the marketing of virtual goods currently falls short of what it could be. Game developers have long created compelling game designs, but having to market virtual goods to players is a relatively new situation to them. Professional marketers, on the other hand, tend to overlook the internal design of games and hangouts and focus on marketing the services as a whole. To begin bridging the gap, we propose that the design patterns and game mechanics commonly used in games and online hangouts should be viewed as a set of marketing techniques designed to sell virtual goods. Based on a review of a number of MMOs, we describe some of the most common patterns and game mechanics and show how their effects can be explained in terms of analogous techniques from marketing science. The results provide a new perspective to game design with interesting implications to developers. Moreover, they also suggest a radically new perspective to marketers of ordinary goods and services: viewing marketing as a form of game design.

  13. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Evan H Hurowitz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90% confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast.Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  14. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Hurowitz, Evan H; Drori, Iddo; Stodden, Victoria C; Donoho, David L; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-05-23

    We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale. We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90%) confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs) tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast. Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  15. Human perception of a conversational virtual human : an empirical study on the effect of emotion and culture

    Qu, C.; Brinkman, W.P.; Ling, Y.; Wiggers, P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality applications with virtual humans, such as virtual reality exposure therapy, health coaches and negotiation simulators, are developed for different contexts and usually for users from different countries. The emphasis on a virtual human's emotional expression depends on the

  16. Human and Virtual Agents Interacting in the Virtuality Continuum

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we take a multi-party interaction point of view on our research on multimodal interactions between agents in various virtual environments: an educational environment, a meeting environment, and a storytelling environment. These environments are quite different. All these environments

  17. Human and Virtual Agents Interacting in the Virtuality Continuum

    Nijholt, Antinus; Miyares Bermúdez, E.; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce several of our projects in an overview that makes it possible to compare research approaches on interaction modeling in virtual, mixed-reality and real (physical) environments. For these environments, interaction modeling means multimodal (verbal and nonverbal) interaction modeling

  18. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Xueni ePan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  19. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. Research in Human Resource Management Series.

    Heneman, Robert L., Ed.; Greenberger, David B., Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers on human resources (HR) and human resource management (HRM) in virtual organizations. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Rodger Griffeth); "Volume Preface" (Robert L. Heneman, David B. Greenberger); "The Virtual Organization: Definition, Description, and…

  1. Synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human - biomed 2010.

    Zhao, Yue; Kang, Jinsheng; Wright, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and case studies of a novel synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human. The synthetic vision module simulates the biological / optical abilities and limitations of the human vision. The module is based on a series of collision detection between the boundary of virtual humans field of vision (FOV) volume and the surface of objects in a recreated 3D environment. The memory module simulates a short-term memory capability by employing a simplified memory structure (first-in-first-out stack). The synthetic vision and memory model has been integrated into a virtual human modelling project, Intelligent Virtual Modelling. The project aimed to improve the realism and autonomy of virtual humans.

  2. How Health Care Professionals Use Social Media to Create Virtual Communities: An Integrative Review.

    Rolls, Kaye; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2016-06-16

    =4). Evaluation using related theories of "planned behavior" and the "technology acceptance model" (n=3) suggests that social media use is mediated by an individual's positive attitude toward and accessibility of the media, which is reinforced by credible peers. The most common reason to establish a virtual community was to create a forum where relevant specialty knowledge could be shared and professional issues discussed (n=17). Most members demonstrated low posting behaviors but more frequent reading or accessing behaviors. The most common Web-based activity was request for and supply of specialty-specific clinical information. This knowledge sharing is facilitated by a Web-based culture of collectivism, reciprocity, and a respectful noncompetitive environment. Findings suggest that health care professionals view virtual communities as valuable knowledge portals for sourcing clinically relevant and quality information that enables them to make more informed practice decisions. There is emerging evidence that health care professionals use social media to develop virtual communities to share domain knowledge. These virtual communities, however, currently reflect tribal behaviors of clinicians that may continue to limit knowledge sharing. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of social media on knowledge distribution in clinical practice and importantly whether patient outcomes are significantly improved.

  3. How Health Care Professionals Use Social Media to Create Virtual Communities: An Integrative Review

    2016-01-01

    target group ranged from 1.6% to 29% (n=4). Evaluation using related theories of “planned behavior” and the “technology acceptance model” (n=3) suggests that social media use is mediated by an individual’s positive attitude toward and accessibility of the media, which is reinforced by credible peers. The most common reason to establish a virtual community was to create a forum where relevant specialty knowledge could be shared and professional issues discussed (n=17). Most members demonstrated low posting behaviors but more frequent reading or accessing behaviors. The most common Web-based activity was request for and supply of specialty-specific clinical information. This knowledge sharing is facilitated by a Web-based culture of collectivism, reciprocity, and a respectful noncompetitive environment. Findings suggest that health care professionals view virtual communities as valuable knowledge portals for sourcing clinically relevant and quality information that enables them to make more informed practice decisions. Conclusions There is emerging evidence that health care professionals use social media to develop virtual communities to share domain knowledge. These virtual communities, however, currently reflect tribal behaviors of clinicians that may continue to limit knowledge sharing. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of social media on knowledge distribution in clinical practice and importantly whether patient outcomes are significantly improved. PMID:27328967

  4. A Learner-Created Virtual Patient Curriculum for Surgical Residents: Successes and Failures.

    McKendy, Katherine M; Posel, Nancy; Fleiszer, David M; Vassiliou, Melina C

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a learner-created virtual patient (VP) curriculum for postgraduate year 2 surgical residents. Using a social-constructivist model of learning, we designed a learner-created VP curriculum to help postgraduate year 2 residents prepare for their in-training surgical examination. Each resident was assigned to create a VP curriculum based on the learning objectives for this examination, and VP cases were then disseminated to all residents for completion. To measure the learning effects of the curriculum, participants completed 2 simulated in-training examinations, both at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Study participants also participated in a focus group and completed an online questionnaire about the perceived learning value of the curriculum. The study was conducted at the McGill University Health Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada. In total, 24 residents from 7 surgical specialties completed both the pretest and posttest, as well as took part in the creation of a VP curriculum. Of those 24 residents, only 19 residents completed the cases created by their peers, with 7 completing greater than 50% of the cases and 12 completing less than 50%. In all 17 residents responded to the online questionnaire and 11 residents participated in the focus group. The VP curriculum failed to improve scores from pretest (59.6%, standard deviation = 8.1) to posttest (55.4%, standard deviation = 6.6; p = 0.01) on the simulated in-training examination. Nonetheless, survey results demonstrated that most residents felt that creating a VP case (89%) and completing cases created by their peers (71%) had educational value. Overall, 71% preferred active participation in a curriculum to traditional didactic teaching. The focus group identified time-related constraints, concern about the quality of the peer-created cases, and questioning of the relationship between the curriculum and the Surgical Foundations

  5. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  6. Virtual Australia and New Zealand (VANZ): Creating a piece of Digital Earth

    Haines, M.

    2014-02-01

    VANZ is an Initiative of a wide group of research, government, industry, technology and legal stakeholders in Australia and New Zealand. Its purpose is to broker development of the 'Authorised Virtual World' that brings together 3D Spatial and Building Information Modelling within a proposed new Legal Framework. The aim is to create an 'authoritative' and 'enduring' 3D model of both the 'physical attributes', and 'legal entitlements' relating to every property. This 'authorised virtual world' would be used in all 'property-related' activities - to deliver better, quicker and cheaper outcomes. It would also be used as the context for serious games and to model dynamic processes within the built environment, as well as for emergency response and disaster recovery. Productivity savings across Australia have been estimated at 5 billion pa for the design and construct phases alone. The problem for owners, bankers, insurers, architects, engineers and construction companies, and others, is that they require access to 'authoritative' and detailed 3D data for their own purposes, that must also be securely shared with others up and down the 'property' chain, and over time. All parties also need to know what are the rights, responsibilities and restrictions applying to the data, as well as to the land and buildings that it models. VANZ proposes the creation of a network of Data Banks, to hold the 'authoritative data set', 'in perpetuity', along with the associated software and virtual hardware used to model it. Under the proposal, rights of access to the 'authoritative data' will mirror each person's rights in the property that the data models. As more and more buildings are modelled (inside and out), privacy, security and liability become issues of paramount importance. This paper offers a way for the global community to address these issues. It is targeted at all who have an interest in the practical implementation of Digital Earth for the built environment - including new

  7. Virtual pharmacokinetic model of human eye.

    Kotha, Sreevani; Murtomäki, Lasse

    2014-07-01

    A virtual pharmacokinetic 3D model of the human eye is built using Comsol Multiphysics® software, which is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model considers drug release from a polymer patch placed on sclera. The model concentrates on the posterior part of the eye, retina being the target tissue, and comprises the choroidal blood flow, partitioning of the drug between different tissues and active transport at the retina pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid boundary. Although most straightforward, in order to check the mass balance, no protein binding or metabolism is yet included. It appeared that the most important issue in obtaining reliable simulation results is the finite element mesh, while time stepping has hardly any significance. Simulations were extended to 100,000 s. The concentration of a drug is shown as a function of time at various points of retina, as well as its average value, varying several parameters in the model. This work demonstrates how anybody with basic knowledge of calculus is able to build physically meaningful models of quite complex biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fourier Analysis: Creating A “Virtual Laboratory” Using Computer Simulation

    Jeff Butterfield

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available At times the desire for specialized laboratory apparatus to support class activities outstrips the available resources.  When this is the case the instructor must look for creative alternatives to help meet the desired objectives.  This report examines how a virtual laboratory was created to model and analyze high-speed networking signals in a LAN class using a spreadsheet simulation.  The students were able to printout various waveforms (e.g., signals of different frequencies/network media that are similar to output from test equipment that would have otherwise been cost prohibitive.  The activity proved to be valuable in helping students to understand an otherwise difficult concept that is central to modern networking applications.  Such simulation is not limited to network signals, but may be applicable in many situations where the artifact under study may be described mathematically.

  9. Developing Educational and Entertaining Virtual Humans using Elckerlyc

    Reidsma, Dennis; van Welbergen, H.; Paul, Ronald C.; van de Laar, B.L.A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Yang, Hyun Seung; Malaka, Rainer; Hoshino, Junichi; Han, Jung Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Virtual humans (VHs) are used in many educational and entertainment settings: training and serious gaming, interactive information kiosks, tour guides, tutoring, interactive virtual dancers, and much more. Building a complete VH from scratch is a daunting task, and it makes sense to rely on existing

  10. Going from lectures to expeditions: Creating a virtual voyage in undergraduate ocean science education

    Reed, D.; Garfield, N.; Locke, J.; Anglin, J.; Karl, H.; Edwards, B.

    2003-04-01

    The WWW provides for new collaborations in distributed learning in higher education. The lead author has developed a highly successful online course at the undergraduate level with an enrollment of more than 300 non-science majors each year, We are currently initiating a new focus for the course by emphasizing sea-going research, primarily in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, through the development of a virtual oceanographic voyage over the WWW. The "virtual voyage" courseware combines elements of experiential learning with anytime, anywhere access of the WWW to stimulate inquiry-based learning in the ocean sciences. The first leg of the voyage is currently being synthesized from contemporary ocean research sponsored by a collaboration of U.S. government agencies, including NSF, NOAA, and the USGS. The initial portion of this effort involves transforming portions of USGS Circular 1198, Beyond the Golden Gate -- Oceanography, Geology, Biology, and Environmental Issues in the Gulf of the Farallones, into an interactive expedition by which students participate as scientists aboard a research vessel departing from San Francisco. Virtual experiments on the voyage are patterned after research cruises over the past decade in two national marine sanctuaries and include the technologies of data acquisition and data analysis, as well as providing insight into the methodologies of working marine scientists. Real-time data for monitoring the marine environment are embedded into several modules; for example, students will analyze data from offshore buoys and satellite imagery to assess ocean conditions prior to departing from port. Multibeam sonar is used to create seafloor maps near the Golden Gate Bridge and sediment cores provide evidence of sea-level change in the region. Environmental studies in the region include locating canisters of low-level radioactive waste and assessing potential sites for the disposal for dredged materials from the San Francisco Bay. Upon completion

  11. Teaching Negotiation Skills through Practice and Reflection with Virtual Humans

    Core, Mark; Traum, David; Lane, H. Chad; Swartout, William; Gratch, Jonathan; van Lent, Michael; Marsella, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Although the representation of physical environments and behaviors will continue to play an important role in simulation-based training, an emerging challenge is the representation of virtual humans...

  12. Synthetic vision and memory for autonomous virtual humans

    PETERS, CHRISTOPHER; O'SULLIVAN, CAROL ANN

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED A memory model based on ?stage theory?, an influential concept of memory from the field of cognitive psychology, is presented for application to autonomous virtual humans. The virtual human senses external stimuli through a synthetic vision system. The vision system incorporates multiple modes of vision in order to accommodate a perceptual attention approach. The memory model is used to store perceived and attended object information at different stages in a filtering...

  13. Hirarchical emotion calculation model for virtual human modellin - biomed 2010.

    Zhao, Yue; Wright, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new emotion generation method for virtual human modelling. The method includes a novel hierarchical emotion structure, a group of emotion calculation equations and a simple heuristics decision making mechanism, which enables virtual humans to perform emotionally in real-time according to their internal and external factors. Emotion calculation equations used in this research were derived from psychologic emotion measurements. Virtual humans can utilise the information in virtual memory and emotion calculation equations to generate their own numerical emotion states within the hierarchical emotion structure. Those emotion states are important internal references for virtual humans to adopt appropriate behaviours and also key cues for their decision making. A simple heuristics theory is introduced and integrated into decision making process in order to make the virtual humans decision making more like a real human. A data interface which connects the emotion calculation and the decision making structure together has also been designed and simulated to test the method in Virtools environment.

  14. Virtual Australia and New Zealand (VANZ): Creating a piece of Digital Earth

    Haines, M

    2014-01-01

    VANZ is an Initiative of a wide group of research, government, industry, technology and legal stakeholders in Australia and New Zealand. Its purpose is to broker development of the 'Authorised Virtual World' that brings together 3D Spatial and Building Information Modelling within a proposed new Legal Framework. The aim is to create an 'authoritative' and 'enduring' 3D model of both the 'physical attributes', and 'legal entitlements' relating to every property. This 'authorised virtual world' would be used in all 'property-related' activities – to deliver better, quicker and cheaper outcomes. It would also be used as the context for serious games and to model dynamic processes within the built environment, as well as for emergency response and disaster recovery. Productivity savings across Australia have been estimated at $5 billion pa for the design and construct phases alone. The problem for owners, bankers, insurers, architects, engineers and construction companies, and others, is that they require access to 'authoritative' and detailed 3D data for their own purposes, that must also be securely shared with others up and down the 'property' chain, and over time. All parties also need to know what are the rights, responsibilities and restrictions applying to the data, as well as to the land and buildings that it models. VANZ proposes the creation of a network of Data Banks, to hold the 'authoritative data set', 'in perpetuity', along with the associated software and virtual hardware used to model it. Under the proposal, rights of access to the 'authoritative data' will mirror each person's rights in the property that the data models. As more and more buildings are modelled (inside and out), privacy, security and liability become issues of paramount importance. This paper offers a way for the global community to address these issues. It is

  15. A Practical Guide, with Theoretical Underpinnings, for Creating Effective Virtual Reality Learning Environments

    O'Connor, Eileen A.; Domingo, Jelia

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of open source virtual environments, the associated cost reductions, and the more flexible options, avatar-based virtual reality environments are within reach of educators. By using and repurposing readily available virtual environments, instructors can bring engaging, community-building, and immersive learning opportunities to…

  16. [The virtual reality simulation research of China Mechanical Virtual Human based on the Creator/Vega].

    Wei, Gaofeng; Tang, Gang; Fu, Zengliang; Sun, Qiuming; Tian, Feng

    2010-10-01

    The China Mechanical Virtual Human (CMVH) is a human musculoskeletal biomechanical simulation platform based on China Visible Human slice images; it has great realistic application significance. In this paper is introduced the construction method of CMVH 3D models. Then a simulation system solution based on Creator/Vega is put forward for the complex and gigantic data characteristics of the 3D models. At last, combined with MFC technology, the CMVH simulation system is developed and a running simulation scene is given. This paper provides a new way for the virtual reality application of CMVH.

  17. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions.

    Caruana, Nathan; Spirou, Dean; Brock, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an "intentional stance" by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants' behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative "joint attention" game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other's eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm ("Computer" condition). The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room ("Human" condition). Those in the "Human" condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the "Computer" condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect on the achievement of the application's goals.

  18. Virtual Reality, Safety and Human Behaviour!

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The use of Virtual Reality (VR) environments opens the door to conduct hazard-free experiments aimed at understanding how people would behave in case of an emergency. The exploration of this systems would help to better design safety systems in complex scenarios to increase its safety robustness in case of unwanted events.

  19. Conditioned place preferences in humans using virtual reality.

    Astur, Robert S; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E

    2014-07-01

    To extend a standard paradigm of conditioning in nonhumans to humans, we created a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference task, with real-life food rewards. Undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of 2 visually distinct rooms. On Day 1, participants underwent 6 pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored the VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for 3 sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for 3 sessions. Day 2 was the test day, administered the next day, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5min. In experiment 1, participants were food restricted, and we observed that on the test day, participants display a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food (pchoice of "Which room do you like best?". In experiment 2, when participants were not food restricted, there was no evidence of a place preference, either implicitly (e.g. dwell time) or explicitly. Hence, we show that we can reliably establish a place preference in humans, but that the preference is contingent on the participants' hunger state. Future research will examine the extent to which these preferences can be blocked or extinguished as well as whether these preferences are evident using other reinforcers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual reality using guided imagery to create Kanji or Hiragana by computer graphics: I

    Ishigame, Masaaki; Miura, Nozomu; Hosaka, Akiko

    1997-04-01

    We have been studying a kind of word-processor that is able to create Japanese characters, Kanji or Hiragana strings in the cursive style, using an electronic writing brush model. Int his paper, we describe in detail the operation characteristics of the electronic writing brush which we have proposed. We defined a touch shape pattern of the electronic writing brush as a form which is projected as a circle and a cone. The brush goes on certain points of the skeleton of the character figure which is given as skeleton data. The thickness of the line is determined by a diametric variable brush pressure. Our progressive action model can rotate the direction of the writing brush tip corresponding to the difference angle between the direction of brush tip and the direction of the brush movement, and also the softness of the writing brush to express the writing brush method called the side writing brush. The front side and back side of the writing brush can be expressed in a calligraphic drawing. With our technique we can draw characters in actual stroke order on a virtual computer plane as if they are written by an actual writing brush.

  1. Virtual assistant: Enhancing content acquisition by eliciting information from humans

    Ozeki, Motoyuki; Maeda, Shunichi; Obata, Kanako; Nakamura, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the "Virtual Assistant, " a novel framework for supporting knowledge capturing in videos. The Virtual Assistant is an artificial agent that simulates a human assistant shown in TV programs and prompts users to provide feedback by asking questions. This framework ensures that sufficient information is provided in the captured content while users interact in a natural and enjoyable way with the agent. We developed a prototype agent based on a chatbot-like approach and ...

  2. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments

    Durlach, Nathaniel I. (Compiler); Sheridan, Thomas B. (Compiler); Ellis, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    In Mar. 1990, a meeting organized around the general theme of teleoperation research into virtual environment display technology was conducted. This is a collection of conference-related fragments that will give a glimpse of the potential of the following fields and how they interplay: sensorimotor performance; human-machine interfaces; teleoperation; virtual environments; performance measurement and evaluation methods; and design principles and predictive models.

  3. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions

    Nathan Caruana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an “intentional stance” by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants’ behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative “joint attention” game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other’s eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm (“Computer” condition. The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room (“Human” condition. Those in the “Human” condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the “Computer” condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect

  4. NanTroSEIZE in 3-D: Creating a Virtual Research Experience in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Reed, D. L.; Bangs, N. L.; Moore, G. F.; Tobin, H.

    2009-12-01

    Marine research programs, both large and small, have increasingly added a web-based component to facilitate outreach to K-12 and the public, in general. These efforts have included, among other activities, information-rich websites, ship-to-shore communication with scientists during expeditions, blogs at sea, clips on YouTube, and information about daily shipboard activities. Our objective was to leverage a portion of the vast collection of data acquired through the NSF-MARGINS program to create a learning tool with a long lifespan for use in undergraduate geoscience courses. We have developed a web-based virtual expedition, NanTroSEIZE in 3-D, based on a seismic survey associated with the NanTroSEIZE program of NSF-MARGINS and IODP to study the properties of the plate boundary fault system in the upper limit of the seismogenic zone off Japan. The virtual voyage can be used in undergraduate classes at anytime, since it is not directly tied to the finite duration of a specific seagoing project. The website combines text, graphics, audio and video to place learning in an experiential framework as students participate on the expedition and carry out research. Students learn about the scientific background of the program, especially the critical role of international collaboration, and meet the chief scientists before joining the sea-going expedition. Students are presented with the principles of 3-D seismic imaging, data processing and interpretation while mapping and identifying the active faults that were the likely sources of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan in 1944 and 1948. They also learn about IODP drilling that began in 2007 and will extend through much of the next decade. The website is being tested in undergraduate classes in fall 2009 and will be distributed through the NSF-MARGINS website (http://www.nsf-margins.org/) and the MARGINS Mini-lesson section of the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) (http

  5. Real Time Animation of Virtual Humans: A Trade-off Between Naturalness and Control

    van Welbergen, H.; van Basten, B.J.H.; Egges, A.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Overmars, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual humans are employed in many interactive applications using 3D virtual environments, including (serious) games. The motion of such virtual humans should look realistic (or ‘natural’) and allow interaction with the surroundings and other (virtual) humans. Current animation techniques differ in

  6. Motion in Human and Machine: A Virtual Fatigue Approach

    Potkonjak, V.; Kostic, D.; Rasic, M.; Djordjevic, G.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving human-like behavior of a robot is a key issue of the paper. Redundancy in the inverse kinematics problem is resolved using a biological analogue. It is shown that by means of "virtual fatigue" functions, it is possible to generate robot movements similar to movements of a human arm subject

  7. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  8. [Virtual Campus of Public Health: six years of human resources education in Mexico].

    Ramos Herrera, Igor; Alfaro Alfaro, Noé; Fonseca León, Joel; García Sandoval, Cristóbal; González Castañeda, Miguel; López Zermeño, María Del Carmen; Benítez Morales, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the gestation process, implementation methodology, and results obtained from the initiative to use e-learning to train human resources for health, six years after the launch of the Virtual Campus of Public Health of the University of Guadalajara (Mexico); the discussion is framed by Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) standards and practices. This is a special report on the work done by the institutional committee of the Virtual Campus in western Mexico to create an Internet portal that follows the guidelines of the strategic model established by Nodo México and PAHO for the Region of the Americas. This Virtual Campus began its activities in 2007, on the basis of the use of free software and institutional collaboration. Since the initial year of implementation of the node, over 500 health professionals have been trained using virtual courses, the node's educational platform, and a repository of virtual learning resources that are interoperable with other repositories in Mexico and the Region of the Americas. The University of Guadalajara Virtual Campus committee has followed the proposed model as much as possible, thereby achieving most of the goals set in the initial work plan, despite a number of administrative challenges and the difficulty of motivating committee members.

  9. Work in the virtual enterprise-creating identities, building trust, and sharing knowledge

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Wangel, Arne

    2006-01-01

    for an exploratory, sociotechnical research approach combining the dimensions of context, subject and action with the twin objectives of contributing to the enhancement of collaborative capabilities in virtual teams as well as improving the insights into the nature of virtual work....... of the network must be integrated across the barriers of missing face-to-face clues and cultural differences. The social integration of the virtual network involves the creation of identities of the participating nodes, the building of trust between them, and the sharing of tacit and explicit knowledge among...... them. The conventional organisation already doing well in these areas seems to have an edge when going virtual. The paper argues that the whole question of management and control must be reconsidered due to the particular circumstances in the ‘Network Society’. The paper outlines a suggestion...

  10. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  11. Virtual Fiber Networking and Impact of Optical Path Grooming on Creating Efficient Layer One Services

    Naruse, Fumisato; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-Ichi

    This paper presents a novel “virtual fiber” network service that exploits wavebands. This service provides virtual direct tunnels that directly convey wavelength paths to connect customer facilities. To improve the resource utilization efficiency of the service, a network design algorithm is developed that can allow intermediate path grooming at limited nodes and can determine the best node location. Numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed service architecture.

  12. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment

    Mashrura Musharraf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article “Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique” (Musharraf et al., 2017 [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1 G1: high level training and 2 G2: low level training. Participants’ performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  13. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment.

    Musharraf, Mashrura; Smith, Jennifer; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; MacKinnon, Scott

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article "Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique" (Musharraf et al., 2017) [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1) G1: high level training and 2) G2: low level training. Participants' performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  14. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  15. Self(ie)-esteem? – A manifestation of adolescent self-creating endeavours in the virtual space of Facebook

    Lili Fejes-Vékássy

    2017-01-01

    In the centre of our interest stand the manifestations of adolescent self-creating endeavours in the virtual space of the social media portal called Facebook. Frequent self-photography (selfie) making, as a pronounced cultural feature of contemporary youth, and regular activity on Facebook handled as tightly connected factors; we propose that youngsters, bearing these attributes, have a different self-esteem than those adolescents who rarely or never take any photographs of themselves. In the...

  16. Virtual Elimination of Mother‑to‑Child Transmission of Human ...

    CD4 cell counts, and prolonged breastfeeding were implicated in MTCT of HIV in the era of ... of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), virtual elimination of mother to child ... The babies were tested for HIV using deoxyribo nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction test at 6 weeks, and ...

  17. An Animation Framework for Continuous Interaction with Reactive Virtual Humans

    Reidsma, Dennis; Zwiers, Jakob; Ruttkay, Z.M.; ter Maat, Mark; Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; van Welbergen, H.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete framework for animation of Reactive Virtual Humans that offers a mixed animation paradigm: control of different body parts switches between keyframe animation, procedural animation and physical simulation, depending on the requirements of the moment. This framework implements

  18. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale--psychometric construction for virtual reality applications with virtual humans.

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training applications with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed simulation depends on the specific application and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure simulation realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale for VR training applications was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training applications) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated simulation realism of a Fear of Public Speaking application. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of simulation realism for applications including virtual humans.

  19. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  20. Training together: how another human's presence affects behavior during virtual human-based team training

    Andrew Robb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite research showing that team training can lead to strong improvements in team performance, logistical difficulties can prevent team training programs from being adopted on a large scale. A proposed solution to these difficulties is the use of virtual humans to replace missing teammates. Existing research evaluating the use of virtual humans for team training has been conducted in settings involving a single human trainee. However, in the real world multiple human trainees would most likely train together. In this paper, we explore how the presence of a second human trainee can alter behavior during a medical team training program. Ninety-two nurses and surgical technicians participated in a medical training exercise, where they worked with a virtual surgeon and virtual anesthesiologist to prepare a simulated patient for surgery. The agency of the nurse and the surgical technician were varied between three conditions: human nurses and surgical technicians working together; human nurses working with a virtual surgical technician; and human surgical technicians working with a virtual nurse. Variations in agency did not produce statistically significant differences in the training outcomes, but several notable differences were observed in other aspects of the team's behavior. Specifically, when working with a virtual nurse, human surgical technicians were more likely to assist with speaking up about patient safety issues that were outside of their normal responsibilities; human trainees spent less time searching for a missing item when working with a virtual partner, likely because the virtual partner was physically unable to move throughout the room and assist with the searching process; and more breaks in presence were observed when two human teammates were present. These results show that some behaviors may be influenced by the presence of multiple human trainees, though these behaviors may not impinge on core training goals. When

  1. Touring by Design: Using Information Architecture To Create a Virtual Library Tour.

    Kittelson, Pat; Jones, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a Web-based virtual tour of the University of Otago (New Zealand) science library. Highlights include information literacy learning outcomes; information architecture, including information organization and navigation; integrating the tour into course work; and evaluation results. (LRW)

  2. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  3. Modeling and Simulating Virtual Anatomical Humans

    Madehkhaksar, Forough; Luo, Zhiping; Pronost, Nicolas; Egges, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents human musculoskeletal modeling and simulation as a challenging field that lies between biomechanics and computer animation. One of the main goals of computer animation research is to develop algorithms and systems that produce plausible motion. On the other hand, the main

  4. Creating a virtual network of communication of information in view on the regime of information

    Luiz Antonio Dias Leal; Isa Freire; Rosali Fernandez de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Presents the results of research that uses the concept of 'information system' Gonzalez Gomez to identify elements and actors within the domain of a virtual network of information communication. The research was conducted under the Program Good Agricultural Practices - Beef Cattle at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - EMBRAPA, which aims to make systems for beef cattle production more profitable and competitive, ensuring the supply of safe food, from of sustainable production s...

  5. Recreating a medieval urban scene with virtual intelligent characters: steps to create the complete scenario

    Ana Paula Cláudio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From historical advice to 3D modeling and programming, the process of reconstructing cultural heritage sites populated with virtual inhabitants is lengthy and expensive, and it requires a large set of skills and tools. These constraints make it increasingly difficult, however not unattainable, for small archaeological sites to build their own simulations. In this article, we describe our attempt to minimize this scenario. We describe a framework that makes use of free tools or campus licenses and integrates the curricular work of students in academia. We present the details of methods and tools used in the pipeline of the construction of the virtual simulation of the medieval village of Mértola in the south of Portugal. We report on: a the development of a lightweight model of the village, including houses and terrain, and b its integration in a game engine in order to c include a virtual population of autonomous inhabitants in a simulation running in real-time.

  6. An action selection architecture for autonomous virtual humans in persistent worlds

    Sevin, Etienne de; Thalmann, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, virtual humans such as non-player characters in computer games need to have a strong autonomy in order to live their own life in persistent virtual worlds. When designing autonomous virtual humans, the action selection problem needs to be considered, as it is responsible for decision making at each moment in time. Indeed action selection architectures for autonomous virtual humans need to be reactive, proactive, motivational, and emotional to obtain a high degree of autonomy and ind...

  7. Investigation of an emotional virtual human modelling method

    Zhao, Yue

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. In order to simulate virtual humans more realistically and enable them life-like behaviours, several exploration research on emotion calculation, synthetic perception, and decision making process have been discussed. A series of sub-modules have been designed and simulation results have been presented with discussion. A visual based synthetic perception system has been proposed in this th...

  8. The Strategy of Creating a Virtual Interactive Platform for the Low-Carbon Open Innovations Relay

    Mykola S. Shestavin

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for the creation of a Virtual Interactive Platform (or Networking Platform) to combine the four web-baseness of expert systems on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. It used the concept of “Open Innovation” and “Triple Helix” with regard to theories of “Green Growth” and “Carbon Footprint”. Interpreters expert systems operate on the basis of models of the “Predator-Prey” for the process of transfer and diffusion of technologies, taking into account the features c...

  9. The virtual driving instructor : Creating awareness in a multi-agent system

    Weevers, Ivo; Kuipers, Jorrit; Brugman, Arnd O.; Zwiers, Job; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Anton; Xiang, Y.; Chaib-draa, B.

    2003-01-01

    Driving simulators need an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Simulators provide ways to conduct objective measurements on students’ driving behavior and opportunities for creating the best possible learning environment. The generated traffic situations can be influenced directly according to the

  10. Creating the sustainable conditions for knowledge information sharing in virtual community.

    Wang, Jiangtao; Yang, Jianmei; Chen, Quan; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Encyclopedias are not a new platform for the distribution of knowledge, but they have recently drawn a great deal of attention in their online iteration. Peer production in particular has emerged as a new mode of providing information with value and offering competitive advantage in information production. Large numbers of volunteers actively share their knowledge by continuously editing articles in Baidu encyclopedias. Most articles in the online communities are the cumulative and integrated products of the contributions of many coauthors. Email-based surveys and objective data mining were here used to collect analytical data. Critical mass theory is here used to analyze the characteristics of these collective actions and to explain the emergence and sustainability of these actions in the Baidu Encyclopedia communities. These results show that, based on the collective action framework, the contributors group satisfied the two key characteristics that ensure the collective action of knowledge contribution will both take place and become self-sustaining. This analysis not only facilitates the identification of collective actions related to individuals sharing knowledge in virtual communities, but also can provide an insight for other similar virtual communities' management and development.

  11. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments Conference

    1990-01-01

    In a teleoperator system the human operator senses, moves within, and operates upon a remote or hazardous environment by means of a slave mechanism (a mechanism often referred to as a teleoperator). In a virtual environment system the interactive human machine interface is retained but the slave mechanism and its environment are replaced by a computer simulation. Video is replaced by computer graphics. The auditory and force sensations imparted to the human operator are similarly computer generated. In contrast to a teleoperator system, where the purpose is to extend the operator's sensorimotor system in a manner that facilitates exploration and manipulation of the physical environment, in a virtual environment system, the purpose is to train, inform, alter, or study the human operator to modify the state of the computer and the information environment. A major application in which the human operator is the target is that of flight simulation. Although flight simulators have been around for more than a decade, they had little impact outside aviation presumably because the application was so specialized and so expensive.

  12. METHODS USED FOR THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BONES AND JOINTS RECONSTRUCTION. NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL HUMAN JOINTS VIRTUAL SIMULATIONS

    POPA Laurentiu Dragos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the problems, which appear in every human joint, it is very important to know the anatomy and morphology of the human bones and the way in which the components are working together to realize a normal functionality. For this purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high degree of difficulty. First, it was used a CT or MRI device to obtain the parallel sections to study each component of the bone. A 3D scanner can be used only for the outer geometry. In the second step the images were transferred to a 2D CAD software, like AutoCAD, where the outer and inner contours of the bone were approximate to polygonal lines composed by many segments. After this, the contours were transferred to a 3D CAD software, like SolidWorks, where, step by step, and section by section, was defined the virtual bone component. Additionally to the main shape can be attached other Loft, Round or Dome shapes. For some components, as vertebrae, mandible or skull bones, can be used a preliminary model obtained by parallel sections. Starting from this, the model can be defined using the main 3D curves and we can get the final virtual solid model. In some simulations, the soft components, as muscles or ligaments, were included in simulations using non-linear virtual springs. Also, sometimes were used implants or prosthetic elements. In the final of the paper, were extracted important conclusions.

  13. Human Factors Virtual Analysis Techniques for NASA's Space Launch System Ground Support using MSFC's Virtual Environments Lab (VEL)

    Searcy, Brittani

    2017-01-01

    Using virtual environments to assess complex large scale human tasks provides timely and cost effective results to evaluate designs and to reduce operational risks during assembly and integration of the Space Launch System (SLS). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a suite of tools to conduct integrated virtual analysis during the design phase of the SLS Program. Siemens Jack is a simulation tool that allows engineers to analyze human interaction with CAD designs by placing a digital human model into the environment to test different scenarios and assess the design's compliance to human factors requirements. Engineers at MSFC are using Jack in conjunction with motion capture and virtual reality systems in MSFC's Virtual Environments Lab (VEL). The VEL provides additional capability beyond standalone Jack to record and analyze a person performing a planned task to assemble the SLS at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The VEL integrates Vicon Blade motion capture system, Siemens Jack, Oculus Rift, and other virtual tools to perform human factors assessments. By using motion capture and virtual reality, a more accurate breakdown and understanding of how an operator will perform a task can be gained. By virtual analysis, engineers are able to determine if a specific task is capable of being safely performed by both a 5% (approx. 5ft) female and a 95% (approx. 6'1) male. In addition, the analysis will help identify any tools or other accommodations that may to help complete the task. These assessments are critical for the safety of ground support engineers and keeping launch operations on schedule. Motion capture allows engineers to save and examine human movements on a frame by frame basis, while virtual reality gives the actor (person performing a task in the VEL) an immersive view of the task environment. This presentation will discuss the need of human factors for SLS and the benefits of analyzing tasks in NASA MSFC's VEL.

  14. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  15. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  16. Creating knowledge structures in the pharmaceutical industry: the increasing significance of virtual organisation.

    Salazar, A; Howells, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly.

  17. Openwebglobe - AN Open Source Sdk for Creating Large-Scale Virtual Globes on a Webgl Basis

    Loesch, B.; Christen, M.; Nebiker, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces the OpenWebGlobe project (www.openwebglobe.org) and the OpenWebGlobe SDK (Software Development Kit) - an open source virtual globe environment using WebGL. Unlike other (web-based) 3d geovisualisation technologies and toolkits, the OpenWebGlobe SDK not only supports the content authoring and web visualization aspects, but also the data processing functionality for generating multi-terabyte terrain, image, map and 3d point cloud data sets in high-performance and cloud-based parallel computing environments. The OpenWebGlobe architecture is described and the paper outlines the processing and the viewer functionality provided by the OpenWebGlobe SDK. It then discusses the generation and updating of a global 3d base map using OpenStreetMap data and finally presents two show cases employing the technology a) for implementing an interactive national 3d geoportal incorporating high resolution national geodata sets and b) for implementing a 3d geoinformation service supporting the real-time incorporation of 3d point cloud data.

  18. Strategic Tool for Students with Disabilities: Creating and Implementing Virtual Learning Environments without Barriers

    Barrett, Bob G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    While some organizations have made strides in employing workers with disabilities as an act of social responsibility, other entities have started to realize the need and value of this untapped human resource (Thakker, 1997). Research has shown that employees with disabilities have low turnover rates, low absenteeism, and high motivation to prove…

  19. Enhancing Geologic Education in Grades 5-12: Creating Virtual Field Trips

    Vitek, J. D.; Gamache, K. R.; Giardino, J. R.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    New tools of technology enhance and facilitate the ability to bring the "field experience" into the classroom as part of the effort necessary to turn students onto the geosciences. The real key is high-speed computers and high-definition cameras with which to capture visual images. Still and movie data are easily obtained as are large and small-scale images from space, available through "Google Earth°". GPS information provides accurate location data to enhance mapping efforts. One no longer needs to rely on commercial ventures to show students any aspect of the "real" world. The virtual world is a viable replacement. The new cost-effective tools mean everyone can be a producer of information critical to understanding Earth. During the last four summers (2008-2011), Texas teachers have participated in G-Camp, an effort to instill geologic and geomorphic knowledge such that the information will make its way into classrooms. Teachers have acquired thousands of images and developed concepts that are being used to enhance their ability to promote geology in their classrooms. Texas will soon require four years of science at the high-school level, and we believe that geology or Earth science needs to be elevated to the required level of biology, chemistry and physics. Teachers need to be trained and methodology developed that is exciting to students. After all, everyone on Earth needs to be aware of the hazardous nature of geologic events not just to pass an exam, but for a lifetime. We use a video, which is a composite of our ventures, to show how data collected during these trips can be used in the classroom. . Social media, Facebook°, blogs, and email facilitate sharing information such that everyone can learn from each other about the best way to do things. New tools of technology are taking their place in every classroom to take advantage of the skills students bring to the learning environment. Besides many of these approaches are common to video gaming, and

  20. Creating Virtual Fieldwork Experiences of Geoheritage Sites as Educator Professional Development (Invited)

    Duggan-Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Geoheritage sites are identified as such because they include excellent examples of geologic features or processes, or they have played an important role in the development of geologic understandings. These characteristics also make them excellent sites for teaching in the field, for teaching educators about the nature of fieldwork, and for making Virtual Fieldwork Experiences (VFEs, multimedia representations of field sites). Through the NSF-funded Regional and Local Earth (ReaL) Earth Inquiry Project, we have engaged educators in these practices. The nature of geoheritage sites is anomalous -- if this were not the case, the sites would not gain recognition. Anomalous features or processes can be powerful learning tools when placed into comparison with the more mundane, and the Earth system science of sites local to schools is likely to be mundane. By comparing the mundane and the extraordinary, it is hoped we can learn more about both. The professional development (PD) in ReaL Earth Inquiry begins with a face-to-face workshop within the teachers' region at a site that is interesting from an Earth system science perspective. Though we recognize and emphasize that all sites are interesting from an ESS perspective if you know how to look, the sites typically have features worthy of geoheritage designation. PD does not end with the end of the workshop but continues with online study groups where teachers work together to complete the workshop site VFE, and transition to work on VFEs of sites local to their schools. Throughout the program, participants engage in: - mentored fieldwork that pays attention to the skills and knowledge needed to lead fieldwork; - instruction in and use of a wide range of technologies for making VFEs; - study of a coherent conceptual framework connected to the project's driving question: Why does this place look the way it does? - and, use of resources for supporting all of the above The resources include templates for making VFEs and a

  1. The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments.

    Stone, Robert J

    2011-01-27

    The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the 'ultimate' in so-called 'immersive' hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation--the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real--is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity--the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications.

  2. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  3. Symbiota – A virtual platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information communities

    Corinna Gries

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the Symbiota software platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information portals and communities. Symbiota was originally conceived to promote small- to medium-sized, regionally and/or taxonomically themed collaborations of natural history collections. Over the past eight years the taxonomically diverse portals have grown into an important resource in North America and beyond for mobilizing, integrating, and using specimen- and observation-based occurrence records and derivative biodiversity information products. Designed to mirror the conceptual structure of traditional floras and faunas, Symbiota is exclusively web-based and employs a novel data model, information linking, and algorithms to provide highly dynamic customization. The themed portals enable meaningful access to biodiversity data for anyone from specialist to high school student. Symbiota emulates functionality of modern Content Management Systems, providing highly sophisticated yet intuitive user interfaces for data entry, batch processes, and editing. Each kind of content provision may be selectively accessed by authenticated information providers. Occupying a fairly specific niche in the biodiversity informatics arena, Symbiota provides extensive data exchange facilities and collaborates with other development projects to incorporate and not duplicate functionality as appropriate.

  4. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  5. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  6. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    Wendy Gibson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  7. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  8. Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.

    Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible.

  9. Self(ie-esteem? – A manifestation of adolescent self-creating endeavours in the virtual space of Facebook

    Lili Fejes-Vékássy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the centre of our interest stand the manifestations of adolescent self-creating endeavours in the virtual space of the social media portal called Facebook. Frequent self-photography (selfie making, as a pronounced cultural feature of contemporary youth, and regular activity on Facebook handled as tightly connected factors; we propose that youngsters, bearing these attributes, have a different self-esteem than those adolescents who rarely or never take any photographs of themselves. In the first, quantitative part of our research the participants (N=80 filled in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a questionnaire containing questions in connection with Facebook-usage (compiled by us. In the qualitative part of the research the participants took part in a half-structured interview, containing questions in connection with selfie­-making (also compiled by us. Our hypothesis was not proven by the statistical analysis, no connection could be testified between frequent selfie-making and low self-esteem.

  10. Healthy young adults implement distinctive avoidance strategies while walking and circumventing virtual human vs. non-human obstacles in a virtual environment.

    Souza Silva, Wagner; Aravind, Gayatri; Sangani, Samir; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2018-03-01

    This study examines how three types of obstacles (cylinder, virtual human and virtual human with footstep sounds) affect circumvention strategies of healthy young adults. Sixteen participants aged 25.2 ± 2.5 years (mean ± 1SD) were tested while walking overground and viewing a virtual room through a helmet mounted display. As participants walked towards a stationary target in the far space, they avoided an obstacle (cylinder or virtual human) approaching either from the right (+40°), left (-40°) or head-on (0°). Obstacle avoidance strategies were characterized using the position and orientation of the head. Repeated mixed model analysis showed smaller minimal distances (p = 0.007) while avoiding virtual humans as compared to cylinders. Footstep sounds added to virtual humans did not modify (p = 0.2) minimal distances compared to when no sound was provided. Onset times of avoidance strategies were similar across conditions (p = 0.06). Results indicate that the nature of the obstacle (human-like vs. non-human object) matters and can modify avoidance strategies. Smaller obstacle clearances in response to virtual humans may reflect the use of a less conservative avoidance strategy, due to a resemblance of obstacles to pedestrians and a recall of strategies used in daily locomotion. The lack of influence of footstep sounds supports the fact that obstacle avoidance primarily relies on visual cues and the principle of 'inverse effectiveness' whereby multisensory neurons' response to multimodal stimuli becomes weaker when the unimodal sensory stimulus (vision) is strong. Present findings should be taken into consideration to optimize the ecological validity of VR-based obstacle avoidance paradigms used in research and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

  12. Experimental studies of the interaction between people and virtual humans with a focus on social anxiety

    Pan, X.

    2010-01-01

    Psychotherapy has been one of the major applications of Virtual Reality technology; examples include fear of flying, heights, spiders, and post‐traumatic stress disorder. Virtual reality has been shown to be useful, in the context of exposure therapy for the treatment of social anxiety, such as fear of public speaking, where the clients learn how to conquer their anxiety through interactions with Virtual Characters (avatars). This thesis is concerned with the interaction between human p...

  13. The Human Octopus: controlling supernumerary hands with the help of virtual reality

    Aru, Jaan; Vasser, Madis; Zafra, Raul; Kulu, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the "human octopus" phenomenon where subjects controlled virtual supernumerary hands through hand tracking technology and virtual reality. Four experiments were developed to study how subjects (n=10) operate with different number and behaviour of supernumerary hands. The behaviours involved inserting movement delays to the virtual hands and adjusting their movement scale or position. It was found that having more hands to operate with does not necessarily mean higher success r...

  14. La Biblioteca Virtual en Equidad, Salud y Desarrollo Humano The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development

    América Valdés

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS. Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  15. The Use of Virtual Reality for Creating Unusual Environmental Stimulation to Motivate Students to Explore Creative Ideas

    Lau, Kung Wong; Lee, Pui Yuen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles of simulation in creativity education and how to apply immersive virtual environments to enhance students' learning experiences in university, through the provision of interactive simulations. An empirical study of a simulated virtual reality was carried out in order to investigate the effectiveness of providing…

  16. What about the Firewall? Creating Virtual Worlds in a Public Primary School Using Sim-on-a-Stick

    Jacka, Lisa; Booth, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are highly immersive, engaging and popular computer mediated environments being explored by children and adults. Why then aren't more teachers using virtual worlds in the classroom with primary and secondary school students? Reasons often cited are the learning required to master the technology, low-end graphics cards, poor…

  17. Transformational change: creating a safe operating space for humanity

    Clive A. McAlpine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many ecologists and environmental scientists witnessing the scale of current environmental change are becoming increasingly alarmed about how humanity is pushing the boundaries of the Earth's systems beyond sustainable levels. The world urgently needs global society to redirect itself toward a more sustainable future: one that moves intergenerational equity and environmental sustainability to the top of the political agenda, and to the core of personal and societal belief systems. Scientific and technological innovations are not enough: the global community, individuals, civil society, corporations, and governments, need to adjust their values and beliefs to one in which sustainability becomes the new global paradigm society. We argue that the solution requires transformational change, driven by a realignment of societal values, where individuals act ethically as an integral part of an interconnected society and biosphere. Transition management provides a framework for achieving transformational change, by giving special attention to reflective learning, interaction, integration, and experimentation at the level of society, thereby identifying the system conditions and type of changes necessary for enabling sustainable transformation.

  18. Chondrocytes and stem cells in 3D-bioprinted structures create human cartilage in vivo

    Apelgren, Peter; Amoroso, Matteo; Lindahl, Anders; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Gatenholm, Paul; Kölby, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold....

  19. Human factors consideration in clinical applications of virtual reality.

    Lewis, C H; Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    Virtual reality environments have many potential applications in medicine, including surgical training, tele-operated robotic surgery, assessment and rehabilitation of behavioural and neurological disorders and diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of physical disabilities. Although there is much potential for the use of immersive virtual reality environments in clinical applications, there are problems which could limit their ultimate usability. Some users have experienced side-effects during and after exposure to virtual reality environments. The symptoms include ocular problems, disorientation and balance disturbances, and nausea. Susceptibility to side-effects can be affected by age, ethnicity, experience, gender and physical fitness, as well as the characteristics of the display, the virtual environment and the tasks. The characteristics of the virtual reality system have also been shown to affect the ability of users to perform tasks in a virtual environment. Many of these effects can be attributed to delays between the sampling of head and limb positions and the presentation of an appropriate image on the display. The introduction of patients to virtual reality environments, for assessment, therapy or rehabilitation, raises particular safety and ethical issues. Patients exposed to virtual reality environments for assessment and rehabilitation may have disabilities which increase their susceptibility to certain side-effects. Special precautions therefore need to be taken to ensure the safety and effectiveness of such virtual reality applications. These precautions include minimisation of possible side-effects at the design stage. Factors are identified which are likely to affect the incidence of side-effects during and after exposures, and which need to be understood in order to minimise undesirable consequences. There is also a need for the establishment of protocols for monitoring and controlling exposures of patients to virtual reality environments. Issues

  20. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  1. Ecological validity of virtual environments to assess human navigation ability

    Ineke eVan Der Ham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass, and hybrid. In the hybrid environment, participants walked the route outside on an open field, while all route information (i.e. path, landmarks was shown simultaneously on a handheld tablet computer. Results indicate that performance in the real life environment was better than in the virtual conditions for tasks relying on survey knowledge, like pointing to start and end point, and map drawing. Performance in the hybrid condition however, hardly differed from real life performance. Performance in the virtual environment did not benefit from directional information. Given these findings, the hybrid condition may offer the best of both worlds: the performance level is comparable to that of real life for route memory, yet it offers full control of visual input during route learning.

  2. Is there a superior simulator for human anatomy education? How virtual dissection can overcome the anatomic and pedagogic limitations of cadaveric dissection.

    Darras, Kathryn E; de Bruin, Anique B H; Nicolaou, Savvas; Dahlström, Nils; Persson, Anders; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Forster, Bruce B

    2018-03-23

    Educators must select the best tools to teach anatomy to future physicians and traditionally, cadavers have always been considered the "gold standard" simulator for living anatomy. However, new advances in technology and radiology have created new teaching tools, such as virtual dissection, which provide students with new learning opportunities. Virtual dissection is a novel way of studying human anatomy through patient computed tomography (CT) scans. Through touchscreen technology, students can work together in groups to "virtually dissect" the CT scans to better understand complex anatomic relationships. This article presents the anatomic and pedagogic limitations of cadaveric dissection and explains what virtual dissection is and how this new technology may be used to overcome these limitations.

  3. Framework for Virtual Cognitive Experiment in Virtual Geographic Environments

    Fan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Geographic Environment Cognition is the attempt to understand the human cognition of surface features, geographic processes, and human behaviour, as well as their relationships in the real world. From the perspective of human cognition behaviour analysis and simulation, previous work in Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs has focused mostly on representing and simulating the real world to create an ‘interpretive’ virtual world and improve an individual’s active cognition. In terms of reactive cognition, building a user ‘evaluative’ environment in a complex virtual experiment is a necessary yet challenging task. This paper discusses the outlook of VGEs and proposes a framework for virtual cognitive experiments. The framework not only employs immersive virtual environment technology to create a realistic virtual world but also involves a responsive mechanism to record the user’s cognitive activities during the experiment. Based on the framework, this paper presents two potential implementation methods: first, training a deep learning model with several hundred thousand street view images scored by online volunteers, with further analysis of which visual factors produce a sense of safety for the individual, and second, creating an immersive virtual environment and Electroencephalogram (EEG-based experimental paradigm to both record and analyse the brain activity of a user and explore what type of virtual environment is more suitable and comfortable. Finally, we present some preliminary findings based on the first method.

  4. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  5. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  6. Emotion model of interactive virtual humans on the basis of MDP

    WANG Guojiang; WANG Zhiliang; TENG Shaodong; XIE Yinggang; WANG Yujie

    2007-01-01

    Emotion plays an essential role in the adaptation and social communication of organisms.Similarly,an appropriately timed and clearly expressed emotion is a central requirement for believable interactive virtual humans.Presently,incorporating emotion into virtual humans has gained increasing attention in the academia and industry.This strong interest is driven by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality,e-learning,entertainment,etc.This paper introduces an emotion model of artificial psychology,in which the transition of emotion can be viewed as a Markov process and the relation of emotion,external incentive and personality can be described by a Markov decision process (MDP).In order to demonstrate the approach,this paper integrates the emotion model into a system composed of voice recognition and a realistic facial model.Thus,the model could be used for generating a variety of emotional expressions of autonomous,interactive virtual human beings.

  7. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

    Baumgartner L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.

  8. STUDY PAPER ON EDUCATION USING VIRTUAL REALITY.

    Anamika Modi*; Ayush Jaiswal; Princy Jain

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a short study of the field of virtual reality, highlighting application domains, technological requirements, and currently available solutions. In today’s market, virtual reality is playing an crucial role for the humans. If we consider the foreign countries than using virtual reality they try to create the same feelings not only for the school children’s as well as for the upper education. In this paper, we have study the technologies used in virtual reality.

  9. Creating Clay Models of a Human Torso as an Alternative to Dissection

    Shipley, Gwendolyn

    2010-01-01

    Instead of dissecting animals, students create small clay models of human internal organs to demonstrate their understanding of the positioning and interlocking shapes of the organs. Not only is this approach more environmentally friendly, it also forces them to learn human anatomy--which is more relevant to them than the anatomy of other…

  10. Using Virtual Technology to Promote Functional Communication in Aphasia: Preliminary Evidence From Interactive Dialogues With Human and Virtual Clinicians.

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine; Keshner, Emily; Rudnicky, Alex; Shi, Justin; Teodoro, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using a virtual clinician (VC) to promote functional communication abilities of persons with aphasia (PWAs). We aimed to determine whether the quantity and quality of verbal output in dialogues with a VC would be the same or greater than those with a human clinician (HC). Four PWAs practiced dialogues for 2 sessions each with a HC and VC. Dialogues from before and after practice were transcribed and analyzed for content. We compared measures taken before and after practice in the VC and HC conditions. Results were mixed. Participants either produced more verbal output with the VC or showed no difference on this measure between the VC and HC conditions. Participants also showed some improvement in postpractice narratives. Results provide support for the feasibility and applicability of virtual technology to real-life communication contexts to improve functional communication in PWAs.

  11. Learning Intercultural Communication Skills with Virtual Humans: Feedback and Fidelity

    Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…

  12. The EuroPhysiome, STEP and a roadmap for the virtual physiological human.

    Fenner, J W; Brook, B; Clapworthy, G; Coveney, P V; Feipel, V; Gregersen, H; Hose, D R; Kohl, P; Lawford, P; McCormack, K M; Pinney, D; Thomas, S R; Van Sint Jan, S; Waters, S; Viceconti, M

    2008-09-13

    Biomedical science and its allied disciplines are entering a new era in which computational methods and technologies are poised to play a prevalent role in supporting collaborative investigation of the human body. Within Europe, this has its focus in the virtual physiological human (VPH), which is an evolving entity that has emerged from the EuroPhysiome initiative and the strategy for the EuroPhysiome (STEP) consortium. The VPH is intended to be a solution to common infrastructure needs for physiome projects across the globe, providing a unifying architecture that facilitates integration and prediction, ultimately creating a framework capable of describing Homo sapiens in silico. The routine reliance of the biomedical industry, biomedical research and clinical practice on information technology (IT) highlights the importance of a tailor-made and robust IT infrastructure, but numerous challenges need to be addressed if the VPH is to become a mature technological reality. Appropriate investment will reap considerable rewards, since it is anticipated that the VPH will influence all sectors of society, with implications predominantly for improved healthcare, improved competitiveness in industry and greater understanding of (patho)physiological processes. This paper considers issues pertinent to the development of the VPH, highlighted by the work of the STEP consortium.

  13. Reporting Mental Health Symptoms: Breaking Down Barriers to Care with Virtual Human Interviewers

    Gale M. Lucas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common barrier to healthcare for psychiatric conditions is the stigma associated with these disorders. Perceived stigma prevents many from reporting their symptoms. Stigma is a particularly pervasive problem among military service members, preventing them from reporting symptoms of combat-related conditions like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, research shows (increased reporting by service members when anonymous assessments are used. For example, service members report more symptoms of PTSD when they anonymously answer the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA symptom checklist compared to the official PDHA, which is identifiable and linked to their military records. To investigate the factors that influence reporting of psychological symptoms by service members, we used a transformative technology: automated virtual humans that interview people about their symptoms. Such virtual human interviewers allow simultaneous use of two techniques for eliciting disclosure that would otherwise be incompatible; they afford anonymity while also building rapport. We examined whether virtual human interviewers could increase disclosure of mental health symptoms among active-duty service members that just returned from a year-long deployment in Afghanistan. Service members reported more symptoms during a conversation with a virtual human interviewer than on the official PDHA. They also reported more to a virtual human interviewer than on an anonymized PDHA. A second, larger sample of active-duty and former service members found a similar effect that approached statistical significance. Because respondents in both studies shared more with virtual human interviewers than an anonymized PDHA—even though both conditions control for stigma and ramifications for service members’ military records—virtual human interviewers that build rapport may provide a superior option to encourage reporting.

  14. Virtual Reality with Virtual Humans simulation for an emergency training in a public sector - An extension of the specialization project TDT4501

    Nguyen, Anh Chi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has three evaluations with Emergency Management students, a civilian group, and NAV personnel to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The overall results show that it is potential to use virtual reality with virtual humans for emergency training in a public sector.

  15. Modern Virtual Reality. And the effects of affecting human senses to increase immersion

    Ekros, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Modern virtual reality is an ever growing subject in today’s society. I delved deeper into some key moments in the development of modern virtual reality. Oculus Rift has shown incredible potential. Some developments even seek to envelope the human senses in virtual reality as well.   With several different approaches to the same solution there are many ways that the experience can affect the overall immersion of a consumer into the product.  The tests I performed were primarily focused around...

  16. The role of employees and human resource management in creating brand values

    Virijević-Jovanović Saša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the definitions of brand, which indicate that the purpose of branding is to create long-term relationships with consumers, brand management can be defined as the process of building consumer loyalty towards the brand. A brand is more than just a product. Practice shows that branded products have been built on for many years, by raising the level of quality, and creating a special relationship with consumers. In the process of creating loyal customer there is a great importance of human resources whose skills, competence and empathy influence the brand positioning. Considering the importance of human resource management, the paper explores the role of employees in the process of creating brand value.

  17. Complementary Machine Intelligence and Human Intelligence in Virtual Teaching Assistant for Tutoring Program Tracing

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Huang, Bau-Hung; Lin, Chi-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a virtual teaching assistant (VTA) to share teacher tutoring tasks in helping students practice program tracing and proposes two mechanisms of complementing machine intelligence and human intelligence to develop the VTA. The first mechanism applies machine intelligence to extend human intelligence (teacher answers) to evaluate…

  18. Virtual Box

    Davis, Hilary; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  19. Sign Language Interpreting in Theatre: Using the Human Body to Create Pictures of the Human Soul

    Michael Richardson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores theatrical interpreting for Deaf spectators, a specialism that both blurs the separation between translation and interpreting, and replaces these potentials with a paradigm in which the translator's body is central to the production of the target text. Meaningful written translations of dramatic texts into sign language are not currently possible. For Deaf people to access Shakespeare or Moliere in their own language usually means attending a sign language interpreted performance, a typically disappointing experience that fails to provide accessibility or to fulfil the potential of a dynamically equivalent theatrical translation. I argue that when such interpreting events fail, significant contributory factors are the challenges involved in producing such a target text and the insufficient embodiment of that text. The second of these factors suggests that the existing conference and community models of interpreting are insufficient in describing theatrical interpreting. I propose that a model drawn from Theatre Studies, namely psychophysical acting, might be more effective for conceptualising theatrical interpreting. I also draw on theories from neurological research into the Mirror Neuron System to suggest that a highly visual and physical approach to performance (be that by actors or interpreters is more effective in building a strong actor-spectator interaction than a performance in which meaning is conveyed by spoken words. Arguably this difference in language impact between signed and spoken is irrelevant to hearing audiences attending spoken language plays, but I suggest that for all theatre translators the implications are significant: it is not enough to create a literary translation as the target text; it is also essential to produce a text that suggests physicality. The aim should be the creation of a text which demands full expression through the body, the best picture of the human soul and the fundamental medium

  20. Virtual and augmented reality technologies in Human Performance: a review

    Tânia Brusque Crocetta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their work. Materials and methods : We only included studies that addressed exercise or physical activity using AR or VR games. We searched the databases of Virtual Health Library (VHL and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, using the words augmented reality, virtual reality, exergames, Wii and serious games. Results : Nineteen articles were included in the systematic review. The most frequently used device was the Nintendo(r Wii, with over 25 different kinds of games. With regard to the subjects of the studies, four studies were conducted with healthy individuals (mean = 65.7, three with patients with Parkinson's disease (mean = 18.0, three with elderly women (mean = 7.7 and two with patients with stroke injury (mean = 6.0. Conclusion : Many physical therapists and occupational therapists use serious games with AR or VR technologies as another work tool, especially for rehabilitation practices. The fact that these technologies are also used in Physical Education classes in Brazil indicates that electronic games are available and can be a tool that can contribute to the widespread adoption of exercise as an enjoyable form of recreation.

  1. The Virtual Physiological Human - a European initiative for in silico human modelling -.

    Viceconti, Marco; Clapworthy, Gordon; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2008-12-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is an initiative, strongly supported by the European Commission (EC), that seeks to develop an integrated model of human physiology at multiple scales from the whole body through the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels to the genomic level. VPH had its beginnings in 2005 with informal discussions amongst like-minded scientists which led to the STEP project, a Coordination Action funded by the EC that began in early 2006. The STEP project greatly accelerated the progress of the VPH and proved to be a catalyst for wide-ranging discussions within Europe and for outreach activities designed to develop a broad international approach to the huge scientific and technological challenges involved in this area. This paper provides an overview of the VPH and the developments it has engendered in the rapidly expanding worldwide activities associated with the physiome. It then uses one particular project, the Living Human Project, to illustrate the type of advances that are taking place to further the aims of the VPH and similar initiatives worldwide.

  2. Cognitive Agents in Virtual Worlds : a Middleware Design Approach

    van Oijen, Joost

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the technologies for creating virtual worlds. These advances are accompanied with the need for intelligent, human-like characters to populate these virtual worlds. Such characters are also known as intelligent virtual agents (IVAs). IVAs are

  3. Modeling and simulation of virtual human's coordination based on multi-agent systems

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Zu-Xuan; Zhang, Jian-Qing

    2006-10-01

    The difficulties and hotspots researched in current virtual geographic environment (VGE) are sharing space and multiusers operation, distributed coordination and group decision-making. The theories and technologies of MAS provide a brand-new environment for analysis, design and realization of distributed opening system. This paper takes cooperation among virtual human in VGE which multi-user participate in as main researched object. First we describe theory foundation truss of VGE, and present the formalization description of Multi-Agent System (MAS). Then we detailed analyze and research arithmetic of collectivity operating behavior learning of virtual human based on best held Genetic Algorithm(GA), and establish dynamics action model which Multi-Agents and object interact dynamically and colony movement strategy. Finally we design a example which shows how 3 evolutional Agents cooperate to complete the task of colony pushing column box, and design a virtual world prototype of virtual human pushing box collectively based on V-Realm Builder 2.0, moreover we make modeling and dynamic simulation with Simulink 6.

  4. Context conditioning in humans using commercially available immersive Virtual Reality

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Dunsmoor, J.E.; Mackey, W.E.; McClay, M.; Phelps, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a wealth of knowledge on how humans and nonhuman animals learn to associate meaningful events with cues in the environment, far less is known about how humans learn to associate these events with the environment itself. Progress on understanding spatiotemporal contextual processes in humans

  5. Effects of Unaugmented Periphery and Vibrotactile Feedback on Proxemics with Virtual Humans in AR.

    Lee, Myungho; Bruder, Gerd; Hollerer, Tobias; Welch, Greg

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate factors and issues related to human locomotion behavior and proxemics in the presence of a real or virtual human in augmented reality (AR). First, we discuss a unique issue with current-state optical see-through head-mounted displays, namely the mismatch between a small augmented visual field and a large unaugmented periphery, and its potential impact on locomotion behavior in close proximity of virtual content. We discuss a potential simple solution based on restricting the field of view to the central region, and we present the results of a controlled human-subject study. The study results show objective benefits for this approach in producing behaviors that more closely match those that occur when seeing a real human, but also some drawbacks in overall acceptance of the restricted field of view. Second, we discuss the limited multimodal feedback provided by virtual humans in AR, present a potential improvement based on vibrotactile feedback induced via the floor to compensate for the limited augmented visual field, and report results showing that benefits of such vibrations are less visible in objective locomotion behavior than in subjective estimates of co-presence. Third, we investigate and document significant differences in the effects that real and virtual humans have on locomotion behavior in AR with respect to clearance distances, walking speed, and head motions. We discuss potential explanations for these effects related to social expectations, and analyze effects of different types of behaviors including idle standing, jumping, and walking that such real or virtual humans may exhibit in the presence of an observer.

  6. The Simulation and Animation of Virtual Humans to Better Understand Ergonomic Conditions at Manual Workplaces

    Jürgen Rossmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article extends an approach to simulate and control anthro- pomorphic kinematics as multiagent-systems. These "anthro- pomorphic multiagent-systems" have originally been developed to control coordinated multirobot systems in industrial applica- tions, as well as to simulate humanoid robots. Here, we apply the approach of the anthropomorphic multiagent-systems to propose a "Virtual Human" - a model of human kinematics - to analyze ergonomic conditions at manual workplaces. Ergonom- ics provide a wide range of methods to evaluate human postures and movements. By the simulation and animation of the Virtual Human we develop examples of how results from the field of ergonomics can help to consider the human factor during the design and optimization phases of production lines.

  7. Chondrocytes and stem cells in 3D-bioprinted structures create human cartilage in vivo.

    Apelgren, Peter; Amoroso, Matteo; Lindahl, Anders; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Gatenholm, Paul; Kölby, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold. The 3D-bioprinted constructs (5 × 5 × 1.2 mm) were produced using nanofibrillated cellulose and alginate in combination with human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells using a 3D-extrusion bioprinter. Immediately following bioprinting, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the back of 48 nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days, respectively, for morphological and immunohistochemical examination. During explantation, the constructs were easy to handle, and the majority had retained their macroscopic grid appearance. Constructs consisting of human nasal chondrocytes showed good proliferation ability, with 17.2% of the surface areas covered with proliferating chondrocytes after 60 days. In constructs comprising a mixture of chondrocytes and stem cells, an additional proliferative effect was observed involving chondrocyte production of glycosaminoglycans and type 2 collagen. This clinically highly relevant study revealed 3D bioprinting as a promising technology for the creation of human cartilage.

  8. Chondrocytes and stem cells in 3D-bioprinted structures create human cartilage in vivo.

    Peter Apelgren

    Full Text Available Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold. The 3D-bioprinted constructs (5 × 5 × 1.2 mm were produced using nanofibrillated cellulose and alginate in combination with human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells using a 3D-extrusion bioprinter. Immediately following bioprinting, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the back of 48 nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days, respectively, for morphological and immunohistochemical examination. During explantation, the constructs were easy to handle, and the majority had retained their macroscopic grid appearance. Constructs consisting of human nasal chondrocytes showed good proliferation ability, with 17.2% of the surface areas covered with proliferating chondrocytes after 60 days. In constructs comprising a mixture of chondrocytes and stem cells, an additional proliferative effect was observed involving chondrocyte production of glycosaminoglycans and type 2 collagen. This clinically highly relevant study revealed 3D bioprinting as a promising technology for the creation of human cartilage.

  9. Image Montaging for Creating a Virtual Pathology Slide: An Innovative and Economical Tool to Obtain a Whole Slide Image.

    Banavar, Spoorthi Ravi; Chippagiri, Prashanthi; Pandurangappa, Rohit; Annavajjula, Saileela; Rajashekaraiah, Premalatha Bidadi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Microscopes are omnipresent throughout the field of biological research. With microscopes one can see in detail what is going on at the cellular level in tissues. Though it is a ubiquitous tool, the limitation is that with high magnification there is a small field of view. It is often advantageous to see an entire sample at high magnification. Over the years technological advancements in optics have helped to provide solutions to this limitation of microscopes by creating the so-called dedicated "slide scanners" which can provide a "whole slide digital image." These scanners can provide seamless, large-field-of-view, high resolution image of entire tissue section. The only disadvantage of such complete slide imaging system is its outrageous cost, thereby hindering their practical use by most laboratories, especially in developing and low resource countries. Methods . In a quest for their substitute, we tried commonly used image editing software Adobe Photoshop along with a basic image capturing device attached to a trinocular microscope to create a digital pathology slide. Results . The seamless image created using Adobe Photoshop maintained its diagnostic quality. Conclusion . With time and effort photomicrographs obtained from a basic camera-microscope set up can be combined and merged in Adobe Photoshop to create a whole slide digital image of practically usable quality at a negligible cost.

  10. Virtual reality in surgical training.

    Lange, T; Indelicato, D J; Rosen, J M

    2000-01-01

    Virtual reality in surgery and, more specifically, in surgical training, faces a number of challenges in the future. These challenges are building realistic models of the human body, creating interface tools to view, hear, touch, feel, and manipulate these human body models, and integrating virtual reality systems into medical education and treatment. A final system would encompass simulators specifically for surgery, performance machines, telemedicine, and telesurgery. Each of these areas will need significant improvement for virtual reality to impact medicine successfully in the next century. This article gives an overview of, and the challenges faced by, current systems in the fast-changing field of virtual reality technology, and provides a set of specific milestones for a truly realistic virtual human body.

  11. Virtual Reality Techniques for Eliciting Empathy and Cultural Awareness: Affective Human-Virtual World Interaction

    Chirino-Klevans, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    On the average human beings have about 50,000 thoughts every day. If we consider that thoughts influence how we feel there is little doubt that the way we perceive reality will strongly correlate with how we act upon that reality. Let’s contextualize this thinking process within the realm of global business where interacting with individuals from other cultural backgrounds is the norm. Our own perceptions and stereotypes towards those cultural groups will strongly influence how we interact wi...

  12. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human in 2010 and beyond

    Hunter, P.; Coveney, P.V.; de Bono, B.; Diaz, V.; Fenner, J.; Frangi, A.F.; Harris, P.; Hose, R.; Kohl, P.; Lawford, P.; McCormack, K.; Mendes, M.; Omholt, S.; Quarteroni, A.; Skar, J.; Tegner, J.; Thomas, S.R.; Tollis, I.; Tsamardinos, I.; van Beek, J.H.G.M.; Viceconti, M.

    2010-01-01

    European funding under framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for nearly 2 years. The VPH network of excellence (NoE) is helping in the development of common standards, open-source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various

  13. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human: 2012 update

    Hunter, P.; Chapman, T.; Coveney, P.V.; De Bono, B.; Diaz, V.; Fenner, J.; Frangi, A.F.; Harris, P.; Hose, R.; Kohl, P.; Lawford, P.; McCormack, K.; Mendes, M.; Omholt, S.; Quarteroni, A.; Shublaq, N.; Skår, J.; Stroetmann, K.; Tegner, J.; Thomas, S.R.; Tollis, I.; Tsamardinos, I.; van Beek, J.H.G.M.; Viceconti, M.

    2013-01-01

    European funding under Framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for 5 years. The VPH Network of Excellence (NoE) has been set up to help develop common standards, open source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various

  14. A grounded theory of faculty's use of humanization to create online course climate.

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the way faculty establish course social presence in an online course. The community of inquiry model by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer distinguished the area of social presence as an important component of online learning, and this study sought to understand how faculty perceive and create social presence in their online classroom. By employing a grounded theory approach, a substantive theory was developed to explain the way in which faculty create and maintain an online course climate. The sample consisted of 10 nursing faculty teaching various master's in nursing courses. Through a rigorous qualitative process using nursing faculty interviews and online course analysis, humanization was found to be the core category in setting online course climate. Faculty's efforts to humanize the climate lead each member of the community to view the other members as real, thereby enabling the establishment of online social presence.

  15. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM FOR HUMAN MACHINE INTERACTION IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Abraham Obed Chan-Canche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The communication networks built by multiple devices and sensors are becoming more frequent. These device networks allow human-machine interaction development which aims to improve the human performance generating an adaptive environment in response to the information provided by it. The problem of this work is the quick integration of a device network that allows the development of a flexible immersive environment for different uses.

  16. Human resources as a factor of creating competitive advantages of the tourism enterprises

    Boljević Agneš R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the main factor in the process of creating and achieving competitive advantages of the modern enterprises. Therefore, in the focus of contemporary management are human resources their role and importance they have in every organizational system. Tourism is a labor-intensive economic activity which provides more than 200 million work places all over the world. The tourism share in the world GDP is about 10,5%, through the tourism over 12,5% of the total world export is realized and about 30% world trade of the services. Starting from these facts, the paper highlights the strategic importance of the human resources for every management and for national economy, too. Authors especially analyze the tourist activity and emphasis the basic characteristics of the human resources in the tourism.

  17. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  18. Virtual reality technology as a tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Silva, Antonio C.F.; Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Dutra, Marco A.M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br; luquetti@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; paulov@ien.gov.br; tonico@ien.gov.br; fferreira@ien.gov.br; dutra@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The Virtual Reality (VR) is an advanced computer interface technology that allows the user to internet or to explore a three-dimensional environment through the computer, as was part of the virtual world. This technology presents great applicability in the most diverse areas of the human knowledge. This paper presents a study on the use of the VR as tool for human factors requirements evaluation in design of the nuclear reactors control desks. Moreover, this paper presents a case study: a virtual model of the control desk, developed using virtual reality technology to be used in the human factors requirements evaluation. This case study was developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory at IEN, and understands the stereo visualization of the Argonauta research nuclear reactor control desk for a static ergonomic evaluation using check-lists, in accordance to the standards and human factors nuclear international guides (IEC 1771, NUREG-0700). (author)

  19. An image-free opto-mechanical system for creating virtual environments and imaging neuronal activity in freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Serge Faumont

    Full Text Available Non-invasive recording in untethered animals is arguably the ultimate step in the analysis of neuronal function, but such recordings remain elusive. To address this problem, we devised a system that tracks neuron-sized fluorescent targets in real time. The system can be used to create virtual environments by optogenetic activation of sensory neurons, or to image activity in identified neurons at high magnification. By recording activity in neurons of freely moving C. elegans, we tested the long-standing hypothesis that forward and reverse locomotion are generated by distinct neuronal circuits. Surprisingly, we found motor neurons that are active during both types of locomotion, suggesting a new model of locomotion control in C. elegans. These results emphasize the importance of recording neuronal activity in freely moving animals and significantly expand the potential of imaging techniques by providing a mean to stabilize fluorescent targets.

  20. Future Cyborgs: Human-Machine Interface for Virtual Reality Applications

    2007-04-01

    heavy for the human head to bear without external support.17 Most current HMDs still use two visual displays placed directly in front of the user’s...displays. Current generations of HMDs are being designed to operate within the form factor of a pair of eyeglasses .18 These systems are

  1. Varieties of virtualization

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Natural environments have a content, i.e., the objects in them; a geometry, i.e., a pattern of rules for positioning and displacing the objects; and a dynamics, i.e., a system of rules describing the effects of forces acting on the objects. Human interaction with most common natural environments has been optimized by centuries of evolution. Virtual environments created through the human-computer interface similarly have a content, geometry, and dynamics, but the arbitrary character of the computer simulation creating them does not insure that human interaction with these virtual environments will be natural. The interaction, indeed, could be supernatural but it also could be impossible. An important determinant of the comprehensibility of a virtual environment is the correspondence between the environmental frames of reference and those associated with the control of environmental objects. The effects of rotation and displacement of control frames of reference with respect to corresponding environmental references differ depending upon whether perceptual judgement or manual tracking performance is measured. The perceptual effects of frame of reference displacement may be analyzed in terms of distortions in the process of virtualizing the synthetic environment space. The effects of frame of reference displacement and rotation have been studied by asking subjects to estimate exocentric direction in a virtual space.

  2. You Can Leave Your Head On: Attention Management and Turn-Taking in Multi-party Interaction with a Virtual Human/Robot Duo

    Linssen, Jeroen; Berkhoff, Meike; Bode, Max; Rens, Eduard; Theune, Mariet; Wiltenburg, Daan; Beskow, Jonas; Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; O'Sullivan, Carol; Leite, Iolanda; Kopp, Stefan

    In two small studies, we investigated how a virtual human/ robot duo can complement each other in joint interaction with one or more users. The robot takes care of turn management while the virtual human draws attention to the robot. Our results show that having the virtual human address the robot,

  3. Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters

    Chopra Khullar, S.; Badler, N. I.

    2001-01-01

    This research proposes a computational framework for generating visual attending behavior in an embodied simulated human agent. Such behaviors directly control eye and head motions, and guide other actions such as locomotion and reach. The implementation of these concepts, referred to as the AVA, draws on empirical and qualitative observations known from psychology, human factors and computer vision. Deliberate behaviors, the analogs of scanpaths in visual psychology, compete with involuntary attention capture and lapses into idling or free viewing. Insights provided by implementing this framework are: a defined set of parameters that impact the observable effects of attention, a defined vocabulary of looking behaviors for certain motor and cognitive activity, a defined hierarchy of three levels of eye behavior (endogenous, exogenous and idling) and a proposed method of how these types interact.

  4. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Aline W. ede Borst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  5. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  6. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  7. Virtual Habitat -a dynamic simulation of closed life support systems -human model status

    Markus Czupalla, M. Sc.; Zhukov, Anton; Hwang, Su-Au; Schnaitmann, Jonas

    In order to optimize Life Support Systems on a system level, stability questions must be in-vestigated. To do so the exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) is developing the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB) dynamic LSS simulation software. V-HAB shall provide the possibility to conduct dynamic simulations of entire mission scenarios for any given LSS configuration. The Virtual Habitat simulation tool consists of four main modules: • Closed Environment Module (CEM) -monitoring of compounds in a closed environment • Crew Module (CM) -dynamic human simulation • P/C Systems Module (PCSM) -dynamic P/C subsystems • Plant Module (PM) -dynamic plant simulation The core module of the simulation is the dynamic and environment sensitive human module. Introduced in its basic version in 2008, the human module has been significantly updated since, increasing its capabilities and maturity significantly. In this paper three newly added human model subsystems (thermal regulation, digestion and schedule controller) are introduced touching also on the human stress subsystem which is cur-rently under development. Upon the introduction of these new subsystems, the integration of these into the overall V-HAB human model is discussed, highlighting the impact on the most important I/F. The overall human model capabilities shall further be summarized and presented based on meaningful test cases. In addition to the presentation of the results, the correlation strategy for the Virtual Habitat human model shall be introduced assessing the models current confidence level and giving an outlook on the future correlation strategy. Last but not least, the remaining V-HAB mod-ules shall be introduced shortly showing how the human model is integrated into the overall simulation.

  8. Innovative application of virtual display technique in virtual museum

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-09-01

    Virtual museum refers to display and simulate the functions of real museum on the Internet in the form of 3 Dimensions virtual reality by applying interactive programs. Based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language, virtual museum building and its effective interaction with the offline museum lie in making full use of 3 Dimensions panorama technique, virtual reality technique and augmented reality technique, and innovatively taking advantages of dynamic environment modeling technique, real-time 3 Dimensions graphics generating technique, system integration technique and other key virtual reality techniques to make sure the overall design of virtual museum.3 Dimensions panorama technique, also known as panoramic photography or virtual reality, is a technique based on static images of the reality. Virtual reality technique is a kind of computer simulation system which can create and experience the interactive 3 Dimensions dynamic visual world. Augmented reality, also known as mixed reality, is a technique which simulates and mixes the information (visual, sound, taste, touch, etc.) that is difficult for human to experience in reality. These technologies make virtual museum come true. It will not only bring better experience and convenience to the public, but also be conducive to improve the influence and cultural functions of the real museum.

  9. Virtual embryology: a 3D library reconstructed from human embryo sections and animation of development process.

    Komori, M; Miura, T; Shiota, K; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    The volumetric shape of a human embryo and its development is hard to comprehend as they have been viewed as a 2D schemes in a textbook or microscopic sectional image. In this paper, a CAI and research support system for human embryology using multimedia presentation techniques is described. In this system, 3D data is acquired from a series of sliced specimens. Its 3D structure can be viewed interactively by rotating, extracting, and truncating its whole body or organ. Moreover, the development process of embryos can be animated using a morphing technique applied to the specimen in several stages. The system is intended to be used interactively, like a virtual reality system. Hence, the system is called Virtual Embryology.

  10. Simulated Lidar Images of Human Pose using a 3DS Max Virtual Laboratory

    2015-12-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0089 SIMULATED LIDAR IMAGES OF HUMAN POSE USING A 3DS MAX VIRTUAL LABORATORY Jeanne Smith Isiah Davenport Infoscitex Corp...MM-YYYY) 11-12-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2013 – April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Simulated LIDAR ...Cleared: 88ABW-2016-0242, 25 January 2016 Report contains color 14. ABSTRACT Large sets of 3D Simulated LIDAR (Light Detection and

  11. Virtual classroom design for Blended Learning: Human Development and Quality of Life

    Juan Carlos Morales Intriago

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The explosive development in all areas of knowledge has evolved the scenarios of generation and transfer of knowledge, in terms of media, channels and supports, parallel to this appear new resources that optimize the processes of vocational training, whether formal, non-formal and informal. The EVA or Virtual Learning Environments evolve the traditional way of teaching a Blended environment, which is, combining classroom education with online training processes. The present work designs a training process set in Blended Learning for the subject Human Development and Quality of Life, summarizing in 8 steps the construction of the virtual and face-to-face environment, where starting from the common to the specific, the system is described systemically. The methodology applied in the present work was of Bibliographic and documentary type. To achieve the proposed objective, a systemic design was designed that divided the research into two stages: the exploration stage and the design stage. In the exploration stage, a large bibliographical collection was revised and in the design stage the virtual classroom model of the subject was constructed. Product of the investigation is a guide that guides step by step in the construction of virtual environments set in the Blended Learning.

  12. Virtual reality haptic dissection.

    Erolin, Caroline; Wilkinson, Caroline; Soames, Roger

    2011-12-01

    This project aims to create a three-dimensional digital model of the human hand and wrist which can be virtually 'dissected' through a haptic interface. Tissue properties will be added to the various anatomical structures to replicate a realistic look and feel. The project will explore the role of the medical artist, and investigate cross-discipline collaborations in the field of virtual anatomy. The software will be used to train anatomy students in dissection skills, before experience on a real cadaver. The effectiveness of the software will be evaluated and assessed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.

  13. The Virtual Teacher (VT) Paradigm: Learning New Patterns of Interpersonal Coordination Using the Human Dynamic Clamp.

    Kostrubiec, Viviane; Dumas, Guillaume; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Kelso, J A Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Teacher paradigm, a version of the Human Dynamic Clamp (HDC), is introduced into studies of learning patterns of inter-personal coordination. Combining mathematical modeling and experimentation, we investigate how the HDC may be used as a Virtual Teacher (VT) to help humans co-produce and internalize new inter-personal coordination pattern(s). Human learners produced rhythmic finger movements whilst observing a computer-driven avatar, animated by dynamic equations stemming from the well-established Haken-Kelso-Bunz (1985) and Schöner-Kelso (1988) models of coordination. We demonstrate that the VT is successful in shifting the pattern co-produced by the VT-human system toward any value (Experiment 1) and that the VT can help humans learn unstable relative phasing patterns (Experiment 2). Using transfer entropy, we find that information flow from one partner to the other increases when VT-human coordination loses stability. This suggests that variable joint performance may actually facilitate interaction, and in the long run learning. VT appears to be a promising tool for exploring basic learning processes involved in social interaction, unraveling the dynamics of information flow between interacting partners, and providing possible rehabilitation opportunities.

  14. Investigation of Virtual Digital Human and Robotic Device Technology Merger Complimented by Haptics and Autostereoscopic Displays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As expected, the STTR Phase I investigation confirmed that the Digital Virtual Human (DVH) and Robonaut technologies can be merged, and that haptic and...

  15. Investigation of Virtual Digital Human and Robotic Device Technology Merger Complimented by Haptics and Autostereoscopic Displays, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovations conform precisely to the technology needs described in Subtopic T5.02, Robotics and Virtual Digital Human Technologies. ?Two potential areas...

  16. A new dynamic 3D virtual methodology for teaching the mechanics of atrial septation as seen in the human heart.

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Houyel, Lucile; Almange, Claude; Anderson, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Learning embryology remains difficult, since it requires understanding of many complex phenomena. The temporal evolution of developmental events has classically been illustrated using cartoons, which create difficulty in linking spatial and temporal aspects, such correlation being the keystone of descriptive embryology. We synthesized the bibliographic data from recent studies of atrial septal development. On the basis of this synthesis, consensus on the stages of atrial septation as seen in the human heart has been reached by a group of experts in cardiac embryology and pediatric cardiology. This has permitted the preparation of three-dimensional (3D) computer graphic objects for the anatomical components involved in the different stages of normal human atrial septation. We have provided a virtual guide to the process of normal atrial septation, the animation providing an appreciation of the temporal and morphologic events necessary to separate the systemic and pulmonary venous returns. We have shown that our animations of normal human atrial septation increase significantly the teaching of the complex developmental processes involved, and provide a new dynamic for the process of learning.

  17. Development of a BN framework for human reliability analysis through virtual simulation

    Garg, Vipul; Santhosh, T.V.; Vinod, Gopika; Antony, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are an integral part of complex systems such as nuclear power plants and have to play a significant role in ensuring the safety and reliability of these systems. Failure to perform the intended task within the stipulated time by the operator can challenge the safety of the system. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a widely practiced methodology to estimate the contribution of operator error towards the overall risk to the facility. HRA methods quantify this contribution in terms of human error probability (HEP) accounting for various psychological and physiological factors that influence the performance of the operator. These factors are referred to as human factors (HF), which enhance or degrade the human performance. The paper discusses the use of virtual simulation as a tool to generate the HF data from the virtual model of an in-house experimental facility. This paper also demonstrates the use of multi-attribute utility theory to determine a suitable HRA method amongst several HRA methods to quantify the HEP based on the desired set of HRA attributes. As classical HRA methods, generally, do not address the interactions among the HFs, the Bayesian network technique has been employed in this study to account for HF interactions. (author)

  18. Web-based e-learning and virtual lab of human-artificial immune system.

    Gong, Tao; Ding, Yongsheng; Xiong, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Human immune system is as important in keeping the body healthy as the brain in supporting the intelligence. However, the traditional models of the human immune system are built on the mathematics equations, which are not easy for students to understand. To help the students to understand the immune systems, a web-based e-learning approach with virtual lab is designed for the intelligent system control course by using new intelligent educational technology. Comparing the traditional graduate educational model within the classroom, the web-based e-learning with the virtual lab shows the higher inspiration in guiding the graduate students to think independently and innovatively, as the students said. It has been found that this web-based immune e-learning system with the online virtual lab is useful for teaching the graduate students to understand the immune systems in an easier way and design their simulations more creatively and cooperatively. The teaching practice shows that the optimum web-based e-learning system can be used to increase the learning effectiveness of the students.

  19. Optical versus virtual: teaching assistant perceptions of the use of virtual microscopy in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed through qualitative methods. This analysis showed that the teaching assistants found the virtual microscope to be an advantageous change in the classroom. They cite the ease of use of the virtual microscope, access to histology outside of designated laboratory time, and increasing student collaboration in class as the primary advantages. The teaching assistants also discuss principal areas where the use of the virtual microscope can be improved from a pedagogical standpoint, including requiring students to spend more time working on histology in class. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Using virtual humans and computer animations to learn complex motor skills: a case study in karate

    Spanlang Bernhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning motor skills is a complex task involving a lot of cognitive issues. One of the main issues consists in retrieving the relevant information from the learning environment. In a traditional learning situation, a teacher gives oral explanations and performs actions to provide the learner with visual examples. Using virtual reality (VR as a tool for learning motor tasks is promising. However, it raises questions about the type of information this kind of environments can offer. In this paper, we propose to analyze the impact of virtual humans on the perception of the learners. As a case study, we propose to apply this research problem to karate gestures. The results of this study show no significant difference on the after training performance of learners confronted to three different learning environments (traditional group, video and VR.

  1. Human-scale interaction for virtual model displays: a clear case for real tools

    Williams, George C.; McDowall, Ian E.; Bolas, Mark T.

    1998-04-01

    We describe a hand-held user interface for interacting with virtual environments displayed on a Virtual Model Display. The tool, constructed entirely of transparent materials, is see-through. We render a graphical counterpart of the tool on the display and map it one-to-one with the real tool. This feature, combined with a capability for touch- sensitive, discrete input, results in a useful spatial input device that is visually versatile. We discuss the tool's design and interaction techniques it supports. Briefly, we look at the human factors issues and engineering challenges presented by this tool and, in general, by the class of hand-held user interfaces that are see-through.

  2. A hitchhiker's guide to virtual reality

    McMenemy , Karen

    2007-01-01

    A Hitchhiker's Guide to Virtual Reality brings together under one cover all the aspects of graphics, video, audio, and haptics that have to work together to make virtual reality a reality. Like any good guide, it reveals the practical things you need to know, from the viewpoint of authors who have been there. This two-part guide covers the science, technology, and mathematics of virtual reality and then details its practical implementation. The first part looks at how the interface between human senses and technology works to create virtual reality, with a focus on vision, the most important s

  3. Creating informed public opinion: citizen deliberation about nanotechnologies for human enhancements

    Cobb, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that ordinary citizens should influence scientific and technological developments, but the American public is routinely uninformed about these issues. As a solution, some scholars advocate creating informed public opinions by encouraging citizens to deliberate about the issues. Although this idea is currently widely applauded in the science and technology literature, deliberative outcomes are infrequently measured and the practice of deliberation is routinely criticized in other disciplines. This research contributes to our understanding of the effectiveness of citizen deliberation as a method for increasing public engagement with science. I report data measuring results of deliberation in a national citizens’ technology forum (NCTF) about nanotechnologies for human enhancement. The NCTF was a month-long process involving six groups of 9–15 ordinary citizens who deliberated in different locations across the United States with the goal of reaching consensus about policy recommendations within their groups. I find that structured deliberation generated informed opinions, sometimes meaningful shifts in preferences, and increased trust and internal efficacy among the participants. Nevertheless, the NCTF has important shortcomings, and it is not obvious that consensus conferences should be preferred over other mechanisms for creating informed opinions. Future research is needed to corroborate the findings of this study and to systematically compare outcomes of structured citizen deliberation to other less resource intensive forms of engagement.

  4. Different types of biotechnological wound coverages created with the application of alive human cells

    Papuga A. Ye.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development and the implementation of the new biotechnological wound coverings (skin equivalents designed for temporal or permanent replacement of damaged or destroyed areas of human skin remains extremely actual relevant in clinical practice. Skin equivalents or equivalents of individual skin layers which include alive cells of different types take a special place among the artificial wound coverings. They mostly contain two basic types of cells – fibroblasts and keratinocytes (together or separately. Such bioconstructions are usually served as temporary coverings, which supply the damaged skin by biologically active substances and stimulate the regeneration of the patient's own tissues. In this review we consider as commercially available wound coverings and those which are still studied in the laboratories. Until now ideal substitutes of natural skin have not yet created, so the efforts of many researchers are focusing on the solution of this problem.

  5. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  6. Human Motion Tracking and Glove-Based User Interfaces for Virtual Environments in ANVIL

    Dumas, Joseph D., II

    2002-01-01

    The Army/NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an environment where engineers and other personnel can investigate novel applications of computer simulation and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. Among the many hardware and software resources in ANVIL are several high-performance Silicon Graphics computer systems and a number of commercial software packages, such as Division MockUp by Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) and Jack by Unigraphics Solutions, Inc. These hardware and software platforms are used in conjunction with various VR peripheral I/O (input / output) devices, CAD (computer aided design) models, etc. to support the objectives of the MSFC Engineering Systems Department/Systems Engineering Support Group (ED42) by studying engineering designs, chiefly from the standpoint of human factors and ergonomics. One of the more time-consuming tasks facing ANVIL personnel involves the testing and evaluation of peripheral I/O devices and the integration of new devices with existing hardware and software platforms. Another important challenge is the development of innovative user interfaces to allow efficient, intuitive interaction between simulation users and the virtual environments they are investigating. As part of his Summer Faculty Fellowship, the author was tasked with verifying the operation of some recently acquired peripheral interface devices and developing new, easy-to-use interfaces that could be used with existing VR hardware and software to better support ANVIL projects.

  7. A Layered Approach for Robust Spatial Virtual Human Pose Reconstruction Using a Still Image

    Chengyu Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection and human pose estimation are instructive for reconstructing a three-dimensional scenario and for robot navigation, particularly when large amounts of vision data are captured using various data-recording techniques. Using an unrestricted capture scheme, which produces occlusions or breezing, the information describing each part of a human body and the relationship between each part or even different pedestrians must be present in a still image. Using this framework, a multi-layered, spatial, virtual, human pose reconstruction framework is presented in this study to recover any deficient information in planar images. In this framework, a hierarchical parts-based deep model is used to detect body parts by using the available restricted information in a still image and is then combined with spatial Markov random fields to re-estimate the accurate joint positions in the deep network. Then, the planar estimation results are mapped onto a virtual three-dimensional space using multiple constraints to recover any deficient spatial information. The proposed approach can be viewed as a general pre-processing method to guide the generation of continuous, three-dimensional motion data. The experiment results of this study are used to describe the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach.

  8. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Segars, William P.; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  9. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  10. YouTube Videos to Create a "Virtual Hospital Experience" for Hip and Knee Replacement Patients to Decrease Preoperative Anxiety: A Randomized Trial.

    O'Connor, Mary I; Brennan, Katharyn; Kazmerchak, Shari; Pratt, Jason

    2016-04-18

    With declining reimbursement to health care systems, face-to-face time between patients and providers to optimize preoperative education and counseling may be challenging. Because high patient anxiety prior to surgery has been linked to more severe and persistent pain after joint replacement surgery, the Orthopedic Surgery Department at Mayo Clinic in Florida created a playlist of 16 YouTube videos aimed at creating a virtual hospital experience for primary total hip and knee joint replacement patients. A randomized trial was then performed to evaluate the potential impact of viewing this playlist on preoperative anxiety. Each patient completed a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) score assessment at the time of the routine preoperative clinic visit and then randomized based on his/her gender, type of surgery, and initial GAD score to either the control group of standard education (education at face-to-face clinical visits as well as printed educational materials) or the treatment group (standard education plus access to the YouTube playlist). On the morning of the patient's surgery, the same survey was repeated. Of the 65 patients who consented to participate in the study, 53 completed the study (82%) with 28 of 29 (97% completed) in the control group and 25 of 36 (69% completed) in the treatment group. Overall, the results showed a trend toward less anxiety in patients who viewed the YouTube videos; this was exhibited by a reduction in the median GAD score by 1 point. This trend is more clearly present in patients with high preoperative anxiety (predominantly women), as seen in the reduction of the median GAD score by 6 points in the treatment group. Although our experience is limited, our results indicate that a series of tailored videos may decrease patient anxiety preoperatively. We recommend further exploration of both this concept and the use of social media tools in preoperative patient education. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02546180; http

  11. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  12. Optical versus Virtual: Teaching Assistant Perceptions of the Use of Virtual Microscopy in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

    2012-01-01

    Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed…

  13. 3D virtual human atria: A computational platform for studying clinical atrial fibrillation.

    Aslanidi, Oleg V; Colman, Michael A; Stott, Jonathan; Dobrzynski, Halina; Boyett, Mark R; Holden, Arun V; Zhang, Henggui

    2011-10-01

    Despite a vast amount of experimental and clinical data on the underlying ionic, cellular and tissue substrates, the mechanisms of common atrial arrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation, AF) arising from the functional interactions at the whole atria level remain unclear. Computational modelling provides a quantitative framework for integrating such multi-scale data and understanding the arrhythmogenic behaviour that emerges from the collective spatio-temporal dynamics in all parts of the heart. In this study, we have developed a multi-scale hierarchy of biophysically detailed computational models for the human atria--the 3D virtual human atria. Primarily, diffusion tensor MRI reconstruction of the tissue geometry and fibre orientation in the human sinoatrial node (SAN) and surrounding atrial muscle was integrated into the 3D model of the whole atria dissected from the Visible Human dataset. The anatomical models were combined with the heterogeneous atrial action potential (AP) models, and used to simulate the AP conduction in the human atria under various conditions: SAN pacemaking and atrial activation in the normal rhythm, break-down of regular AP wave-fronts during rapid atrial pacing, and the genesis of multiple re-entrant wavelets characteristic of AF. Contributions of different properties of the tissue to mechanisms of the normal rhythm and arrhythmogenesis were investigated. Primarily, the simulations showed that tissue heterogeneity caused the break-down of the normal AP wave-fronts at rapid pacing rates, which initiated a pair of re-entrant spiral waves; and tissue anisotropy resulted in a further break-down of the spiral waves into multiple meandering wavelets characteristic of AF. The 3D virtual atria model itself was incorporated into the torso model to simulate the body surface ECG patterns in the normal and arrhythmic conditions. Therefore, a state-of-the-art computational platform has been developed, which can be used for studying multi

  14. Human fear conditioning conducted in full immersion 3-dimensional virtual reality.

    Huff, Nicole C; Zeilinski, David J; Fecteau, Matthew E; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2010-08-09

    Fear conditioning is a widely used paradigm in non-human animal research to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying fear and anxiety. A major challenge in conducting conditioning studies in humans is the ability to strongly manipulate or simulate the environmental contexts that are associated with conditioned emotional behaviors. In this regard, virtual reality (VR) technology is a promising tool. Yet, adapting this technology to meet experimental constraints requires special accommodations. Here we address the methodological issues involved when conducting fear conditioning in a fully immersive 6-sided VR environment and present fear conditioning data. In the real world, traumatic events occur in complex environments that are made up of many cues, engaging all of our sensory modalities. For example, cues that form the environmental configuration include not only visual elements, but aural, olfactory, and even tactile. In rodent studies of fear conditioning animals are fully immersed in a context that is rich with novel visual, tactile and olfactory cues. However, standard laboratory tests of fear conditioning in humans are typically conducted in a nondescript room in front of a flat or 2D computer screen and do not replicate the complexity of real world experiences. On the other hand, a major limitation of clinical studies aimed at reducing (extinguishing) fear and preventing relapse in anxiety disorders is that treatment occurs after participants have acquired a fear in an uncontrolled and largely unknown context. Thus the experimenters are left without information about the duration of exposure, the true nature of the stimulus, and associated background cues in the environment. In the absence of this information it can be difficult to truly extinguish a fear that is both cue and context-dependent. Virtual reality environments address these issues by providing the complexity of the real world, and at the same time allowing experimenters to constrain fear

  15. Virtual data

    Bjorklund, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1970's, when computers were memory limited, operating system designers created the concept of ''virtual memory'' which gave users the ability to address more memory than physically existed. In the 1990s, many large control systems have the potential for becoming data limited. We propose that many of the principles behind virtual memory systems (working sets, locality, caching, and clustering) can also be applied to data-limited systems - creating, in effect, ''virtual data systems.'' At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), we have applied these principles to a moderately sized (10,000 data points) data acquisition and control system. To test the principles, we measured the system's performance during tune-up, production, and maintenance periods. In this paper, we present a general discussion of the principles of a virtual data system along with some discussion of our own implementation and the results of our performance measurements

  16. How the human brain goes virtual: distinct cortical regions of the person-processing network are involved in self-identification with virtual agents.

    Ganesh, Shanti; van Schie, Hein T; de Lange, Floris P; Thompson, Evan; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2012-07-01

    Millions of people worldwide engage in online role-playing with their avatar, a virtual agent that represents the self. Previous behavioral studies have indicated that many gamers identify more strongly with their avatar than with their biological self. Through their avatar, gamers develop social networks and learn new social-cognitive skills. The cognitive neurosciences have yet to identify the neural processes that underlie self-identification with these virtual agents. We applied functional neuroimaging to 22 long-term online gamers and 21 nongaming controls, while they rated personality traits of self, avatar, and familiar others. Strikingly, neuroimaging data revealed greater avatar-referential cortical activity in the left inferior parietal lobe, a region associated with self-identification from a third-person perspective. The magnitude of this brain activity correlated positively with the propensity to incorporate external body enhancements into one's bodily identity. Avatar-referencing furthermore recruited greater activity in the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus, suggesting relatively greater emotional self-involvement with one's avatar. Post-scanning behavioral data revealed superior recognition memory for avatar relative to others. Interestingly, memory for avatar positively covaried with play duration. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the brain's plasticity to self-identify with virtual agents and the human cognitive-affective potential to live and learn in virtual worlds.

  17. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head

    Kai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM or finite element model (FEM created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa. BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages.

  18. Evolving building blocks of rhythm: how human cognition creates music via cultural transmission.

    Ravignani, Andrea; Thompson, Bill; Grossi, Thomas; Delgado, Tania; Kirby, Simon

    2018-03-06

    Why does musical rhythm have the structure it does? Musical rhythm, in all its cross-cultural diversity, exhibits commonalities across world cultures. Traditionally, music research has been split into two fields. Some scientists focused on musicality, namely the human biocognitive predispositions for music, with an emphasis on cross-cultural similarities. Other scholars investigated music, seen as a cultural product, focusing on the variation in world musical cultures. Recent experiments found deep connections between music and musicality, reconciling these opposing views. Here, we address the question of how individual cognitive biases affect the process of cultural evolution of music. Data from two experiments are analyzed using two complementary techniques. In the experiments, participants hear drumming patterns and imitate them. These patterns are then given to the same or another participant to imitate. The structure of these initially random patterns is tracked along experimental "generations." Frequentist statistics show how participants' biases are amplified by cultural transmission, making drumming patterns more structured. Structure is achieved faster in transmission within rather than between participants. A Bayesian model approximates the motif structures participants learned and created. Our data and models suggest that individual biases for musicality may shape the cultural transmission of musical rhythm. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. The Water Suitcase of Migrants: Assessing Virtual Water Fluxes Associated to Human Migration.

    Metulini, Rodolfo; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Disentangling the relations between human migrations and water resources is relevant for food security and trade policy in water-scarce countries. It is commonly believed that human migrations are beneficial to the water endowments of origin countries for reducing the pressure on local resources. We show here that such belief is over-simplistic. We reframe the problem by considering the international food trade and the corresponding virtual water fluxes, which quantify the water used for the production of traded agricultural commodities. By means of robust analytical tools, we show that migrants strengthen the commercial links between countries, triggering trade fluxes caused by food consumption habits persisting after migration. Thus migrants significantly increase the virtual water fluxes and the use of water in the countries of origin. The flux ascribable to each migrant, i.e. the "water suitcase", is found to have increased from 321 m3/y in 1990 to 1367 m3/y in 2010. A comparison with the water footprint of individuals shows that where the water suitcase exceeds the water footprint of inhabitants, migrations turn out to be detrimental to the water endowments of origin countries, challenging the common perception that migrations tend to relieve the pressure on the local (water) resources of origin countries.

  20. Virtual Worlds vs Books and Videos in History Education

    Ijaz, Kiran; Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an application of virtual reality and artificial intelligence (AI) as a technological combination that has a potential to improve the learning experience and engage with the modern generation of students. To address this need, we have created a virtual reality replica of one of humanity's first cities, the city of…

  1. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  2. Identification by virtual screening and in vitro testing of human DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors.

    Frederick Daidone

    Full Text Available Dopa decarboxylase (DDC, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of dopamine and serotonin, is involved in Parkinson's disease (PD. PD is a neurodegenerative disease mainly due to a progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. Co-administration of L-Dopa with peripheral DDC inhibitors (carbidopa or benserazide is the most effective symptomatic treatment for PD. Although carbidopa and trihydroxybenzylhydrazine (the in vivo hydrolysis product of benserazide are both powerful irreversible DDC inhibitors, they are not selective because they irreversibly bind to free PLP and PLP-enzymes, thus inducing diverse side effects. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a to use virtual screening to identify potential human DDC inhibitors and (b to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening (VS protocol by experimentally testing the "in vitro" activity of selected molecules. Starting from the crystal structure of the DDC-carbidopa complex, a new VS protocol, integrating pharmacophore searches and molecular docking, was developed. Analysis of 15 selected compounds, obtained by filtering the public ZINC database, yielded two molecules that bind to the active site of human DDC and behave as competitive inhibitors with K(i values ≥10 µM. By performing in silico similarity search on the latter compounds followed by a substructure search using the core of the most active compound we identified several competitive inhibitors of human DDC with K(i values in the low micromolar range, unable to bind free PLP, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier. The most potent inhibitor with a K(i value of 500 nM represents a new lead compound, targeting human DDC, that may be the basis for lead optimization in the development of new DDC inhibitors. To our knowledge, a similar approach has not been reported yet in the field of DDC inhibitors discovery.

  3. Perception of Virtual Audiences.

    Chollet, Mathieu; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that virtual audiences are a valuable tool in the treatment of social anxiety, and recent works show that it also a useful in public-speaking training programs. However, little research has focused on how such audiences are perceived and on how the behavior of virtual audiences can be manipulated to create various types of stimuli. The authors used a crowdsourcing methodology to create a virtual audience nonverbal behavior model and, with it, created a dataset of videos with virtual audiences containing varying behaviors. Using this dataset, they investigated how virtual audiences are perceived and which factors affect this perception.

  4. Drawing Inspiration from Human Brain Networks: Construction of Interconnected Virtual Networks.

    Murakami, Masaya; Kominami, Daichi; Leibnitz, Kenji; Murata, Masayuki

    2018-04-08

    Virtualization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is widely considered as a foundational block of edge/fog computing, which is a key technology that can help realize next-generation Internet of things (IoT) networks. In such scenarios, multiple IoT devices and service modules will be virtually deployed and interconnected over the Internet. Moreover, application services are expected to be more sophisticated and complex, thereby increasing the number of modifications required for the construction of network topologies. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a method for constructing a virtualized WSN (VWSN) topology that achieves low latency on information transmission and high resilience against network failures, while keeping the topological construction cost low. In this study, we draw inspiration from inter-modular connectivity in human brain networks, which achieves high performance when dealing with large-scale networks composed of a large number of modules (i.e., regions) and nodes (i.e., neurons). We propose a method for assigning inter-modular links based on a connectivity model observed in the cerebral cortex of the brain, known as the exponential distance rule (EDR) model. We then choose endpoint nodes of these links by controlling inter-modular assortativity, which characterizes the topological connectivity of brain networks. We test our proposed methods using simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed method based on the EDR model can construct a VWSN topology with an optimal combination of communication efficiency, robustness, and construction cost. Regarding the selection of endpoint nodes for the inter-modular links, the results also show that high assortativity enhances the robustness and communication efficiency because of the existence of inter-modular links of two high-degree nodes.

  5. Drawing Inspiration from Human Brain Networks: Construction of Interconnected Virtual Networks

    Masaya Murakami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization of wireless sensor networks (WSN is widely considered as a foundational block of edge/fog computing, which is a key technology that can help realize next-generation Internet of things (IoT networks. In such scenarios, multiple IoT devices and service modules will be virtually deployed and interconnected over the Internet. Moreover, application services are expected to be more sophisticated and complex, thereby increasing the number of modifications required for the construction of network topologies. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a method for constructing a virtualized WSN (VWSN topology that achieves low latency on information transmission and high resilience against network failures, while keeping the topological construction cost low. In this study, we draw inspiration from inter-modular connectivity in human brain networks, which achieves high performance when dealing with large-scale networks composed of a large number of modules (i.e., regions and nodes (i.e., neurons. We propose a method for assigning inter-modular links based on a connectivity model observed in the cerebral cortex of the brain, known as the exponential distance rule (EDR model. We then choose endpoint nodes of these links by controlling inter-modular assortativity, which characterizes the topological connectivity of brain networks. We test our proposed methods using simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed method based on the EDR model can construct a VWSN topology with an optimal combination of communication efficiency, robustness, and construction cost. Regarding the selection of endpoint nodes for the inter-modular links, the results also show that high assortativity enhances the robustness and communication efficiency because of the existence of inter-modular links of two high-degree nodes.

  6. On the Value of Estimating Human Arm Stiffness during Virtual Teleoperation with Robotic Manipulators.

    Buzzi, Jacopo; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Jansma, Joost M; De Momi, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Teleoperated robotic systems are widely spreading in multiple different fields, from hazardous environments exploration to surgery. In teleoperation, users directly manipulate a master device to achieve task execution at the slave robot side; this interaction is fundamental to guarantee both system stability and task execution performance. In this work, we propose a non-disruptive method to study the arm endpoint stiffness. We evaluate how users exploit the kinetic redundancy of the arm to achieve stability and precision during the execution of different tasks with different master devices. Four users were asked to perform two planar trajectories following virtual tasks using both a serial and a parallel link master device. Users' arm kinematics and muscular activation were acquired and combined with a user-specific musculoskeletal model to estimate the joint stiffness. Using the arm kinematic Jacobian, the arm end-point stiffness was derived. The proposed non-disruptive method is capable of estimating the arm endpoint stiffness during the execution of virtual teleoperated tasks. The obtained results are in accordance with the existing literature in human motor control and show, throughout the tested trajectory, a modulation of the arm endpoint stiffness that is affected by task characteristics and hand speed and acceleration.

  7. On the Value of Estimating Human Arm Stiffness during Virtual Teleoperation with Robotic Manipulators

    Jacopo Buzzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperated robotic systems are widely spreading in multiple different fields, from hazardous environments exploration to surgery. In teleoperation, users directly manipulate a master device to achieve task execution at the slave robot side; this interaction is fundamental to guarantee both system stability and task execution performance. In this work, we propose a non-disruptive method to study the arm endpoint stiffness. We evaluate how users exploit the kinetic redundancy of the arm to achieve stability and precision during the execution of different tasks with different master devices. Four users were asked to perform two planar trajectories following virtual tasks using both a serial and a parallel link master device. Users' arm kinematics and muscular activation were acquired and combined with a user-specific musculoskeletal model to estimate the joint stiffness. Using the arm kinematic Jacobian, the arm end-point stiffness was derived. The proposed non-disruptive method is capable of estimating the arm endpoint stiffness during the execution of virtual teleoperated tasks. The obtained results are in accordance with the existing literature in human motor control and show, throughout the tested trajectory, a modulation of the arm endpoint stiffness that is affected by task characteristics and hand speed and acceleration.

  8. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  9. Controlling a virtual forehand prosthesis using an adaptive and affective Human-Machine Interface.

    Rezazadeh, I Mohammad; Firoozabadi, S M P; Golpayegani, S M R Hashemi; Hu, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an adaptable Human-Machine Interface (HMI) for controlling virtual forearm prosthesis. Direct physical performance measures (obtained score and completion time) for the requested tasks were calculated. Furthermore, bioelectric signals from the forehead were recorded using one pair of electrodes placed on the frontal region of the subject head to extract the mental (affective) measures while performing the tasks. By employing the proposed algorithm and above measures, the proposed HMI can adapt itself to the subject's mental states, thus improving the usability of the interface. The quantitative results from 15 subjects show that the proposed HMI achieved better physical performance measures in comparison to a conventional non-adaptive myoelectric controller (p < 0.001).

  10. Frozen with fear: Conditioned suppression in a virtual reality model of human anxiety.

    Allcoat, Devon; Greville, W James; Newton, Philip M; Dymond, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Freezing-like topographies of behavior are elicited in conditioned suppression tasks whereby appetitive behavior is reduced by presentations of an aversively conditioned threat cue relative to a safety cue. Conditioned suppression of operant behavior by a Pavlovian threat cue is an established laboratory model of quantifying the response impairment seen in anxiety disorders. Little is known however about how different response topographies indicative of conditioned suppression are elicited in humans. Here, we refined a novel virtual reality (VR) paradigm in which presentations of a threat cue of unpredictable duration occurred while participants performed an operant response of shooting and destroying boxes searching for hidden gold. The VR paradigm detected significant suppression of response topographies (shots, hits and breaks) for a Pavlovian threat cue relative to a safety cue and novel cue presentations. Implications of the present findings for translational research on appetitive and aversive conflict in anxiety disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Audited credential delegation: a usable security solution for the virtual physiological human toolkit

    Haidar, Ali N.; Zasada, Stefan J.; Coveney, Peter V.; Abdallah, Ali E.; Beckles, Bruce; Jones, Mike A. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present applications of audited credential delegation (ACD), a usable security solution for authentication, authorization and auditing in distributed virtual physiological human (VPH) project environments that removes the use of digital certificates from end-users' experience. Current security solutions are based on public key infrastructure (PKI). While PKI offers strong security for VPH projects, it suffers from serious usability shortcomings in terms of end-user acquisition and management of credentials which deter scientists from exploiting distributed VPH environments. By contrast, ACD supports the use of local credentials. Currently, a local ACD username–password combination can be used to access grid-based resources while Shibboleth support is underway. Moreover, ACD provides seamless and secure access to shared patient data, tools and infrastructure, thus supporting the provision of personalized medicine for patients, scientists and clinicians participating in e-health projects from a local to the widest international scale. PMID:22670214

  12. Audited credential delegation: a usable security solution for the virtual physiological human toolkit.

    Haidar, Ali N; Zasada, Stefan J; Coveney, Peter V; Abdallah, Ali E; Beckles, Bruce; Jones, Mike A S

    2011-06-06

    We present applications of audited credential delegation (ACD), a usable security solution for authentication, authorization and auditing in distributed virtual physiological human (VPH) project environments that removes the use of digital certificates from end-users' experience. Current security solutions are based on public key infrastructure (PKI). While PKI offers strong security for VPH projects, it suffers from serious usability shortcomings in terms of end-user acquisition and management of credentials which deter scientists from exploiting distributed VPH environments. By contrast, ACD supports the use of local credentials. Currently, a local ACD username-password combination can be used to access grid-based resources while Shibboleth support is underway. Moreover, ACD provides seamless and secure access to shared patient data, tools and infrastructure, thus supporting the provision of personalized medicine for patients, scientists and clinicians participating in e-health projects from a local to the widest international scale.

  13. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human in 2010 and beyond.

    Hunter, Peter; Coveney, Peter V; de Bono, Bernard; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John; Frangi, Alejandro F; Harris, Peter; Hose, Rod; Kohl, Peter; Lawford, Pat; McCormack, Keith; Mendes, Miriam; Omholt, Stig; Quarteroni, Alfio; Skår, John; Tegner, Jesper; Randall Thomas, S; Tollis, Ioannis; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; van Beek, Johannes H G M; Viceconti, Marco

    2010-06-13

    European funding under framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for nearly 2 years. The VPH network of excellence (NoE) is helping in the development of common standards, open-source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various training and dissemination activities for the project. It is also helping to coordinate the many clinically targeted projects that have been funded under the FP7 calls. An initial vision for the VPH was defined by framework 6 strategy for a European physiome (STEP) project in 2006. It is now time to assess the accomplishments of the last 2 years and update the STEP vision for the VPH. We consider the biomedical science, healthcare and information and communications technology challenges facing the project and we propose the VPH Institute as a means of sustaining the vision of VPH beyond the time frame of the NoE.

  14. Using virtual reality to test the regularity priors used by the human visual system

    Palmer, Eric; Kwon, TaeKyu; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality applications provide an opportunity to test human vision in well-controlled scenarios that would be difficult to generate in real physical spaces. This paper presents a study intended to evaluate the importance of the regularity priors used by the human visual system. Using a CAVE simulation, subjects viewed virtual objects in a variety of experimental manipulations. In the first experiment, the subject was asked to count the objects in a scene that was viewed either right-side-up or upside-down for 4 seconds. The subject counted more accurately in the right-side-up condition regardless of the presence of binocular disparity or color. In the second experiment, the subject was asked to reconstruct the scene from a different viewpoint. Reconstructions were accurate, but the position and orientation error was twice as high when the scene was rotated by 45°, compared to 22.5°. Similarly to the first experiment, there was little difference between monocular and binocular viewing. In the third experiment, the subject was asked to adjust the position of one object to match the depth extent to the frontal extent among three objects. Performance was best with symmetrical objects and became poorer with asymmetrical objects and poorest with only small circular markers on the floor. Finally, in the fourth experiment, we demonstrated reliable performance in monocular and binocular recovery of 3D shapes of objects standing naturally on the simulated horizontal floor. Based on these results, we conclude that gravity, horizontal ground, and symmetry priors play an important role in veridical perception of scenes.

  15. Climate for Learning: A Symposium. Creating a Climate for Learning, and the Humanizing Process. The Principal and School Discipline. Curriculum Bulletin Vol. XXXII, No. 341.

    Johnson, Simon O.; Chaky, June

    This publication contains two articles focusing on creating a climate for learning. In "Creating a Climate for Learning, and the Humanizing Process," Simon O. Johnson offers practical suggestions for creating a humanistic learning environment. The author begins by defining the basic concepts--humanism, affective education, affective situation,…

  16. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  18. Goal-based communication using BDI agents as virtual humans in training: An ontology driven dialogue system

    Oijen, J. van; Doesburg, W. van; Dignum, F.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations for training can greatly benefit from BDI agents as virtual humans playing the role of key players. Learning to communicate effectively is a key aspect of training to command a team that is managing a crisis. In this paper, we present a goal-based dialogue system which has been applied

  19. Creating state of the art, next-generation Virtual Reality exposure therapies for anxiety disorders using consumer hardware platforms: design considerations and future directions.

    Lindner, Philip; Miloff, Alexander; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Powers, Mark B; Carlbring, Per

    2017-09-01

    Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic "Big Data" that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.

  20. Virtual Reference Services.

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  1. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  2. [Conceptual assumptions to create a system for preparation of healthcare human resources in Ukraine].

    Грузєва, Тетяна С; Пельо, Ігор М; Сміянов, Владислав А; Галієнко, Людмила І

    , significant levels of morbidity and mortality due to noncommunicable and infectious diseases and insufficient implementation of the preventive principles in health care. In the ranking of countries in WHO European region, Ukraine occupies first place in terms of AIDS, tuberculosis. Standardized mortality rates from all diseases in Ukraine are twice higher than in EU countries, in the working age able population - in 2.5 times, due to infectious diseases - in 2.8 times, blood circulation system diseases. - in 3.5 times. An adequate response to modern challenges and threats to population health is the study and development of public health service. The draft of its Concept was created by an international interdisciplinary group of experts. Providing the public health service with human resources requires the development and implementation of training programs for public health specialists. The analysis of curricula of training of specialists at universities in Europe and the world helped to identify the institutional features of training, duration and content of training programs. As a rule, the bachelor's programs include 180-240 credits and continue for 6-8 semesters. Master's programs on the base on the undergraduate programs include from 90 to 120 credits and last for 3-6 semesters. Professional training is completed performing the master's work. Postgraduate study lasts 3-4 years and includes training and scientific research, after which research work is awarded the degree of doctor of philosophy. The content of the curriculum has a considerable variability, but provides for the mandatory study of biostatistics, epidemiology, environmental health, policy and health care management; social and psychological Sciences, social determinants and inequities in health, and interagency teamwork, medical technology, the basic operational functions of public health, concepts of mental health, health promotion, management in public health, carrying out research. the need for the

  3. The detection of 'virtual' objects using echoes by humans: Spectral cues.

    Rowan, Daniel; Papadopoulos, Timos; Archer, Lauren; Goodhew, Amanda; Cozens, Hayley; Lopez, Ricardo Guzman; Edwards, David; Holmes, Hannah; Allen, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Some blind people use echoes to detect discrete, silent objects to support their spatial orientation/navigation, independence, safety and wellbeing. The acoustical features that people use for this are not well understood. Listening to changes in spectral shape due to the presence of an object could be important for object detection and avoidance, especially at short range, although it is currently not known whether it is possible with echolocation-related sounds. Bands of noise were convolved with recordings of binaural impulse responses of objects in an anechoic chamber to create 'virtual objects', which were analysed and played to sighted and blind listeners inexperienced in echolocation. The sounds were also manipulated to remove cues unrelated to spectral shape. Most listeners could accurately detect hard flat objects using changes in spectral shape. The useful spectral changes for object detection occurred above approximately 3 kHz, as with object localisation. However, energy in the sounds below 3 kHz was required to exploit changes in spectral shape for object detection, whereas energy below 3 kHz impaired object localisation. Further recordings showed that the spectral changes were diminished by room reverberation. While good high-frequency hearing is generally important for echolocation, the optimal echo-generating stimulus will probably depend on the task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Not My Problem: Vicarious Conflict Adaptation with Human and Virtual Co-Actors

    Michiel M. Spapé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else’s conflict may subsequently reduce one’s own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor.

  5. The Transformation of Ms. Corazon: Creating Humanizing Spaces for Mexican Immigrant Students in Secondary ESL Classrooms

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Franquiz, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the journey of one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher who held rigid boundaries that negatively impacted the academic resiliency of her Mexican immigrant students. As she transformed her pedagogical orientation, she created permeability in her curricular practices. With the elements of "respeto" (respect), "confianza"…

  6. Hippocampal Volume Reduction in Humans Predicts Impaired Allocentric Spatial Memory in Virtual-Reality Navigation.

    Guderian, Sebastian; Dzieciol, Anna M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Doeller, Christian F; Burgess, Neil; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-21

    The extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is not well documented. We investigated allocentric spatial recall using a virtual environment in a group of patients with severe hippocampal damage (SHD), a group of patients with "moderate" hippocampal damage (MHD), and a normal control group. Through four learning blocks with feedback, participants learned the target locations of four different objects in a circular arena. Distal cues were present throughout the experiment to provide orientation. A circular boundary as well as an intra-arena landmark provided spatial reference frames. During a subsequent test phase, recall of all four objects was tested with only the boundary or the landmark being present. Patients with SHD were impaired in both phases of this task. Across groups, performance on both types of spatial recall was highly correlated with memory quotient (MQ), but not with intelligence quotient (IQ), age, or sex. However, both measures of spatial recall separated experimental groups beyond what would be expected based on MQ, a widely used measure of general memory function. Boundary-based and landmark-based spatial recall were both strongly related to bilateral hippocampal volumes, but not to volumes of the thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, or caudate nucleus. The results show that boundary-based and landmark-based allocentric spatial recall are similarly impaired in patients with SHD, that both types of recall are impaired beyond that predicted by MQ, and that recall deficits are best explained by a reduction in bilateral hippocampal volumes. In humans, bilateral hippocampal atrophy can lead to profound impairments in episodic memory. Across species, perhaps the most well-established contribution of the hippocampus to memory is not to episodic memory generally but to allocentric spatial memory. However, the extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is

  7. Smart sensors and virtual physiology human approach as a basis of personalized therapies in diabetes mellitus.

    Fernández Peruchena, Carlos M; Prado-Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a growing incidence and prevalence in modern societies, pushed by the aging and change of life styles. Despite the huge resources dedicated to improve their quality of life, mortality and morbidity rates, these are still very poor. In this work, DM pathology is revised from clinical and metabolic points of view, as well as mathematical models related to DM, with the aim of justifying an evolution of DM therapies towards the correction of the physiological metabolic loops involved. We analyze the reliability of mathematical models, under the perspective of virtual physiological human (VPH) initiatives, for generating and integrating customized knowledge about patients, which is needed for that evolution. Wearable smart sensors play a key role in this frame, as they provide patient's information to the models.A telehealthcare computational architecture based on distributed smart sensors (first processing layer) and personalized physiological mathematical models integrated in Human Physiological Images (HPI) computational components (second processing layer), is presented. This technology was designed for a renal disease telehealthcare in earlier works and promotes crossroads between smart sensors and the VPH initiative. We suggest that it is able to support a truly personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare model for the delivery of evolved DM therapies.

  8. Frontal impact response of a virtual low percentile six years old human thorax developed by automatic down-scaling

    Špička J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries in the whole population spectrum. The numbers of deaths and seriously injured citizens prove that traffic accidents and their consequences are still a serious problem to be solved. The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology with a virtual approach. Exploitation of the previously developed scaling algorithm enables the creation of a specific anthropometric model based on a validated reference model. The aim of the paper is to prove the biofidelity of the small percentile six years old virtual human model developed by automatic down-scaling in a frontal impact. For the automatically developed six years old virtual specific anthropometric model, the Kroell impact test is simulated and the results are compared to the experimental data. The chosen approach shows good correspondence of the scaled model performance to the experimental corridors.

  9. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions.

  10. Human Factors Issues in the Use of Virtual and Augmented Reality for Military Purposes - USA

    2005-01-01

    .... military virtual reality research facilites. The articles lists key research personnel, current research projects, a selection of literature by affiliated researchers, and laboratory facilities available...

  11. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  12. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    Masse, W Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Janecky, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Forte, Maurizio [UC MERCED; Barrientos, Gustavo [UNIV OF LA PLATA, ARG.

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools based on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.

  13. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social

  14. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...... of the human and dog genome assemblies revealed a number of large synteny blocks, some of which are corroborated by data from the mink linkage map....

  15. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  16. Enrichment of Human-Computer Interaction in Brain-Computer Interfaces via Virtual Environments

    Alonso-Valerdi Luz María

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tridimensional representations stimulate cognitive processes that are the core and foundation of human-computer interaction (HCI. Those cognitive processes take place while a user navigates and explores a virtual environment (VE and are mainly related to spatial memory storage, attention, and perception. VEs have many distinctive features (e.g., involvement, immersion, and presence that can significantly improve HCI in highly demanding and interactive systems such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI. BCI is as a nonmuscular communication channel that attempts to reestablish the interaction between an individual and his/her environment. Although BCI research started in the sixties, this technology is not efficient or reliable yet for everyone at any time. Over the past few years, researchers have argued that main BCI flaws could be associated with HCI issues. The evidence presented thus far shows that VEs can (1 set out working environmental conditions, (2 maximize the efficiency of BCI control panels, (3 implement navigation systems based not only on user intentions but also on user emotions, and (4 regulate user mental state to increase the differentiation between control and noncontrol modalities.

  17. Ageing and spatial reversal learning in humans: findings from a virtual water maze.

    Schoenfeld, R; Foreman, N; Leplow, B

    2014-08-15

    Deterioration in spatial memory with normal ageing is well accepted. Animal research has shown spatial reversal learning to be most vulnerable to pathological changes in the brain, but this has never been tested in humans. We studied ninety participants (52% females, 20-80 yrs) in a virtual water maze with a reversal learning procedure. Neuropsychological functioning, mood and personality were assessed to control moderator effects. For data analysis, participants were subdivided post hoc into groups aged 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65-80 yrs. Initial spatial learning occurred in all age groups but 65-80-yrs-olds never reached the level of younger participants. When tested for delayed recall of spatial memory, younger people frequented the target area but those over 65 yrs did not. In spatial reversal learning, age groups over 45 yrs were deficient and the 65-80-yrs-olds showed no evidence of reversal. Spatial measures were associated with neuropsychological functioning. Extraversion and measures of depression moderated the age effect on the learning index with older introverted and non-depressed individuals showing better results. Measures of anxiety moderated the age effect on reversal learning with older people having higher anxiety scores showing a preserved reversal learning capability. Results confirmed age to be a major factor in spatial tasks but further showed neuropsychological functioning, psycho-affective determinants and personality traits to be significant predictors of individual differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mode 2 in action. Working across sectors to create a Center for Humanities and Technology

    Wyatt, S.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines recent developments in Amsterdam to establish a Center for Humanities and Technology (CHAT). The project is a collaboration between public research institutions and a private partner. To date, a White Paper has been produced that sets out a shared research agenda addressing

  19. Special Issue: Creating a Tipping Point--Strategic Human Resources in Higher Education

    Evans, Alvin; Chun, Edna

    2012-01-01

    This monograph examines the emergence of strategic human resource (HR) practices in higher education at a time when the budgetary crisis in public higher education has never been more acute. The wave of financial pressures on public research universities today heralds the advent of an era of unprecedented change. Financial upheaval resulting from…

  20. Policies to Create and Destroy Human Capital in Europe. NBER Working Paper No. 15742

    Heckman, James J.; Jacobs, Bas

    2010-01-01

    Trends in skill bias and greater turbulence in modern labor markets put wages and employment prospects of unskilled workers under pressure. Weak incentives to utilize and maintain skills over the life-cycle become manifest with the ageing of the population. Policies to promote human capital formation reduce welfare state dependency among the…

  1. The nursing human resource planning best practice toolkit: creating a best practice resource for nursing managers.

    Vincent, Leslie; Beduz, Mary Agnes

    2010-05-01

    Evidence of acute nursing shortages in urban hospitals has been surfacing since 2000. Further, new graduate nurses account for more than 50% of total nurse turnover in some hospitals and between 35% and 60% of new graduates change workplace during the first year. Critical to organizational success, first line nurse managers must have the knowledge and skills to ensure the accurate projection of nursing resource requirements and to develop proactive recruitment and retention programs that are effective, promote positive nursing socialization, and provide early exposure to the clinical setting. The Nursing Human Resource Planning Best Practice Toolkit project supported the creation of a network of teaching and community hospitals to develop a best practice toolkit in nursing human resource planning targeted at first line nursing managers. The toolkit includes the development of a framework including the conceptual building blocks of planning tools, manager interventions, retention and recruitment and professional practice models. The development of the toolkit involved conducting a review of the literature for best practices in nursing human resource planning, using a mixed method approach to data collection including a survey and extensive interviews of managers and completing a comprehensive scan of human resource practices in the participating organizations. This paper will provide an overview of the process used to develop the toolkit, a description of the toolkit contents and a reflection on the outcomes of the project.

  2. Recurrent Rearrangements of Human Amylase Genes Create Multiple Independent CNV Series.

    Shwan, Nzar A A; Louzada, Sandra; Yang, Fengtang; Armour, John A L

    2017-05-01

    The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. Copy number variation (CNV) of AMY1 has been implicated in human dietary adaptation, and in population association with obesity, but neither of these findings has been independently replicated. Despite these functional implications, the structural genomic basis of CNV has only been defined in detail very recently. In this work, we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A, and AMY2B. We use fiber-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to define unexpected complexity in the accompanying rearrangements. These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five independent rearrangements of the pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B). Structural features shared by fundamentally distinct lineages strongly suggest that the common ancestral state for the human amylase cluster contained more than one, and probably three, copies of AMY1. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Psychological and physiological human responses to simulated and real environments: A comparison between Photographs, 360° Panoramas, and Virtual Reality.

    Higuera-Trujillo, Juan Luis; López-Tarruella Maldonado, Juan; Llinares Millán, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Psychological research into human factors frequently uses simulations to study the relationship between human behaviour and the environment. Their validity depends on their similarity with the physical environments. This paper aims to validate three environmental-simulation display formats: photographs, 360° panoramas, and virtual reality. To do this we compared the psychological and physiological responses evoked by simulated environments set-ups to those from a physical environment setup; we also assessed the users' sense of presence. Analysis show that 360° panoramas offer the closest to reality results according to the participants' psychological responses, and virtual reality according to the physiological responses. Correlations between the feeling of presence and physiological and other psychological responses were also observed. These results may be of interest to researchers using environmental-simulation technologies currently available in order to replicate the experience of physical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  5. Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues Created Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reveal Functional Characteristics of BRAF-Mediated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Timothy J Cashman

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death that often goes undetected in the general population. HCM is also prevalent in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS, which is a genetic disorder characterized by aberrant signaling in the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. Understanding the mechanisms of HCM development in such RASopathies may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, but relevant experimental models of the human condition are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop the first 3D human engineered cardiac tissue (hECT model of HCM. The hECTs were created using human cardiomyocytes obtained by directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with CFCS due to an activating BRAF mutation. The mutant myocytes were directly conjugated at a 3:1 ratio with a stromal cell population to create a tissue of defined composition. Compared to healthy patient control hECTs, BRAF-hECTs displayed a hypertrophic phenotype by culture day 6, with significantly increased tissue size, twitch force, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP gene expression. Twitch characteristics reflected increased contraction and relaxation rates and shorter twitch duration in BRAF-hECTs, which also had a significantly higher maximum capture rate and lower excitation threshold during electrical pacing, consistent with a more arrhythmogenic substrate. By culture day 11, twitch force was no longer different between BRAF and wild-type hECTs, revealing a temporal aspect of disease modeling with tissue engineering. Principal component analysis identified diastolic force as a key factor that changed from day 6 to day 11, supported by a higher passive stiffness in day 11 BRAF-hECTs. In summary, human engineered cardiac tissues created from BRAF mutant cells recapitulated, for the first time, key aspects of the HCM phenotype, offering a new in vitro model for studying intrinsic mechanisms and

  6. “Data characterizing microfabricated human blood vessels created via hydrodynamic focusing”

    Kyle A. DiVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled “Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization” (DiVito et al., 2017 [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF. Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into ‘bullseye-like” cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2014, 2016; Roberts et al., 2016 [2–6]. Applications for fabricated blood vessels span general tissue engineering to organ-on-chip technologies, with specific utility in in vitro drug delivery and pharmacodynamics studies. Here, we report data regarding the construction of blood vessels including cellular composition and cell positioning within the engineered vascular construct as well as functional aspects of the tissues.

  7. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  8. Reassembly of adult human testicular cells: can testis cord-like structures be created in vitro?

    Mincheva, M; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, R; Wistuba, J; Redmann, K; Stukenborg, J-B; Kliesch, S; Schlatt, S

    2018-02-01

    Can enzymatically dispersed testicular cells from adult men reassemble into seminiferous cord-like structures in vitro? Adult human testicular somatic cells reassembled into testicular cord-like structures via dynamic interactions of Sertoli and peritubular cells. In vitro approaches using dispersed single cell suspensions of human testes to generate seminiferous tubule structures and to initiate their functionality have as yet shown only limited success. Testes from 15 adult gender dysphoria patients (mean ± standard deviation age 35 ± 9.3 years) showing spermatogonial arrest became available for this study after sex-reassignment surgery. In vitro primary testicular somatic cell cultures were generated to explore the self-organizing ability of testicular somatic cells to form testis cords over a 2-week period. Morphological phenotype, protein marker expression and temporal dynamics of cell reassembly were analyzed. Cell suspensions obtained by two-step enzymatic digestion were plated onto glass coverslips in 24-well plates. To obtain adherent somatic cells, the supernatant was discarded on Day 2. The culture of the attached cell population was continued. Reassembly into cord-like structures was analyzed daily by microscopic observations. Endpoints were qualitative changes in morphology. Cell types were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Dynamics of cord formation were recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Primary adult human testicular cells underwent sequential morphological changes including compaction and reaggregation resulting in round or elongated cord-like structures. Time-lapse video recordings within the first 4 days of culture revealed highly dynamic processes of migration and coalescence of reaggregated cells. The cellular movements were mediated by peritubular cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both SRY-related high mobility box 9-positive Sertoli and α-smooth muscle actin-positive peritubular myoid cells

  9. The Virtual Tablet: Virtual Reality as a Control System

    Chronister, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the field of human-computer interaction, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have been rapidly growing areas of interest and concerted development effort thanks to both private and public research. At NASA, a number of groups have explored the possibilities afforded by AR and VR technology, among which is the IT Advanced Concepts Lab (ITACL). Within ITACL, the AVR (Augmented/Virtual Reality) Lab focuses on VR technology specifically for its use in command and control. Previous work in the AVR lab includes the Natural User Interface (NUI) project and the Virtual Control Panel (VCP) project, which created virtual three-dimensional interfaces that users could interact with while wearing a VR headset thanks to body- and hand-tracking technology. The Virtual Tablet (VT) project attempts to improve on these previous efforts by incorporating a physical surrogate which is mirrored in the virtual environment, mitigating issues with difficulty of visually determining the interface location and lack of tactile feedback discovered in the development of previous efforts. The physical surrogate takes the form of a handheld sheet of acrylic glass with several infrared-range reflective markers and a sensor package attached. Using the sensor package to track orientation and a motion-capture system to track the marker positions, a model of the surrogate is placed in the virtual environment at a position which corresponds with the real-world location relative to the user's VR Head Mounted Display (HMD). A set of control mechanisms is then projected onto the surface of the surrogate such that to the user, immersed in VR, the control interface appears to be attached to the object they are holding. The VT project was taken from an early stage where the sensor package, motion-capture system, and physical surrogate had been constructed or tested individually but not yet combined or incorporated into the virtual environment. My contribution was to combine the pieces of

  10. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

    Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

  11. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

    Maria T. E. Prauße

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

  12. An Intelligent Virtual Human System For Providing Healthcare Information And Support

    2011-01-01

    healthcare system, and also to other SMs and Veterans by way of a variety of social networking tools (e.g., 2nd Life, Facebook, etc.). The user can progress... CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, 3 (2005), 187-211. [2] T. Parsons & A.A. Rizzo, Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety...VH System for Providing Healthcare Information and Support508 [4] G. Riva, Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior 8

  13. Creating a human brain proteome atlas--14th HUPO BPP workshop September 20-21, 2010, Sydney, Australia.

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Marcus, Katrin; Grinberg, Lea T; Lee, Sang K; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young M

    2011-08-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 14th workshop during the HUPO 9th Annual World Congress in Sydney, Australia. The principal aim of this project is to discover prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers associated with neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, with the ultimate objective of obtaining a better understanding of these conditions and creating roads for the development of novel diagnostic techniques and effective treatments. The attendees came together to discuss progress in the human clinical neuroproteomics and to define the needs and guidelines required for more advanced proteomics approaches. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human: 2012 update.

    Hunter, Peter; Chapman, Tara; Coveney, Peter V; de Bono, Bernard; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John; Frangi, Alejandro F; Harris, Peter; Hose, Rod; Kohl, Peter; Lawford, Pat; McCormack, Keith; Mendes, Miriam; Omholt, Stig; Quarteroni, Alfio; Shublaq, Nour; Skår, John; Stroetmann, Karl; Tegner, Jesper; Thomas, S Randall; Tollis, Ioannis; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; van Beek, Johannes H G M; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-04-06

    European funding under Framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for 5 years. The VPH Network of Excellence (NoE) has been set up to help develop common standards, open source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various training and dissemination activities for the project. It is also working to coordinate the many clinically targeted projects that have been funded under the FP7 calls. An initial vision for the VPH was defined by the FP6 STEP project in 2006. In 2010, we wrote an assessment of the accomplishments of the first two years of the VPH in which we considered the biomedical science, healthcare and information and communications technology challenges facing the project (Hunter et al. 2010 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 368, 2595-2614 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0048)). We proposed that a not-for-profit professional umbrella organization, the VPH Institute, should be established as a means of sustaining the VPH vision beyond the time-frame of the NoE. Here, we update and extend this assessment and in particular address the following issues raised in response to Hunter et al.: (i) a vision for the VPH updated in the light of progress made so far, (ii) biomedical science and healthcare challenges that the VPH initiative can address while also providing innovation opportunities for the European industry, and (iii) external changes needed in regulatory policy and business models to realize the full potential that the VPH has to offer to industry, clinics and society generally.

  15. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  16. Virtualization Technologies for the Business

    Sabina POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    There is a new trend of change in today's IT industry. It's called virtualization. In datacenter virtualization can occur on several levels, but the type of virtualization has created this trend change is the operating system offered or server virtualization. OS virtualization technologies come in two forms. First, there is a software component that is used to simulate a natural machine that has total control of an operating system operating on the host equipment. The second is a hypervisor, ...

  17. Implication of Human Hair in Regaining Spilled Oil Further Creating A Production Rise in Oyster Mushrooms

    Pandey, A.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, U.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 4.9 million liters of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Oil spill may be as huge as of 8 million barrels (The Persian Gulf oil spill of 1991). Oil-water separation processes using polymeric or inorganic membranes have been proposed as effective and cost competitive technologies but in present the commercial use of membrane in treatment of spilled oil is currently limited by their low efficiency as well as high capital and operating cost. Indian hair-market is a billion-dollar industry yearly exporting thousands of tones of thick and dark hairs. Hairs contain keratin, a family of fibrous structural proteins been proved to adsorb oils. Laboratory results conclude that one gram of human hair can selectively adsorb about 15.5301 grams of crude oil over water, following Frendlich's isotherm. We seek hair mats made up of hairs of size ≤5 inches, costing 37/ton from selected parts of Indian hair market. With a known adsorbing efficiency of 95% towards crude oil, an estimated desorption efficiency of 70% oil worth 0.8M per year can be regained in crude form from U.S. waters only. To ensure solid waste management of hairs, hair mats left with 30% of adsorbed oil can be utilized in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, a 20-34/kg crop that grows best in 20-25°C ,80-90% relative humidity and oily conditions. This will reduce the growing period of crop ensuring yearly profit of $6.06M in U.S. only engaging variety of stakeholders over borders. Results thus obtained in this study present an economic, safer and sustainable technique to minimize oil loss due to oil spill in waters further ensuring a low labor-low cost technique of waste management that enhances the growth of an in-demand crop. Keywords: Oil Spill, Human Hair Mats, Adsorb, Oyster Mushrooms

  18. Computer-aided training sensorimotor cortex functions in humans before the upper limb transplantation using virtual reality and sensory feedback.

    Kurzynski, Marek; Jaskolska, Anna; Marusiak, Jaroslaw; Wolczowski, Andrzej; Bierut, Przemyslaw; Szumowski, Lukasz; Witkowski, Jerzy; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation. The basis for the concept of computer-aided training system is a virtual hand whose reaching and grasping movements the trained patient can observe on the VR headset screen (visual feedback) and whose contact with virtual objects the patient can feel as a touch (sensory feedback). The computer training system is composed of three main components: (1) the system generating 3D virtual world in which the patient sees the virtual limb from the perspective as if it were his/her own hand; (2) sensory feedback transforming information about the interaction of the virtual hand with the grasped object into mechanical vibration; (3) the therapist's panel for controlling the training course. Results of the case study demonstrate that mental training supported with visual and sensory stimuli generated by the computer system leads to a beneficial change of the brain activity related to motor control of the reaching in the patient with bilateral upper limb congenital transverse deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aural localization of silent objects by active human biosonar: neural representations of virtual echo-acoustic space.

    Wallmeier, Ludwig; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2015-03-01

    Some blind humans have developed the remarkable ability to detect and localize objects through the auditory analysis of self-generated tongue clicks. These echolocation experts show a corresponding increase in 'visual' cortex activity when listening to echo-acoustic sounds. Echolocation in real-life settings involves multiple reflections as well as active sound production, neither of which has been systematically addressed. We developed a virtualization technique that allows participants to actively perform such biosonar tasks in virtual echo-acoustic space during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tongue clicks, emitted in the MRI scanner, are picked up by a microphone, convolved in real time with the binaural impulse responses of a virtual space, and presented via headphones as virtual echoes. In this manner, we investigated the brain activity during active echo-acoustic localization tasks. Our data show that, in blind echolocation experts, activations in the calcarine cortex are dramatically enhanced when a single reflector is introduced into otherwise anechoic virtual space. A pattern-classification analysis revealed that, in the blind, calcarine cortex activation patterns could discriminate left-side from right-side reflectors. This was found in both blind experts, but the effect was significant for only one of them. In sighted controls, 'visual' cortex activations were insignificant, but activation patterns in the planum temporale were sufficient to discriminate left-side from right-side reflectors. Our data suggest that blind and echolocation-trained, sighted subjects may recruit different neural substrates for the same active-echolocation task. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. TECHNOLOGY AND METHODS OF CREATING WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR HUMANITIES EDUCATION

    Вилена Александровна Брылева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to describe the structure of web environment in frames of new educational paradigm in teaching Humanities, to clarify the scientifical and practical importance of using Web 2.0 technologies in higher education. This problem is of great importance due to the necessity of integration of modern IT into educational environment which needs to develop new methods of teaching.The model of educational environment presented in the article is based on the integration of LMS Moodle and PLE Mahara. The authors define the functional modules and means of the environment, describe its didactic qualities, organization requirements and usage advantages. The methodic model of teaching English worked out by the authors supposes step-by-step formation of professional as well as informational competence necessary to any modern specialist. The effectiveness of the model is verified by experiental learning, based on individual and group forms of work on educational site of Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication of Volgograd State university.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-8

  1. A study of prostate delineation referenced against a gold standard created from the visible human data

    Gao Zhanrong; Wilkins, David; Eapen, Libni; Morash, Christopher; Wassef, Youssef; Gerig, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To measure inter- and intra-observer variation and systematic error in CT based prostate delineation, where individual delineations are referenced against a gold standard produced from photographic anatomical images from the Visible Human Project (VHP). Materials and methods: The CT and anatomical images of the VHP male form the basic data set for this study. The gold standard was established based on 1 mm thick anatomical photographic images. These were registered against the 3 mm thick CT images that were used for target delineation. A total of 120 organ delineations were performed by six radiation oncologists. Results: The physician delineated prostate volume was on average 30% larger than the 'true' prostate volume, but on average included only 84% of the gold standard volume. Our study found a systematic delineation error such that posterior portions of the prostate were always missed while anteriorly some normal tissue was always defined as target. Conclusions: Our data suggest that radiation oncologists are more concerned with the unintentional inclusion of rectal tissue than they are in missing prostate volume. In contrast, they are likely to overextend the anterior boundary of the prostate to encompass normal tissue such as the bladder

  2. Creating computer aided 3D model of spleen and kidney based based on Visible Human Project

    Aldur, Muhammad M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of computer aided 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique on visualization and modeling of gross anatomical structures with an affordable methodology applied on the spleen and kidney. From The Visible Human Project Dataset cryosection images, developed by the National Library of Medicine, the spleen and kidney sections were preferred to be used due to their highly distinct contours. The software used for the reconstruction were Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac and Cinema 4D X L version 7.1 for Mac OS X. This study was carried out in May 2004 at the Department of Anatomy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of this study, it is determined that these 2 programs could be effectively used both for 3D modeling of the mentioned organs and volumetric analyses on these models. It is also seen that it is possible to hold the physical models of these gross anatomical digital ones with stereolithography technique by means of the data exchange file format provided by the program and present such images as anaglyph. Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac OS and Cinema 4 DXL version 7.1 for Mac OS X can be used effectively for reconstruction of gross anatomical structures from serial parallel sections with distinct contours such as spleen and kidney and the animation of models. These software constitute a highly effective way of getting volumetric calculations, spatial relations and morphometrical measurements of reconstructed structures. (author)

  3. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL IMAGE REPOSITORIES FOR VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION IN THE FIELD OF DIGITAL HUMANITIES

    F. Maiwald

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi- automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate" of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM. Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  4. The assessment system based on virtual decommissioning environments to reduce abnormal hazards from human errors for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon; Hyun, Dong jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. So, it is necessary that before decommissioning, the exposure dose to workers has to be analyzed and assessed under the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Furthermore, to improve the proficiency of decommissioning environments, method and system need to be developed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations.

  5. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social elements, such as existing relational factors. We addressed this necessity by integrating culture into a novel model for simulating human social behavior. With this model, we operationalized a par...

  6. Using a Critical Incident Scenario With Virtual Humans to Assess Educational Needs of Nurses in a Postanesthesia Care Unit.

    White, Casey; Chuah, Joon; Robb, Andrew; Lok, Benjamin; Lampotang, Samsun; Lizdas, David; Martindale, James; Pi, Guillermo; Wendling, Adam

    2015-01-01

    During critical incidents, teamwork failures can compromise patient safety. This study provides evidence that virtual humans can be used in simulated critical incidents to assess the learning needs of health professionals, and provide important information that can inform the development of continuing education programs in patient safety. We explored the effectiveness of information transfer during a devolving medical situation between postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses and a virtual attending physician. We designed a three-stage scenario: tutorial, patient transfer, and critical incident. We developed 2 checklists to assess information transfer: Critical Patient Information and Interprofessional Communication Skills. All participants were videotaped; 2 raters reviewed all videos and assessed performance using the checklists. Participants (n = 43) who completed all 3 stages scored 62.3% correct on critical patient information transfer and 61.6% correct on interprofessional communication skills. Almost 87% missed a fatal drug error. The checklists measured each item on a 1/0 (done/not) calculation. Additionally, no relationship was found between years of nursing experience and performance on either checklist. The PACU nurses in this study did not consistently share critical information with an attending (virtual) physician during a critical incident, and most missed a fatal dosage error. These findings strongly suggest a crucial need for additional structured team training among practicing health care teams, and they demonstrate the utility of using virtual humans to simulate team members. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  7. Virtual care

    Kamp, Annette; Aaløkke Ballegaard, Stinne

    of retrenchment, promising better quality, empowerment of citizens and work that is smarter and more qualified. Through ethnographic field studies we study the introduction of virtual home care in Danish elderly care, focusing on the implications for relational work and care relations. Virtual home care entails...... the performance of specific home care services by means of video conversations rather than physical visits in the citizens’ homes. As scholars within the STS tradition maintain, technologies do not simply replace a human function; they rather transform care work, redistributing tasks between citizens, technology...... point out how issues of trust and surveillance, which are always negotiated in care relations, are in fact accentuated in this kind of virtual care work. Moreover, we stress that the contemporary institutional context, organization and time schedules have a vast impact on the practices developed....

  8. Virtual toolbox

    Jacobus, Charles J.; Jacobus, Heidi N.; Mitchell, Brian T.; Riggs, A. J.; Taylor, Mark J.

    1993-04-01

    At least three of the five senses must be fully addressed in a successful virtual reality (VR) system. Sight, sound, and touch are the most critical elements for the creation of the illusion of presence. Since humans depend so much on sight to collect information about their environment, this area has been the focus of much of the prior art in virtual reality, however, it is also crucial that we provide facilities for force, torque, and touch reflection, and sound replay and 3-D localization. In this paper we present a sampling of hardware and software in the virtual environment maker's `toolbox' which can support rapidly building up of customized VR systems. We provide demonstrative examples of how some of the tools work and we speculate about VR applications and future technology needs.

  9. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    Melissa M. Terras

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this

  10. Wind and warmth in virtual reality: implementation and evaluation

    Hülsmann, Felix; Fröhlich, Julia; Mattar, Nikita; Wachsmuth, Ipke

    2014-01-01

    One possibility to make virtual worlds more immersive is to address as many human senses as possible. This paper presents the development of a system for creating wind and warmth simulations in Virtual Reality (VR). Therefore, suitable hardware and an implemented software model are described. Technical evaluations of the hardware and of the software components demonstrate the usability of the system in VR Applications. Furthermore, a user study underlines users’ acceptance and indicates a pos...

  11. Human Activity Behavior and Gesture Generation in Virtual Worlds for Long- Duration Space Missions. Chapter 8

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Damer, Bruce; Brodsky, Boris; vanHoff, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A virtual worlds presentation technique with embodied, intelligent agents is being developed as an instructional medium suitable to present in situ training on long term space flight. The system combines a behavioral element based on finite state automata, a behavior based reactive architecture also described as subsumption architecture, and a belief-desire-intention agent structure. These three features are being integrated to describe a Brahms virtual environment model of extravehicular crew activity which could become a basis for procedure training during extended space flight.

  12. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  13. e-Human Ecology - A New Direction of Cyberspace and Virtual Global Societies

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractToday advances in information technology are the basis of modern societies and internalised into live as fundamentally as basic commodities. Beyond, the creation of global cyber or virtual societies has led to entire new aspects of what should now be called e-life. The path to a

  14. e-Human Ecology - A New Direction of Cyberspace and Virtual Global Societies

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractToday advances in information technology are the basis of modern societies and internalised into live as fundamentally as basic commodities. Beyond, the creation of global cyber or virtual societies has led to entire new aspects of what should now be called e-life. The path to a

  15. Hiding and Searching Strategies of Adult Humans in a Virtual and a Real-Space Room

    Talbot, Katherine J.; Legge, Eric L. G.; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Adults searched for or cached three objects in nine hiding locations in a virtual room or a real-space room. In both rooms, the locations selected by participants differed systematically between searching and hiding. Specifically, participants moved farther from origin and dispersed their choices more when hiding objects than when searching for…

  16. SimCoach: An Intelligent Virtual Human System for Proving Healthcare Information and Support

    2010-08-01

    speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure, Depression and Anxiety. 22, 3, pp. 156-158. J Annon (1976), Behavioral Treatment of Sexual ...Evidence, Downloaded on 10/18/2007 at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11955# toc P Jelinek and K Hefling (2009), AP Report: Army suicides at

  17. A Virtual Good Idea

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

  18. Taxation of virtual currency

    Bal, Aleksandra Marta

    2014-01-01

    The Information Age has created a new concept of money – virtual currencies existing solely in the cyberspace in the form of intangible computer code. The most prominent virtual currency scheme, Bitcoin, grabbed the public attention as its value skyrocketed at the beginning of 2012. Whereas Bitcoin

  19. Virtual reality musical instruments

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  20. The Erasmus Virtual Campus

    Isakeit, D.

    2002-02-01

    The Erasmus Virtual Campus was inaugurated in September 2000 to bring together scientists and engineers interested in using the International Space Station and other facilities for their research. It also provides the foundation for creating Virtual Institutes in selected scientific disciplines. The current capabilities of the Campus are highlighted, along with plans for the future.

  1. Uncovering configurations of HRM service provider intellectual capital and worker human capital for creating high HRM service value using fsQCA

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    Although traditionally applied independently, this study combines two theoretical perspectives – the intellectual capital theory and the consumer perspective – to uncover value-creating configurations of human resource management (HRM) service providers' and workers' knowledge resources. We examined

  2. Virtually teaching virtual leadership

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Børgesen, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the challenges to virtual collaboration and leadership on basis of findings from a virtual course on collaboration and leadership. The course used for this experiment was designed as a practical approach, which allowed participants to experience curriculum phenomena....... This experimental course provided insights into the challenges involved in virtual processes, and those experiences where used for addressing the challenges that virtual leadership is confronted with. Emphasis was placed on the reduction of undesired virtual distance and its consequences through affinity building....... We found that student scepticism appeared when a breakdown resulted in increasing virtual distance, and raises questions on how leaders might translate or upgrade their understandings of leadership to handling such increased distance through affinity building....

  3. Measuring conflicts in the management of anthropized ecosystems: Evidence from a choice experiment in a human-created Mediterranean wetland.

    Perni, Ángel; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services provides valuable information for the management of anthropized environments, where individual preferences can be heterogeneous and even opposed. Here, we discuss how these ecosystem services were approached in the literature and we address the main issues in relation to their economic valuation. We consider that avoiding misspecifications in economic valuation surveys requires considering the linkages between anthropized ecosystems and human intervention. To illustrate, we analyse the case study of a human-created Mediterranean wetland (El Hondo, SE Spain) using a Choice Experiment. Our findings suggest that management strategies in El Hondo should be oriented to improve the water ecological status, to enhance biodiversity and to develop ecotourism, whereas hunting should be strictly limited and controlled. Our measures of conflict (trade-off between ecosystem services and willingness to pay values) can help to find the optimal allocation of public and private goods and services and for the implementation of compensation schemes in the area. According to public preferences, a conservationist management strategy would generate 331,100 €/year in terms of environmental benefits, whereas a tourism-based management strategy would benefit society with 805,200 €/year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MouSensor: A Versatile Genetic Platform to Create Super Sniffer Mice for Studying Human Odor Coding

    Charlotte D’Hulst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, ∼0.1% of the total number of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs in the main olfactory epithelium express the same odorant receptor (OR in a singular fashion and their axons coalesce into homotypic glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Here, we have dramatically increased the total number of OSNs expressing specific cloned OR coding sequences by multimerizing a 21-bp sequence encompassing the predicted homeodomain binding site sequence, TAATGA, known to be essential in OR gene choice. Singular gene choice is maintained in these “MouSensors.” In vivo synaptopHluorin imaging of odor-induced responses by known M71 ligands shows functional glomerular activation in an M71 MouSensor. Moreover, a behavioral avoidance task demonstrates that specific odor detection thresholds are significantly decreased in multiple transgenic lines, expressing mouse or human ORs. We have developed a versatile platform to study gene choice and axon identity, to create biosensors with great translational potential, and to finally decode human olfaction.

  5. MouSensor: A Versatile Genetic Platform to Create Super Sniffer Mice for Studying Human Odor Coding.

    D'Hulst, Charlotte; Mina, Raena B; Gershon, Zachary; Jamet, Sophie; Cerullo, Antonio; Tomoiaga, Delia; Bai, Li; Belluscio, Leonardo; Rogers, Matthew E; Sirotin, Yevgeniy; Feinstein, Paul

    2016-07-26

    Typically, ∼0.1% of the total number of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium express the same odorant receptor (OR) in a singular fashion and their axons coalesce into homotypic glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Here, we have dramatically increased the total number of OSNs expressing specific cloned OR coding sequences by multimerizing a 21-bp sequence encompassing the predicted homeodomain binding site sequence, TAATGA, known to be essential in OR gene choice. Singular gene choice is maintained in these "MouSensors." In vivo synaptopHluorin imaging of odor-induced responses by known M71 ligands shows functional glomerular activation in an M71 MouSensor. Moreover, a behavioral avoidance task demonstrates that specific odor detection thresholds are significantly decreased in multiple transgenic lines, expressing mouse or human ORs. We have developed a versatile platform to study gene choice and axon identity, to create biosensors with great translational potential, and to finally decode human olfaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans: a minimalist virtual reality experiment.

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-14

    Scientists have traditionally limited the mechanisms of social cognition to one brain, but recent approaches claim that interaction also realizes cognitive work. Experiments under constrained virtual settings revealed that interaction dynamics implicitly guide social cognition. Here we show that embodied social interaction can be constitutive of agency detection and of experiencing another's presence. Pairs of participants moved their "avatars" along an invisible virtual line and could make haptic contact with three identical objects, two of which embodied the other's motions, but only one, the other's avatar, also embodied the other's contact sensor and thereby enabled responsive interaction. Co-regulated interactions were significantly correlated with identifications of the other's avatar and reports of the clearest awareness of the other's presence. These results challenge folk psychological notions about the boundaries of mind, but make sense from evolutionary and developmental perspectives: an extendible mind can offload cognitive work into its environment.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Canopy Structure Simplification in Common Multilayer Models on Irradiance Absorption Estimates of Measured and Virtually Created Fagus sylvatica (L. Stands

    Pol Coppin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer canopy representations are the most common structural stand representations due to their simplicity. Implementation of recent advances in technology has allowed scientists to simulate geometrically explicit forest canopies. The effect of simplified representations of tree architecture (i.e., multilayer representations of four Fagus sylvatica (L. stands, each with different LAI, on the light absorption estimates was assessed in comparison with explicit 3D geometrical stands. The absorbed photosynthetic radiation at stand level was calculated. Subsequently, each geometrically explicit 3D stand was compared with three multilayer models representing horizontal, uniform, and planophile leaf angle distributions. The 3D stands were created either by in situ measured trees or by modelled trees generated with the AMAP plant growth software. The Physically Based Ray Tracer (PBRT algorithm was used to simulate the irradiance absorbance of the detailed 3D architecture stands, while for the three multilayer representations, the probability of light interception was simulated by applying the Beer-Lambert’s law. The irradiance inside the canopies was characterized as direct, diffuse and scattered irradiance. The irradiance absorbance of the stands was computed during eight angular sun configurations ranging from 10° (near nadir up to 80° sun zenith angles. Furthermore, a leaf stratification (the number and angular distribution of leaves per LAI layer inside a canopy analysis between the 3D stands and the multilayer representations was performed, indicating the amount of irradiance each leaf is absorbing along with the percentage of sunny and shadow leaves inside the canopy. The results reveal that a multilayer representation of a stand, using a multilayer modelling approach, greatly overestimated the absorbed irradiance in an open canopy, while it provided a better approximation in the case of a closed canopy. Moreover, the actual stratification

  8. Assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being in Thailand build and create demand for coproductive capacity

    Louis Lebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services have been proposed as one way of incorporating concerns about environmental change and ecosystem conditions into subnational development planning. In Thailand a policy window for such initiatives is opening because of a transition in national policy toward area-based planning combined with broader political reforms to expand public participation and encourage more evidence-based decision making. We explored three case studies in Thailand in which central and local government agencies and research organizations partnered to engage local communities and other stakeholders in assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being. The analysis focused on the role ecosystem assessments play in building and creating demand for coproductive capacity. By coproductive capacities we mean the ability to combine scientific resources and governance capabilities in ways that bring about informed social change. We found evidence that the assessments built capacities for governance actors to explore scientific and research-based evidence, to consult scientific experts, and then to evaluate existing policies and plans using this newly acquired information. At the same time, scientific experts also learned to explore public policy issues, to consult planners and decision makers in government, and based on this knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence and revise the scope and goals of their research and analytical activities to better meet policy needs and demands. Coproductive capacities were built when various stakeholders jointly engaged in compilation and interpretation of evidence. Doing so helped legitimize the assessment process with positive feedback on both governance and science capacities. We also found evidence, however, of significant cultural and institutional constraints to designing and making better use of ecosystem services assessments. These constraints included insufficient resources for both knowledge making

  9. Familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in cloned minipigs created by DNA transposition of a human PCSK9 gain-of-function mutant

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh Husain; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Kragh, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    dominant hypercholesterolemia and accelerates atherosclerosis in humans. Using Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition and cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, we created Yucatan minipigs with liver-specific expression of human D374Y-PCSK9. D374Y-PCSK9 transgenic pigs displayed reduced hepatic low...

  10. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures: W3D-VBS.

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Hatfield, Paul; Onal, Erhan; Tong, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Major efforts are being made to improve the teaching of human anatomy to foster cognition of visuospatial relationships. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine makes it possible to create virtual reality-based applications for teaching anatomy. Integration of traditional cadaver and illustration-based methods with Internet-based simulations brings us closer to this goal. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures (W3D-VBS) is a next-generation immersive anatomical training system for teaching human anatomy over the Internet. It uses Visible Human data to dynamically explore, select, extract, visualize, manipulate, and stereoscopically palpate realistic virtual body structures with a haptic device. Tracking user's progress through evaluation tools helps customize lesson plans. A self-guided "virtual tour" of the whole body allows investigation of labeled virtual dissections repetitively, at any time and place a user requires it.

  11. The impact of patients' gender, race, and age on health care professionals' pain management decisions: an online survey using virtual human technology.

    Wandner, Laura D; Heft, Marc W; Lok, Benjamin C; Hirsh, Adam T; George, Steven Z; Horgas, Anne L; Atchison, James W; Torres, Calia A; Robinson, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Previous literature indicates that biases exist in pain ratings. Healthcare professionals have been found to use patient demographic cues such as sex, race, and age when making decisions about pain treatment. However, there has been little research comparing healthcare professionals' (i.e., physicians and nurses) pain decision policies based on patient demographic cues. The current study used virtual human technology to examine the impact of patients' sex, race, and age on healthcare professionals' pain ratings. One hundred and ninety-three healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians) participated in this online study. Healthcare professionals assessed virtual human patients who were male and African American to be experiencing greater pain intensity and were more willing to administer opioid analgesics to them than to their demographic counterparts. Similarly, nurses were more willing to administer opioids make treatment decisions than physicians. There was also a significant virtual human-sex by healthcare professional interaction for pain assessment and treatment decisions. The sex difference (male>female) was greater for nurses than physicians. Results replicated findings of previous studies using virtual human patients to assess the effect of sex, race, and age in pain decision-making. In addition, healthcare professionals' pain ratings differed depending on healthcare profession. Nurses were more likely to rate pain higher and be more willing to administer opioid analgesics than were physicians. Healthcare professionals rated male and African American virtual human patients as having higher pain in most pain assessment and treatment domains compared to their demographic counterparts. Similarly the virtual human-sex difference ratings were more pronounced for nurses than physicians. Given the large number of patients seen throughout the healthcare professionals' careers, these pain practice biases have important public health implications. This study

  12. e-Human Ecology - A New Direction of Cyberspace and Virtual Global Societies

    Knoch, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    textabstractToday advances in information technology are the basis of modern societies and internalised into live as fundamentally as basic commodities. Beyond, the creation of global cyber or virtual societies has led to entire new aspects of what should now be called e-life. The path to a virtualised world is accelerating in an enormous manner and classical society is rapidly shifting into an e-society. This has implications for all aspects of life and its holistic understanding and its per...

  13. Using virtual humans to alleviate social anxiety: preliminary report from a comparative outcome study.

    Robillard, Genevève; Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphane; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have consistently shown the effectiveness of a multicomponent CBT treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Previous outcome studies on virtual reality and SAD have focused on people suffering from fear of public speaking and not full blown SAD. In this study, 45 adults receiving a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic of social anxiety were randomly assigned to traditional CBT treatment (with in vivo exposure), CBT-VR combined treatment, or a waiting list. Results show significant reduction of anxiety on all questionnaires as well as statistically significant interactions between both treatment groups and the waiting list.

  14. Mutating the realities in fashion design: virtual clothing for 3D avatars

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver, Ertu

    2007-01-01

    “My fantasy is to be Uma Thurman in Kill Bill…and now I can… I’d pay $10 for her yellow jumpsuit and sword moves and I’m sure other people would too… \\ud Hundreds and thousands of humans living in different time zones around the world are choosing to re-create and express themselves as three dimensional avatars in 3D virtual online worlds: An avatar is defined as an interactive 3D image or character, representing a user in a multi-user virtual world/virtual reality space. 3D virtual online wo...

  15. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening

    Lin SH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Hung Lin,1 Kao-Jean Huang,1,2 Ching-Feng Weng,1 David Shiuan1 1Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Development Center of Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR. The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening. Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, virtual screening, curcumin, salvianolic acid C

  16. Closed Environment Module - Modularization and extension of the Virtual Habitat

    Plötner, Peter; Czupalla, Markus; Zhukov, Anton

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Habitat (V-HAB), is a Life Support System (LSS) simulation, created to perform dynamic simulation of LSS's for future human spaceflight missions. It allows the testing of LSS robustness by means of computer simulations, e.g. of worst case scenarios.

  17. SYNTHETIC DESIGN AND THE ART OF VIRTUAL REALITY IN ...

    defined to be a form of human-computer interaction in which real or imaginary .... tagged Game Bots: A 3D Virtual World Testbed, for Multi-agent Research. ... is only a soft touch as the VR technology itself is light-based thereby creating.

  18. Emotional Storytelling using Virtual and Robotic Agents

    Costa, Sandra; Brunete, Alberto; Bae, Byung-Chull; Mavridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    In order to create effective storytelling agents three fundamental questions must be answered: first, is a physically embodied agent preferable to a virtual agent or a voice-only narration? Second, does a human voice have an advantage over a synthesised voice? Third, how should the emotional trajectory of the different characters in a story be related to a storyteller's facial expressions during storytelling time, and how does this correlate with the apparent emotions on the faces of the list...

  19. Virtual water maze learning in human increases functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate.

    Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Coxon, James P; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that functional connectivity between remote brain regions can be modulated by task learning or the performance of an already well-learned task. Here, we investigated the extent to which initial learning and stable performance of a spatial navigation task modulates functional connectivity between subregions of hippocampus and striatum. Subjects actively navigated through a virtual water maze environment and used visual cues to learn the position of a fixed spatial location. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected before and after virtual water maze navigation in two scan sessions conducted 1 week apart, with a behavior-only training session in between. There was a large significant reduction in the time taken to intercept the target location during scan session 1 and a small significant reduction during the behavior-only training session. No further reduction was observed during scan session 2. This indicates that scan session 1 represented initial learning and scan session 2 represented stable performance. We observed an increase in functional connectivity between left posterior hippocampus and left dorsal caudate that was specific to scan session 1. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in functional connectivity was correlated with offline gains in task performance. Our findings suggest cooperative interaction occurs between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate during awake rest following the initial phase of spatial navigation learning. Furthermore, we speculate that the increase in functional connectivity observed during awake rest after initial learning might reflect consolidation-related processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Why and how to use virtual reality to study human social interaction: The challenges of exploring a new research landscape.

    Pan, Xueni; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2018-03-05

    As virtual reality (VR) technology and systems become more commercially available and accessible, more and more psychologists are starting to integrate VR as part of their methods. This approach offers major advantages in experimental control, reproducibility, and ecological validity, but also has limitations and hidden pitfalls which may distract the novice user. This study aimed to guide the psychologist into the novel world of VR, reviewing available instrumentation and mapping the landscape of possible systems. We use examples of state-of-the-art research to describe challenges which research is now solving, including embodiment, uncanny valley, simulation sickness, presence, ethics, and experimental design. Finally, we propose that the biggest challenge for the field would be to build a fully interactive virtual human who can pass a VR Turing test - and that this could only be achieved if psychologists, VR technologists, and AI researchers work together. © 2018 The Authors British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  1. Human recombinant beta-secretase immobilized enzyme reactor for fast hits' selection and characterization from a virtual screening library.

    De Simone, Angela; Mancini, Francesca; Cosconati, Sandro; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2013-01-25

    In the present work, a human recombinant BACE1 immobilized enzyme reactor (hrBACE1-IMER) has been applied for the sensitive fast screening of 38 compounds selected through a virtual screening approach. HrBACE1-IMER was inserted into a liquid chromatograph coupled with a fluorescent detector. A fluorogenic peptide substrate (M-2420), containing the β-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of APP, was injected and cleaved in the on-line HPLC-hrBACE1-IMER system, giving rise to the fluorescent product. The compounds of the library were tested for their ability to inhibit BACE1 in the immobilized format and to reduce the area related to the chromatographic peak of the fluorescent enzymatic product. The results were validated in solution by using two different FRET methods. Due to the efficient virtual screening methodology, more than fifty percent of the selected compounds showed a measurable inhibitory activity. One of the most active compound (a bis-indanone derivative) was characterized in terms of IC(50) and K(i) determination on the hrBACE1-IMER. Thus, the hrBACE1-IMER has been confirmed as a valid tool for the throughput screening of different chemical entities with potency lower than 30μM for the fast hits' selection and for mode of action determination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening.

    Lin, Shih-Hung; Huang, Kao-Jean; Weng, Ching-Feng; Shiuan, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR). The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening.

  3. The attentional blink reveals serial working memory encoding: evidence from virtual and human event-related potentials.

    Craston, Patrick; Wyble, Brad; Chennu, Srivas; Bowman, Howard

    2009-03-01

    Observers often miss a second target (T2) if it follows an identified first target item (T1) within half a second in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), a finding termed the attentional blink. If two targets are presented in immediate succession, however, accuracy is excellent (Lag 1 sparing). The resource sharing hypothesis proposes a dynamic distribution of resources over a time span of up to 600 msec during the attentional blink. In contrast, the ST(2) model argues that working memory encoding is serial during the attentional blink and that, due to joint consolidation, Lag 1 is the only case where resources are shared. Experiment 1 investigates the P3 ERP component evoked by targets in RSVP. The results suggest that, in this context, P3 amplitude is an indication of bottom-up strength rather than a measure of cognitive resource allocation. Experiment 2, employing a two-target paradigm, suggests that T1 consolidation is not affected by the presentation of T2 during the attentional blink. However, if targets are presented in immediate succession (Lag 1 sparing), they are jointly encoded into working memory. We use the ST(2) model's neural network implementation, which replicates a range of behavioral results related to the attentional blink, to generate "virtual ERPs" by summing across activation traces. We compare virtual to human ERPs and show how the results suggest a serial nature of working memory encoding as implied by the ST(2) model.

  4. Lost in Virtual Space: Studies in Human and Ideal Spatial Navigation

    Stankiewicz, Brian J.; Legge, Gordon E.; Mansfield, J. Stephen; Schlicht, Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe 3 human spatial navigation experiments that investigate how limitations of perception, memory, uncertainty, and decision strategy affect human spatial navigation performance. To better understand the effect of these variables on human navigation performance, the authors developed an ideal-navigator model for indoor navigation…

  5. Creating Virtual CD-ROM Collections

    Kam Woods

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, more than 100,000 CD-ROM titles have been published including thousands of collections of government documents and data. CD-ROMs present preservation challenges at the bit level and in ensuring usability of the preserved artifact. We present techniques we have developed to archive and support user access to a collection of approximately 2,900 CD-ROMs published under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO. The project provides web-based access to CD-ROM contents using both migration and emulation and supports remote execution of the raw CD-ROM images. Our project incorporates off-the-shelf, primarily open-source software. The raw data and (METS metadata are made available through AFS, a standard distributed file system, to encourage sharing among libraries.

  6. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  7. Policy needs and options for a common approach towards modelling and simulation of human physiology and diseases with a focus on the virtual physiological human.

    Viceconti, Marco; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Life is the result of an intricate systemic interaction between many processes occurring at radically different spatial and temporal scales. Every day, worldwide biomedical research and clinical practice produce a huge amount of information on such processes. However, this information being highly fragmented, its integration is largely left to the human actors who find this task increasingly and ever more demanding in a context where the information available continues to increase exponentially. Investments in the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) research are largely motivated by the need for integration in healthcare. As all health information becomes digital, the complexity of health care will continue to evolve, translating into an ever increasing pressure which will result from a growing demand in parallel to limited budgets. Hence, the best way to achieve the dream of personalised, preventive, and participative medicine at sustainable costs will be through the integration of all available data, information and knowledge.

  8. Virtual reality applications in assessing the effect of anxiety on sensorimotor integration in human postural control.

    Widdowson, Christopher; Ganhotra, Jatin; Faizal, Mohammed; Wilko, Marissa; Parikh, Saurin; Adhami, Zainulabidin; Hernandez, Manuel E

    2016-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of injury and mortality among adults over the age of 65 years. Given the strong relation between fear of falling and fall risk, identification of the mechanisms that underlie anxiety-related changes in postural control may pave the way to the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing fall risk in older adults. First, we review potential mechanisms underlying anxiety-mediated changes in postural control in older adults with and without neurological conditions. We then present a system that allows for the simultaneous recording of neural, physiological, and behavioral data in an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment while implementing sensory and mechanical perturbations to evaluate alterations in sensorimotor integration under conditions with high postural threat. We also discuss applications of VR in minimizing falls in older adults and potential future studies.

  9. The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety

    Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola

    Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.

  10. Virtual colonoscopy

    Colonoscopy - virtual; CT colonography; Computed tomographic colonography; Colography - virtual ... Differences between virtual and conventional colonoscopy include: VC can view the colon from many different angles. This is not as easy ...

  11. How the Human Brain Goes Virtual: Distinct Cortical Regions of the Person-Processing Network Are Involved in Self-Identification with Virtual Agents

    Ganesh, S.; Schie, H.T. van; Lange, F.P. de; Thompson, E.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide engage in online role-playing with their avatar, a virtual agent that represents the self. Previous behavioral studies have indicated that many gamers identify more strongly with their avatar than with their biological self. Through their avatar, gamers develop social

  12. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  13. El campus virtual como recurso útil: un estudio de estudiantes universitarios de carreras humanísticas [The virtual learning platform as a useful resource: a research among university students of humanistic degrees

    Carmen Luján-García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo, realizado con estudiantes universitarios de dos carreras humanísticas en la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Filología Inglesa y Geografía, investiga el grado de familiaridad y utilidad del campus virtual en el mundo académico. Los resultados demuestran que es una herramienta útil, aunque percibida más como un apoyo a la enseñanza presencial que con validez en sí misma. La variable género revela que los hombres valoran mejor esta herramienta, mientras que los informantes de geografía perciben más positivamente el campus virtual que los de filología inglesa. Abstract:This paper presents the results of a study carried out among undergraduate students of English Language and Literature and Geography at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria to investigate their degree of familiarity with and the general usefulness of the virtual learning platform in Higher Education. The results show that whilst this is indeed a useful tool, it is used to best effect when seen as a supportive resource for regular education. The variation in responses from men and women reveals that men are more familiar with and value this tool more highly than women. It was also found that the Geography Undergraduates have a more positive view of virtual learning platforms than English Language and Literature Undergraduates.

  14. A video, text, and speech-driven realistic 3-d virtual head for human-machine interface.

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Zeng-Fu

    2015-05-01

    A multiple inputs-driven realistic facial animation system based on 3-D virtual head for human-machine interface is proposed. The system can be driven independently by video, text, and speech, thus can interact with humans through diverse interfaces. The combination of parameterized model and muscular model is used to obtain a tradeoff between computational efficiency and high realism of 3-D facial animation. The online appearance model is used to track 3-D facial motion from video in the framework of particle filtering, and multiple measurements, i.e., pixel color value of input image and Gabor wavelet coefficient of illumination ratio image, are infused to reduce the influence of lighting and person dependence for the construction of online appearance model. The tri-phone model is used to reduce the computational consumption of visual co-articulation in speech synchronized viseme synthesis without sacrificing any performance. The objective and subjective experiments show that the system is suitable for human-machine interaction.

  15. Analysing an academic field through the lenses of Internet Science : Digital Humanities as a Virtual Community

    Akdag Salah, A.; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Wyatt, S.; Tiropanis, Thanassis; Vakali, Athena; Sartori, Laura; Burnap, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) has been depicted as an innovative engine for humanities, as a challenge for Data Science, and as an area where libraries, archives and providers of e-research infrastructures join forces with research pioneers. However DH is defined, one thing is cer- tain: DH is a new

  16. R3D3 in the Wild: Using A Robot for Turn Management in Multi-Party Interaction with a Virtual Human

    Theune, Mariet; Wiltenburg, Daan; Bode, Max; Linssen, Jeroen

    R3D3 is a combination of a virtual human with a non-speaking robot capable of head gestures and emotive gaze behaviour. We use the robot to implement various turn management functions for use in multi-party interaction with R3D3, and present the results of a field study investigating their effects

  17. Studying and Improving Human Response to Natural Hazards: Lessons from the Virtual Hurricane Lab

    Meyer, R.; Broad, K.; Orlove, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most critical challenges facing communities in areas prone to natural hazards is how to best encourage residents to invest in individual and collective actions that would reduce the damaging impact of low-probability, high-consequence, environmental events. Unfortunately, what makes this goal difficult to achieve is that the relative rarity natural hazards implies that many who face the risk of natural hazards have no previous experience to draw on when making preparation decisions, or have prior experience that provides misleading guidance on how best to prepare. For example, individuals who have experienced strings of minor earthquakes or near-misses from tropical cyclones may become overly complacent about the risks that extreme events actually pose. In this presentation we report the preliminary findings of a program of work that explores the use of realistic multi-media hazard simulations designed for two purposes: 1) to serve as a basic research tool for studying of how individuals make decisions to prepare for rare natural hazards in laboratory settings; and 2) to serve as an educational tool for giving people in hazard-prone areas virtual experience in hazard preparation. We demonstrate a prototype simulation in which participants experience the approach of a virtual hurricane, where they have the opportunity to invest in different kinds of action to protect their home from damage. As the hurricane approaches participants have access to an “information dashboard” in which they can gather information about the storm threat from a variety of natural sources, including mock television weather broadcasts, web sites, and conversations with neighbors. In response to this information they then have the opportunity to invest in different levels of protective actions. Some versions of the simulation are designed as games, where participants are rewarded based on their ability to make the optimal trade-off between under and over-preparing for the

  18. EEG analysis in a telemedical virtual world

    Jovanov, E.; Starcevic, D.; Samardzic, A.; Marsh, A.; Obrenovic, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Telemedicine creates virtual medical collaborative environments. We propose here a novel concept of virtual medical devices (VMD) for telemedical applications. VMDs provide different views on biomedical recordings and efficient signal analysis. In this paper we present a telemedical EEG analysis

  19. Vagrant virtual development environment cookbook

    Thompson, Chad

    2015-01-01

    If you are a software developer or administrator who wishes to create simple, reusable environments using Vagrant, this book is the perfect choice for you. Whether you are a system administrator with extensive experience in virtualization or a developer wishing to create development scripts for cloud deployment, you will find easy-to-follow recipes and techniques in this book that will allow you to create robust and reproducible virtual environments.

  20. Organization Virtual or Networked?

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to present distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization”; giving their definitions.Design/methodology/approach—review of previous researches, systemic analyses of their findings and synthesis of distinctive characteristics of ”virtual organization” and “networked organization.”Findings—the main result of the research is key diverse features separating ”virtual organization” and ”networked organization.” Definitions of “virtual organization” and “networked organization” are presented.Originality/Value—distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization” creates possibilities to use all advantages of those types of organizations and gives foundation for deeper researches in this field.Research type: general review.

  1. Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: human factors input to interventional radiology training.

    Johnson, Sheena Joanne; Guediri, Sara M; Kilkenny, Caroline; Clough, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    This study developed and validated a virtual reality (VR) simulator for use by interventional radiologists. Research in the area of skill acquisition reports practice as essential to become a task expert. Studies on simulation show skills learned in VR can be successfully transferred to a real-world task. Recently, with improvements in technology, VR simulators have been developed to allow complex medical procedures to be practiced without risking the patient. Three studies are reported. In Study I, 35 consultant interventional radiologists took part in a cognitive task analysis to empirically establish the key competencies of the Seldinger procedure. In Study 2, 62 participants performed one simulated procedure, and their performance was compared by expertise. In Study 3, the transferability of simulator training to a real-world procedure was assessed with 14 trainees. Study I produced 23 key competencies that were implemented as performance measures in the simulator. Study 2 showed the simulator had both face and construct validity, although some issues were identified. Study 3 showed the group that had undergone simulator training received significantly higher mean performance ratings on a subsequent patient procedure. The findings of this study support the centrality of validation in the successful design of simulators and show the utility of simulators as a training device. The studies show the key elements of a validation program for a simulator. In addition to task analysis and face and construct validities, the authors highlight the importance of transfer of training in validation studies.

  2. Metric Sex Determination of the Human Coxal Bone on a Virtual Sample using Decision Trees.

    Savall, Frédéric; Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie; Dedouit, Fabrice; Sans, Nicolas; Rousseau, Hervé; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Decision trees provide an alternative to multivariate discriminant analysis, which is still the most commonly used in anthropometric studies. Our study analyzed the metric characterization of a recent virtual sample of 113 coxal bones using decision trees for sex determination. From 17 osteometric type I landmarks, a dataset was built with five classic distances traditionally reported in the literature and six new distances selected using the two-step ratio method. A ten-fold cross-validation was performed, and a decision tree was established on two subsamples (training and test sets). The decision tree established on the training set included three nodes and its application to the test set correctly classified 92% of individuals. This percentage was similar to the data of the literature. The usefulness of decision trees has been demonstrated in numerous fields. They have been already used in sex determination, body mass prediction, and ancestry estimation. This study shows another use of decision trees enabling simple and accurate sex determination. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Behavioral Responses to Epidemics in an Online Experiment: Using Virtual Diseases to Study Human Behavior

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a ‘self-protection fatigue’ effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time. PMID:23326360

  4. Taxation of virtual currency

    Bal, Aleksandra Marta

    2014-01-01

    The Information Age has created a new concept of money – virtual currencies existing solely in the cyberspace in the form of intangible computer code. The most prominent virtual currency scheme, Bitcoin, grabbed the public attention as its value skyrocketed at the beginning of 2012. Whereas Bitcoin has many proper ties that could make it an ideal currency for mainstream consumers and merchants, its main drawback is lack of clarity regarding its legal status and tax treatment. The European Cen...

  5. Virtual reality/ augmented reality technology : the next chapter of human-computer interaction

    Huang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    No matter how many different size and shape the computer has, the basic components of computers are still the same. If we use the user perspective to look for the development of computer history, we can surprisingly find that it is the input output device that leads the development of the industry development, in one word, human-computer interaction changes the development of computer history. Human computer interaction has been gone through three stages, the first stage relies on the inpu...

  6. Ethics at the Boundaries of the Virtual

    Ess, Charles

    2014-01-01

    I summarize emerging ethical issues and challenges evoked by rapidly developing and diffusing technologies for creating virtual experiences, especially as these developments increasingly blur the ethically foundational distinction between real and virtual.......I summarize emerging ethical issues and challenges evoked by rapidly developing and diffusing technologies for creating virtual experiences, especially as these developments increasingly blur the ethically foundational distinction between real and virtual....

  7. The Virtual Dressing Room

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of recent developments and future perspectives, addressing the problem of creating a virtual dressing room. First, we review the current state-of-the-art of exiting solutions and discuss their applicability and limitations. We categorize the exiting solutions into three...... kinds: (1) virtual real-time 2D image/video techniques, where the consumer gets to superimpose the clothes on their real-time video to visualize themselves wearing the clothes. (2) 2D and 3D mannequins, where a web-application uses the body measurements provided by the customer, to superimpose...... and their demands to a virtual dressing room....

  8. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  9. Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens).

    De Lillo, Carlo; Kirby, Melissa; James, Frances C

    2014-05-01

    Search and serial recall tasks were used in the present study to characterize the factors affecting the ability of humans to keep track of a set of spatial locations while traveling in an immersive virtual reality foraging environment. The first experiment required the exhaustive exploration of a set of locations following a procedure previously used with other primate and non-primate species to assess their sensitivity to the geometric arrangement of foraging sites. The second experiment assessed the dependency of search performance on search organization by requiring the participants to recall specific trajectories throughout the foraging space. In the third experiment, the distance between the foraging sites was manipulated in order to contrast the effects of organization and traveling distance on recall accuracy. The results show that humans benefit from the use of organized search patterns when attempting to monitor their travel though either a clustered "patchy" space or a matrix of locations. Their ability to recall a series of locations is dependent on whether the order in which they are explored conformed or did not conform to specific organization principles. Moreover, the relationship between search efficiency and search organization is not confounded by effects of traveling distance. These results indicate that in humans, organizational factors may play a large role in their ability to forage efficiently. The extent to which such dependency may pertain to other primates and could be accounted for by visual organization processes is discussed on the basis of previous studies focused on perceptual grouping, search, and serial recall in non-human species. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Using three-dimension virtual reality main control room for integrated system validation and human reliability analysis

    Yang Chihwei; Cheng Tsungchieh

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes the performance assessment in three-dimension virtual reality (3D-VR) main control room (MCR). The assessment is conducted for integrated system validation (ISV) purposes, and also for human reliability analyses (HRA). This paper describes the latest developments in 3D-VR applications, designated for the familiarization with MCR, specially taking into account the ISV and HRA. The experiences in 3D-VR application, the benefits and advantages of use of VR in training and maintenances of MCR operators in the target NPP are equally presented in this paper. Results gathered from the performance measurement lead to hazard mitigation and reduces the risk of human error in the operation and maintenance of nuclear equipments. The latest developments in simulation techniques, including 3D presentation enhances the above mentioned benefits, brings the MCR simulators closer to reality. In the near future, this type of 3D solutions should be applied more and more often in the design of MCR simulators. The presented 3D-VR are related to the MCR in NPPs, but the concept of composition and navigation through the system's elements can be easily applied for the purpose of any type of technical equipment and shall contribute in a similar manner to hazard prevention. (author)

  11. Human Decisions in Moral Dilemmas are Largely Described by Utilitarianism: Virtual Car Driving Study Provides Guidelines for Autonomous Driving Vehicles.

    Faulhaber, Anja K; Dittmer, Anke; Blind, Felix; Wächter, Maximilian A; Timm, Silja; Sütfeld, Leon R; Stephan, Achim; Pipa, Gordon; König, Peter

    2018-01-22

    Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in utilitarian ways, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past few years, especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in autonomous driving vehicles (ADVs). We conducted a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments. Participants had to make decisions between driving in one of two lanes where different obstacles came into view. Eventually, the participants had to decide which of the objects they would crash into. Obstacles included a variety of human-like avatars of different ages and group sizes. Furthermore, the influence of sidewalks as potential safe harbors and a condition implicating self-sacrifice were tested. Results showed that participants, in general, decided in a utilitarian manner, sparing the highest number of avatars possible with a limited influence by the other variables. Derived from these findings, which are in line with the utilitarian approach in moral decision making, it will be argued for an obligatory ethics setting implemented in ADVs.

  12. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  13. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game.

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants.

  14. Technology, Human Agency and Dewey's Constructivism: Opening Democratic Spaces in Virtual Classrooms

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines whether the ubiquitous presence of technology in schools negatively affects democratic learning by promoting instrumental rationality and, hence, reifying social reality. The author suggests that structural critiques of educational technology ignore the considerable impact of human agency on shaping related learning outcomes.…

  15. Virtual Environments for Intuitive Human-System Interaction (Environnements virtuels d'interaction Homme-Systeme Intuitive) (CD-ROM)

    2007-01-01

    ...: Changing missions and development of new virtual and augmented reality technologies require the alliance to investigate and integrate new concepts for preparing their militaries and for evaluating...

  16. High availability using virtualization

    Calzolari, Federico; Arezzini, Silvia; Ciampa, Alberto; Mazzoni, Enrico; Domenici, Andrea; Vaglini, Gigliola

    2010-01-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows the running virtual machines to be distributed over a small number of servers, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The 3RC system is based on a finite state machine, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtual hosts. The whole Grid data center SNS-PISA is running at the moment in virtual environment under the high availability system.

  17. Creating a charter of collaboration for international university partnerships: the Elmina Declaration for Human Resources for Health.

    Anderson, Frank; Donkor, Peter; de Vries, Raymond; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Dakpallah, George Fidelis; Rominski, Sarah; Hassinger, Jane; Lou, Airong; Kwansah, Janet; Moyer, Cheryl; Rana, Gurpreet K; Lawson, Aaron; Ayettey, Seth

    2014-08-01

    The potential of international academic partnerships to build global capacity is critical in efforts to improve health in poorer countries. Academic collaborations, however, are challenged by distance, communication issues, cultural differences, and historical context. The Collaborative Health Alliance for Reshaping Training, Education, and Research project (funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and implemented through academic medicine and public health and governmental institutions in Michigan and Ghana) took a prospective approach to address these issues. The project had four objectives: to create a "charter for collaboration" (CFC), to improve data-driven policy making, to enhance health care provider education, and to increase research capacity. The goal of the CFC was to establish principles to guide the course of the technical work. All participants participated at an initial conference in Elmina, Ghana. Nine months later, the CFC had been revised and adopted. A qualitative investigation of the CFC's effects identified three themes: the CFC's unique value, the influence of the process of creating the CFC on patterns of communication, and the creation of a context for research and collaboration. Creating the CFC established a context in which implementing technical interventions became an opportunity for dialogue and developing a mutually beneficial partnership. To increase the likelihood that research results would be translated into policy reforms, the CFC made explicit the opportunities, potential problems, and institutional barriers to be overcome. The process of creating a CFC and the resulting document define a new standard in academic and governmental partnerships.

  18. Creating a monomeric endonuclease TALE-I-SceI with high specificity and low genotoxicity in human cells.

    Lin, Jianfei; Chen, He; Luo, Ling; Lai, Yongrong; Xie, Wei; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    To correct a DNA mutation in the human genome for gene therapy, homology-directed repair (HDR) needs to be specific and have the lowest off-target effects to protect the human genome from deleterious mutations. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and CRISPR-CAS9 systems have been engineered and used extensively to recognize and modify specific DNA sequences. Although TALEN and CRISPR/CAS9 could induce high levels of HDR in human cells, their genotoxicity was significantly higher. Here, we report the creation of a monomeric endonuclease that can recognize at least 33 bp by fusing the DNA-recognizing domain of TALEN (TALE) to a re-engineered homing endonuclease I-SceI. After sequentially re-engineering I-SceI to recognize 18 bp of the human β-globin sequence, the re-engineered I-SceI induced HDR in human cells. When the re-engineered I-SceI was fused to TALE (TALE-ISVB2), the chimeric endonuclease induced the same HDR rate at the human β-globin gene locus as that induced by TALEN, but significantly reduced genotoxicity. We further demonstrated that TALE-ISVB2 specifically targeted at the β-globin sequence in human hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, this monomeric endonuclease has the potential to be used in therapeutic gene targeting in human cells. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Binaural fusion and the representation of virtual pitch in the human auditory cortex.

    Pantev, C; Elbert, T; Ross, B; Eulitz, C; Terhardt, E

    1996-10-01

    The auditory system derives the pitch of complex tones from the tone's harmonics. Research in psychoacoustics predicted that binaural fusion was an important feature of pitch processing. Based on neuromagnetic human data, the first neurophysiological confirmation of binaural fusion in hearing is presented. The centre of activation within the cortical tonotopic map corresponds to the location of the perceived pitch and not to the locations that are activated when the single frequency constituents are presented. This is also true when the different harmonics of a complex tone are presented dichotically. We conclude that the pitch processor includes binaural fusion to determine the particular pitch location which is activated in the auditory cortex.

  20. Control room design and human factors using a virtual reality based tool for design, test and training

    Lirvall, Peter

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a user-centred approach to control room design adopted by IFE for the nuclear industry. The novelty of this approach is the development of a Control Room Philosophy, and the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technology as a tool in the design process, integrated with a specially developed Design Documentation System (DDS) and a process display prototyping tool PICASSO-3. The control room philosophy identifies all functional aspects of a control centre, to define the baseline principles and guidelines for the design. The use of VR technology enables end-users of the control room design (e.g. control room operators) to specify their preferred design of the new control room, and to replace the need for a physical mock-up to test and evaluate the proposed design. The DDS, integrated with the VR design tool, guides the control room operators, through a structured approach, to document the proposed design in a complete design specification. The VR tool, specially developed by IFE, is called the VR based Design, Test and Training tool (VR DTandT). It is not only intended to visualise the design, but also to test and evaluate the design. When the design is implemented, the same model is re-used as a VR based training simulator for operators. A special feature in the VR DTandT tool is that the verification and validation (VandV) tests, concerning human factors, are according to the regulative standards for nuclear control rooms

  1. Reinstatement of contextual conditioned anxiety in virtual reality and the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in humans.

    Genheimer, Hannah; Andreatta, Marta; Asan, Esther; Pauli, Paul

    2017-12-20

    Since exposure therapy for anxiety disorders incorporates extinction of contextual anxiety, relapses may be due to reinstatement processes. Animal research demonstrated more stable extinction memory and less anxiety relapse due to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). We report a valid human three-day context conditioning, extinction and return of anxiety protocol, which we used to examine effects of transcutaneous VNS (tVNS). Seventy-five healthy participants received electric stimuli (unconditioned stimuli, US) during acquisition (Day1) when guided through one virtual office (anxiety context, CTX+) but never in another (safety context, CTX-). During extinction (Day2), participants received tVNS, sham, or no stimulation and revisited both contexts without US delivery. On Day3, participants received three USs for reinstatement followed by a test phase. Successful acquisition, i.e. startle potentiation, lower valence, higher arousal, anxiety and contingency ratings in CTX+ versus CTX-, the disappearance of these effects during extinction, and successful reinstatement indicate validity of this paradigm. Interestingly, we found generalized reinstatement in startle responses and differential reinstatement in valence ratings. Altogether, our protocol serves as valid conditioning paradigm. Reinstatement effects indicate different anxiety networks underlying physiological versus verbal responses. However, tVNS did neither affect extinction nor reinstatement, which asks for validation and improvement of the stimulation protocol.

  2. LHC Create

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  3. Creating Poetry.

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  4. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: an immersive approach to anatomy and physiology.

    Tworek, Janet K; Jamniczky, Heather A; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be further amplified by the somewhat siloed roles of programmers, faculty, and students. LINDSAY Presenter is newly designed software that permits faculty and students to model and manipulate three-dimensional anatomy presentations and images, while including embedded quizzes, links, and text-based content. A validated tool measuring impact across pedagogy, resources, interactivity, freedom, granularity, and factors outside the immediate learning event was used in conjunction with observation, field notes, and focus groups to critically examine the impact of attitudes and perceptions of all stakeholders in the early implementation of LINDSAY Presenter before and after a three-week trial period with the software. Results demonstrate that external, personal media usage, along with students' awareness of the need to apply anatomy to clinical professional situations drove expectations of LINDSAY Presenter. A focus on the software over learning, which can be expected during initial orientation, surprisingly remained after three weeks of use. The time-intensive investment required to create learning content is a detractor from user-generated content and may reflect the consumption nature of other forms of digital learning. Early excitement over new technologies needs to be tempered with clear understanding of what learning is afforded, and how these constructively support future application and integration into professional practice. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Learning Experience with Virtual Worlds

    Wagner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds create a new opportunity to enrich the educational experience through media-rich immersive learning. Virtual worlds have gained notoriety in games such as World of Warcraft (WoW), which has become the most successful online game ever, and in "general purpose" worlds, such as Second Life (SL), whose participation levels (more than 10…

  6. PROPOSAL OF A SIMULATOR FOR ELECTROSTIMULATION IN A VIRTUAL HUMAN UPPER LIMB

    Roberto Luiz Souza Monteiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice in the use of electrostimulators: inappropriately, can lead to physical damage to the subject beyond the use of inappropriately. The use of computer simulation can help with the technical training of those who will operate this type of equipment. This paper presents a conceptual model applied to human upper limb muscle groups modeled in 3D, connected to an electronic device that sends signals to simulate the operation of electrostimulation practices, with the aim of proposing this model as a tool for teaching and learning in the area of electrotherapy. The conceptual model is presented as a proposal for the practice of electrotherapy area, with the qualitative aspects: security, configurability and a model of reading at the time of your execution.

  7. Improving virtual screening predictive accuracy of Human kallikrein 5 inhibitors using machine learning models.

    Fang, Xingang; Bagui, Sikha; Bagui, Subhash

    2017-08-01

    The readily available high throughput screening (HTS) data from the PubChem database provides an opportunity for mining of small molecules in a variety of biological systems using machine learning techniques. From the thousands of available molecular descriptors developed to encode useful chemical information representing the characteristics of molecules, descriptor selection is an essential step in building an optimal quantitative structural-activity relationship (QSAR) model. For the development of a systematic descriptor selection strategy, we need the understanding of the relationship between: (i) the descriptor selection; (ii) the choice of the machine learning model; and (iii) the characteristics of the target bio-molecule. In this work, we employed the Signature descriptor to generate a dataset on the Human kallikrein 5 (hK 5) inhibition confirmatory assay data and compared multiple classification models including logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest and k-nearest neighbor. Under optimal conditions, the logistic regression model provided extremely high overall accuracy (98%) and precision (90%), with good sensitivity (65%) in the cross validation test. In testing the primary HTS screening data with more than 200K molecular structures, the logistic regression model exhibited the capability of eliminating more than 99.9% of the inactive structures. As part of our exploration of the descriptor-model-target relationship, the excellent predictive performance of the combination of the Signature descriptor and the logistic regression model on the assay data of the Human kallikrein 5 (hK 5) target suggested a feasible descriptor/model selection strategy on similar targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does J-style “Kaizen” management create the joy of service? -Exploring the Co-creative Human Development Model

    Oba Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to develop a new foundation for the Co-creative Human Development Model (CCHD). CCHD aims at creating a platform for the exercise of freewill, a space that serves as a point of departure to open up the path to Truth and so divert us from the sinful route to self-destruction. CCHD differs from A. Sen’s capability theory of human development, most markedly in its conception of the nature of development; Sen views this as expanding the capability (freedom) to choose, whereas CC...

  9. [Virtual + 1] * Reality

    Beckhaus, Steffi

    Virtual Reality aims at creating an artificial environment that can be perceived as a substitute to a real setting. Much effort in research and development goes into the creation of virtual environments that in their majority are perceivable only by eyes and hands. The multisensory nature of our perception, however, allows and, arguably, also expects more than that. As long as we are not able to simulate and deliver a fully sensory believable virtual environment to a user, we could make use of the fully sensory, multi-modal nature of real objects to fill in for this deficiency. The idea is to purposefully integrate real artifacts into the application and interaction, instead of dismissing anything real as hindering the virtual experience. The term virtual reality - denoting the goal, not the technology - shifts from a core virtual reality to an “enriched” reality, technologically encompassing both the computer generated and the real, physical artifacts. Together, either simultaneously or in a hybrid way, real and virtual jointly provide stimuli that are perceived by users through their senses and are later formed into an experience by the user's mind.

  10. Ontological implications of being in immersive virtual environments

    Morie, Jacquelyn F.

    2008-02-01

    The idea of Virtual Reality once conjured up visions of new territories to explore, and expectations of awaiting worlds of wonder. VR has matured to become a practical tool for therapy, medicine and commercial interests, yet artists, in particular, continue to expand the possibilities for the medium. Artistic virtual environments created over the past two decades probe the phenomenological nature of these virtual environments. When we inhabit a fully immersive virtual environment, we have entered into a new form of Being. Not only does our body continue to exist in the real, physical world, we are also embodied within the virtual by means of technology that translates our bodied actions into interactions with the virtual environment. Very few states in human existence allow this bifurcation of our Being, where we can exist simultaneously in two spaces at once, with the possible exception of meta-physical states such as shamanistic trance and out-of-body experiences. This paper discusses the nature of this simultaneous Being, how we enter the virtual space, what forms of persona we can don there, what forms of spaces we can inhabit, and what type of wondrous experiences we can both hope for and expect.

  11. Virtual Reality

    1993-04-01

    until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASSIFIED " VIRTUAL REALITY JAMES F. DAILEY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL...US" This paper reviews the exciting field of virtual reality . The author describes the basic concepts of virtual reality and finds that its numerous...potential benefits to society could revolutionize everyday life. The various components that make up a virtual reality system are described in detail

  12. Virtual First Impressions

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

  13. The Virtual Reality Roving Vehicle Project.

    Winn, William

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Virtual Reality Roving Vehicle project developed at the University of Washington to teach students in grades 4 through 12 about virtual reality. Topics include teacher workshops; virtual worlds created by students; learning outcomes compared with traditional instruction; and the effect of student characteristics, including gender, on…

  14. Library Virtual Tours: A Case Study

    Ashmore, Beth; Grogg, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual tours delivered via the Web have become a common tool for both instruction and outreach. This article is a case study of the creation of a virtual tour for a university library and is intended to provide others interested in creating a virtual tour of their library the opportunity to learn from the mistakes and successes of fellow…

  15. Virtual Education: Guidelines for Using Games Technology

    Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Advanced three-dimensional virtual environment technology, similar to that used by the film and computer games industry, can allow educational developers to rapidly create realistic online virtual environments. This technology has been used to generate a range of interactive Virtual Reality (VR) learning environments across a spectrum of…

  16. Small-scale tactile graphics for virtual reality systems

    Roberts, John W.; Slattery, Oliver T.; Swope, Brett; Min, Volker; Comstock, Tracy

    2002-05-01

    As virtual reality technology moves forward, there is a need to provide the user with options for greater realism for closer engagement to the human senses. Haptic systems use force feedback to create a large-scale sensation of physical interaction in a virtual environment. Further refinement can be created by using tactile graphics to reproduce a detailed sense of touch. For example, a haptic system might create the sensation of the weight of a virtual orange that the user picks up, and the sensation of pressure on the fingers as the user squeezes the orange. A tactile graphic system could create the texture of the orange on the user's fingertips. IN the real wold, a detailed sense of touch plays a large part in picking up and manipulating small objects. Our team is working to develop technology that can drive a high density fingertip array of tactile simulators at a rapid refresh rate, sufficient to produce a realistic sense of touch. To meet the project criteria, the mechanism must be much lower cost than existing technologies, and must be sufficiently lightweight and compact to permit portable use and to enable installation of the stimulator array in the fingertip of a tactile glove. The primary intended applications for this technology are accessibility for the blind and visually impaired, teleoperation, and virtual reality systems.

  17. Introducing the "Human Element" in Chemistry by Synthesizing Blue Pigments and Creating Cyanotypes in a First-Year Chemistry Course

    Morizot, Olivier; Audureau, Eric; Briend, Jean-Yves; Hagel, Gaetan; Boulc'h, Florence

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present two concrete applications of the concept of the human element to chemistry education; starting with a course and experimental project on blue pigment synthesis and concluding with cross-disciplinary lessons and experiments on blue photography. In addition to the description of the content of these courses, we explore…

  18. Virtual corporations, enterprise and organisation

    Carmen RÃDUT

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual organisation is a strategic paradigm that is centred on the use of information and ICT to create value. Virtual organisation is presented as a metamanagement strategy that has application in all value oriented organisations. Within the concept of Virtual organisation, the business model is an ICT based construct that bridges and integrates enterprise strategic and operational concerns. Firms try to ameliorate the impacts of risk and product complexity by forming alliances and partnerships with others to spread the risk of new products and new ventures and to increase organisational competence. The result is a networked virtual organization.

  19. Virtual reality and anthropology

    Recheis, Wolfgang; Weber, Gerhard W.; Schaefer, Katrin; Knapp, Rudolf; Seidler, Horst; Zur Nedden, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimens were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology

  20. Wireless virtualization

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  1. Virtual marketing in virtual enterprises

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Fattahi, Hamaid Ali; Golnam, Arash

    2008-01-01

    Virtualization caused tremendous evolution in the economics of marketing channels, patterns of physical distribution and the structure of distributors and developed a new concept that is known as virtual marketing (VM). VM combines the powerful technologies of interactive marketing and virtual reality. Virtual enterprise (VE) refers to an organization not having a clear physical locus. In other words, VE is an organization distributed geographically and whose work is coordinated through e...

  2. A Review on Virtual Reality

    Pallavi Halarnkar; Sahil Shah; Harsh Shah; Hardik Shah; Anuj Shah

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality is a major asset and aspect of our future. It is the key to experiencing, feeling and touching the past, present and the future. It is the medium of creating our own world, our own customized reality. It could range from creating a video game to having a virtual stroll around the universe, from walking through our own dream house to experiencing a walk on an alien planet. With virtual reality, we can experience the most intimidating and gruelling situations by playing safe and...

  3. Virtual reality for spherical images

    Pilarczyk, Rafal; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    Paper presents virtual reality application framework and application concept for mobile devices. Framework uses Google Cardboard library for Android operating system. Framework allows to create virtual reality 360 video player using standard OpenGL ES rendering methods. Framework provides network methods in order to connect to web server as application resource provider. Resources are delivered using JSON response as result of HTTP requests. Web server also uses Socket.IO library for synchronous communication between application and server. Framework implements methods to create event driven process of rendering additional content based on video timestamp and virtual reality head point of view.

  4. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. System technology to create human life compatible living environment; 1999 nendo ningen kodo tekigogata seikatsu kankyo soshutsu system gijutsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to develop the following technology: a system technology to measure, understand and accumulate human activities, analyze objectively the compatibility of human being with products and environments, and support to have the products and working environments comply with activity characteristics of individual persons (a system technology to create human life compatible living environment). Human activities are developed in various scenes, and it is not easy to structure technologies to measure, understand and support the activities common to all of the scenes. Therefore, development will be made on the technologies for measuring, understanding and supporting the activities in the human activity scenes. Development of the manipulative activity complying technology deals with human activities in the scenes to operate devices by which the activities are changed by situation identification and skills in addition to activity characteristics of individual persons. Furthermore, as a scene in which attention to the activity characteristics of individual persons, skills, and external situation is a problem, the automobile driving activities are taken up for discussion, as well as the object building work activities as a scene in which difference in skills of individuals is a problem. (NEDO)

  6. Virtual Class Support at the Virtual Machine Level

    Nielsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how virtual classes can be supported in a virtual machine.  Main-stream virtual machines such as the Java Virtual Machine and the .NET platform dominate the world today, and many languages are being executed on these virtual machines even though their embodied design choices...... conflict with the design choices of the virtual machine.  For instance, there is a non-trivial mismatch between the main-stream virtual machines mentioned above and dynamically typed languages.  One language concept that creates an even greater mismatch is virtual classes, in particular because fully...... general support for virtual classes requires generation of new classes at run-time by mixin composition.  Languages like CaesarJ and ObjectTeams can express virtual classes restricted to the subset that does not require run-time generation of classes, because of the restrictions imposed by the Java...

  7. Virtual Reality for Anxiety Disorders

    Elif Uzumcu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is a relatively new exposure tool that uses three-dimensional computer-graphics-based technologies which allow the individual to feel as if they are physically inside the virtual environment by misleading their senses. As virtual reality studies have become popular in the field of clinical psychology in recent years, it has been observed that virtual-reality-based therapies have a wide range of application areas, especially on anxiety disorders. Studies indicate that virtual reality can be more realistic than mental imagery and can create a stronger feeling of ԰resenceԻ that it is a safer starting point compared to in vivo exposure; and that it can be applied in a more practical and controlled manner. The aim of this review is to investigate exposure studies based on virtual reality in anxiety disorders (specific phobias, panic disorder and agoraphobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.

  8. The ethnography of virtual reality

    Gavrilović Ljiljana 1

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible application of ethnographic research in the realm of virtual reality, especially in the relationship between cultures in virtual communities. This represents an entirely new area of ethnographic research and therefore many adjustments in the research design are needed for example, a development of a specific method of data gathering and tools for their verification. A virtual, cyber space is a version of social space more or less synchronous with it, but without the, "real", that is, physical presence of the people who create it. This virtual reality, defined and bounded by virtual space, is in fact real - and though we are not able to observe real, physical parameters of its existence, we can perceive its consequences. In sum, an innovative ethnographic research method is fully applicable for exploring the realm of virtual reality; in order to do so we need to expand, in addition to the new research design and methods, the field of science itself.

  9. vSphere virtual machine management

    Fitzhugh, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step tutorial approach with some real-world scenarios that vSphere businesses will be required to overcome every day. This book also discusses creating and configuring virtual machines and also covers monitoring virtual machine performance and resource allocation options. This book is for VMware administrators who want to build their knowledge of virtual machine administration and configuration. It's assumed that you have some experience with virtualization administration and vSphere.

  10. Creating a human brain proteome atlas--13th HUPO BPP Workshop March 30-31, 2010, Ochang, Korea.

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Grinberg, Lea T; Wiltfang, Jens; Lee, Sang K; Kim, Young H; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young M

    2011-07-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 13th workshop in Ochang from March 30th to 31st, 2010 prior to the Korean HUPO 10th Annual International Proteomics Conference. The principal aim of this project is to obtain a better understanding of neurodiseases and aging with the ultimate objective of discovering prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, in addition to the development of novel diagnostic techniques and new medications. The attendees came together to discuss progress in the clinical neuroproteomics of human and to define the needs and guidelines required for more advanced proteomics approaches. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2008-05-27

    Recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation (RED) under forthcoming climate change mitigation regimes are receiving increasing attention. Here we demonstrate that if RED credits were traded on international carbon markets, even moderate decreases in deforestation rates could generate billions of Euros annually for tropical forest conservation. We also discuss the main challenges for a RED mechanism that delivers real climatic benefits. These include providing sufficient incentives while only rewarding deforestation reductions beyond business-as-usual scenarios, addressing risks arising from forest degradation and international leakage, and ensuring permanence of emission reductions. Governance may become a formidable challenge for RED because some countries with the highest RED potentials score poorly on governance indices. In addition to climate mitigation, RED funds could help achieve substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and human development. However, this will probably require targeted additional support because the highest biodiversity threats and human development needs may exist in countries that have limited income potentials from RED. In conclusion, how successfully a market-based RED mechanism can contribute to climate change mitigation, conservation and development will strongly depend on accompanying measures and carefully designed incentive structures involving governments, business, as well as the conservation and development communities.

  12. Video interactivo en realidad virtual inmersiva

    Gordo Ara, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Currently, developers are creating new virtual reality applications related to the field of video games or graphics environments created by computers. This is due largely to the arrival to the consumer market of new technologies to experience these virtual reality environments. This has provoked a wide adoption of 360º videos, which can be viewed directly from smartphones. In addition, cheap adapters allow converting the phone into a virtual reality display. In this project we investigated me...

  13. Applying Virtual Reality to commercial Edutainment

    Grissom, F.; Goza, Sharon P.; Goza, S. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) when defined as a computer generated, immersive, three dimensional graphics environment which provides varying degrees of interactivity, remains an expensive, highly specialized application, yet to find its way into the school, home, or business. As a novel approach to a theme park-type attraction, though, its use can be justified. This paper describes how a virtual reality 'tour of the human digestive system' was created for the Omniplex Science Museum of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The customers main objectives were: (1) to educate; (2) to entertain; (3) to draw visitors; and (4) to generate revenue. The 'Edutainment' system ultimately delivered met these goals. As more such systems come into existence the resulting library of licensable programs will greatly reduce development costs to individual institutions.

  14. Intellectual Data Analysis Method for Evaluation of Virtual Teams

    Sandra Strigūnaitė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present a method for virtual team performance evaluation based on intelligent team member collaboration data analysis. The motivation for the research is based on the ability to create an evaluation method that is similar to ambiguous expert evaluations. The concept of the hierarchical fuzzy rule based method aims to evaluate the data from virtual team interaction instances related to implementation of project tasks. The suggested method is designed for project managers or virtual team leaders to help in virtual teamwork evaluation that is based on captured data analysis. The main point of the method is the ability to repeat human thinking and expert valuation process for data analysis by applying fuzzy logic: fuzzy sets, fuzzy signatures and fuzzy rules. The fuzzy set principle used in the method allows evaluation criteria numerical values to transform into linguistic terms and use it in constructing fuzzy rules. Using a fuzzy signature is possible in constructing a hierarchical criteria structure. This structure helps to solve the problem of exponential increase of fuzzy rules including more input variables. The suggested method is aimed to be applied in the virtual collaboration software as a real time teamwork evaluation tool. The research shows that by applying fuzzy logic for team collaboration data analysis it is possible to get evaluations equal to expert insights. The method includes virtual team, project task and team collaboration data analysis. The advantage of the suggested method is the possibility to use variables gained from virtual collaboration systems as fuzzy rules inputs. Information on fuzzy logic based virtual teamwork collaboration evaluation has evidence that can be investigated in the future. Also the method can be seen as the next virtual collaboration software development step.

  15. Virtual reality technology and applications

    Mihelj, Matjaž; Beguš, Samo

    2014-01-01

    As virtual reality expands from the imaginary worlds of science fiction and pervades every corner of everyday life, it is becoming increasingly important for students and professionals alike to understand the diverse aspects of this technology. This book aims to provide a comprehensive guide to the theoretical and practical elements of virtual reality, from the mathematical and technological foundations of virtual worlds to the human factors and the applications that enrich our lives: in the fields of medicine, entertainment, education and others. After providing a brief introduction to the topic, the book describes the kinematic and dynamic mathematical models of virtual worlds. It explores the many ways a computer can track and interpret human movement, then progresses through the modalities that make up a virtual world: visual, acoustic and haptic. It explores the interaction between the actual and virtual environments, as well as design principles of the latter. The book closes with an examination of diff...

  16. Modeling Photo-Bleaching Kinetics to Create High Resolution Maps of Rod Rhodopsin in the Human Retina.

    Martin Ehler

    Full Text Available We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina over a 30-degree field. Our approach is based on analyzing the brightening of detected lipofuscin autofluorescence within small pixel clusters in registered imaging sequences taken with a commercial 488nm confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO over a 1 minute period. We modeled the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching by applying variational optimization techniques from applied mathematics. The physical model and the numerical analysis with its implementation are outlined in detail. This new technique enables the creation of spatial maps of the retinal rhodopsin and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE bisretinoid distribution with an ≈ 50μm resolution.

  17. Modeling Photo-Bleaching Kinetics to Create High Resolution Maps of Rod Rhodopsin in the Human Retina

    Ehler, Martin; Dobrosotskaya, Julia; Cunningham, Denise; Wong, Wai T.; Chew, Emily Y.; Czaja, Wojtek; Bonner, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina over a 30-degree field. Our approach is based on analyzing the brightening of detected lipofuscin autofluorescence within small pixel clusters in registered imaging sequences taken with a commercial 488nm confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) over a 1 minute period. We modeled the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching by applying variational optimization techniques from applied mathematics. The physical model and the numerical analysis with its implementation are outlined in detail. This new technique enables the creation of spatial maps of the retinal rhodopsin and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) bisretinoid distribution with an ≈ 50μm resolution. PMID:26196397

  18. Virtual Museums for Landscape Valorization and Communication

    Pietroni, E.

    2017-08-01

    Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional "sensing" and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities' cultural patterns, their sense of "belonging". In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or "monographic", representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  19. Virtual Exploratories

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    -systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...... the design and activity of the advanced virtual worlds and role-playing games, then the empirical research on the actors’ activity, while they are acting, is an important precondition to it. A step towards the conception of such a designing strategy for virtual exploratories is currently pursued....... [1] The research project: Actors and Avatars Communicating in Virtual Worlds – an Empirical Analysis of Actors’ Sense-making Strategies When Based on a Communication Theoretical Approach’ (2006-2007) is supported...

  20. Virtual Reflexes

    Jonker, Catholijn; Broekens, Joost; Plaat, Aske

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Reality is used successfully to treat people for regular phobias. A new challenge is to develop Virtual Reality Exposure Training for social skills. Virtual actors in such systems have to show appropriate social behavior including emotions, gaze, and keeping distance. The behavior must be realistic and real-time. Current approaches consist of four steps: 1) trainee social signal detection, 2) cognitive-affective interpretation, 3) determination of the appropriate bodily responses, and...

  1. Virtual volatility

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  2. Virtual Interior Design Based On VRML AND JAVA

    Qi, Shaoliang

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. In this paper, we use vrml and java to discuss the virtual interior design. EAI and JASI are used to realize the interaction between user and virtual interior scene.

  3. NASA Virtual Institutes: International Bridges for Space Exploration

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    NASA created the first virtual institute, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), in 2009 with an aim toward bringing together geographically disparate and multidisciplinary teams toward the goal of answering broad questions in the then-new discipline of astrobiology. With the success of the virtual institute model, NASA then created the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) in 2008 to address questions of science and human exploration of the Moon, and then the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) in 2012 which addresses key questions in the development of aeronautics technologies. With the broadening of NASA's human exploration targets to include Near Earth Asteroids and the moons of Mars as well as the Moon, the NLSI morphed into the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) in 2012. SSERVI funds domestic research teams to address broad questions at the intersection of science and human exploration, with the underlying principle that science enables human exploration, and human exploration enables science. Nine domestic teams were funded in 2014 for a five-year period to address a variety of different topics, and nine international partners (with more to come) also work with the U.S. teams on a variety of topics of mutual interest. The result is a robust and productive research infrastructure that is not only scientifically productive but can respond to strategic topics of domestic and international interest, and which develops a new generation of researchers. This is all accomplished with the aid of virtual collaboration technologies which enable scientific research at a distance. The virtual institute model is widely applicable to a range of space science and exploration problems.

  4. Virtual bronchoscopy

    Rogalla, P.; Meiri, N.; Hamm, B.; Rueckert, J.C.; Schmidt, B.; Witt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy represents a clinically well-established invasive diagnostic tool. Virtual bronchoscopies, calculated from thin-slice CT sections, allow astonishing immitations of reality although principal differences exist between both technologies: the Fact that colour representation is artificial and concommitant interventions are impossible limits the clinical use of virtual bronchoscopy. However, its value increases when calculations can be attained within minutes due to technological advancements, and when virtually any chest CT is suitable for further postprocessing. Indications, findings and the clinical role of virtual bronchoscopy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Virtual projects

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  6. Why Commodity Booms Have Not (Yet? Boosted Human Capital: Bolivia’s Struggle to Create a Skilled Workforce

    Fritz Brugger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Do windfalls from the extractive sector help developing countries invest in human capital? To date, empirical studies remain inconclusive. Using Bolivia as a case study, this chapter examines the specific political-economic dynamics that led the country to increase spending on education yet at the same time failed to build a skilled workforce. Overall, the study finds that while the mining sector continued to seek unskilled, cheap labour, the capital-intensive hydrocarbon sector, for its part, developed on-the-job training programmes. Meanwhile, education policies failed to anticipate evolving demand from the labour market. As a result, vocational training suffered, a situation further compounded by efforts of powerful groups in the education sector to protect their own, somewhat narrow interests, at the expense of educational achievements. It concludes that the rise of private education and popular skills-based training programmes cannot substitute for development of a functional vocational training system, capable of supporting the country’s ambition to develop a world-class lithium processing industry with linkages in strategic sectors.

  7. “An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me”: Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being

    Natasha A. Layton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100 living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.

  8. Initial construct validity evidence of a virtual human application for competency assessment in breaking bad news to a cancer patient

    Guetterman TC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Timothy C Guetterman,1 Frederick W Kron,1 Toby C Campbell,2 Mark W Scerbo,3 Amy B Zelenski,4 James F Cleary,5 Michael D Fetters1 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 3Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 4Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, 5Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Clinical Science Center, Madison, WI, USA Background: Despite interest in using virtual humans (VHs for assessing health care ­communication, evidence of validity is limited. We evaluated the validity of a VH application, MPathic-VR, for assessing performance-based competence in breaking bad news (BBN to a VH patient.Methods: We used a two-group quasi-experimental design, with residents participating in a 3-hour seminar on BBN. Group A (n=15 completed the VH simulation before and after the seminar, and Group B (n=12 completed the VH simulation only after the BBN seminar to avoid the possibility that testing alone affected performance. Pre- and postseminar differences for Group A were analyzed with a paired t-test, and comparisons between Groups A and B were analyzed with an independent t-test.Results: Compared to the preseminar result, Group A’s postseminar scores improved significantly, indicating that the VH program was sensitive to differences in assessing performance-based competence in BBN. Postseminar scores of Group A and Group B were not significantly different, indicating that both groups performed similarly on the VH program.Conclusion: Improved pre–post scores demonstrate acquisition of skills in BBN to a VH patient. Pretest sensitization did not appear to influence posttest assessment. These results provide initial construct validity evidence that the VH program is effective for

  9. Laser-assisted bioprinting for creating on-demand patterns of human osteoprogenitor cells and nano-hydroxyapatite

    Catros, Sylvain; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Guillotin, Bertrand; Pippenger, Benjamin; Bareille, Reine; Remy, Murielle; Amedee, Joelle; Guillemot, Fabien; Lebraud, Eric; Desbat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Developing tools to reproduce and manipulate the cell micro-environment, including the location and shape of cell patterns, is essential for tissue engineering. Parallel to inkjet printing and pressure-operated mechanical extruders, laser-assisted bioprinting (LAB) has emerged as an alternative technology to fabricate two- and three-dimensional tissue engineering products. The objective of this work was to determine laser printing parameters for patterning and assembling nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and human osteoprogenitors (HOPs) in two and three dimensions with LAB. The LAB workstation used in this study comprised an infrared laser focused on a quartz ribbon that was coated with a thin absorbing layer of titanium and a layer of bioink. The scanning system, quartz ribbon and substrate were piloted by dedicated software, allowing the sequential printing of different biological materials into two and/or three dimensions. nHA printing material (bioink) was synthesized by chemical precipitation and was characterized prior and following printing using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. HOP bioink was prepared using a 30 million cells ml -1 suspension in culture medium and cells were characterized after printing using a Live/Dead assay and osteoblastic phenotype markers (alcaline phosphatase and osteocalcin). The results revealed that LAB allows printing and organizing nHA and HOPs in two and three dimensions. LAB did not alter the physico-chemical properties of nHA, nor the viability, proliferation and phenotype of HOPs over time (up to 15 days). This study has demonstrated that LAB is a relevant method for patterning nHA and osteoblastic cells in 2D, and is also adapted to the bio-fabrication of 3D composite materials.

  10. Laser-assisted bioprinting for creating on-demand patterns of human osteoprogenitor cells and nano-hydroxyapatite

    Catros, Sylvain; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Guillotin, Bertrand; Pippenger, Benjamin; Bareille, Reine; Remy, Murielle; Amedee, Joelle; Guillemot, Fabien [INSERM, U577, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux F-33076 (France); Lebraud, Eric [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, I.C.M.C.B., 87 Avenue du Dr A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Desbat, Bernard, E-mail: sylvaincatros@hotmail.com [CBMN UMR-CNRS 5248, 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2011-06-15

    Developing tools to reproduce and manipulate the cell micro-environment, including the location and shape of cell patterns, is essential for tissue engineering. Parallel to inkjet printing and pressure-operated mechanical extruders, laser-assisted bioprinting (LAB) has emerged as an alternative technology to fabricate two- and three-dimensional tissue engineering products. The objective of this work was to determine laser printing parameters for patterning and assembling nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and human osteoprogenitors (HOPs) in two and three dimensions with LAB. The LAB workstation used in this study comprised an infrared laser focused on a quartz ribbon that was coated with a thin absorbing layer of titanium and a layer of bioink. The scanning system, quartz ribbon and substrate were piloted by dedicated software, allowing the sequential printing of different biological materials into two and/or three dimensions. nHA printing material (bioink) was synthesized by chemical precipitation and was characterized prior and following printing using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. HOP bioink was prepared using a 30 million cells ml{sup -1} suspension in culture medium and cells were characterized after printing using a Live/Dead assay and osteoblastic phenotype markers (alcaline phosphatase and osteocalcin). The results revealed that LAB allows printing and organizing nHA and HOPs in two and three dimensions. LAB did not alter the physico-chemical properties of nHA, nor the viability, proliferation and phenotype of HOPs over time (up to 15 days). This study has demonstrated that LAB is a relevant method for patterning nHA and osteoblastic cells in 2D, and is also adapted to the bio-fabrication of 3D composite materials.

  11. Toward Optimization of Gaze-Controlled Human-Computer Interaction: Application to Hindi Virtual Keyboard for Stroke Patients.

    Meena, Yogesh Kumar; Cecotti, Hubert; Wong-Lin, Kongfatt; Dutta, Ashish; Prasad, Girijesh

    2018-04-01

    Virtual keyboard applications and alternative communication devices provide new means of communication to assist disabled people. To date, virtual keyboard optimization schemes based on script-specific information, along with multimodal input access facility, are limited. In this paper, we propose a novel method for optimizing the position of the displayed items for gaze-controlled tree-based menu selection systems by considering a combination of letter frequency and command selection time. The optimized graphical user interface layout has been designed for a Hindi language virtual keyboard based on a menu wherein 10 commands provide access to type 88 different characters, along with additional text editing commands. The system can be controlled in two different modes: eye-tracking alone and eye-tracking with an access soft-switch. Five different keyboard layouts have been presented and evaluated with ten healthy participants. Furthermore, the two best performing keyboard layouts have been evaluated with eye-tracking alone on ten stroke patients. The overall performance analysis demonstrated significantly superior typing performance, high usability (87% SUS score), and low workload (NASA TLX with 17 scores) for the letter frequency and time-based organization with script specific arrangement design. This paper represents the first optimized gaze-controlled Hindi virtual keyboard, which can be extended to other languages.

  12. Material and Virtuality

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Through tangible experiments this paper discusses the dialogues between digital architectural drawing and the process of materialisation. The paper sets op the spans between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty making these oppositions a combined spaces where information between a digital...... world and a physical world can interchange. The paper suggest an approach where an overlapping of virtuality and the tangible material output from digital fabrication machines create a method of using materialisation tools as instruments to connect the reality of materials and to an exploring process...... through these experiments is both tangible and directly connected to real actions in digital drawing or material processing but also the base for theoretical contemplations of the relation between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty....

  13. Virtual Workshop

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    In relation to the Tutor course in the Mediterranean Virtual University (MVU) project, a virtual workshop “Getting experiences with different synchronous communication media, collaboration, and group work” was held with all partner institutions in January 2006. More than 25 key-tutors within MVU...

  14. Developing Trust in Virtual Teams

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    Rapid globalization, advances in technology, flatter organizational structures, synergistic cooperation among firms, and a shift to knowledge work environments have led to the increasing use of virtual teams in organizations. Selecting, training, and socializing employees in virtual teamwork has therefore become an important human resource…

  15. Interaction with virtual crowd in Immersive and semi‐Immersive Virtual Reality systems

    Kyriakou, Marios; Pan, Xueni; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos

    2016-01-01

    This study examines attributes of virtual human behavior that may increase the plausibility of a simulated crowd and affect the user's experience in Virtual Reality. Purpose-developed experiments in both Immersive and semi-Immersive Virtual Reality systems queried the impact of collision and basic interaction between real-users and the virtual crowd and their effect on the apparent realism and ease of navigation within Virtual Reality (VR). Participants' behavior and subjective measurements i...

  16. Realistic Visualization of Virtual Views and Virtual Cinema

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    Realistic Virtual View Visualization is a new field of research which has received increasing attention in recent years. It is strictly related to the increased popularity of virtual reality and the spread of its applications, among which virtual photography and cinematography. The use of computer...... generated characters, "virtual actors", in the motion picture production increases every day. While the most known computer graphics techniques have largely been adopted successfully in nowadays fictions, it still remains very challenging to implement virtual actors which would resemble, visually, human...... beings. Interestingly, film directors have been looking at the recent progress achieved by the research community in the field of realistic visualization of virtual views, and they have successfully implemented state of the art research approaches in their productions. An innovative concept...

  17. Advanced server virtualization VMware and Microsoft platforms in the virtual data center

    Marshall, David; McCrory, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Executives of IT organizations are compelled to quickly implement server virtualization solutions because of significant cost savings. However, most IT professionals tasked with deploying virtualization solutions have little or no experience with the technology. This creates a high demand for information on virtualization and how to properly implement it in a datacenter. Advanced Server Virtualization: VMware® and Microsoft® Platforms in the Virtual Data Center focuses on the core knowledge needed to evaluate, implement, and maintain an environment that is using server virtualization. This boo

  18. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  19. Interpretations of virtual reality.

    Voiskounsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    University students were surveyed to learn what they know about virtual realities. The two studies were administered with a half-year interval in which the students (N=90, specializing either in mathematics and science, or in social science and humanities) were asked to name particular examples of virtual realities. The second, but not the first study, was administered after the participants had the chance to see the movie "Avatar" (no investigation was held into whether they really saw it). While the students in both studies widely believed that activities such as social networking and online gaming represent virtual realities, some other examples provided by the students in the two studies differ: in the second study the participants expressed a better understanding of the items related to virtual realities. At the same time, not a single participant reported particular psychological states (either regular or altered) as examples of virtual realities. Profound popularization efforts need to be done to acquaint the public, including college students, with virtual realities and let the public adequately understand how such systems work.

  20. Virtual Ship Architecture Description Document Issue 1.00

    Best, John

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Ship concept calls for simulation models of systems to be brought together to create a virtual representation of a warship, in a process analogous to the construction of a physical ship...

  1. Design of virtual three-dimensional instruments for sound control

    Mulder, Axel Gezienus Elith

    An environment for designing virtual instruments with 3D geometry has been prototyped and applied to real-time sound control and design. It enables a sound artist, musical performer or composer to design an instrument according to preferred or required gestural and musical constraints instead of constraints based only on physical laws as they apply to an instrument with a particular geometry. Sounds can be created, edited or performed in real-time by changing parameters like position, orientation and shape of a virtual 3D input device. The virtual instrument can only be perceived through a visualization and acoustic representation, or sonification, of the control surface. No haptic representation is available. This environment was implemented using CyberGloves, Polhemus sensors, an SGI Onyx and by extending a real- time, visual programming language called Max/FTS, which was originally designed for sound synthesis. The extension involves software objects that interface the sensors and software objects that compute human movement and virtual object features. Two pilot studies have been performed, involving virtual input devices with the behaviours of a rubber balloon and a rubber sheet for the control of sound spatialization and timbre parameters. Both manipulation and sonification methods affect the naturalness of the interaction. Informal evaluation showed that a sonification inspired by the physical world appears natural and effective. More research is required for a natural sonification of virtual input device features such as shape, taking into account possible co- articulation of these features. While both hands can be used for manipulation, left-hand-only interaction with a virtual instrument may be a useful replacement for and extension of the standard keyboard modulation wheel. More research is needed to identify and apply manipulation pragmatics and movement features, and to investigate how they are co-articulated, in the mapping of virtual object

  2. Providing Virtual Execution Environments: A Twofold Illustration

    Grehant, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Platform virtualization helps solving major grid computing challenges: share resource with flexible, user-controlled and custom execution environments and in the meanwhile, isolate failures and malicious code. Grid resource management tools will evolve to embrace support for virtual resource. We present two open source projects that transparently supply virtual execution environments. Tycoon has been developed at HP Labs to optimise resource usage in creating an economy where users bid to access virtual machines and compete for CPU cycles. SmartDomains provides a peer-to-peer layer that automates virtual machines deployment using a description language and deployment engine from HP Labs. These projects demonstrate both client-server and peer-to-peer approaches to virtual resource management. The first case makes extensive use of virtual machines features for dynamic resource allocation. The second translates virtual machines capabilities into a sophisticated language where resource management components can b...

  3. Computerized Virtual Reality Simulation in Preclinical Dentistry: Can a Computerized Simulator Replace the Conventional Phantom Heads and Human Instruction?

    Plessas, Anastasios

    2017-10-01

    In preclinical dental education, the acquisition of clinical, technical skills, and the transfer of these skills to the clinic are paramount. Phantom heads provide an efficient way to teach preclinical students dental procedures safely while increasing their dexterity skills considerably. Modern computerized phantom head training units incorporate features of virtual reality technology and the ability to offer concurrent augmented feedback. The aims of this review were to examine and evaluate the dental literature for evidence supporting their use and to discuss the role of augmented feedback versus the facilitator's instruction. Adjunctive training in these units seems to enhance student's learning and skill acquisition and reduce the required faculty supervision time. However, the virtual augmented feedback cannot be used as the sole method of feedback, and the facilitator's input is still critical. Well-powered longitudinal randomized trials exploring the impact of these units on student's clinical performance and issues of cost-effectiveness are warranted.

  4. Virtual Personal Assistant

    Imrie, Peter; Bednar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This report discusses ways in which new technology could be harnessed to create an intelligent Virtual Personal Assistant (VPA) with a focus on user-based information. It will look at examples of intelligent programs with natural language processing that are currently available, with different categories of support, and examine the potential usefulness of one specific piece of software as a VPA. This engages the ability to communicate socially through natural language processing, hol...

  5. Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

    Morita, Utako

    Creating new library services through collaboration with resident groups : Aimimg at human resource development and information literacy education in ways only libraries can do : Study on activities of an NPO called Ueda Library Club

  6. The safety assessment system based on virtual networked environment for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Hyun, Dong Jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young; Choi, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Myeon; Lee, Jung Jun; Lee, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest a system for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The system was developed under virtual networked environment. The innovative features are real-time changing direction of workers in a scenario and real-time measuring personal exposure dose and collective exposure dose. The system will be expected to be utilized as a training tool for improving familiarization of a workplace and for preventing workers from accidents. - Highlights: • A system for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • Real-time changing direction of workers in a scenario. • Real-time measuring personal exposure dose and collective exposure dose. • A tool for improving familiarization of a workplace and for preventing workers from accidents.

  7. Virtual Teams.

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  8. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  9. Does J-style “Kaizen” management create the joy of service? -Exploring the Co-creative Human Development Model

    Oba Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to develop a new foundation for the Co-creative Human Development Model (CCHD. CCHD aims at creating a platform for the exercise of freewill, a space that serves as a point of departure to open up the path to Truth and so divert us from the sinful route to self-destruction. CCHD differs from A. Sen’s capability theory of human development, most markedly in its conception of the nature of development; Sen views this as expanding the capability (freedom to choose, whereas CCHD sees it as awakening and activating the freewill to choose freedom. Taking our place on the CCHD platform of freewill allows the linkage between practicing Kaizen (J-style continuous improvement and the joy of service to be captured in visible form and made known to us through our experience. The exercises connected with CCHD shed light on our mind-set, so we can become aware of the true meaning of Kaizen in our working lives and lifestyles as a whole, which can then be linked with the joy of service.

  10. Social communication with virtual agents: The effects of body and gaze direction on attention and emotional responding in human observers.

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes; Graupner, Sven-Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction have been changed as a whole, resulting in only congruent gaze and body directions (averted or directed) of another person. Here, we aimed to disentangle these effects by using short animated sequences of virtual agents posing with either direct or averted body or gaze. Attention allocation by means of eye movements, facial muscle response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e., a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards the observer. This suggests that direct interaction as well as incongruous signals increase the demands of attentional resources in the observer. For the facial muscle response, only the reaction of muscle zygomaticus major revealed an effect of body direction, expressed by stronger activity in response to happy expressions for direct compared to averted gaze when the virtual character's body was directed towards the observer. Finally, body direction also influenced the emotional experience ratings towards happy expressions. While earlier findings suggested that mutual eye contact is the main source for increased emotional responding and attentional allocation, the present results indicate that direction of the virtual agent's body and head also plays a minor but significant role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Manually locating physical and virtual reality objects.

    Chen, Karen B; Kimmel, Ryan A; Bartholomew, Aaron; Ponto, Kevin; Gleicher, Michael L; Radwin, Robert G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of virtual objects in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to flexibly simulate arbitrary environments for studying human performance. Previously, VR researchers primarily considered differences between virtual and physical distance estimation rather than reaching for close-up objects. Fourteen participants completed manual targeting tasks that involved reaching for corners on equivalent physical and virtual boxes of three different sizes. Predicted errors were calculated from a geometric model based on user interpupillary distance, eye location, distance from the eyes to the projector screen, and object. Users were 1.64 times less accurate (p virtual versus physical box corners using the hands. Predicted virtual targeting errors were on average 1.53 times (p virtual targets but not significantly different for close-up virtual targets. Target size, location, and distance, in addition to binocular disparity, affected virtual object targeting inaccuracy. Observed virtual box inaccuracy was less than predicted for farther locations, suggesting possible influence of cues other than binocular vision. Human physical interaction with objects in VR for simulation, training, and prototyping involving reaching and manually handling virtual objects in a CAVE are more accurate than predicted when locating farther objects.

  12. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic c...

  13. Procedural Attack! Procedural Generation for Populated Virtual Cities: A Survey

    Werner Gaisbauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, creating rich virtual worlds "by hand" like in the game Grand Theft Auto V is hugely expensive and limited to large studios. On the other hand, procedural content generation (PCG allows tiny teams to create huge worlds like Hello Games did with only four people (in the beginning for the recently released game No Man's Sky. Following in the footsteps of Hello Games, this paper tries to equip the reader with an overview about the state-of-the-art of how to build such a virtual world, i.e., a populated virtual city with buildings, streets, parks, vegetation, humans, and vehicles, using just PCG assets. Each PCG asset that is envisioned to bring the city to life is grouped and discussed in detail and the latest research trends in PCG are presented together with open questions. Using the above-mentioned PCG assets, instead of months, a city can be built in a mere couple of minutes by a user without much experience in designing 3D assets. The city can then be used for many applications like games, virtual reality (VR, or film.

  14. Applied virtual reality at the Research Triangle Institute

    Montoya, R. Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a way for humans to use computers in visualizing, manipulating and interacting with large geometric data bases. This paper describes a VR infrastructure and its application to marketing, modeling, architectural walk through, and training problems. VR integration techniques used in these applications are based on a uniform approach which promotes portability and reusability of developed modules. For each problem, a 3D object data base is created using data captured by hand or electronically. The object's realism is enhanced through either procedural or photo textures. The virtual environment is created and populated with the data base using software tools which also support interactions with and immersivity in the environment. These capabilities are augmented by other sensory channels such as voice recognition, 3D sound, and tracking. Four applications are presented: a virtual furniture showroom, virtual reality models of the North Carolina Global TransPark, a walk through the Dresden Fraunenkirche, and the maintenance training simulator for the National Guard.

  15. Alleviating travel anxiety through virtual reality and narrated video technology.

    Ahn, J C; Lee, O

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an empirical evidence of benefit of narrative video clips in embedded virtual reality websites of hotels for relieving travel anxiety. Even though it was proven that virtual reality functions do provide some relief in travel anxiety, a stronger virtual reality website can be built when narrative video clips that show video clips with narration about important aspects of the hotel. We posit that these important aspects are 1. Escape route and 2. Surrounding neighborhood information, which are derived from the existing research on anxiety disorder as well as travel anxiety. Thus we created a video clip that showed and narrated about the escape route from the hotel room, another video clip that showed and narrated about surrounding neighborhood. We then conducted experiments with this enhanced virtual reality website of a hotel by having human subjects play with the website and fill out a questionnaire. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of embedded virtual reality functions with narrative video clips of a hotel website (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).

  16. The effect of the configuration and the interior design of a virtual weightless space station on human spatial orientation

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Yamaguchi, Takao

    2005-05-01

    In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space station-like routes constructed of rectangular and cubical modules, and did Pointing and Modeling tasks. In Experiment 1, configurations of the routes were changed with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes, and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. The results indicated that spatial orientation ability was relevant to the variables and that orientational errors were explained by two causes. One of these was that the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns were incorrect. The other was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. In Experiment 2, the effect of the interior design was examined by testing three design settings. Wall colors that showed the allocentric frame of reference and the different interior design of vertical and horizontal modules were effective; however, there was a limit to the effectiveness in complicated configurations.

  17. The effect of the configuration and the interior design of a virtual weightless space station on human spatial orientation.

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Yamaguchi, Takao

    2005-01-01

    In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space station-like routes constructed of rectangular and cubical modules, and did Pointing and Modeling tasks. In Experiment 1, configurations of the routes were changed with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes, and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. The results indicated that spatial orientation ability was relevant to the variables and that orientational errors were explained by two causes. One of these was that the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns were incorrect. The other was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. In Experiment 2, the effect of the interior design was examined by testing three design settings. Wall colors that showed the allocentric frame of reference and the different interior design of vertical and horizontal modules were effective; however, there was a limit to the effectiveness in complicated configurations. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Creation of a Human Secretome: A Novel Composite Library of Human Secreted Proteins: Validation Using Ovarian Cancer Gene Expression Data and a Virtual Secretome Array.

    Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Wang, Victoria; Wei, Wei; Waldron, Levi; Drapkin, Ronny; Gillette, Michael; Skates, Steven; Birrer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    To generate a comprehensive "Secretome" of proteins potentially found in the blood and derive a virtual Affymetrix array. To validate the utility of this database for the discovery of novel serum-based biomarkers using ovarian cancer transcriptomic data. The secretome was constructed by aggregating the data from databases of known secreted proteins, transmembrane or membrane proteins, signal peptides, G-protein coupled receptors, or proteins existing in the extracellular region, and the virtual array was generated by mapping them to Affymetrix probeset identifiers. Whole-genome microarray data from ovarian cancer, normal ovarian surface epithelium, and fallopian tube epithelium were used to identify transcripts upregulated in ovarian cancer. We established the secretome from eight public databases and a virtual array consisting of 16,521 Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 probesets. Using ovarian cancer transcriptomic data, we identified candidate blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer and performed bioinformatic validation by demonstrating rediscovery of known biomarkers including CA125 and HE4. Two novel top biomarkers (FGF18 and GPR172A) were validated in serum samples from an independent patient cohort. We present the secretome, comprising the most comprehensive resource available for protein products that are potentially found in the blood. The associated virtual array can be used to translate gene-expression data into cancer biomarker discovery. A list of blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection is reported and includes CA125 and HE4. FGF18 and GPR172A were identified and validated by ELISA as being differentially expressed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients compared with controls. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Use of a virtual human performance laboratory to improve integration of mathematics and biology in sports science curricula in Sweden and the United States.

    Garza, D; Besier, T; Johnston, T; Rolston, B; Schorsch, A; Matheson, G; Annerstedt, C; Lindh, J; Rydmark, M

    2007-01-01

    New fields such as bioengineering are exploring the role of the physical sciences in traditional biological approaches to problems, with exciting results in device innovation, medicine, and research biology. The integration of mathematics, biomechanics, and material sciences into the undergraduate biology curriculum will better prepare students for these opportunities and enhance cooperation among faculty and students at the university level. We propose the study of sports science as the basis for introduction of this interdisciplinary program. This novel integrated approach will require a virtual human performance laboratory dual-hosted in Sweden and the United States. We have designed a course model that involves cooperative learning between students at Göteborg University and Stanford University, utilizes new technologies, encourages development of original research and will rely on frequent self-assessment and reflective learning. We will compare outcomes between this course and a more traditional didactic format as well as assess the effectiveness of multiple web-hosted virtual environments. We anticipate the grant will result in a network of original faculty and student research in exercise science and pedagogy as well as provide the opportunity for implementation of the model in more advance training levels and K-12 programs.

  20. Virtual Vision

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  1. International virtual teams engineering global success

    Brewer, P

    2015-01-01

    As a complete guide to international virtual team communication with practical problem-solving strategies, this book is a must read for managers and engineers in all stages of their professional development This book provides essential information for creating and maintaining successful international virtual teams for those who manage, participate in, or train others in international virtual teaming. Based on new studies in engineering communication, this book presents processes and principles that can help managers and engineers establish global virtual teams that work, assess the virtual team climate, and maintain the effectiveness of virtual teams across cultural boundaries. It provides knowledge and tools necessary to understand the variable contexts of global virtual teams, so that organizations are able to respond to inevitable changes in technology and the global marketplace.

  2. Tele Hyper Virtuality

    Terashima, Nobuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    In the future, remote images sent over communication lines will be reproduced in virtual reality (VR). This form of virtual telecommunications, which will allow observers to engage in an activity as though it were real, is the focus of considerable attention. Taken a step further, real and unreal objects will be placed in a single space to create an extremely realistic environment. Here, imaginary and other life forms as well as people and animals in remote locations will gather via telecommunication lines that create a common environment where life forms can work and interact together. Words, gestures, diagrams and other forms of communication will be used freely in performing work. Actual construction of a system based on this new concept will not only provide people with experiences that would have been impossible in the past, but will also inspire new applications in which people will function in environments where it would have been difficult if not impossible for them to function until now. This paper describes Tele Hyper Virtuality concept, its definition, applications, the key technologies to accomplish it and future prospects.

  3. Identification of novel human dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors of natural origin (part I: virtual screening and activity assays.

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been great interest in determining whether natural products show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is DPP-IV whose most important substrates are incretins that, among other beneficial effects, stimulates insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Incretins have very short half-lives because of their rapid degradation by DPP-IV and, therefore, inhibiting this enzyme improves glucose homeostasis. As a result, DPP-IV inhibitors are of considerable interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The main goals of this study were (a to develop a virtual screening process to identify potential DPP-IV inhibitors of natural origin; (b to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits; and (c to use the most active hit for predicting derivatives with higher binding affinities for the DPP-IV binding site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We predicted that 446 out of the 89,165 molecules present in the natural products subset of the ZINC database would inhibit DPP-IV with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 446 molecules were merged with 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors and the resulting set was classified into 50 clusters according to chemical similarity, there were 12 clusters that contained only natural products for which no DPP-IV inhibitory activity has been previously reported. Nine molecules from 7 of these 12 clusters were then selected for in vitro activity testing and 7 out of the 9 molecules were shown to inhibit DPP-IV (where the remaining two molecules could not be solubilized, preventing the evaluation of their DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Then, the hit with the highest activity was used as a lead compound in the prediction of more potent derivatives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying novel

  4. Virtual Sustainability

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  5. Virtual Tower

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems

  6. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  7. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic concision, the VRML browser can offer better windows for man-computer interaction in real-time environment than ever before. 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision with VRML can be used to meet the requirement for the medical observation of 3D reconstruction and have a promising prospect in the fields of medical imaging. PMID:15973760

  8. Virtual polytopes

    Panina, G Yu; Streinu, I

    2015-01-01

    Originating in diverse branches of mathematics, from polytope algebra and toric varieties to the theory of stressed graphs, virtual polytopes represent a natural algebraic generalization of convex polytopes. Introduced as elements of the Grothendieck group associated to the semigroup of convex polytopes, they admit a variety of geometrizations. The present survey connects the theory of virtual polytopes with other geometrical subjects, describes a series of geometrizations together with relations between them, and gives a selection of applications. Bibliography: 50 titles

  9. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  10. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro- XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  11. Deployable Virtual Teleconferencing Meeting Center, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is indented to lead to the development of a commercial product that can create a virtual meeting presence by displaying the remote user?s face...

  12. Cuenca, realidad virtual

    Concepción Rodríguez Ruza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This project, Cuenca, realidad virtual, was created so that the key periods of the historical evolution of Cuenca could be explained, where the Islamic Cuenca, Christian Cuenca and Cuenca in the 18th Century are comprised. The reconstruction of these different ages is represented by different routes through a threedimensional environment by means of this application .In order to be put into practice, 3D geometries, 3D polygon models, texturin, 3D illumination and threedimensional geometries animation of all of these elements have been implemented. Virtual visits are introduced by some texts, hearings, plans, archive and current pictures. These routes allow the visitor to get to know the past of this town through a recreational and easy going method

  13. Virtually Out of This World!

    2002-01-01

    Ames Research Center granted Reality Capture Technologies (RCT), Inc., a license to further develop NASA's Mars Map software platform. The company incorporated NASA#s innovation into software that uses the Virtual Plant Model (VPM)(TM) to structure, modify, and implement the construction sites of industrial facilities, as well as develop, validate, and train operators on procedures. The VPM orchestrates the exchange of information between engineering, production, and business transaction systems. This enables users to simulate, control, and optimize work processes while increasing the reliability of critical business decisions. Engineers can complete the construction process and test various aspects of it in virtual reality before building the actual structure. With virtual access to and simulation of the construction site, project personnel can manage, access control, and respond to changes on complex constructions more effectively. Engineers can also create operating procedures, training, and documentation. Virtual Plant Model(TM) is a trademark of Reality Capture Technologies, Inc.

  14. Virtual Doppelgangers: Psychological Effects of Avatars Who Ignore Their Owners

    Bailenson, Jeremy N.; Segovia, Kathryn Y.

    For a decade, the Virtual Human Interaction Lab has been creating doppelgangers, virtual versions of the self, for research purposes. This chapter considers how humans may be affected by confrontation with virtual versions of themselves, on the basis of well-established psychological theories, including social cognitive theory (social learning theory), media richness theory (information richness theory), and self-perception theory. Experiments carried out in the Lab, and informed by these theories, have explored such notable topics as health communication, marketing, and false memories. The findings of one series of studies suggest that doppelgangerscan show the rewards of exercise and proper eating habits, changing people's health-related behavior as a result. Other studies showed that doppelgangers are powerful marketing agents and can be used in advertisements to create favorable brand impressions among consumers. Other research documented that children have difficulty in distinguishing between an actual memory elicited by a physical world event and a false memory elicited by mental image or doppelganger.

  15. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  16. Philosophical analysis of virtualization educational space problems

    V. D. Kolomiets

    2016-06-01

    intellectual consumerism to opening creative abilities of understanding associated with the need to reform the internal structure of education. The main objective is to reform education as a system of non­communication and mental consumption. Using the power of modern media and virtual space created by them, must turn its existential essence of education as an integral properties of humanity.

  17. Virtual Savannah

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information...

  18. Virtual Reality.

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  19. Virtualize Me!

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  20. Virtual Classroom

    Christensen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class...... and benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....

  1. Virtual landmarks

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  2. MULTIMEDIA EDITOR OF VIRTUAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY IN DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM «KHERSON VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY»

    Kravtsov H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of modeling the structure of the objects of the system, the design of software modules and technologies for creating the editor of a virtual laboratory are considered. The relevance of the study is due to the lack in existing distance learning systems of support for the creation and use of virtual laboratory work on disciplines of the natural-science profile. The subject of the study is a software module for creating and using virtual laboratory work in a distance learning system. The purpose of the study is the development of a system model and a description of the software development technology of a virtual laboratory for physics for a distance learning system. The information technologies of designing the structure of the virtual laboratory and the main modes of the program module of the editor of the virtual laboratory work are described. At the heart of the structure of the software module "Virtual Laboratory" is the multimedia Web-editor of virtual laboratory works, which is created using object-oriented design technology. The program library of multimedia 3D objects created in the development environment of interactive graphic objects Unity3D. It unifies the process of creation and processing of virtual laboratory works. The basic mathematical package for supporting calculations is the mathematical processor Waterloo Maple. The application of the developed software interface will allow teachers to create laboratory works and use them in their distance courses. Students, in turn, will be able to conduct research, performing virtual laboratory work. As an example, the editor of the virtual laboratory for physics in the distance learning system "Kherson Virtual University" is considered.

  3. A Virtual Research Partner

    Cowie, Jim; Guerrero, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal was to investigate the feasibility of creating a software agent that would be able to interact with researchers and provide them with support at a level equivalent to a human research partner...

  4. The Distributed Virtual Meeting Room Exercise

    Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; Peciva, Jan; Vinciarelli, A.; Odobez, J-M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our research on distributed virtual meeting rooms. Starting point is our research on multi-party interaction, where the interaction may take place in real, augmented and virtual environments. Moreover, those that interact may be humans, human-controlled avatars,

  5. About avatars and maneuvering in virtual environments

    Delleman, N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about the use of avatars and maneuvering in virtual environments for simulation-based design ergonomics. An avatar is a digital human model driven by an instrumented human who is immersed in a virtual environment. A presentation on locomotion devices is followed by descriptions of

  6. The Funding of Virtual Universities

    Poulin, Russell; Michelau, Demaree K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews categorization models and the outcomes of a virtual university funding survey. Although categorization of types of funding mechanisms is a necessary analytical tool, it often hides the many and varied political decisions that created them. In commenting on the implications of the type of funding model, political forces behind…

  7. Dissociation of past and present experience in problem solving using a virtual environment.

    Sturz, Bradley R; Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2009-02-01

    An interactive 3D desktop virtual environment task was created to investigate learning mechanisms in human problem solving. Participants were assessed for previous video game experience, divided into two groups (Training and Control), and matched for gender and experience. The Training group learned specific skills within the virtual environment before being presented a problem. The Control group was presented the problem only. Completion time was faster for the Training group and was affected by level of previous video game experience. Results indicated problem solving was a function of specific and general experience and demonstrated a method for dissociating these two facets of experience.

  8. Personal Virtual Libraries

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  9. VIRTUAL MUSEUMS FOR LANDSCAPE VALORIZATION AND COMMUNICATION

    E. Pietroni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional “sensing” and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities’ cultural patterns, their sense of “belonging”. In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or “monographic”, representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  10. Knowledge-Driven Design of Virtual Patient Simulations

    Vergara, Victor; Caudell, Thomas; Goldsmith, Timothy; Panaiotis; Alverson, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds provide unique opportunities for instructors to promote, study, and evaluate student learning and comprehension. In this article, Victor Vergara, Thomas Caudell, Timothy Goldsmith, Panaiotis, and Dale Alverson explore the advantages of using virtual reality environments to create simulations for medical students. Virtual simulations…

  11. Virtual Technologies and Social Shaping

    Kreps , David

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Virtual Technologies have enabled us all to become publishers and broadcasters. The world of information has become saturated with a multitude of opinions, and opportunities to express them. Track 2 "Virtual Technologies and Social Shaping" of the 9th Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC9) explores some of the issues that have arisen in this new information society, how we are shaped by it, and how we shape it, through i) two papers addressing issues of identi...

  12. Applying tattoo dye as a third-harmonic generation contrast agent for in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human skin

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Lin, Chen-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy has been reported to provide intrinsic contrast in elastic fibers, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, actin filaments, lipid bodies, hemoglobin, and melanin in human skin. For advanced molecular imaging, exogenous contrast agents are developed for a higher structural or molecular specificity. We demonstrate the potential of the commonly adopted tattoo dye as a THG contrast agent for in vivo optical biopsy of human skin. Spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were performed on cultured cells with tattoo dyes, in tattooed mouse skin, and in tattooed human skin to demonstrate the THG enhancement effect. Compared with other absorbing dyes or nanoparticles used as exogenous THG contrast agents, tattoo dyes are widely adopted in human skin so that future clinical biocompatibility evaluation is relatively achievable. Combined with the demonstrated THG enhancement effect, tattoo dyes show their promise for future clinical imaging applications.

  13. Virtual Paint for Android

    Miloeski, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to create a functional application for the Android environment that allows the user to do simple virtual drawings without the use of the touch screen, but rather through hand motions caught by the camera. There is a variety of approaches to this end, which vary by complexity and performance. This piece of work attempts to find a middle ground among the existing algorithms, as well as to build on and improve them specifically for this particular task. The idea is ...

  14. Collaboration and dialogue in Virtual reality

    Gyldendahl Jensen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each...... other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM), “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based...... on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through...

  15. Creation of virtual patients for midwifery education.

    Urbanová, Eva; Bašková, Martina; Maskálová, Erika; Kvaltínyová, Eva

    2018-07-01

    The objective of the study was to create several new, original virtual patients (VPs) in the Slovak language, especially for educational purposes in midwifery. Virtual patients have been created for the needs of university midwifery education in Slovakia. The creation of the six virtual patients basically consisted of three fixed stages: preparation, design and development, implementation into the virtual environment. We used the Open Labyrinth (OL) virtual environment, an open-source system for creating VPs. The VPs include six various scenarios of the most common problems seen in midwifery practice: preterm birth, perinatal loss, gestational diabetes, ineffective breastfeeding, postpartum bleeding and sudden home birth. Currently, six original virtual patients are used in university midwifery education in Slovakia. We use them for contact teaching as well as self-study of students. They present the first VPs in Slovakia and the Czech Republic created in academic settings in these countries. The future perspective of a virtual patient as an interactive process between the student and the medium is that it can deepen and improve learning outcomes, solve specific midwifery issues, and reduce mistakes in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensorial Virtualization: Coupling Gaming and Virtual Environment

    Garbaya, S.; Miraoui, C.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Lim, T.; Stanescu, I.A.; Hauge, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality and virtualization are currently used to design complex systems and demonstrate that they represent the functionalities of real systems. However, the design refinement of the virtual environment (VE) and distributed virtual environment (DVE) are still time consuming and costly, as it

  17. Virtual Presenters: Towards Interactive Virtual Presentations

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cappellini, V.; Hemsley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss having virtual presenters in virtual environments that present information to visitors of these environments. Some current research is surveyed and we will look in particular to our research in the context of a virtual meeting room where a virtual presenter uses speech, gestures, pointing

  18. Virtual NC machine model with integrated knowledge data

    Sidorenko, Sofija; Dukovski, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The concept of virtual NC machining was established for providing a virtual product that could be compared with an appropriate designed product, in order to make NC program correctness evaluation, without real experiments. This concept is applied in the intelligent CAD/CAM system named VIRTUAL MANUFACTURE. This paper presents the first intelligent module that enables creation of the virtual models of existed NC machines and virtual creation of new ones, applying modular composition. Creation of a virtual NC machine is carried out via automatic knowledge data saving (features of the created NC machine). (Author)

  19. Virtual materiality

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand......? These questions become crucial when we follow matter in and across real life, virtual experience, recounted imagery, night dreams, YouTube videos and even further. Some may already have recognized Phillip’s skeleton army as a transport/transformation from Lord of the Rings, DVD 3, the army which Aragon calls out....... Butler, J. (1993) Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. London: Routledge. Durkin, K. et al. (1998) Children, Media and Agression. Current Research in Australia and New Zealand. In: Carlson, U. & von Feilitzen, C. (red): Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International...

  20. Virtual anthropology.

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  1. Computational Characterization of Small Molecules Binding to the Human XPF Active Site and Virtual Screening to Identify Potential New DNA Repair Inhibitors Targeting the ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease

    Francesco Gentile

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1-DNA repair endonuclease XPF (ERCC1-XPF is a heterodimeric endonuclease essential for the nucleotide excision repair (NER DNA repair pathway. Although its activity is required to maintain genome integrity in healthy cells, ERCC1-XPF can counteract the effect of DNA-damaging therapies such as platinum-based chemotherapy in cancer cells. Therefore, a promising approach to enhance the effect of these therapies is to combine their use with small molecules, which can inhibit the repair mechanisms in cancer cells. Currently, there are no structures available for the catalytic site of the human ERCC1-XPF, which performs the metal-mediated cleavage of a DNA damaged strand at 5′. We adopted a homology modeling strategy to build a structural model of the human XPF nuclease domain which contained the active site and to extract dominant conformations of the domain using molecular dynamics simulations followed by clustering of the trajectory. We investigated the binding modes of known small molecule inhibitors targeting the active site to build a pharmacophore model. We then performed a virtual screening of the ZINC Is Not Commercial 15 (ZINC15 database to identify new ERCC1-XPF endonuclease inhibitors. Our work provides structural insights regarding the binding mode of small molecules targeting the ERCC1-XPF active site that can be used to rationally optimize such compounds. We also propose a set of new potential DNA repair inhibitors to be considered for combination cancer therapy strategies.

  2. Human-Avatar Symbiosis for the Treatment of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia through Virtual/Augmented Reality and Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Sotos, Patricia; González, Pascual; Ricarte, Jorge J; Latorre, José M; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This perspective paper faces the future of alternative treatments that take advantage of a social and cognitive approach with regards to pharmacological therapy of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. AVH are the perception of voices in the absence of auditory stimulation and represents a severe mental health symptom. Virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR) and brain computer interfaces (BCI) are technologies that are growing more and more in different medical and psychological applications. Our position is that their combined use in computer-based therapies offers still unforeseen possibilities for the treatment of physical and mental disabilities. This is why, the paper expects that researchers and clinicians undergo a pathway toward human-avatar symbiosis for AVH by taking full advantage of new technologies. This outlook supposes to address challenging issues in the understanding of non-pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia-related disorders and the exploitation of VR/AR and BCI to achieve a real human-avatar symbiosis.

  3. Virtual automation.

    Casis, E; Garrido, A; Uranga, B; Vives, A; Zufiaurre, C

    2001-01-01

    Total laboratory automation (TLA) can be substituted in mid-size laboratories by a computer sample workflow control (virtual automation). Such a solution has been implemented in our laboratory using PSM, software developed in cooperation with Roche Diagnostics (Barcelona, Spain), to this purpose. This software is connected to the online analyzers and to the laboratory information system and is able to control and direct the samples working as an intermediate station. The only difference with TLA is the replacement of transport belts by personnel of the laboratory. The implementation of this virtual automation system has allowed us the achievement of the main advantages of TLA: workload increase (64%) with reduction in the cost per test (43%), significant reduction in the number of biochemistry primary tubes (from 8 to 2), less aliquoting (from 600 to 100 samples/day), automation of functional testing, drastic reduction of preanalytical errors (from 11.7 to 0.4% of the tubes) and better total response time for both inpatients (from up to 48 hours to up to 4 hours) and outpatients (from up to 10 days to up to 48 hours). As an additional advantage, virtual automation could be implemented without hardware investment and significant headcount reduction (15% in our lab).

  4. Virtual Cystoscopy

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Aldana S, Natalia; Munoz Sierra, Juan; Lopez Amaya, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: virtual cystoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that facilitates the evaluation of the urinary tract, allowing intraluminal navigation through the urinary tract structures on the basis of CT imaging reconstructions. it allows detection of various pathologies of the system, through high-sensitivity, three-dimensional lesion visualization with some advantages over conventional cystoscopy. Objective: to describe the technique used for virtual cystoscopy at our institution,and present some representative cases. Materials and methods: We describe the main indications, advantages and limitations of the method, followed by a description of the technique used in our institution, and finally, we present five representative cases of bladder and urethral pathology. Conclusion: virtual cystoscopy is a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of bladder tumors, even those smaller than 5mm. it is the preferred method in patients who have contraindications for conventional cystoscopy, such as prostate hyperplasia, urethral stenoses and active haematuria.it is less invasive and has a lower complication rate when compared with conventional cystoscopy. It has limited use in the assessment of the mucosa and of small, flat lesions.

  5. ABOUT MODERN TECHNICAL GRAPHICS USING IN THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

    GHERGHINA George; POPA Dragos; BOGDAN Mihaela; GLUGA Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents aspects concerning the using of modern technical graphics elements in the virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping is a process which uses a virtual prototype in place of physical prototype for the testing and the evaluation of specific features of designed product. The virtual prototype is created by computer such as it could assign the specific features as close as possible to the real conditions which permit its function simulation in the conditions for which is desi...

  6. Building Virtual Mars

    Abercrombie, S. P.; Menzies, A.; Goddard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual and augmented reality enable scientists to visualize environments that are very difficult, or even impossible to visit, such as the surface of Mars. A useful immersive visualization begins with a high quality reconstruction of the environment under study. This presentation will discuss a photogrammetry pipeline developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to reconstruct 3D models of the surface of Mars using stereo images sent back to Earth by the Curiosity Mars rover. The resulting models are used to support a virtual reality tool (OnSight) that allows scientists and engineers to visualize the surface of Mars as if they were standing on the red planet. Images of Mars present challenges to existing scene reconstruction solutions. Surface images of Mars are sparse with minimal overlap, and are often taken from extremely different viewpoints. In addition, the specialized cameras used by Mars rovers are significantly different than consumer cameras, and GPS localization data is not available on Mars. This presentation will discuss scene reconstruction with an emphasis on coping with limited input data, and on creating models suitable for rendering in virtual reality at high frame rate.

  7. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  8. A Virtual World as an Introduction towards Green IT Awareness

    Pascal Ravesteijn; Diana Boekman; Henk Plessius

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a project to explore the possibilities of virtual worlds in educating Green IT. In the project a virtual world has been created with various assignments which are meant to create awareness on sustainability aspects of IT. The world (and the assignments) will be incorporated in a

  9. Modeling Dynamic Perceptual Attention in Complex Virtual Environments

    Kim, Youngjun; van Velsen, Martin; Hill, Jr, Randall W

    2005-01-01

    An important characteristic of a virtual human is the ability to direct its perceptual attention to entities and areas in a virtual environment in a manner that appears believable and serves a functional purpose...

  10. Improving Human Effectiveness Through Embedded Virtual Simulation (Amelioration de l’efficacite humaine grace a la simulation virtuelle integree)

    2014-01-01

    blocks by the US Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) as a development that enables armoured crew the ability to observe...behavioral and physiological sensors, past performance and other competency measures, demographic information, human observations and/or self...tutoring systems may include demographics , input from behavioral and physiological sensors, self-reported and observed data and/or historical

  11. Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis in the First Trimester Human Placenta: An Innovative 3D Study Using an Immersive Virtual Reality System

    van Oppenraaij, R. H. F.; Koning, A. H. J.; Lisman, B. A.; Boer, K.; van den Hoff, M. J. B.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Exalto, N.

    2009-01-01

    First trimester human villous vascularization is mainly Studied by conventional two-dimensional (213) microscopy. With this (2D) technique it is not possible to observe the spatial arrangement of the haemangioblastic cords and vessels, transition of cords into vessels and the transition of

  12. Generating Contextual Descriptions of Virtual Reality (VR) Spaces

    Olson, D. M.; Zaman, C. H.; Sutherland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual reality holds great potential for science communication, education, and research. However, interfaces for manipulating data and environments in virtual worlds are limited and idiosyncratic. Furthermore, speech and vision are the primary modalities by which humans collect information about the world, but the linking of visual and natural language domains is a relatively new pursuit in computer vision. Machine learning techniques have been shown to be effective at image and speech classification, as well as at describing images with language (Karpathy 2016), but have not yet been used to describe potential actions. We propose a technique for creating a library of possible context-specific actions associated with 3D objects in immersive virtual worlds based on a novel dataset generated natively in virtual reality containing speech, image, gaze, and acceleration data. We will discuss the design and execution of a user study in virtual reality that enabled the collection and the development of this dataset. We will also discuss the development of a hybrid machine learning algorithm linking vision data with environmental affordances in natural language. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to develop a model which can generate interpretable verbal descriptions of possible actions associated with recognized 3D objects within immersive VR environments. This suggests promising applications for more intuitive user interfaces through voice interaction within 3D environments. It also demonstrates the potential to apply vast bodies of embodied and semantic knowledge to enrich user interaction within VR environments. This technology would allow for applications such as expert knowledge annotation of 3D environments, complex verbal data querying and object manipulation in virtual spaces, and computer-generated, dynamic 3D object affordances and functionality during simulations.

  13. Virtual Reality Simulation of the International Space Welding Experiment

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.

  14. Comparing the effectiveness of virtual and traditional forestry field tours

    Easley, Elissa C.; Fletcher, Richard A.; Jensen, Edward C.; Rickenbach, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Virtual tours are among the many new Internet-based tools with potential applications in natural resource education. While technology exists to create virtual tour Web sites, little is understood about how they meet educational objectives and whether they can be complementary alternatives for traditional field tours. The Sustainable Forestry Partnership and the Forestry Media Center at Oregon State University created parallel virtual and field tours to compare these teaching techniques. Both ...

  15. Virtualizing the Word: Expanding Walter Ong's Theory of Orality and Literacy through a Culture of Virtuality

    Dempsey, Jennifer Camille

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to create a vision for virtuality culture through a theoretical expansion of Walter Ong's literacy and orality culture model. It investigates the ubiquitous and multimodal nature of the virtuality cultural phenomenon that is mediated by contemporary technology and not explained by pre-existing cultural conventions. Through…

  16. A strategic map for high-impact virtual experience design

    Faste, Haakon; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2009-02-01

    We have employed methodologies of human centered design to inspire and guide the engineering of a definitive low-cost aesthetic multimodal experience intended to stimulate cultural growth. Using a combination of design research, trend analysis and the programming of immersive virtual 3D worlds, over 250 innovative concepts have been brainstormed, prototyped, evaluated and refined. These concepts have been used to create a strategic map for the development of highimpact virtual art experiences, the most promising of which have been incorporated into a multimodal environment programmed in the online interactive 3D platform XVR. A group of test users have evaluated the experience as it has evolved, using a multimodal interface with stereo vision, 3D audio and haptic feedback. This paper discusses the process, content, results, and impact on our engineering laboratory that this research has produced.

  17. Ambient Intelligence in Multimeda and Virtual Reality Environments for the rehabilitation

    Benko, Attila; Cecilia, Sik Lanyi

    This chapter presents a general overview about the use of multimedia and virtual reality in rehabilitation and assistive and preventive healthcare. This chapter deals with multimedia, virtual reality applications based AI intended for use by medical doctors, nurses, special teachers and further interested persons. It describes methods how multimedia and virtual reality is able to assist their work. These include the areas how multimedia and virtual reality can help the patients everyday life and their rehabilitation. In the second part of the chapter we present the Virtual Therapy Room (VTR) a realized application for aphasic patients that was created for practicing communication and expressing emotions in a group therapy setting. The VTR shows a room that contains a virtual therapist and four virtual patients (avatars). The avatars are utilizing their knowledge base in order to answer the questions of the user providing an AI environment for the rehabilitation. The user of the VTR is the aphasic patient who has to solve the exercises. The picture that is relevant for the actual task appears on the virtual blackboard. Patient answers questions of the virtual therapist. Questions are about pictures describing an activity or an object in different levels. Patient can ask an avatar for answer. If the avatar knows the answer the avatars emotion changes to happy instead of sad. The avatar expresses its emotions in different dimensions. Its behavior, face-mimic, voice-tone and response also changes. The emotion system can be described as a deterministic finite automaton where places are emotion-states and the transition function of the automaton is derived from the input-response reaction of an avatar. Natural language processing techniques were also implemented in order to establish highquality human-computer interface windows for each of the avatars. Aphasic patients are able to interact with avatars via these interfaces. At the end of the chapter we visualize the

  18. MULTIMEDIA VIRTUAL LABORATORY FOR PHYSICS IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s presented the results of the software module "Virtual Lab" for distance learning system «Kherson Virtual University" (DLS KVU applied to the problems of physics. Relevance of research due to the absence of existing DLS to support the creation and use of virtual labs in the disciplines of science cycle. The subject of this study is a software module to create and use virtual labs in distance learning system. The purpose of the study is a description of software technology of virtual laboratory in physics for distance learning system. It’s described the information technology, which used in design and development, as well as the structure of the virtual laboratory and its place in the DLS KVU. It’s described the principal modes of operation of the program module in the system and methods for its use in the educational process. The basic structure of the software module "Virtual Lab" is a multimedia Web editor of virtual labs, which was created using Object-oriented analysis and design technology. Software library of multimedia 3D objects, which was created in the development environment of interactive graphics Unity3D, unifies the process of creating and processing virtual labs. Basic mathematical calculations support the math processor Waterloo Maple. The developed software interface allows teachers to create laboratory and use them in their distance courses. Students, in turn, will be able to conduct research, performing virtual labs.

  19. Transfer of C-terminal residues of human apolipoprotein A-I to insect apolipophorin III creates a two-domain chimeric protein with enhanced lipid binding activity.

    Horn, James V C; Ellena, Rachel A; Tran, Jesse J; Beck, Wendy H J; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Weers, Paul M M

    2017-08-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an insect apolipoprotein (18kDa) that comprises a single five-helix bundle domain. In contrast, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a 28kDa two-domain protein: an α-helical N-terminal domain (residues 1-189) and a less structured C-terminal domain (residues 190-243). To better understand the apolipoprotein domain organization, a novel chimeric protein was engineered by attaching residues 179 to 243 of apoA-I to the C-terminal end of apoLp-III. The apoLp-III/apoA-I chimera was successfully expressed and purified in E. coli. Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I within the chimera. While parent apoLp-III did not self-associate, the chimera formed oligomers similar to apoA-I. The chimera displayed a lower α-helical content, but the stability remained similar compared to apoLp-III, consistent with the addition of a less structured domain. The chimera was able to solubilize phospholipid vesicles at a significantly higher rate compared to apoLp-III, approaching that of apoA-I. The chimera was more effective in protecting phospholipase C-treated low density lipoprotein from aggregation compared to apoLp-III. In addition, binding interaction of the chimera with phosphatidylglycerol vesicles and lipopolysaccharides was considerably improved compared to apoLp-III. Thus, addition of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I to apoLp-III created a two-domain protein, with self-association, lipid and lipopolysaccharide binding properties similar to apoA-I. The apoA-I like behavior of the chimera indicate that these properties are independent from residues residing in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, and that they can be transferred from apoA-I to apoLp-III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Droni e turismo virtuale

    Valeria Minucciani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual tourism has been through at least three generations. The first is a special form of e-commerce, and no doubt it has much changed the way you plan your travel. Second generation of virtual tourism has exploited georeference: the user can know the services offered nearby and, with appropriate apps and augmented reality, receive information about places. An important contribution has been made in this field by social media (see Flickr, as well as Tripadvisor. The third generation of virtual tourism even replaces the travel experience: first proposing visits in virtual worlds, then in the real world. That allows tourism to social classes that are excluded. The goal is to send in the real place an "avatar", that can perform what tourist wants. Some experiments have been recently performed with robots, here a visit by drones is proposed. In particular, indoor visits are difficult because it is necessary to re-create a microgeodetic reference system in a closed and confined environment, to allow remote control and to ensure the protection of the cultural property. It has also to be considered the issue of the size of the drone, its autonomy and shooting video (which must be 360 degrees and high definition. The real experience is irreplaceable, but this form of tourism can find many interesting applications and strengthen real tourism. In conclusion, we believe that not only this performances are now within the reach of our technical capabilities, but  they also represent an effective response to certain social and cultural issues.