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Sample records for cranial sampling position

  1. Infant Positioning, Baby Gear Use, and Cranial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.

  2. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Preclinical pathways to treatment in infants with positional cranial deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluba, S; Lypke, J; Kraut, W; Krimmel, M; Haas-Lude, K; Reinert, S

    2014-10-01

    Positional plagiocephaly in infants is frequent. As well as positioning, physiotherapy, and osteopathy, helmet therapy is an effective treatment option. The outcome also depends on the timely initiation of treatment. We investigated the preclinical pathways to treatment. Parents of 218 affected children were interviewed. Data were collected regarding detection and the treatments used prior to the first craniofacial consultation at the study clinic in Germany. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed. For 78.4% of the children, the cranial deformities were first detected at ≤4 months of age. One hundred and twenty-two children received helmet therapy. Parents consulted the paediatrician with a mean latency of 0.4 months; 3.3 months passed until the first craniofacial consultation. Approximately 90% were treated with repositioning and 75.2% received additional physiotherapy or osteopathy prior to presentation. Children treated with physiotherapy/osteopathy presented significantly later (P=0.023). The time lapse to craniofacial consultation was not significantly different between children with and without later helmet therapy. We identified a relevant delay between the detection of positional cranial deformity and consultation with a craniofacial specialist. For affected children, this may potentially compromise the outcome of helmet therapy. Early referral to a specialist and if necessary the simultaneous application of different treatments should be preferred. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cranial Computed Tomographic (CT) findings in HIV-positive Nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rological symptoms constitute a management challenge. Objective: T0 describe the pattern of cranial computed tomographic (CT) findings in neurosurgical patients with HIV infection. Study design: Retrospective analysis. Patients and method: A total of 1907 patients were adn mitted from October 1996 to October 2001.

  5. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at P<.05. TPLO-C had a significantly lower mean CTS than TPLO-D (P<.01). Corrected CTS was also significantly lower in TPLO-C than in TPLO-D (P<.001). Postoperative TPA and TLAS were less in TPLO-C than in TPLO-D (P=.0312). Our results confirm that distal centering of the TPLO leads to craniodistal translation of the tibial plateau, TLAS, and a postoperative TPA that is greater than expected. This geometric effect has the biomechanical effect expected of inadequate tibial plateau leveling, namely incomplete neutralization of cranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  6. Role of cranial computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with generalised seizures

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    Chris van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency neuroimaging of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients with generalised new onset seizures (NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination remains controversial, with the general impression being that emergency imaging is necessary because immunosuppression may blur clinical indicators of acute intracranial pathology. The objectives of our study were to establish whether cranial computed tomography (CT affects the emergency management of HIV-positive patients with generalised NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination.Method: We conducted a prospective descriptive observational study. Consecutive HIVpositive patients of 18 years and older, who presented to the Kimberley Hospital Complex’s Emergency Department within 24 hours of their first generalised seizures and who had undergone normal post-ictal neurological examinations, were included. Emergency CT results as well as CD4-count levels were evaluated.Results: A total of 25 HIV-positive patients were included in the study. The results of cranial CT brought about a change in emergency care management in 12% of patients, all of them with CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3 .Conclusion: We suggest that emergency cranial CT be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with generalised NOS and a normal post-ictal neurological examination, particularly if the CD4 count is below 200 cells/mm3.Keywords: HIV; Seizures; CT Brain

  7. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    of the individuals had suffered from diseases affecting bone or bone metabolism as such, a large sub group consisted of individuals with a history of, and autopsy finds consistent with, chronic substance and alcohol abuse. There was no statistically significant difference in cranial thickness measures between...... this group and the rest of the material. Subsequent analyses failed to reveal any correlations between the cranial thickness and sex and age and height and weight of the individual. This is in accordance with most earlier studies, which likewise show no correlation, or only very faint trends, between cranial...... thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases...

  8. CT guidance is needed to achieve reproducible positioning of the mouse head for repeat precision cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M; Ford, E; Iordachita, I; Wong, J

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of cranial irradiation, we have constructed an all-plastic mouse bed equipped with an immobilizing head holder. The bed integrates with our in-house Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) for precision focal irradiation experiments and cone-beam CT. We assessed the reproducibility of our head holder to determine the need for CT-based targeting in cranial irradiation studies. To measure the holder's reproducibility, a C57BL/6 mouse was positioned and CT-scanned nine times. Image sets were loaded into the Pinnacle(3) radiation treatment planning system and were registered to one another by one investigator using rigid body alignment of the cranial regions. Rotational and translational offsets were measured. The average vector shift between scans was 0.80 +/- 0.49 mm. Such a shift is too large to selectively treat subregions of the mouse brain. In response, we use onboard imaging to guide cranial irradiation applications that require sub-millimeter precision.

  9. Multiple cranial nerve palsy revealing hypertrophic pachymeningitis with positive myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. El Aoud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pachymeningitis is a progressive disease resulting in a diffuse thickening of dura mater due to inflammation, tumor or autoimmune diseases, but most cases are idiopathic. Here, we report the case of a 60-year old man who had a progressive sensorineural hearing loss, visual disturbance and others cranial nerve involvement with an accompanying headache over several months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely thickened dura mater, highly enhanced after gadolinium administration, which was consistent with pachymeningitis. It was assumed to be related to autoimmune pathogenesis on the basis of elevated serum myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. After empirical steroid and cyclophosphamide therapy, the neurological problems were partially improved. Therefore, in the case of atypical sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by cranial nerve palsy or headache, pachymeningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Intrapopulational body size variation and cranial capacity variation in Middle Pleistocene humans: the Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Carretero, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Gracia, A; Martínez, I

    1998-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism more marked than in living humans has been claimed for European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals and prehistoric modern humans. In this paper, body size and cranial capacity variation are studied in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene sample. This is the largest sample of non-modern humans found to date from one single site, and with all skeletal elements represented. Since the techniques available to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism in small palaeontological samples are all unsatisfactory, we have used the bootstraping method to asses the magnitude of the variation in the Sima de los Huesos sample compared to modern human intrapopulational variation. We analyze size variation without attempting to sex the specimens a priori. Anatomical regions investigated are scapular glenoid fossa; acetabulum; humeral proximal and distal epiphyses; ulnar proximal epiphysis; radial neck; proximal femur; humeral, femoral, ulnar and tibial shaft; lumbosacral joint; patella; calcaneum; and talar trochlea. In the Sima de los Huesos sample only the humeral midshaft perimeter shows an unusual high variation (only when it is expressed by the maximum ratio, not by the coefficient of variation). In spite of that the cranial capacity range at Sima de los Huesos almost spans the rest of the European and African Middle Pleistocene range. The maximum ratio is in the central part of the distribution of modern human samples. Thus, the hypothesis of a greater sexual dimorphism in Middle Pleistocene populations than in modern populations is not supported by either cranial or postcranial evidence from Sima de los Huesos.

  11. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  12. The semisitting position: analysis of the risks and surgical outcomes in a contemporary series of 425 adult patients undergoing cranial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Andrea; Lamperti, Massimo; Mangraviti, Antonella; Legnani, Federico G; Prada, Francesco U; Casali, Cecilia; Caputi, Luigi; Borrelli, Paola; DiMeco, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of the primary complications related to positioning or surgery and their impact on neurological outcome in a consecutive series of patients undergoing elective surgery in the semisitting position. METHODS The authors prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed data from adult patients undergoing elective surgery in the semisitting position for a cranial disease. Patients were managed perioperatively according to a standard institutional protocol, a standardized stepwise positioning, and surgical maneuvers to decrease the risk of venous air embolism (VAE) and other complications. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Neurointensive care unit (NICU) length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS were the intermediate endpoints. Neurological outcome was the primary endpoint as determined by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 6 months after surgery. RESULTS Four hundred twenty-five patients were included in the analysis. VAE occurred in 90 cases (21%) and it made no significant statistical difference in NICU LOS, hospital LOS, and neurological outcome. No complication was directly related to the semisitting position, although 46 patients (11%) experienced at least 1 surgery-related complication and NICU LOS and hospital LOS were significantly prolonged in this group. Neurological outcome was significantly worse for patients with complications (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Even in the presence of intraoperative VAE, the semisitting position was not related to an increased risk of postoperative deficits and can represent a safe additional option for the benefit of specific surgical and patient needs.

  13. Routine cranial computed tomography before lumbar puncture in HIV-positive adults presenting with seizures at Mitchells Plain Hospital, Cape Town

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    Salma Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current international guidelines recommend that a cranial computed tomography (CT be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with new onset seizures, before a lumbar puncture (LP is performed. In the South African setting, however,this delay could be life threatening. The present study sought to measure the number of cranial CTs that contraindicate an LP and to predict which clinical signs and symptoms are likely to pose an increased risk from LP.Methods: The study was performed at a district level hospital in Western Cape Province. Data were collected retrospectively from October 2013 to October 2014. Associations between categorical variables were analysed using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Generalised linear regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios.Results: One hundred out of 132 patients were studied. Brain shift contraindicated an LP in 5% of patients. Patients with brain shift presented with decreased level of consciousness, focal signs, headache and neck stiffness. Twenty-five per cent of patients had a space-occupying lesion (SOL (defined as a discrete lesion that has a measurable volume or cerebral oedema. Multivariate analysis showed a CD4 count <50 (p = 0.033 to be a statistically significant predictor of patients with SOL and cerebral oedema. Univariate analysis showed focal signs (p = 0.0001, neck stiffness (p = 0.05, vomiting (p = 0.018 and a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS < 15 (p = 0.002 to be predictors of SOL and cerebral oedema.Conclusion: HIV-positive patients with seizures have a high prevalence of SOL and cerebral oedema but the majority of them are safe for LP. Doctors can use clinical parameters to determine which patients can undergo immediate LP.

  14. Tranport of p-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH), inulin and dextran out of the cranial cavity: A methodological study using intraventricular injection and sample combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobson, Aa. M.

    1987-01-01

    Material injected into the cerebral ventricles can leave the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but remain in the cranial cavity. To analyze the disappearance of /sup 3/H- and of /sup 14/C-labelled material from the cranial cavity, such material was injected into the lateral ventricles together with a bulk flow marker, labelled with the other radionuclide. In the present pilot study /sup 3/H-PAH and /sup 14/C-inulin were used. Five ..mu..l of a mixture was injected into each lateral cerebral ventricles in rats, which were killed at various intervals. The whole skull was analyzed without opening the CSF space after homogenization in the deep-frozen state. The samples were combusted and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Probenecid, injected intraperitoneally, inhibited the removal of /sup 3/H-PAH from the skull cavity, as anticipated. Immediately after the intraventricular injection, however, /sup 3/H-PAH was transiently retained, probably by uptake into actively transporting tissue. After injection of probenecid, this delay in removal was reduced. The difference in disappearance rate between /sup 3/H-PAH and /sup 14/C-inulin was estimated by comparing the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio in the skulls with that in the injected solution, which appeared to be a better method than comparing the recovery of each compound.

  15. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es una Parálisis ...

  16. Cranial acetabular retroversion is common in developmental dysplasia of the hip as assessed by the weight bearing position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Lone Rømer; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of acetabular version differs between the supine and weight bearing positions in developmental dysplasia of the hip. Weight bearing radiographic evaluation has been recommended to ensure the best coherence between symptoms, functional appearance, and hip deformities. Previous...

  17. Recurrence of a t(8;21-Positive Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Form of a Granulocytic Sarcoma Involving Cranial Bones: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Di Veroli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS is a rare extramedullary solid tumor defined as an accumulation of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells. It can cooccur with or precede the acute myeloid leukemia (AML as well as following treated AML. The incidence of GS in AML patients is 3–8% but it significantly rises in M2 FAB subtype AML. This variety of AML harbors t(8;21 in up to 20–25% of cases (especially in children and black ones of African origin and, at a molecular level, it is characterized by the generation of a fusion gene known as RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Approximately 10% of M2 AML patients will develop GS, as a consequence, the t(8;21 and the relative transcript represent the most common cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in GS. FLT3-ITD mutation was rarely described in AML patients presenting with GS. FLT3 ITD is generally strongly associated with poor prognosis in AML, and is rarely reported in patients with t(8;21. GS presentation is extremely variable depending on organs involved; in general, cranial bones and sinus are very rarely affected sites. We report a rare case of GS occurring as a recurrence of a previously treated t(8;21, FLT3-ITD positive AML, involving mastoid bones and paravertebral tissues.

  18. Primate cranial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, John G; Gilbert, Christopher C; Baden, Andrea L

    2010-08-01

    Many studies in primate and human evolution focus on aspects of cranial morphology to address issues of systematics, phylogeny, and functional anatomy. However, broad analyses of cranial diversity within Primates as an Order are notably absent. In this study, we present a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of primate cranial morphology, providing a multivariate comparison of the major patterns of cranial shape change during primate evolution and quantitative assessments of cranial diversity among different clades. We digitized a set of 18 landmarks designed to capture overall cranial shape on male and female crania representing 66 genera of living primates. The landmark data were aligned using a Generalized Procrustes Analysis and then subjected to a principal components analysis to identify the major axes of cranial variation. Cranial diversity among clades was compared using multivariate measurements of variance. The first principal component axis reflects differences in cranial flexion, orbit size and orientation, and relative neurocranial volume. In general, it separates strepsirrhines from anthropoids. The second axis reflects differences in relative cranial height and snout length and primarily describes differences among anthropoids. Eulemur, Mandrillus, Pongo, and Homo are among the extremes in cranial shape. Anthropoids, catarrhines, and haplorhines show a higher variance than prosimians or strepsirrhines. Hominoids show the highest variance in cranial shape among extant primate clades, and much of this diversity is driven by the unique cranium of Homo sapiens. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  20. Temporal lobe sulcal pattern and the bony impressions in the middle cranial fossa: the case of the el Sidrón (Spain) neandertal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Peña-Melián, Angel; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Correspondence between temporal lobe sulcal pattern and bony impressions on the middle cranial fossae (MCF) was analyzed. MCF bone remains (SD-359, SD-315, and SD-1219) from the El Sidrón (Spain) neandertal site are analyzed in this context. Direct comparison of the soft and hard tissues from the same individual was studied by means of: 1) dissection of two human heads; 2) optic (white light) surface scans; 3) computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the same head. The inferior temporal sulcus and gyrus are the features most strongly influencing MCF bone surface. The Superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal and fusiform gyri also leave imprints. Temporal lobe form differs between Homo sapiens and neandertals. A wider and larger post-arcuate fossa (posterior limit of Brodmann area 20 and the anterior portion of area 37) is present in modern humans as compared to neandertals. However other traits of the MCF surface are similar in these two large-brained human groups. A conspicuous variation is appreciated in the more vertical location of the inferior temporal gyrus in H. sapiens. In parallel, structures of the lower surface of the temporal lobe are more sagittally orientated. Grooves accommodating the fusiform and the lower temporal sulci become grossly parallel to the temporal squama. These differences can be understood within the context of a supero-lateral deployment of the lobe in H. sapiens, a pattern previously identified (Bastir et al., Nat Commun 2 (2011) 588-595). Regarding dural sinus pattern, a higher incidence of petrosquamous sinus is detected in neandertal samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, H. H. Hans; van der Merwe, A. E. Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V. Vidija

    2016-01-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that

  3. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A distinct development programme for the cranial paraxial mesoderm

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, A; Guthrie, S.

    1998-01-01

    Cells of the cranial paraxial mesoderm give rise to parts of the skull and muscles of the head. Some mesoderm cells migrate from locations close to the hindbrain into the branchial arches where they undergo muscle differentiation. We have characterised these migratory pathways in chick embryos either by DiI-labelling cells before migration or by grafting quail cranial paraxial mesoderm orthotopically. These experiments demonstrate that depending on their initial rostrocaudal position, cranial...

  5. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  6. Functional implications of dicynodont cranial suture morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinoski, Sandra C; Rayfield, Emily J; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2010-06-01

    Cranial suture morphology of Lystrosaurus and the generalized dicynodont Oudenodon was investigated to determine the strain environment during mastication, which in turn may indicate a difference in cranial function between the two taxa. Finite element (FE) analysis indicated that less strain accumulated in the cranium of Lystrosaurus during orthal bite simulations than in Oudenodon. Despite the overall difference in strain magnitude, moderate to high FE-predicted strain accumulated in similar areas of the cranium of both taxa. The suture morphology in these cranial regions of Lystrosaurus and Oudenodon was investigated further by examination of histological sections and supplemented by observations of serial sections and computed tomography (CT) scans. The predominant type of strain from selected blocks of finite elements that contain sutures was determined, enabling comparison of suture morphology to strain type. Drawing from strain-suture correlations established in extant taxa, the observed patterns of sutural morphology for both dicynodonts were used to deduce cranial function. The moderate to high compressive and tensile strain experienced by the infraorbital bar, zygomatic arch, and postorbital bar of Oudenodon and Lystrosaurus may have been decreased by small adjustive movements at the scarf sutures in those regions. Disparities in cranial suture morphology between the two taxa may reflect differences in cranial function. For instance, the tongue and groove morphology of the postorbital-parietal suture in Oudenodon could have withstood the higher FE-predicted tensile strain in the posterior skull roof. The scarf premaxilla-nasal suture of Lystrosaurus provided an additional region of sutural mobility in the anterior surface of the snout, suggesting that Lystrosaurus may have employed a different biting regime than Oudenodon. The morphology of several sutures sampled in this study correlated with the FE-predicted strain, although other cranial functional

  7. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steve E

    2006-01-01

    Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little hope that any direct clinical effect will ever be shown. In spite of almost uniformly negative research findings, "cranial" methods remain popular with many practitioners and patients. Summary Until outcome studies show that these techniques produce a direct and positive clinical effect, they should be dropped from all academic curricula; insurance companies should stop paying for them; and patients should invest their time, money, and health elsewhere. PMID:16762070

  8. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman Steve E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little hope that any direct clinical effect will ever be shown. In spite of almost uniformly negative research findings, "cranial" methods remain popular with many practitioners and patients. Summary Until outcome studies show that these techniques produce a direct and positive clinical effect, they should be dropped from all academic curricula; insurance companies should stop paying for them; and patients should invest their time, money, and health elsewhere.

  9. Role of cranial computed tomography in human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of cranial computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with generalised seizures. ... examination remains controversial, with the general impression being that emergency imaging is necessary because immunosuppression may blur clinical indicators of acute intracranial pathology.

  10. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and Influence of the Hart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Līcis, Renārs; Molotanovs, Andris; Žīdens, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Before the competition are very important to be in optimal functional position. We were using CES to perform the functional position of optimization. Also we use CES to prescribe autonomic nervous system, analyzing the 11 handball players. After using cranial electrotherapy stimulation, we can see fundamental changes of heart rate, statistical analysis and spectral analysis indicator. After using electro cranial therapy stimulation, in one hour maximize autonomic nervous system tonus and para...

  11. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  12. The Optimal Sampling Period of a Fingerprint Positioning Algorithm for Vehicle Speed Estimation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Ding-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Hua; Hsiang, Chia-Hung; Lo, Chi-Chun; Lin, Hui-Fei; Lin, Bon-Yeh

    .... In this paper, two analytical models are proposed to analyze the optimal sampling period based on communication behaviors, traffic conditions, and two consecutive fingerprint positioning locations...

  13. Effects on the maxilla and cranial base caused by cervical headgear: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alió-Sanz, Juan; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, José; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to test the possible orthopedic effects of cervical headgear on the cranial base and maxilla. a sample consisting of 79 subjects with skeletal class II malocclusion was divided into two groups. The experimental group was made up of 41 patients all treated with cervical headgear. The control group included a total of 38 non-treated patients. Each one of these groups was then subdivided according to age into one of three groups: prepubescent, pubescent or post-pubescent. Cephalometric parameters were compared in both groups in order to measure the cranial base angle and the vertical and sagittal position of the maxilla. Additionally, cephalometric superimpositions taken at the beginning and end of the study were compared. results revealed significant differences in the cranial base angle and in the SNA angle (pheadgear, in addition to a retrusion of point A that does not mean there was a reduction in the maxillomandibular relationship. cervical headgear treatment induces cephalometric flattening of the cranial base and a decrease of the SNA angle.

  14. Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Pandey, P K; Agrawal, Ajai; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Rana, Kartik Maheshbhai; Bahuguna, Chirag

    2017-12-01

    The European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) derived the term Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders in 2002 at an international workshop for a group of congenital neuromuscular diseases. CCDDs are congenital, non-progressive ophthalmoplegia with restriction of globe movement in one or more fields of gaze. This group of sporadic and familial strabismus syndromes was initially referred to as the 'congenital fibrosis syndromes' because it was assumed that the primary pathologic process starts in the muscles of eye motility. Over the last few decades, evidence has accumulated to support that the primary pathologic process of these disorders is neuropathic rather than myopathic. This is believed that for normal development of extra ocular muscles and for preservation of muscle fiber anatomy, normal intra-uterine development of the innervation to these muscles is essential. Congenital dysinnervation to these EOMs can lead to abnormal muscle structure depending upon the stage and the extent of such innervational defects. Over last few years new genes responsible for CCDD have been identified, permitting a better understanding of associated phenotypes, which can further lead to better classification of these disorders. Introduction of high-resolution MRI has led to detailed study of cranial nerves courses and muscles supplied by them. Thus, due to better understanding of pathophysiology and genetics of CCDDs, various treatment modalities can be developed to ensure good ocular alignment and better quality of life for patients suffering from the same.

  15. Pediatric cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of CT in the investigation of intercranial pathology has revolutionized the approach to clinical neurological and neurosurgical practice. This book applies the advances of cranial CT to the pediatric patient. The test is divided into two sections. The first portion describes the practical methodology, anatomy and normal and abnormal CT scan appearance, including high or low density lesions, cystic lesions and ventricular or subarachnoid space dilation. The characteristic scans for various neurological diseases are presented and discussed. The author has given special attention to the CT diagnosis of congenital malformations and cerebral neoplasms. Partial Contents: Normal Computed Tomographic Anatomy/ High Density Lesions/Low Density Lesions/Cystic Lesions; Supratentorial/Cystic Lesions; Infratentorial/Increased Head Circumference/Increased Ventricular Size/Small Ventricular Size/Cranial Lesions/Spinal Lesions/CT Cisternography/Part II CT in Neonates/Congenital Craniocerebral Malformations/Hydrocephalus/Craniosynostosis/Head Trauma/Cerebrovascular Lesions/Intracranial Lesions/Seizure Disorders/Intracranial and Other Chronic Neurological Disorders.

  16. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  17. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  18. Primary Cranial Vault Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, So Hee; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Cranial vault involvement in primary lymphoma is extremely rare in immunocompetent subjects. However, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the presence of a lesion involving all three compartments of the cranial vault, including the scalp, skull, and pachymeninges. We report a case of primary cranial vault lymphoma involving all three compartments of the cranial vault in an immunocompetent patient.

  19. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  20. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  1. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  2. Multiple congenital cranial hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George [Alfred Hospital, Department of Radiology, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Rao, Padma [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    Though cranial hemangiomas are second only to vertebral hemangiomas in frequency, such lesions are rarely congenital and multiple. It is probable that the true incidence of congenital calvarial hemangiomas is higher than that reported in the literature, as they are unlikely to undergo imaging, most being asymptomatic and without a significant soft tissue component. We present a case of multiple congenital calvarial and skull base cavernous-type hemangiomas, diagnosed in a 4-day-old female, involving the right zygoma, maxilla, frontal and petrous temporal bones and contralateral squamous temporal bone. Surgical biopsy confirmed the radiological diagnosis as well as the concomitant multiple subcutaneous capillary-type hemangiomas which were identified clinically. No specific clinical syndrome or chromosomal abnormality was identified and the underlying cerebral parenchyma was normal with no intra-axial involvement. With conservative treatment, two lesions completely resolved and a further two lesions subsequently decreased in both size and degree of enhancement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multiple congenital hemangiomas involving the calvarium and skull base. Despite this, the radiological features, combined with the clinical findings of multiple capillary hemangiomas, were characteristic enough to permit an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Osseous hemangiomas should feature prominently in any differential diagnosis of multiple hypervascular lesions, as they are common, more so when limited to an anatomical region, irrespective of site or age. (orig.)

  3. The Morphogenesis of Cranial Sutures in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta M Topczewska

    Full Text Available Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone. Parietal and frontal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification within a layer of mesenchyme positioned between the dermal mesenchyme and meninges surrounding the brain. The supraoccipital bone has an endochondral origin. Cranial bones are separated by connective tissue with a distinctive architecture of osteogenic cells and collagen fibrils. Here we show RNA in situ hybridization for col1a1a, col2a1a, col10a1, bglap/osteocalcin, fgfr1a, fgfr1b, fgfr2, fgfr3, foxq1, twist2, twist3, runx2a, runx2b, sp7/osterix, and spp1/ osteopontin, indicating that the expression of genes involved in suture development in mammals is preserved in zebrafish. We also present methods for examining the cranium and its sutures, which permit the study of the mechanisms involved in suture patency as well as their pathological obliteration. The model we develop has implications for the study of human disorders, including craniosynostosis, which affects 1 in 2,500 live births.

  4. Therapeutic effects of cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Anne; von Hauenschild, Phillip

    2011-12-01

    Cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) involves the manipulation of the primary respiratory mechanism to improve structure and function in children and adults. To identify and critically evaluate the literature regarding the clinical efficacy of cranial OMM. The clinical keywords "cranial manipulation" OR "osteopathy in the cranial field" OR "cranial osteopathy" OR "craniosacral technique" were searched in the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and AMED (Alternative Medicine). Searches were conducted in April 2011 with no date restriction for when the studies were completed. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that measured the effectiveness of cranial OMM on humans were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included non-English language articles, studies not relevant to cranial OMM, animal studies, and studies in which there was no clear indication of the use of cranial OMM. Studies that described the use of cranial OMM with other treatment modalities and that did not perform subgroup analysis were also excluded. The present study did not have criteria regarding type of disease. Outcome measures on pain, sleep, quality of life, motor function, and autonomic nervous system function were extracted. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 7 were randomized controlled trials and 1 was an observational study. A range of cranial OMM techniques used for the management of a variety of conditions were identified in the included studies. Positive clinical outcomes were reported for pain reduction, change in autonomic nervous system function, and improvement of sleeping patterns. Methodological Downs and Black quality scores ranged from 14 to 23 points out of a maximum of

  5. Sample positioning in neutron diffraction experiments using a multi-material fiducial marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marais, D., E-mail: Deon.Marais@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Venter, A.M., E-mail: Andrew.Venter@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University, Mahikeng 2790 (South Africa); Markgraaff, J., E-mail: Johan.Markgraaff@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); James, J., E-mail: Jon.James@open.ac.uk [Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK76AA England (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    An alternative sample positioning method is reported for use in conjunction with sample positioning and experiment planning software systems deployed on some neutron diffraction strain scanners. In this approach, the spherical fiducial markers and location trackers used with optical metrology hardware are replaced with a specifically designed multi-material fiducial marker that requires one diffraction measurement. In a blind setting, the marker position can be determined within an accuracy of ±164 µm with respect to the instrument gauge volume. The scheme is based on a pre-determined relationship that links the diffracted peak intensity to the absolute positioning of the fiducial marker with respect to the instrument gauge volume. Two methods for establishing the linking relationship are presented, respectively based on fitting multi-dimensional quadratic functions and a cross-correlation artificial neural network.

  6. Sample positioning in neutron diffraction experiments using a multi-material fiducial marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, D.; Venter, A. M.; Markgraaff, J.; James, J.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative sample positioning method is reported for use in conjunction with sample positioning and experiment planning software systems deployed on some neutron diffraction strain scanners. In this approach, the spherical fiducial markers and location trackers used with optical metrology hardware are replaced with a specifically designed multi-material fiducial marker that requires one diffraction measurement. In a blind setting, the marker position can be determined within an accuracy of ±164 μm with respect to the instrument gauge volume. The scheme is based on a pre-determined relationship that links the diffracted peak intensity to the absolute positioning of the fiducial marker with respect to the instrument gauge volume. Two methods for establishing the linking relationship are presented, respectively based on fitting multi-dimensional quadratic functions and a cross-correlation artificial neural network.

  7. Direct detection of Trichomonas vaginalis virus in Trichomonas vaginalis positive clinical samples from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehee, Ivo; van der Veer, Charlotte; Himschoot, Michelle; Hermans, Mirjam; Bruisten, Sylvia

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted parasitical infection worldwide. T. vaginalis can carry a virus: Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV). To date, four TVV species have been described. Few studies have investigated TVV prevalence and its clinical importance. We have developed a nested reverse-transcriptase PCR, with novel, type specific primers to directly detect TVV RNA in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. A total of 119T. vaginalis positive clinical samples were collected in Amsterdam and "s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, from 2012 to 2016. For all samples T. vaginalis was genotyped using multi-locus sequence typing. The T. vaginalis positive samples segregated into a two-genotype population: type I (n=64) and type II (n=55). All were tested for TVV with the new TVV PCR. We detected 3 of the 4 TVV species. Sequencing of the amplified products showed high homology with published TVV genomes (82-100%). Half of the T. vaginalis clinical samples (n=60, 50.4%) were infected with one or more TVV species, with a preponderance for TVV infections in T. vaginalis type I (n=44, 73.3%). Clinical data was available for a subset of samples (n=34) and we observed an association between testing positive for (any) TVV and reporting urogenital symptoms (p=0.023). The nested RT-PCR allowed for direct detection of TVV in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. This may be helpful in studies and clinical settings, since T. vaginalis disease and/or treatment outcome may be influenced by the protozoa"s virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  9. Versatile, low-cost, computer-controlled, sample positioning system for vacuum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    A versatile, low-cost, easy to implement, microprocessor-based motorized positioning system (MPS) suitable for accurate sample manipulation in a Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) system, and for other ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications was designed and built at NASA LeRC. The system can be operated manually or under computer control. In the latter case, local, as well as remote operation is possible via the IEEE-488 bus. The position of the sample can be controlled in three linear orthogonal and one angular coordinates.

  10. [Establishment of confirmatory test for suspicious hepatitis B surface antigen positive samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Rong, Yang; Liu, Jia; Xu, Jun; Guo, Jing-Xia; Song, Yong-Ji; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ai-Xia; Yang, Li-Hua; Li, Bo-An; Mao, Yuan-Li

    2012-08-01

    Establish a confirmatory test based on ELISA, and use to verify the authenticity of HBsAg weak positive samples, pick and get rid of the false result, and avoid the mistake diagnosis. The particles (reagent A) coated by streptavidin and biotinylated HBsAb (reagent B) were mixed in different proportions, then neutralized with serum whose the COI of HBsAg > 20 by ELISA in order to identify the activity of HBsAb in confirmatory reagent. 30 pieces of HBsAg weak positive serum neutralized with the confirmatory reagent, the serum were considered to be positive if rate of decline of HBsAg COI > 50%. The results were compared to Roche confirmatory Kit. Confirmatory reagent was able to neutralized with HBsAg. 24 of 30 pieces of HBsAg weak positive samples were judged to be positive, while 6 poeces were negative. The ELISA comfirm method is fully consistent with Roche confirmatory Kit. The ELISA confirmatory test for suspicious HBsAg positive samples is a simple, accurate and low cost initial validation method, After further clinical trials, should be widely applied.

  11. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  12. The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, N J; Chilton, J K

    2015-07-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars Ligong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars. Ligong Mi1,3,∗ & Xiang Liu1,2. 1Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS, 150 Science 1-Street, Urumqi 830011,. People's Republic of China. 2Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, CAS, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. 3University of Chinese ...

  14. Occupational position and its relation to mental distress in a random sample of Danish residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D

    2010-01-01

    somatization symptoms (OR = 6.28, 95% CI = 1.39-28.46). CONCLUSIONS: Unskilled manual workers, the unemployed, and, to a lesser extent, the low-grade self-employed showed an increased level of mental distress. Activities to promote mental health in the Danish population should be directed toward these groups.......PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random...... sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self...

  15. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  16. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swallowing, the gag reflex, and speech Control of muscle in some internal organs and the heart rate This function is not tested as part of the cranial nerve examination. 11th Accessory Neck turning and shoulder shrugging The person is asked to turn the ...

  17. Implementation of Wi-Fi Signal Sampling on an Android Smartphone for Indoor Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Huan; Liu, Chun

    2017-12-21

    Collecting and maintaining radio fingerprint for wireless indoor positioning systems involves considerable time and labor. We have proposed the quick radio fingerprint collection (QRFC) algorithm which employed the built-in accelerometer of Android smartphones to implement step detection in order to assist in collecting radio fingerprints. In the present study, we divided the algorithm into moving sampling (MS) and stepped MS (SMS), and describe the implementation of both algorithms and their comparison. Technical details and common errors concerning the use of Android smartphones to collect Wi-Fi radio beacons were surveyed and discussed. The results of signal sampling experiments performed in a hallway measuring 54 m in length showed that in terms of the amount of time required to complete collection of access point (AP) signals, static sampling (SS; a traditional procedure for collecting Wi-Fi signals) took at least 2 h, whereas MS and SMS took approximately 150 and 300 s, respectively. Notably, AP signals obtained through MS and SMS were comparable to those obtained through SS in terms of the distribution of received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and positioning accuracy. Therefore, MS and SMS are recommended instead of SS as signal sampling procedures for indoor positioning algorithms.

  18. Routine Cranial Computed Tomography before Lumbar Puncture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current international guidelines recommend that a cranial computed tomography (CT) be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with new onset seizures, before a lumbar puncture (LP) is performed. In the South African setting, however this delay could be life threatening. The present study sought to ...

  19. Routine cranial computed tomography before lumbar puncture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... How to cite this article: Moolla S ... cranial computed tomography (CT) be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with new onset seizures ... an expanding mass such as a space-occupying lesion (SOL), cerebral oedema or hydrocephalus.5. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone ...

  20. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet

  1. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-05-01

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  2. Reliability and validity of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire in a sample of Spanish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Merino, J; Lluch-Canut, M T; Casas, I; Sanromà-Ortíz, M; Ferré-Grau, C; Sequeira, C; Falcó-Pegueroles, A; Soares, D; Puig-Llobet, M

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In general, the current studies of positive mental health use questionnaires or parts thereof. However, while these questionnaires evaluate aspects of positive mental health, they fail to measure the construct itself. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The widespread use and the lack of specific questionnaires for evaluating the positive mental health construct justify the need to measure the robustness of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire. Also six factors are proposed to measure positive mental health. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The availability of a good questionnaire to measure positive mental health in university students is useful not only to promote mental health but also to strengthen the curricula of future professionals. Introduction Nursing has a relevant role in managing mental health. It is important to identify and thereafter to enhance positive aspects of mental health among university nursing students. Aim The aim of the present study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (PMHQ) in terms of reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of university students. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1091 students at 4 nursing schools in Catalonia, Spain. The reliability of the PMHQ was measured by means of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the test-retest stability was measured with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the validity of the factorial structure. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient was satisfactory (>0.70) for four of the six subscales or dimensions and ranged from 0.54 to 0.79. ICC analysis was satisfactory for the six subscales or dimensions. The hypothesis was confirmed in the analysis of the correlations between subclasses and the overall scale, with the strongest correlations being found between the majority of

  3. Velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters via sampled position data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Huang, Chunli; Lü, Jinhu; Li, Xiong; Chen, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    Power systems are special multi-agent systems with nonlinear coupling function and symmetric structures. This paper extends these systems to a class of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters, linear coupling function, and asymmetric structures and investigates their velocity synchronization via sampled position data. The dynamics of the agents is adopted as that of generators with mismatched parameters, while the system structures are supposed to be complex. Two distributed linear consensus protocols are designed, respectively, for multi-agent systems without or with communication delay. Necessary and sufficient conditions based on the sampling period, the mismatched parameters, the delay, and the nonzero eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix are established. It is shown that velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters can be achieved if the sampled period is chosen appropriately. Simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  4. Epidemiological approach to emergent cranial surgery of cranial traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülagü Kaptan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: In this study, we aim to define the emergent cranial surgery of cranial trauma cases in terms of the reason of occurance, diagnosis, prognostic factors and results. Methods: 153 cases hospitalized in our clinic during a four year period were statistically analysed in accordance with trauma etiology, age, gender, application GCS (Glascow Coma Score mortality rate, location and established patology.

    Results: 76% (116 of the 153 cases were male. The most frequent etiological reasons were, in descending order, traffic accident 52% (n = 80, fall 34% (n = 53, direct trauma to the head 14(n =20. 45% (n = 69 were diagnosed epidural haematomas, 26% (n = 40 were diagnosed depression fractures and 3% (n = 5 were diagnosed intracerebral haematomas. A meaningful statistical difference was found in the comparison of the diagnosis regarding gender (p=0,012 age group (p=0,0282 and GCS (p=0,0001.

    Conclusions: In order to prevent cranial traumas, studies aimed at minimizing traffic accidents should be undertaken. The most essential action after the accident has occured is triage, and this is of great importance in order to establish communication among the health institutions.

  5. Identification and characterization of microsporidia from fecal samples of HIV-positive patients from Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Teslim Ojuromi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They have been increasingly recognized as human pathogens in AIDS patients, mainly associated with a life-threatening chronic diarrhea and systemic disease. However, to date the global epidemiology of human microsporidiosis is poorly understood, and recent data suggest that the incidence of these pathogens is much higher than previously reported and may represent a neglected etiological agent of more common diseases indeed in immunocompetent individuals. To contribute to the knowledge of microsporidia molecular epidemiology in HIV-positive patients in Nigeria, the authors tested stool samples proceeding from patients with and without diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples from 193 HIV-positive patients with and without diarrhea (67 and 126 respectively from Lagos (Nigeria were investigated for the presence of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium using Weber's Chromotrope-based stain, Kinyoun stain, IFAT and PCR. The Weber stain showed 45 fecal samples (23.3% with characteristic microsporidia spores, and a significant association of microsporidia with diarrhea was observed (O.R. = 18.2; CI: 95%. A similar result was obtained using Kinyoun stain, showing 44 (31,8% positive samples with structures morphologically compatible with Cryptosporidium sp, 14 (31.8% of them with infection mixed with microsporidia. The characterization of microsporidia species by IFAT and PCR allowed identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and E. cuniculi in 5, 2 and 1 samples respectively. The partial sequencing of the ITS region of the rRNA genes showed that the three isolates of E.bieneusi studied are included in Group I, one of which bears the genotype B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of microsporidia characterization in fecal samples from HIV-positive patients from

  6. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...... the direct measurements. The mean angle was greater in females (48.2° ± 7.2°) than in males (45.38° ±8.06°) but the difference was not significant (t-test, p = 0.063). A statistically significant difference in cranial base shape existed between the two sexes, but the results also demonstrated a major overlap...

  7. Flightlessness affects cranial morphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Cubo, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Flightless birds belonging to phylogenetically distant clades share several morphological features in the pectoral and pelvic apparatus. There are indications that skull morphology is also influenced by flightlessness. In this study we used a large number of flightless species to test whether flightlessness in modern birds does indeed affect cranial morphology. Discriminant analyses and variation partitioning show evidence for a relationship between skull morphology and the flightless condition in birds. A possible explanation for the change in cranial morphology can be linked to the reduced selective force for light-weight skulls in flightless birds. This makes an increase in muscle mass, and therefore an enlargement of muscle insertion areas on the skull, possible. We also compared the ontogenetic trajectory of Gallus with the adult morphology of a sample of flightless species to see whether the apomorphic features characterizing the skull of flightless birds share the same developmental basis, which would indicate convergent evolution by parallelism. Skull morphology (expressed as principal component scores) of palaeognathous flightless birds (ratites) is dissimilar (higher scores) to juvenile stages of the chicken and therefore seem peramorphic (overdeveloped). Principal component scores of adult neognathous flightless birds fall within the range of chicken development, so no clear conclusions about the ontogenetic trajectories leading to their sturdier skull morphology could be drawn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Posttraumatic Cranial Cystic Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arata Tomiyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old was girl admitted to our hospital with a subcutaneous mass of the occipital head. The mass had grown for 6 years, after she had sustained a head injury at the age of 6, and was located directly under a previous wound. Skull X-ray Photograph (xp, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a bony defect and cystic changes in the skull corresponding to a subcutaneous mass. Bone scintigraphy revealed partial accumulation. The patient underwent total removal of the skull mass, and the diagnosis from the pathological findings of the cyst wall was fibrous dysplasia (FD. The radiographic findings for cystic cranial FD can be various. Progressive skull disease has been reported to be associated with head trauma, but the relationship between cranial FD and head trauma has not been previously reported. Previous studies have suggested that c-fos gene expression is a key mechanism in injury-induced FD.

  9. Cranial computed tomography in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltshauser, E. (Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Kinderklinik)

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with methodical aspects (such as sedation, intravenous and intrathecal application of contrast media) and with common difficulties in interpretation of computed tomography images. The indications for cranial CT are discussed in respect to probable therapeutic consequences and expected diagnostic yield. In the view of the author CT is, as a rule, not required in assessing chronic headache, generalised epileptic convulsions, non-specific mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

  10. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G

    2005-09-01

    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  11. Neonatal cranial ultrasound: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arie Franco, Kristopher Neal Lewis Department of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is the most common imaging tool used in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is portable, readily available, and can be used at bedside. It is the least expensive cross sectional imaging modality and the safest imaging device used in the pediatric population due to its lack of ionizing radiation. There are well established indications for cranial ultrasound in many neonatal patient groups including preterm infants and term infants with birth asphyxia, seizures, congenital infections, etc. Cranial ultrasound is performed with basic grayscale imaging, using a linear array or sector transducer via the anterior fontanel in the coronal and sagittal planes. Additional images can be obtained through the posterior fontanel in preterm newborns. The mastoid fontanel can be used for assessment of the posterior fossa. Doppler images may be obtained for screening of the vascular structures. The normal sonographic neonatal cranial anatomy and normal variants are discussed. The most common pathological findings in preterm newborns, such as germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, are described as well as congenital abnormalities such as holoprosencephaly and agenesis of the corpus callosum. New advances in sonographic equipment enable high-resolution and three-dimensional images, which facilitate obtaining very accurate measurements of various anatomic structures such as the ventricles, the corpus callosum, and the cerebellar vermis. Limited studies have been performed to predict that longitudinal measurements of these anatomic structures might predict the clinical outcome of high-risk preterm newborns. Hemodynamic Doppler studies may offer the potential for early intervention and treatment to counter the hazards of developmental delay and a moribund clinical outcome

  12. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  14. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R. [Sao Paulo Univ. Federal (Brazil); Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de [Centro Univ. Sao Camilo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3{<=}p{<=}6 cm, was {rho}((p)=7.9(4)x10{sup -2}+7(5)x10{sup -5}p{sup 4.5(4)} cm{sup -1}; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa

  15. Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H; Ngo, Charlie V; Chat, Sandy W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, we are able to characterize the mechanisms underlying age-related loss, and show that the reduction in Vernier acuity can be mainly attributed to the reduction in efficiency of sampling, with no significant change in the level of internal position noise, or spatial distortion, in the visual system.

  16. A Procedure to Determine the Optimal Sensor Positions for Locating AE Sources in Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, S.; Occhiena, C.; Sambuelli, L.

    2015-03-01

    Within a research work aimed to better understand frost weathering mechanisms of rocks, laboratory tests have been designed to specifically assess a theoretical model of crack propagation due to ice segregation process in water-saturated and thermally microcracked cubic samples of Arolla gneiss. As the formation and growth of microcracks during freezing tests on rock material is accompanied by a sudden release of stored elastic energy, the propagation of elastic waves can be detected, at the laboratory scale, by acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The AE receiver array geometry is a sensitive factor influencing source location errors, for it can greatly amplify the effect of small measurement errors. Despite the large literature on the AE source location, little attention, to our knowledge, has been paid to the description of the experimental design phase. As a consequence, the criteria for sensor positioning are often not declared and not related to location accuracy. In the present paper, a tool for the identification of the optimal sensor position on a cubic shape rock specimen is presented. The optimal receiver configuration is chosen by studying the condition numbers of each of the kernel matrices, used for inverting the arrival time and finding the source location, and obtained for properly selected combinations between sensors and sources positions.

  17. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  18. Antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera against Gram-positive isolates from pus samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Punum; Rawat, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine since ancient times. In the view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. Attention has been drawn to antibacterial activity of the plant and its metabolites due to the challenge on growing antibacterial resistant pathogens. Aim: To examine the antimicrobial potential of leaf extract of W. somnifera against Gram-positive cocci. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extract of W. somnifera was used to examine their antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive cocci (n = 20) from pus samples of patients admitted in Government Medical College, Haldwani. Agar well diffusion method was used by taking methanolic leaf extract of W. somnifera. Results: It was observed that the methanolic leaf extract of W. somnifera was very effective in inhibiting the test pathogens including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp., with an average zone of inhibition of 20.6 mm and 19.4 mm at 2 mg/ml (100 μl) concentration, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antimicrobial property of W. somnifera leaf supports the traditional use of the plant in therapeutic use against microbial infections. PMID:25972723

  19. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related...... to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  20. Dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected samples as positive controls for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidoo Michael

    2012-07-01

    80% for the other two RDTs. The mean level for detection of pLDH at 200 parasites/μl was low (29%, with a range of 0% to100%, which was partly attributable to weak initial baseline reactivity. Reactivity of dried 3D7 at 1,000 and 2,000 parasites/μl stored at 4°C was retained at 100% for up to 52 weeks for both HRP2 and pLDH. Conclusions In the absence of native or recombinant positive control antigens, well-standardized P. falciparum-infected dried blood samples can be used as positive control samples for monitoring RDT performance, particularly with HRP2-detecting tests.

  1. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael; Eilers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, ‘bulk’ isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  2. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, 'bulk' isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  3. Cranial surgery without head shaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Ayumi; Takayama, Kenji; Kaji, Masatomo; Hirabaru, Masashi; Hirayama, Takahisa; Shinsato, Tomomi; Arita, Kazunori

    2009-12-01

    Based on a series of 632 patients who underwent craniotomy without head shaving, we report the efficacy and safety of our simplified procedure and document the usefulness of the electrosurgical scalpel. After brushing a chlorhexidine-alcohol solution onto the craniotomy site, the hair was parted from the incision line and fixed with adhesive paper drapes. In recent cases, electrosurgical scalpels were used for scalp- and subcutaneous dissection. At the end of surgery, the wound was closed in the usual manner, taking care that no hair was in the wound and the hair and wound were rinsed with clean water in the operating room. We did not apply disinfectant for postoperative wound care, rather, the hair was shampooed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative day. Among 632 patients who underwent cranial surgery without head shaving, only 7 (1.1%) developed postoperative wound infections. None of the 34 patients who underwent craniotomy using the electrosurgical scalpel developed wound infections. Our simplified cranial surgery without head shaving does not increase the risk of wound infection. Because the use of the electrosurgical scalpel for skin and soft tissue dissection minimizes bleeding, the probability of wound infection appears to be reduced.

  4. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Biomaterials for reconstruction of cranial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of cranial defect is commonly performed in neurosurgical operations. Many materials have been employed for repairing cranial defects. In this paper, materials used for cranioplasty, including autografts, allografts, and synthetic biomaterials are comprehensively reviewed. This paper also gives future perspective of the materials and development trend of manufacturing process for cranioplasty implants.

  6. A Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C Roberts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the 3-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures seen in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  7. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Ernest D; Coll, Francesc; Furnham, Nick; McNerney, Ruth; Glynn, Judith R; Campino, Susana; Pain, Arnab; Mohareb, Fady R; Clark, Taane G

    2015-05-13

    Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights into the genomic variation underlying intra- and inter-strain diversity, thereby assisting with the classification and molecular barcoding of the bacteria. One roadblock to strain investigation is the lack of user-interactive solutions to interrogate and visualise variation within a phylogenetic tree setting. We have developed a web-based tool called PhyTB ( http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/phytblive/index.php ) to assist phylogenetic tree visualisation and identification of M. tuberculosis clade-informative polymorphism. Variant Call Format files can be uploaded to determine a sample position within the tree. A map view summarises the geographical distribution of alleles and strain-types. The utility of the PhyTB is demonstrated on sequence data from 1,601 M. tuberculosis isolates. PhyTB contextualises M. tuberculosis genomic variation within epidemiological, geographical and phylogenic settings. Further tool utility is possible by incorporating large variants and phenotypic data (e.g. drug-resistance profiles), and an assessment of genotype-phenotype associations. Source code is available to develop similar websites for other organisms ( http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotrack ).

  8. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest D

    2015-05-13

    Background Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights into the genomic variation underlying intra- and inter-strain diversity, thereby assisting with the classification and molecular barcoding of the bacteria. One roadblock to strain investigation is the lack of user-interactive solutions to interrogate and visualise variation within a phylogenetic tree setting. Results We have developed a web-based tool called PhyTB (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/phytblive/index.php webcite) to assist phylogenetic tree visualisation and identification of M. tuberculosis clade-informative polymorphism. Variant Call Format files can be uploaded to determine a sample position within the tree. A map view summarises the geographical distribution of alleles and strain-types. The utility of the PhyTB is demonstrated on sequence data from 1,601 M. tuberculosis isolates. Conclusion PhyTB contextualises M. tuberculosis genomic variation within epidemiological, geographical and phylogenic settings. Further tool utility is possible by incorporating large variants and phenotypic data (e.g. drug-resistance profiles), and an assessment of genotype-phenotype associations. Source code is available to develop similar websites for other organisms (http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotrack webcite).

  9. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor.

  10. Procedure for the systematic orientation of digitised cranial models. Design and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, M; Baena, S; Marín, J J; Arredondo, J M; Auría, J M; Sánchez, B; Tardío, E; Falcón, L

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of bony pieces requires that they are oriented systematically to ensure that homologous regions are compared. Few orientation methods are highly accurate; this is particularly true for methods applied to three-dimensional models obtained by surface scanning, a technique whose special features make it a powerful tool in forensic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a systematic, assisted orientation method for aligning three-dimensional cranial models relative to the Frankfurt Plane, which would be produce accurate orientations independent of operator and anthropological expertise. The study sample comprised four crania of known age and sex. All the crania were scanned and reconstructed using an Eva Artec™ portable 3D surface scanner and subsequently, the position of certain characteristic landmarks were determined by three different operators using the Rhinoceros 3D surface modelling software. Intra-observer analysis showed a tendency for orientation to be more accurate when using the assisted method than when using conventional manual orientation. Inter-observer analysis showed that experienced evaluators achieve results at least as accurate if not more accurate using the assisted method than those obtained using manual orientation; while inexperienced evaluators achieved more accurate orientation using the assisted method. The method tested is a an innovative system capable of providing very precise, systematic and automatised spatial orientations of virtual cranial models relative to standardised anatomical planes independent of the operator and operator experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for ge...

  12. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  13. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  14. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong Min

    2017-06-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  15. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. PMID:28534340

  16. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Steve E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little ho...

  17. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, A.; Yigit, S.; Oran, O. [Neonatology Unit, University of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey); Firat, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-05-01

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia. (orig.)

  18. Correlation between Positive Rate and Number of Biopsy Samples on Urease Test in Childhood Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    To identify the correlation between the number of gastric biopsy samples and the positive rate, we compared the results of urease test using one and three biopsy samples from each 255 children who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The children were divided into three age groups: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-15 yr. The gastric endoscopic biopsies were subjected to the urease test. That is, one and three gastric antral biopsy samples were collected from the same child. The results of urease test were classified into three grades: Grade 0 (no change), 1 (6-24 hr), 2 (1-6 hr), and 3 (<1 hr). The positive rate of urease test was increased by the age with no respect to the number of gastric biopsy samples (one biopsy P = 0.001, three biopsy P < 0.001). The positive rate of the urease test was higher on three biopsy samples as compared with one biopsy sample (P < 0.001). The difference between one and three biopsy samples was higher in the children aged 0-9 yr. Our results indicate that the urease test might be a more accurate diagnostic modality when it is performed on three or more biopsy samples in children. PMID:24431913

  19. [Computed tomography and cranial paleoanthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Istoc, Adrian; de Lumley, Henry; de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette; Coppens, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Since its invention in 1972, computed tomography (C.T.) has significantly evolved. With the advent of multi-slice detectors (500 times more sensitive than conventional radiography) and high-powered computer programs, medical applications have also improved. CT is now contributing to paleoanthropological research. Its non-destructive nature is the biggest advantage for studying fossil skulls. The second advantage is the possibility of image analysis, storage, and transmission. Potential disadvantages include the possible loss of files and the need to keep up with rapid technological advances. Our experience since the late 1970s, and a recent PhD thesis, led us to describe routine applications of this method. The main contributions of CT to cranial paleoanthropology are five-fold: --Numerical anatomy with rapid acquisition and high spatial resolution (helicoidal and multidetector CT) offering digital storage and stereolithography (3D printing). --Numerical biometry (2D and 3D) can be used to create "normograms" such as the 3D craniofacial reference model used in maxillofacial surgery. --Numerical analysis offers thorough characterization of the specimen and its state of conservation and/or restoration. --From "surrealism" to virtual imaging, anatomical structures can be reconstructed, providing access to hidden or dangerous zones. --The time dimension (4D imaging) confers movement and the possibility for endoscopic simulation and internal navigation (see Iconography). New technical developments will focus on data processing and networking. It remains our duty to deal respectfully with human fossils.

  20. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, B.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Elsas, L.J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Wyly, J.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Pasquali, M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1994-03-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  1. Cranial trepanation in The Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2014-09-01

    Medicine and literature have been linked from ancient times; proof of this shown by the many doctors who have made contributions to literature and the many writers who have described medical activities and illnesses in their works. An example is The Egyptian, the book by Mika Waltari that provides a masterly narration of the protagonist's medical activity and describes the trepanation technique. The present work begins with the analysis of trepanations since prehistory and illustrates the practice of the trepanation in The Egyptian. The book mentions trepanation frequently and illustrates how to practice it and which instruments are required to perform it. Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, but it also had the magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms. Trepanation is a surgical practice that has been carried out since prehistory to treat post-traumatic epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric illness. The Egyptian is a book that illustrates the trepan, the trepanation technique, and the required set of instruments in full detail. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori antigen positivity in stool samples of patients with dyspeptic complaints in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Selek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism associatedwith gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastriccancer. We aimed to figure out the positivity rate in stoolsamples of outpatients with dyspeptic complaints visitinggastroenterology department and to evaluate its relationwith age, gender and seasonal changes.Methods: Between January 01, 2012 and December 31,2012, stool samples of 330 adult outpatients admitted togastroenterology department are investigated with an immunochromatographictest kit using monoclonal antibodiesfor detection of H. pylori antigen.Results: Among 330 patients’ stool samples tested, 67(20.3% were positive. 18.6% of men and 22.2% of womenwere detected as positive. According to age groups,17.1% patients were positive for 15-35 age groups,27.1% patients were positive for 36-55 age groups and18.2% patients were positive for above 56. Seasonal differenceof H. pylori antigen positivity in stool samples wasstatistically significant (p=0.001. Highest positivity rate29.7% was detected for winter months (December-January-February. According to logistic regression analysis,winter is found as a risk factor with statistically significant2.295 times greater risk [p=0001, Exp (B = 2.925, 95.0%C.I. for EXP (B = 1.668-5.129].Conclusion: H. pylori antigen positivity rate of our study islower than other previously conducted studies in Turkey.But, positivity rates are higher among women comparedto men, concordant with other studies. Even more, detectionof high positivity rates in winter shows primary infectionand/or relapse can be affected by seasonal changes.Key words: Helicobacter pylori, gastroenterology, stool antigen test

  3. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  4. Multiple cranial neuropathies without limb involvements: guillain-barre syndrome variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju Young; Jung, Han Young; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyo Sang; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2013-10-01

    Acute multiple cranial neuropathies are considered as variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which are immune-mediated diseases triggered by various cases. It is a rare disease which is related to infectious, inflammatory or systemic diseases. According to previous case reports, those affected can exhibit almost bilateral facial nerve palsy, then followed by bulbar dysfunctions (cranial nerves IX and X) accompanied by limb weakness and walking difficulties due to motor and/or sensory dysfunctions. Furthermore, reported cases of the acute multiple cranial neuropathies show electrophysiological abnormalities compatible with the typical Guillain-Barre syndromes (GBS). We recently experienced a patient with a benign infectious disease who subsequently developed symptoms of variant GBS. Here, we describe the case of a 48-year-old male patient who developed multiple symptoms of cranial neuropathy without limb weakness. His laboratory findings showed a positive result for anti-GQ1b IgG antibody. As compared with previously described variants of GBS, the patient exhibited widespread cranial neuropathy, which included neuropathies of cranial nerves III-XII, without limb involvement or ataxia.

  5. A newer approach in positioning teeth for dental prosthetics using lateral cephalometric, trans-cranial radiographs, and the Denar-Witzig articulator: a case of hypodontia in an adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapra, A; White, G E

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally in full denture prosthetics, anterior teeth are set on the models, independent of the effects on the face. More enlightened dentists, will then adjust the wax-up for speech, and some effects on the lips. Consideration is infrequently given to restoring the face by repositioning the teeth and mandible. Rarely is thought given to the effects of occlusion on the posture of the body. This report uses several techniques to restore facial esthetics and body posture. The techniques used include a cephalometric radiograph, transcranial radiographs, an articulator that has an adjustable "TMJ" (Denar-Witzig), and Symmetrigraf Posture Chart. This clinical report describes a newer approach in the positioning of maxillary anterior teeth for a patient with hypodontia and nail dysplasia syndrome, and the overall effect of this approach on the face and posture of the patient. Conventionally the precise form of the maxillary wax rim is fabricated with considerable variation from technician to another, based on the technicians training. This variation is evident on the position of the labial aspect of the rim horizontally and vertically. The wax rim is then further adjusted chair side based on subjective evaluation of the face. The maxillary anterior teeth position is established without considering that the lip position is not yet accustomed to the wax rim.

  6. Os arranjos configurados pelas artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal no pato doméstico (Cairina moshata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério Alves Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Herewith we studied the pattern disposition of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in 30 domestic ducks (Cairina moshata, 20 males and 10 females. Latex 650 was injected in the arterial system and then the samples were fixed in 10% aquous formol solution for later dissection. The cranial mesenteric artery originates as a single vessel from the descendent aorta at the 6th or 7th rib, in a position immediately caudal to the celiac artery. Close to the ileo-cecum-colic junction, it subdivides itself primarily in 3 branches: the first branch gives away a vessel that goes to the colorectum, forming anastomosys with the caudal mesenteric artery. The second branch follows as a trunk to the jejunal arteries, that vary in numbers from 8-20. Finally the third branch is directed to the main and final portions of the right cecum and also ileo, vascularizing them. Concerning the pattern followed by the caudal mesenteric artery, we observed that it originates from the aorta as a single vessel, next to the caudal portions of the kidneys. In all observed samples the caudal mesenteric artery divides itself in 2 branches: a cranial one, that by itself gives away two smaller vessels to the mesorectum and a caudal branch that vascularizes the final portion of the rectum, cloacal bursa and cloaca.

  7. Sugar composition and concentrations in sugarcane juice as affected by sampling date and internode position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) harvest season lasts about six months from late-October through mid-April in Florida. Cane juice sugar concentration and composition are important for sucrose yield and profits, however research is lacking on the influence of harvesting time and intermodal position...

  8. Do all screening immunoassay positive buprenorphine samples need to be confirmed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohamed; Martin, Helen; Tolya, Anne; Coates, Penny

    2017-11-01

    Background Interference from opiates in the Microgenics CEDIA® Buprenorphine assay is known to produce false-positive buprenorphine screening immunoassay results necessitating confirmatory buprenorphine testing by chromatography/mass spectrometry methods. Method We reviewed data on falsely positive buprenorphine immunoassay screen (cut-off ≥ 5  µg/L) but negative for buprenorphine by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cut-off ≥ 5  µg/L) and had a positive opiate immunoassay result (cut-off ≥ 300  µg/L). The results were collected over three months, and the data were evaluated to determine whether there is an opiate immunoassay screen concentration below which a false-positive buprenorphine result will not occur. Results We found that cross-reactivity in the CEDIA® buprenorphine immunoassay by opiates at concentrations buprenorphine result. After changing our practice to not proceed with confirmatory buprenorphine gas chromatography mass spectrometry assay when the opiate screening concentration is below an even more conservative cut-off of buprenorphine immunoassay screen do not require confirmatory testing for buprenorphine.

  9. Positive Emotion Specificity and Mood Symptoms in an Adolescent Outpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Van Meter, Anna; Gilbert, Kirsten E; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Research on positive emotion disturbance has gained increasing attention, yet it is not clear which specific positive emotions are affected by mood symptoms, particularly during the critical period of adolescence. This is especially pertinent for identifying potential endophenotypic markers associated with mood disorder onset and course. The present study examined self-reported discrete positive and negative emotions in association with clinician-rated manic and depressive mood symptoms in a clinically and demographically diverse group of 401 outpatient adolescents between 11-18 years of age. Results indicated that higher self reported joy and contempt were associated with increased symptoms of mania, after controlling for symptoms of depression. Low levels of joy and high sadness uniquely predicted symptoms of depression, after controlling for symptoms of mania. Results were independent of age, ethnicity, gender and bipolar diagnosis. These findings extend work on specific emotions implicated in mood pathology in adulthood, and provide insights into associations between emotions associated with goal driven behavior with manic and depressive mood symptom severity in adolescence. In particular, joy was the only emotion associated with both depressive and manic symptoms across adolescent psychopathology, highlighting the importance of understanding positive emotion disturbance during adolescent development.

  10. Non-destructive identification of micrometer-scale minerals and their position within a bulk sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henning O.; Hakim, Sepide S.; Pedersen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Using the conventional techniques of mineralogy, it has been a challenge to determine mineral identity, crystal orientation and spatial position of micrometer-sized crystals that are embedded in a rock, sediment or soil. Traditionally, the individual grains must be extracted and analyzed separate...

  11. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilula, Marshall F

    2007-07-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics.

  12. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We have carried out the Gaussian model-fitting to 15 GHz VLBAcores for a sample of blazars from the MOJAVE database, analysed the correlations in the model-fitted parameters and studied the variability properties for different group of sources. We found that the Fermi LAT-detected blazars have on an ...

  13. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: false positives in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C S; Liepman, M R; Young, C M

    1990-12-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), designed and validated by Selzer (1971), is widely used to screen for persons with alcohol problems. The most recent version of the MAST includes the question "Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)?" This question may contribute to false positive identifications, as it does not specify whether attendance is for the subject's own problem drinking. In the current research, 114 college students completed the MAST along with an additional question: "Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous because of your own problem drinking?" The results indicated that seven of 114 subjects (6.1%) attained inflated MAST scores because they had attended an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting, but not for their own problem drinking. It is suggested that the wording to the Alcoholics Anonymous question on the MAST be changed to reduce the number of false positive identifications produced by this instrument.

  14. Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Roger W.; Brian Brown; Edwards, Marion H.; Ngo, Charlie V.; Chat, Sandy W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, w...

  15. Knowledge and positions on bioethical dilemmas in a sample of Spanish nursing students: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores

    2011-01-01

    This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum.

  16. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  17. Use of handheld computers with global positioning systems for probability sampling and data entry in household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L; Wolkon, Adam; Frolov, Anatoly S; Terlouw, Dianne J; Eliades, M James; Morgah, Kodjo; Takpa, Vincent; Dare, Aboudou; Sodahlon, Yao K; Doumanou, Yao; Hawley, William A; Hightower, Allen W

    2007-08-01

    We introduce an innovative method that uses personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with global positioning system (GPS) units in household surveys to select a probability-based sample and perform PDA-based interviews. Our approach uses PDAs with GPS to rapidly map all households in selected areas, choose a random sample, and navigate back to the sampled households to conduct an interview. We present recent field experience in two large-scale nationally representative household surveys to assess insecticide-treated bed net coverage as part of malaria control efforts in Africa. The successful application of this method resulted in statistically valid samples; quality-controlled data entry; and rapid aggregation, analyses, and availability of preliminary results within days of completing the field work. We propose this method as an alternative to the Expanded Program on Immunization cluster sample method when a fast, statistically valid survey is required in an environment with little census information at the enumeration area level.

  18. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  19. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  20. Probing indiscretions: contamination of cardiac troponin reagent by very high patient samples causes false-positive results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Michael J; Wilgen, Urs; Pretorius, Carel J; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) has become the standard biomarker for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. False-positive cTnI results have previously been reported on the Beckman Coulter analysers, which were shown to be random, not reproducible and occurred more commonly than expected. Our investigation ensued after a patient sample with an inordinately elevated cTnI was analysed, followed by a series of false-positive results being reported. The implications of falsely elevated cTnI results on patient care could be considerable. Multiple experiments with patient sample pools with concentrations below the 99th percentile to extremely high (0.025, 15, 175 and 884 μg/L) were conducted in varying sequences of high and low samples on the Beckman Coulter Access2, UniCel DxI600 and UniCel DxI800 analysers. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in cTnI concentrations in the negative pool after analysis of high pool samples in various sequences. This increase is sufficient to cause elevations above the 99th percentile cut-off and false-positive cTnI results. These findings were reproducible on all three analysers. Our study is highly suggestive of carryover and cTnI reagent pack contamination by the pipettors on the Access2, DxI600 and DxI800 analysers when patient samples with extremely high cTnI concentrations are analysed, leading to potential false-positive cTnI results on subsequent samples.

  1. Acculturation and socioeconomic position as predictors of coronary calcification in a multiethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V; Detrano, Robert; Jackson, Sharon; Jacobs, David R; Schreiner, Pamela J; Shea, Steven; Szklo, Moyses

    2005-09-13

    Coronary calcium has recently emerged as a marker of subclinical coronary heart disease. Although there has been much interest in race differences in calcification, heterogeneity within race or ethnic groups has not been investigated. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based study of coronary calcification, were used to investigate acculturation and socioeconomic position as predictors of coronary calcification within 2553 non-Hispanic whites, 1734 non-Hispanic blacks, 1457 Hispanics, and 797 Chinese residing in the United States. Coronary calcium was assessed by chest CT. Relative risk regression and linear regression were used to estimate adjusted associations of sociodemographic variables with the presence and amount of calcium. Not being born in the United States was associated with a lower prevalence of calcification in blacks (relative prevalence [RP], 0.75; 95% confidence limit [CL], 0.61 to 0.94) and Hispanics (RP, 0.89; 95% CL, 0.81 to 0.98) after adjustment for age, sex, income, and education. Years in the United States was positively associated with prevalence of calcification in non-US-born Chinese (adjusted RP per 10 years in United States, 1.06; 95% CL, 1.01 to 1.11) and non-US-born blacks (RP, 1.59; 95% CL, 1.22 to 2.06). Low education was associated with a higher prevalence of calcification in whites (adjusted RP for no high school versus complete college, 1.17; 95% CL, 1.05 to 1.32) but with lower prevalence of calcification in Hispanics (RP, 0.91; 95% CL, 0.77 to 1.09) (P for interaction=0.02). US birth and time in the United States were also positively associated with the extent of calcification in persons with detectable calcium. These differences did not appear to be accounted for by smoking, body mass index, LDL and HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. Acculturation and socioeconomic factors are associated with differences in the prevalence and amount of coronary calcification within whites

  2. High prevalence of cranial asymmetry exists in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Megan; Gorbutt, Kimberly A; Peethambaran, Ammanath; Yang, Lynda; Nelson, Virginia S; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu

    2016-11-30

    This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. Infants plagio group), including infants with resolved positional plagiocephaly (plagio-resolved subgroup); and 2) those who never had positional plagiocephaly (non-plagio group). Standard statistics were applied. Eighteen of 28 infants (64%) had positional plagiocephaly. Delivery type might be predictive for plagiocephaly. Infants in the non-plagio group exhibited more active range of motion than infants in the plagio group. All other factors had no significant correlations. A high prevalence of positional plagiocephaly exists among the NBPP population examined. Parents and physicians should encourage infants to use their upper extremities to change position and reduce chance of cranial asymmetry.

  3. Confocal microscopy on the beamline: novel three-dimensional imaging and sample positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.; Gillilan, R.; Kriksunov, I.; Williams, R.; Zipfel, W. R.; Englich, U.

    2012-01-01

    Confocal microscopy, a technique that has been extensively applied in cellular biological studies, may also be applied to the visualization and three-dimensional imaging of protein crystals at high resolution on synchrotron beamlines. Protein crystal samples are examined using a commercially available confocal microscope adapted for cryogenic use. A preliminary test using a custom confocal design adapted for beamline use is also presented. The confocal optics configuration is compatible with nonlinear imaging techniques such as two-photon excited fluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation. The possibilities of this method are explored using two modes: fluorescence and reflection confocal. In fluorescence mode, small amounts of dye are introduced into the crystal through soaking or growth conditions. Under such conditions, protein crystals are easily resolved from salts and amorphous precipitates, which do not generally take up dye. Reflection mode, which does not require dye, still exhibits greater resolution and sensitivity to surface detail than conventional wide-field microscopy as a result of the confocal optics configuration. The inherent three-dimensional nature of the method means that on-axis sample views (along the direction of the X-ray beam) can be reconstructed from an off-axis configuration, simplifying the beamline setup and providing uniquely detailed views of cryogenically cooled crystals. PMID:22997474

  4. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  5. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  6. The importance of inducible clindamycin resistance in enterotoxin positive S. aureus isolated from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memariani M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Clindamycin is a suitable antibiotic for treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. Moreover, it can suppress toxin production in many pathogenic bacteria such as S. aureus. There are two mechanisms of resistance in this antibiotic. Constitutive resistance can be detected by standard disk diffusion method but in the case of inducible resistance, D-test should be carried out. The main aim of this study is to determine prevalence of clindamycin inducible resistance among methicillin resistant and susceptible isolates of S. aureus isolated from different clinical samples. "nMethods: A total of 87 clinical isolates from clinical samples were collected. Methicillin resistance was determined using standard disk diffusion method. Subsequently, D-test was carried out according to CLSI guideline. Presence of the sea gene (enterotoxin A was detected by PCR using specific primers. "nResults: Out of 87 isolates, 18(20.7% were clindamycin inducible resistant while constitutive resistance was detected among 21(24.1% isolates. The 95% Confidence intervals for the proportion of inducible clindamycin resistance among clinical isolates of S. aureus was 12.2% to 29.2%. The inducible phenotype in MRSA isolates was more common than that of MSSA isolates (33.3% vs 5.1%.Significant differences were found between prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance and type of infection (p=0.045. Importantly, there was a significant correlation between sea gene and the constitutive/inducible resistance (p<0.0001. "nConclusions: Due to the high prevalence of clindamycin inducible resistance among clinical isolates of S. aureus, we recommend D-test to avoid treatment failure.

  7. Imaging findings in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafael Martins; Amaral, Lazaro L F; Gonçalves, Marcus V M; Lin, Katia

    2011-12-01

    In 2002, the term congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) was proposed to group heterogeneous syndromes with congenital abnormalities of ocular muscle and facial innervations. The concept of neurogenic etiology has been supported by discovery of genes that are essential to the normal development of brainstem, cranial nerves, and their axonal connections. The CCDDs include Duane retraction syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, the human homeobox-related disorders, pontine cap tegmental dysplasia, and an expanding list. The purpose of this review was to update the imaging features, as well as clinical and genetic information, regarding cases of CCDDs.

  8. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma [Department of Paediatrics, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Aydin, Kubilay [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Camlikyolu, B. mehmetpasa sokak yavuz apt. No:10/10, Etiler, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktuglu, Cigdem [Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  9. Innovative directional and position specific sampling technique. Phase 3: Final report, July 1992--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzel, W.J.; Hill, J.L. III; Foster, E.L.

    1994-09-01

    The POLO System is a major enhancement to the state of the art for subsurface environmental restoration equipment. The system locate s the tip position of penetrometer probes as they are placed underground while meeting the rigid constraints of environmental restoration applications. POLO is applicable to small diameter probes, does not obstruct the center of the probe, is rugged, is unaffected by the presence of steel or other magnetic material, and is capable of remote operation beneath underground tanks or foundations. The development and adaptation of the POLO System for use with penetrometers has progressed through three development phases prior to commercialization. Phases I and II of the contract included the design, testing, and integration of all components of the POLO device. Efforts were made to simulate field conditions in terms of the scale of the components as well as the operating environment. The preestablished success criterion, which has been maintained throughout the research, was to demonstrate path tracking with a total error of less than 0.50% of the distance traveled for distances less than 70 meters. The results tests on individual POLO components showed that the equipment met or exceeded the success criterion. Phase II laboratory scale path tracking experiments also met the success criterion. Phase III moved the POLO System into the field. The full-scale field demonstration tested the ability of the new POLO Module to track the path of a small diameter probe as it moved underground.

  10. Probabilistic Tractography of the Cranial Nerves in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Podlesek, Dino; Rieger, Bernhard; Kitzler, Hagen H; Linn, Jennifer; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2017-11-01

    Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic nontensor-based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of subvoxel size. Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited. The probabilistic tracking was run preoperatively and the position of the potential depictions of the facial and cochlear nerves was estimated postoperatively by 3 independent observers in a blinded fashion. The true position of the nerve was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Thereafter, the imaging-based estimated position was compared with the intraoperatively determined position. Tumor size, cystic appearance, and postoperative House-Brackmann score were analyzed with regard to the accuracy of the depiction of the nerves. The probabilistic tracking showed a connection that correlated to the position of the facial nerve in 81% of the cases and to the position of the cochlear nerve in 33% of the cases. Altogether, the resulting depiction did not correspond to the intraoperative position of any of the nerves in 3 cases. In a majority of cases, the position of the facial nerve, but not of the cochlear nerve, could be estimated by evaluation of the probabilistic tracking results. However, false depictions not corresponding to any nerve do occur and cannot be discerned as such from the image only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  12. Changes in cranial base and craniocervical junction during growth in healthy individuals and in patients with Osteogenesis imperfecta

    OpenAIRE

    Arponen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Cranial base and craniocervical junction anatomy can be evaluated from CT and MR scans, and lateral skull radiographs. Cranial base anatomy changes during growth, as the form of the anatomic structures and their relative positions alter. In disorders of compromised bone quality, abnormal changes in the craniocervical junction can lead to pathological conditions with possibly life-threatening neurological complications. In this investigation these issues have first been addressed by making sku...

  13. Cranial-base morphology in children with class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Po; Hsieh, Shu-Hui; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chou, Tsau-Mau

    2005-04-01

    The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranial-base morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

  14. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Sang; Heo, Sung Hyuk [Dept. of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  15. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on cranial tibial subluxation in canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joints: an in vitro experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelt, Detlef; Kowaleski, Michael P; Boudrieau, Randy J

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on tibiofemoral shear force as reflected by measurement of cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) and patella tendon angle (PTA) in the canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficient stifle joint. In vitro cadaver study. Canine cadaveric hind limbs (n=10). CTS and PTA were evaluated from lateral radiographic projections in axially loaded intact CrCL stifle joints, after transection of the CrCL, at a maximally advanced tibial tuberosity position, and at a critical point position. A custom-designed hinge plate allowed alteration of the tibia to tibial tuberosity distance (Ti-TT) under axial load. Digitized radiographic images were used to quantify CTS, PTA, and Ti-TT. Comparisons within groups were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA. A post hoc Tukey's HSD test was used to determine post-ANOVA pair-wise comparison within these groups. Significance was set at a value of P.05) from the reference 90 degrees PTA. We demonstrated that advancement of the tibial tuberosity neutralized cranial tibial thrust, and converted cranial tibial thrust into caudal tibial thrust. Neutralization of tibiofemoral shear forces occurred at a PTA of 90.3+/-9.0 degrees. TTA can effectively change the magnitude and direction of the tibiofemoral shear force, and thus may be used to prevent craniotibial translation in a CrCL deficient stifle joint.

  16. Localized cranial hyperostosis of meningiomas: a result of neoplastic enzymatic activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.; Mosdal, C.; Klinken, Leif

    1993-01-01

    Neuropathology, alkaline phosphatase, cranial hyperostosis, meningioma, ossifying enzymatic activity......Neuropathology, alkaline phosphatase, cranial hyperostosis, meningioma, ossifying enzymatic activity...

  17. False data, positive results in neurobiology: moving beyond the epigenetics of blood and saliva samples in mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariaga-Martinez, A; Alelú-Paz, R

    2016-12-12

    Many psychiatric diseases are influenced by a set of several genetic and environmental factors that genetics alone cannot explain. Specifically, in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder the absence of consistently replicated genetic effects together with evidence for lasting changes in gene expression after environmental exposures suggest a role of epigenetic mechanisms in its pathophysiological mechanisms. In this field, the presence of positive results could potentially uncover molecular mechanisms of deregulated gene expression in these complex disorders. In this commentary we have reviewed the positive data obtained over the last 5 years from the scientific literature published in PubMed and we have shown that these results are based on peripheral samples (blood, saliva and other fluids) that do not allow us to obtain reliable and/or valid results, under any circumstances. Finally, we highlight the need to employ human brain samples in the epigenetic study of mental disorders.

  18. Effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment versus osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesslbauer, Christina; Vavti, Nadja; Keilani, Mohammad; Mickel, Michael; Crevenna, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders are a common musculoskeletal condition causing severe pain, physical and psychological disability. The effect and evidence of osteopathic manipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field is scarce and their use are controversial. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders. A randomized clinical trial in patients with temporomandibular disorders was performed. Forty female subjects with long-term temporomandibular disorders (>3 months) were included. At enrollment, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) osteopathic manipulative treatment group (20 female patients) and (2) osteopathy in the cranial field group (20 female patients). Examination was performed at baseline (E0) and at the end of the last treatment (E1), consisting of subjective pain intensity with the Visual Analog Scale, Helkimo Index and SF-36 Health Survey. Subjects had five treatments, once a week. 36 subjects completed the study (33.7 ± 10.3 y). Patients in both groups showed significant reduction in Visual Analog Scale score (osteopathic manipulative treatment group: p = 0.001; osteopathy in the cranial field group: pmanipulative treatment group: p = 0.02; osteopathy in the cranial field group: p = 0.003) and a significant improvement in the SF-36 Health Survey - subscale "Bodily Pain" (osteopathic manipulative treatment group: p = 0.04; osteopathy in the cranial field group: p = 0.007) after five treatments (E1). All subjects (n = 36) also showed significant improvements in the above named parameters after five treatments (E1): Visual Analog Scale score (pmanipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field as an effective treatment modality in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The positive results in both treatment groups should encourage further research on osteopathic

  19. Detection of EBV, CMV and HSV-1 in subgingival samples of HIV positive and negative patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Escalona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the presence of infection by EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus, CMV (Cytomegalovirus and HSV-1 (Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 in subgingival samples from HIV- positive patients under HAART (High Activity Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV- positive patients without HAART, HIV-negative patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls. Methodology: Crevicular fluid samples of 11 HIV+ patients on therapy were evaluated, 6 without antiretroviral therapy, 7 HIV- negative subjects with chronic periodontitis and 7 periodontally-healthy controls. PI (Plaque index, GI (Gingival Index, PD (probing depth and CAL (Clinical Attachment Loss were registered at six sites per each tooth in all teeth and subgingival plaque samples of a tooth were collected per quadrant. Nested PCR was used to detect EBV and endpoint PCR to detect infection by CMV and HSV-1. Results: Clinical parameters showed statistically significant differences between HIV-positive patients and subjects with chronic periodontitis compared with the control group (p<0.05. DNA of EBV was detected mainly in HIV-positive patients under HAART, 91% (10/11. DNA of CMV was detected mainly in patients without HAART, 67% (4/6, while HSV-1 was observed in 27% (3/11 of patients under HAART. In the control group no virus was detected. Coinfection was observed in 50% of HIV patients without HAART, 36% of HIV patients with HAART and 14% of HIV-negative with chronic periodontitis. Conclusion: Viral infection was prevalent in HIV patients under HAART and EBV was the primary viral infection detected in HIV-positive patients with chronic periodontitis.

  20. Enhancing positive parent-child interactions and family functioning in a poverty sample: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Mariana; Pereira, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the attachment-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a randomized controlled trial with poor families of toddlers screened for professional's concerns about the child's caregiving environment. The VIPP-SD is an evidence-based intervention, but has not yet been tested in the context of poverty. The sample included 43 families with 1- to 4-year-old children: mean age at the pretest was 29 months and 51% were boys. At the pretest and posttest, mother-child interactions were observed at home, and mothers reported on family functioning. The VIPP-SD proved to be effective in enhancing positive parent-child interactions and positive family relations in a severely deprived context. Results are discussed in terms of implications for support services provided to such poor families in order to reduce intergenerational risk transmission.

  1. [From anatomy to image: the cranial nerves at MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Renata; Marrone, Valeria; Sardaro, Angela; Faella, Pierluigi; Grassi, Roberta; Cappabianca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging depicts only the larger cranial nerves but SSFP sequences of magnetic resonance imaging are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of 12 cranial nerves and also provide submillimetric spatial resolution.

  2. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  3. Intellectual, educational, and behavioural sequelae after cranial irradiation and chemotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    V. Anderson; Smibert, E; Ekert, H; Godber, T

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive and educational sequelae are inconsistently reported in children treated with cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This study investigated differences in these skills after cranial irradiation, controlling the effects of chemotherapy and psychosocial factors. Three groups were evaluated: 100 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and treated with cranial irradiation and chemotherapy; 50 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or other c...

  4. Familial Aggregation of Cranial Tremor in Familial Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D.; Hernandez, Nora; Clark, Lorraine N.; Ottman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is often familial and phenotypic features may be shared within families. Cranial (neck, voice, jaw) tremor is an important feature of ET. We examined whether cranial tremor aggregates in ET families, after controlling for other factors (age, tremor severity and duration). Methods Among ET probands and relatives enrolled in a genetic study at Columbia University (95 subjects in 28 families), we assessed the degree to which occurrence of cranial tremor in the proband predicted occurrence of cranial tremor in affected relatives. Results Forty-five (47.4%) subjects had cranial tremor on neurological examination (probands 66.7%, relatives 39.7%). Among 28 families, 23 (82.1%) contained individuals with and individuals without cranial tremor, indicating a high degree of within-family heterogeneity. In comparison to subjects without cranial tremor, those with cranial tremor had higher total tremor scores (ptremor of longer duration (p=0.01). In logistic regression models, the odds of cranial tremor in a relative was not related to occurrence of cranial tremor in the proband (p>0.24). Conclusions Cranial tremor did not aggregate in families with ET; the major predictor of this disease feature was tremor severity rather than presence of cranial tremor in another family member. PMID:23712245

  5. Thyroxine Exposure Effects on the Cranial Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Emily; Howie, R Nicole; Parsons, Trish; Bennfors, Grace; Black, Laurel; Weinberg, Seth M; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yu, Jack C; Cray, James J

    2017-09-01

    Thyroid hormone is important for skull bone growth, which primarily occurs at the cranial sutures and synchondroses. Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and act in all stages of cartilage and bone development and maintenance by interacting with growth hormone and regulating insulin-like growth factor. Aberrant thyroid hormone levels and exposure during development are exogenous factors that may exacerbate susceptibility to craniofacial abnormalities potentially through changes in growth at the synchondroses of the cranial base. To elucidate the direct effect of in utero therapeutic thyroxine exposure on the synchondroses in developing mice, we provided scaled doses of the thyroid replacement drug, levothyroxine, in drinking water to pregnant C57BL6 wild-type dams. The skulls of resulting pups were subjected to micro-computed tomography analysis revealing less bone volume relative to tissue volume in the synchondroses of mouse pups exposed in utero to levothyroxine. Histological assessment of the cranial base area indicated more active synchondroses as measured by metabolic factors including Igf1. The cranial base of the pups exposed to high levels of levothyroxine also contained more collagen fiber matrix and an increase in markers of bone formation. Such changes due to exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone may drive overall morphological changes. Thus, excess thyroid hormone exposure to the fetus during pregnancy may lead to altered craniofacial growth and increased risk of anomalies in offspring.

  6. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA TUMOURS IN CHILDREN AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... symptoms were the most common mode of presentation (30%) followed by headaches and vomiting. Twenty percent of our patients ... paediatric posterior fossa tumours are medulloblastoma. (20%) astrocytoma (15%) ... cranial nerve palsies, headaches, vomiting and blindness due to raised intracranial ...

  7. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do modern humans and Neandertals have different patterns of cranial integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C; Weaver, Timothy D; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-06-01

    Studies of cranial differences between modern humans and Neandertals have identified several characteristics for which the two groups differ in their mean values, the proportional relationships with other traits, or both. However, the limited number of fairly complete Neandertals has hindered investigations into patterns of integration - covariance and correlation among traits - in this fossil group. Here, we use multiple approaches specifically designed to deal with fragmentary fossils to test if metric cranial traits in Neandertals fit modern human patterns of integration. Based on 37 traits collected from a sample of 2524 modern humans from Howells' data set and 20 Neandertals, we show that overall patterns of cranial integration are significantly different between Neandertals and modern humans. However, at the same time, Neandertals are consistent with a modern human pattern of integration for more than three-quarters of the traits. Additionally, the differences between the predicted and actual values for the deviating traits are rather small, indicating that the differences in integration are subtle. Traits for which Neandertals deviate from modern human integration patterns tend to be found in regions where Neandertals and modern humans are known to also differ in their mean values. We conclude that the evolution of patterns of cranial integration is a cause for caution but also presents an opportunity for understanding cranial differences between modern humans and Neandertals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of probabilistic and deterministic fiber tracking of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Sobottka, Stephan B; Podlesek, Dino; Linn, Jennifer; Rieger, Bernhard; Juratli, Tareq A; Schackert, Gabriele; Kitzler, Hagen H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The depiction of cranial nerves (CNs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is of great interest in skull base tumor surgery and DTI used with deterministic tracking methods has been reported previously. However, there are still no good methods usable for the elimination of noise from the resulting depictions. The authors have hypothesized that probabilistic tracking could lead to more accurate results, because it more efficiently extracts information from the underlying data. Moreover, the authors have adapted a previously described technique for noise elimination using gradual threshold increases to probabilistic tracking. To evaluate the utility of this new approach, a comparison is provided with this work between the gradual threshold increase method in probabilistic and deterministic tracking of CNs. METHODS Both tracking methods were used to depict CNs II, III, V, and the VII+VIII bundle. Depiction of 240 CNs was attempted with each of the above methods in 30 healthy subjects, which were obtained from 2 public databases: the Kirby repository (KR) and Human Connectome Project (HCP). Elimination of erroneous fibers was attempted by gradually increasing the respective thresholds (fractional anisotropy [FA] and probabilistic index of connectivity [PICo]). The results were compared with predefined ground truth images based on corresponding anatomical scans. Two label overlap measures (false-positive error and Dice similarity coefficient) were used to evaluate the success of both methods in depicting the CN. Moreover, the differences between these parameters obtained from the KR and HCP (with higher angular resolution) databases were evaluated. Additionally, visualization of 10 CNs in 5 clinical cases was attempted with both methods and evaluated by comparing the depictions with intraoperative findings. RESULTS Maximum Dice similarity coefficients were significantly higher with probabilistic tracking (p cranial nerves. Probabilistic tracking with a gradual

  10. Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis following cranial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitriy; Uohara, Michael Y; Ichord, Rebecca; Ali, Zarina; Jastrzab, Laura; Lang, Shih-Shan; Billinghurst, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is an important, though less common subtype of pediatric stroke. It has been linked to several risk factors, including cranial procedures, with few studies highlighting this relationship. The aim of this study was to characterize the diagnosis and treatment of CSVT after cranial surgery. An institutional pediatric stroke research database was used to identify all CSVT cases diagnosed within 30 days of cranial surgery from November 2004 to December 2014. Thirteen subjects were retrospectively analyzed for clinical presentation, surgical details, radiographic characteristics, laboratory study results, treatment, and outcome. Diagnostic testing and treatment adhered to a consensus-based institutional stroke protocol. Cranial vault reconstruction, subdural empyema evacuation, and tumor resection were each observed in three subjects. Eleven (85%) subjects had sinus exposure during surgery, and eight (73%) developed thrombus in a sinus within or adjacent to the operative field. Two (15%) had documented iatrogenic sinus injury. On post-operative testing, ten (77%) subjects had prothrombotic abnormalities. Seven (54%) were treated with anti-coagulation therapy (ACT) starting on a median of post-operative day (POD) 3 (IQR 1-3) for a median of 2.9 months (IQR 2.4-5.4). Median time to imaging evidence of partial or complete recanalization was 2.4 months (IQR 0.7-5.1). No symptomatic hemorrhagic complications were encountered. Pediatric CSVT may be encountered after cranial surgery, and decisions related to anti-coagulation are challenging. The risk of CSVT should be considered in pre-surgical planning and post-operative evaluation of cases with known risk factors. In our study, judicious use of ACT was safe in the post-operative period.

  11. Cranial-base morphology in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggarnjanavanich, Seetala; Sekiya, Toshiko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to clarify the characteristics of cranial-base morphology in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion and investigate factors relating to the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Initial lateral cephalograms of women were examined. Subjects with an ANB angle of 0° to 4°, normal overjet and overbite, and a Class I molar relationship were classified as Class I (n = 86). Those with an ANB angle less than -1°, a Wits appraisal less than 2 mm, a negative overjet, and a Class III molar relationship were the Class III group (n = 86) in this study. Angular, linear, and coordinate measurements were made. Multivariate analysis of variance and the Student t test were used to analyze significant differences between the 2 groups. Discriminant analysis, logistic regression analysis, and decision analysis were used to identify which cranial-base and maxillomandibular variables influenced the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The Class III group had smaller values for NSBa, SeSBa, FH-SSe, and FH-SBa. Sphenoidale and basion were more inferior and anterior than those of the Class I group. There was no difference in the anterior and posterior cranial-base lengths between the groups. Greater mandibular length was the first major characteristic in the Class III group, followed by smaller values for SeSBa and NSBa. Cranial-base morphology in adults with a skeletal Class III malocclusion is different from that in a skeletal Class I malocclusion. Smaller cranial-base angles, steeper posterior cranial bases, more inferiorly positioned sphenoidale, and more anteriorly positioned basion are major characteristics of skeletal Class III malocclusions. These characteristics play important roles in the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  13. Automatic positioning device for cutting three-dimensional tissue in living or fixed samples. Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Dario R; Perez-Feito, Ricardo; Garcia-Manrique, Juan A; Canals, Santiago; Moratal, David

    2017-07-01

    The study and analysis of tissues has always been an important part of the subject in biology. For this reason, obtaining specimens of tissue has been vital to morphological and functionality research. Historically, the main tools used to obtain slices of tissue have been microtomes and vibratomes. However, they are largely unsatisfactory. This is because it is impossible to obtain a full, three-dimensional structure of a tissue sample with these devices. This paper presents an automatic positioning device for a three-dimensional cut in living or fixed tissue samples, which can be applied mainly in histology, anatomy, biochemistry and pharmacology. The system consists of a platform on which the tissue samples can be deposited, plus two containers. An electromechanical system with motors and gears gives the platform the ability to change the orientation of a sample. These orientation changes were tested with movement sensors to ensure that accurate changes were made. This device paves the way for researchers to make cuts in the sample tissue along different planes and in different directions by maximizing the surface of the tract that appears in a slice.

  14. "ISA-Lation" of Single-Stranded Positive-Sense RNA Viruses from Non-Infectious Clinical/Animal Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Aubry

    Full Text Available Isolation of viral pathogens from clinical and/or animal samples has traditionally relied on either cell cultures or laboratory animal model systems. However, virus viability is notoriously susceptible to adverse conditions that may include inappropriate procedures for sample collection, storage temperature, support media and transportation. Using our recently described ISA method, we have developed a novel procedure to isolate infectious single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses from clinical or animal samples. This approach, that we have now called "ISA-lation", exploits the capacity of viral cDNA subgenomic fragments to re-assemble and produce infectious viral RNA in susceptible cells. Here, it was successfully used to rescue enterovirus, Chikungunya and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses from a variety of inactivated animal and human samples. ISA-lation represents an effective option to rescue infectious virus from clinical and/or animal samples that may have deteriorated during the collection and storage period, but also potentially overcomes logistic and administrative difficulties generated when complying with current health and safety and biosecurity guidelines associated with shipment of infectious viral material.

  15. Direct enrichment of pathogens from physiological samples of high conductivity and viscosity using H-filter and positive dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongyang; Yi, Qiaolian; Shen, Chaohua; Lan, Ying; Urban, Gerald; Du, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    The full potential of microfluidic techniques as rapid and accurate methods for the detection of disease-causing agents and foodborne pathogens is critically limited by the complex sample preparation process, which commonly comprises the enrichment of bacterial cells to detectable levels. In this manuscript, we describe a microfluidic device which integrates H-filter desalination with positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for direct enrichment of bacterial cells from physiological samples of high conductivity and viscosity, such as cow's milk and whole human blood. The device contained a winding channel in which electrolytes in the samples continuously diffused into deionized (DI) water (desalination), while the bacterial cells remained in the samples. The length of the main channel was optimized by numerical simulation and experimentally evaluated by the diffusion of fluorescein into DI water. The effects of another three factors on H-filter desalination were also investigated, including (a) the flow rate ratio between the sample and DI water, (b) sample viscosity, and (c) non-Newtonian fluids. After H-filter desalination, the samples were withdrawn into the dielectrophoresis chamber in which the bacterial cells were captured by pDEP. The feasibility of the device was demonstrated by the direct capture of the bacterial cells in 1× PBS buffer, cow's milk, and whole human blood after H-filter desalination, with the capture efficiencies of 70.7%, 90.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. We believe that this simple method can be easily integrated into portable microfluidic diagnosis devices for rapid and accurate detection of disease-causing agents and foodborne pathogens.

  16. Executive Dyscontrol of Learning and Memory: Findings from a Clade C HIV-positive South African Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Jade A; Thomas, Kevin G F; Westgarth-Taylor, Jennifer; Joska, John A

    2015-01-01

    Although pre-clinical work suggests there might be differences in neurovirulence across HIV-1 clades, few studies investigate neuropsychological deficits in the globally predominant clade C infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate verbal learning and memory performance in HIV-positive individuals in Cape Town, South Africa, where clade C is the most prevalent subtype of the virus. Using a case-control design, we recruited 53 isiXhosa-speaking, cART-naïve HIV-positive adults and 53 demographically matched HIV-negative controls. Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The test of interest was the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R); previous studies have used that instrument to identify executive dyscontrol of verbal learning and memory processes in clade B HIV-positive participants. HIV-positive participants showed only partial impairment on the HVLT-R's learning/memory components (e.g., they recalled significantly fewer words across learning trials, but displayed relatively intact performance on delayed recall trials). They also displayed little executive dyscontrol over encoding and retrieval processes (e.g., there were no significant between-group differences on measures of semantic or serial clustering). Post-cART era studies suggest that verbal learning and memory performance is impaired in clade B samples, at least partially due to executive dyscontrol over encoding and retrieval processes. We found few such impairments in the current clade C sample. These preliminary findings suggest different CNS vulnerability across clades that would have implications for delineating clade-specific neuropathological and neurocognitive clinical features.

  17. Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encountered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cranial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormalities, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imaging protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  18. A Rare Case of Cranial Osteomyelitis Caused by Proteus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Uslu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the calvarial bones can cause serious complications such as brain abscess, due to the close proximity to adjacent brain structures. Development of the purulent secretion in surgery and traumatic scalp injuries must be considered as a possibility of osteomyelitis possibility. Generally gram positive, rarely gram negative bacteria and mix agents, can be isolated in infection. Especially chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis agents can be isolated from chronic infections such as tuberculosis. In cranial osteomyelitis diagnosis, radiological diagnosis has a very important place together with the clinical diagnosis. However, infection can usually show late findings radiologically. In treatment, antibiotic treatment is absolutely essential as well as removal of the infected part of the bone. Due to antibiotic treatment lasting between 6-12 weeks, organizing the antibiotic protocols according to the results of culture-antibiograms, which were provided from purulent secretions, has the most important role in the success of surgical treatment. In Proteus sp. infections, for choice of suitable treatment, determination of the type of bacteria is important. For exact diagnosis, histopathological examination of the bone tissue must be carried out. In this report, a case with cranial osteomyelitis caused by Proteus vulgaris which is a gram negative bacteria causing anaerobic infections and classified in the Enterobacteriaceae family is presented. The patient was treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Early recognition of this condition, planning the best treatment strategy and taking precautions to prevent complications, is mandatory for a better outcome.

  19. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kris; Sawchuk, Dena; Saltaji, Humam; Oh, Heesoo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Lagravere, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. A meta-analysis was not justified. Finally, 23 published studies were selected: 5 cross-sectional and 18 cohort studies. Articles were published between 1955 and 2015, and all were published in English. The sample sizes varied between 20 and 397 individuals and consisted of craniofacial measurements from either living or deceased human skulls. Validity of the measurements was not determined in any of the studies, while six papers reported some form of reliability assessment. All the articles included multiple time points within the same population or data from multiple age groups. Growth of S-Ba was generally agreed to be from spheno-occipital synchondrosis growth. Basion displaced downward and backward and sella turcica moved downward and backward during craniofacial growth. Timing of cessation of S-Ba growth was not conclusive due to limited identified evidence. Current evidence suggests that S-Ba is not totally stable, as its dimensions change throughout craniofacial growth and a minor dimensional change is observed even in late adulthood.

  20. Cranial Imaging Findings of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Tamam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the cranial imaging findings of complicated hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Forty two patients with preeclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome were admitted to the study at Obstetrics Division of Dicle University from January 2001 to December 2004. Computed Tomography was made to the forty two patients. The Computed Tomograpy findings of 20 (47.62% patients were normal whereas computed Tomograpy findings of 22 (52.28% patients were pathological. Eight patients (19% had intracranial hemorrhage, 5 (11.9 % patients had infarct, 9 (21.42% patients had specific lesions. A wide imaging spectrum from ischemic area to intracranial hemorrhages can be detected in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Thus it is essential to make cranial imaging in patients with symptoms and neurological deficit.

  1. Neurosonography of cranial lesions in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Soon Il [Sowha Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Ro [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Since early 1980's, high resolution ultrasound has been world-widely used for detection of cranial lesions in infants but not widely used in Korea. Authors prospectively analysed ultrasonographic findings of 107 cases which were confirmed by CT, autopsy or follow-up studies as supplement. The distribution of 107 cases was intracranial hematoma 40 cases, hydrocephalus 36 cases, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 10 cases, porencephalic cyst 5 cases, cephalhematoma 5 case, agenesis of corpus callosum 4 cases, medulloblastoma 2 cases and each one case of A-V malformation, intraventricular cyst, Dandy Walker cyst, lipoma and hydranencephaly. We could conclude that neurosonography of infants was very useful and effective method in detection of cranial lesions such as intracranial hematoma, especially germinal matrix hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infant, hydrocephalus, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and congenital anomalies.

  2. Positive body image: inter-ethnic and rural-urban differences among an indigenous sample from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies examining body image from a cross-cultural perspective have tended to neglect samples from different ethnic groups or along a rural-urban continuum. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined positive body image among rural and urban women from three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 202 women completed the Body Appreciation Scale, as well as measures of media exposure and financial security, and provided their demographic details. s showed that there were significant rural-urban differences in body appreciation, with rural participants having significantly higher body appreciation than urban participants. A comparison with a previous data set of West Malaysian women (Swami & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008) showed that the current urban sample had significantly lower body appreciation and that the rural group had significantly higher body appreciation. Further results showed that research site (urban vs rural) explained 11.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Participant body mass index and exposure to western forms of media explained an additional 2.0% of the variance. These results suggest that there are differences in body image between rural and urban women. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of positive body image, particularly in developing societies where health care resources may be limited.

  3. Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Pradeep P.; Kalita, Jayantee [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)], E-mail: drukmisra@rediffmail.com

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: There is paucity of studies evaluating the role of cranial imaging in the management of status epilepticus (SE); therefore this study evaluates the role of imaging in predicting the outcome of SE. Methods: Consecutive patients with SE were prospectively evaluated. Clinical evaluation, blood counts, serum chemistry and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were carried out. Cranial CT scan was performed on a spiral CT and MRI on a 1.5 T scanner. Patients were treated with IV sodium valproate, phenytoin and benzodiazepines as per fixed protocol. Outcome was defined as seizure control at 1 h and mortality. Various clinical and radiological parameters were correlated. Results: There were 99 patients with SE whose mean age was 35 (1-78) years, 40 females and 17 were below 12 years of age. Fifty six patients had central nervous system (CNS) infections, 15 strokes, 13 metabolic encephalopathy, 5 drug default and in the remaining 10 patients various acute symptomatic causes were present. Cranial imaging was abnormal in 59% patients. CT was abnormal in 21 (47.7%) out of 44 patients whereas MRI was abnormal in 26 (63.4%) out of 41 patients. Both MRI and CT were carried out in 14 patients and 12 revealed abnormalities; 2 had abnormality only on MRI. Imaging revealed cortical lesions in 10, subcortical in 19 and both cortical as well as subcortical in 30 patients. One hour seizure control was achieved in 60, seizures recurred within 24 h in 38 and 27 patients died during hospital stay. Seizure type, duration of SE, seizure control at 1 h and mortality did not correlate with radiological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cranial imaging reveals structural abnormality in 59% patients with SE and was not related to SE control and mortality.

  4. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem, E-mail: yalinozlem@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Ebru, E-mail: ebru90@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman, E-mail: ebos90@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Tulin, E-mail: ytulin@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Karaca, Sibel, E-mail: sibelkaraca@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yeral, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmutyeral@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kasar, Mutlu, E-mail: mutlukasar@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Ozdogu, Hakan, E-mail: hakanozdogu@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  5. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  6. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series.

  7. CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE

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    DIEGO MATIUSSI PREVIATTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  8. Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae

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    Reginaldo José Donatelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1 a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2 the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3 the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4 the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds’ diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  9. Negative impact and positive value in caregiving: validation of the COPE index in a six-country sample of carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Mnich, Eva; McKee, Kevin J; Lamura, Giovanni; Beckmann, Anke; Krevers, Barbro; Wojszel, Z Beata; Nolan, Mike; Prouskas, Constantinos; Bien, Barbara; Oberg, Birgitta

    2008-06-01

    The present study attempts to further validate the COPE Index on a large sample of carers drawn from six European countries. We used a cross-sectional survey, with approximately 1,000 carers recruited in each of six countries by means of a common standard evaluation protocol. Our saturation recruitment of a designated quota of carers occurred by means of several channels, in identified geographical zones within countries. Interviews were carried out with primary informal carers by use of a common assessment tool. We subjected items of the COPE Index to principal component analysis and we assessed emergent components through the use of Cronbach's alpha reliability procedures. We examined factor components as summative scales for confirmatory correlations with caregiving and psychological variables. Three components emerged, which we identified as the negative impact of caregiving, the positive value of caregiving, and the quality of support for caregiving. Internal consistency was good for negative impact and satisfactory for positive value and quality of support. Negative value was most consistently and strongly correlated with caregiving and psychological variables, although we did find diverse associations between these variables and the COPE Index subscales. The COPE Index is a brief, first-stage assessment of some sophistication that can enable health and social care professionals to develop appropriately targeted interventions to enhance the positive aspects of the caregiving experience and quality of support, as well as reduce the negative impacts of caregiving.

  10. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofu; Chen, Mengyan; Hao, Zhichao; Bi, Wenfen

    2018-01-01

    Employees' positive organizational behavior (POB) is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ) on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. In study 1, a total of 2,566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ) and positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2 × 2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done. The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB). Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them. PMID:29375434

  11. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Employees' positive organizational behavior (POB is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. In study 1, a total of 2,566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ and positive organizational behavior (POB of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2 × 2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done. The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB. Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them.

  12. Intraoperative monitoring of lower cranial nerves in skull base surgery: technical report and review of 123 monitored cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Cahide; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Bulsara, Ketan R; Williford, Veronica S

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental goal of skull base surgery is tumor removal with preservation of neurological function. Injury to the lower cranial nerves (LCN; CN 9-12) profoundly affects a patient's quality of life. Although intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring (IOM) is widely practiced for other cranial nerves, literature addressing the LCN is scant. We examined the utility of IOM of the LCN in a large patient series. One hundred twelve patients underwent 123 skull base operations with IOM between January 1994 to December 1999. The vagus nerve (n=37), spinal accessory nerve (n=118), and the hypoglossal nerve (n=83) were monitored intraoperatively. Electromyography (EMG) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) were recorded from the relevant muscles after electrical stimulation. This data was evaluated retrospectively. Patients who underwent IOM tended to have larger tumors with more intricate involvement of the lower cranial nerves. Worsening of preoperative lower cranial nerve function was seen in the monitored and unmonitored groups. With the use of IOM in the high risk group, LCN injury was reduced to a rate equivalent to that of the lower risk group (p>0.05). The immediate feedback obtained with IOM may prevent injury to the LCN due to surgical manipulation. It can also help identify the course of a nerve in patients with severely distorted anatomy. These factors may facilitate gross total tumor resection with cranial nerve preservation. The incidence of high false positive and negative CMAP and the variability in CMAP amplitude and threshold can vary depending on individual and technical factors.

  13. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

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    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  14. Use of Multidirectional Cranial Distraction Osteogenesis for Cranial Expansion in Syndromic Craniosynostosis

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    Ataru Sunaga, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis often require a large amount of cranial expansion to avoid intracranial hypertension, but the surgical procedure remains controversial. A patient of severe syndromic craniosynostosis with multiple bony defects and anomalous venous drainage at the occipital region was treated by multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO at the age of 8 months. Distraction started 5 days after surgery and ceased on postoperative day 16. The distraction devices were removed 27 days after completing distraction. After device removal, the increase of intracranial volume was 155 ml and the cephalic index was improved from 115.5 to 100.5. The resultant cranial shape was well maintained with minimal relapse at postoperative 9 months. In cases of syndromic craniosynostosis with multiple bony defects and/or anomalous venous drainage at the occipital region, expansion of the anterior cranium by MCDO is a viable alternative to conventional methods.

  15. Chemiluminescence analysis for HBV-DNA hybridization detection with magnetic nanoparticles based DNA extraction from positive whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nongyue; Wang, Fang; Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Zhiyang

    2013-02-01

    Molecular detection of HBV has a significant impact on prognosis and therapy of the disease. In this paper, a sensitive nucleic acid detection method of HBV was established taking advantage of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemiluminescence (CL) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HBV-DNA was extracted from hepatitis B positive human blood samples using MNPs adsorption method and biotin was labeled on the DNA segment after base insertion of bintin-dUTP in PCR. The biotinylated DNA segment was captured by amino probe immobilized on carboxyl MNPs and was detected by the chemiluminescence system of alkaline phosphatase catalyzing 3-(2'-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3"-phosphoryloxy) phenyl-1, 2-dioxetane. Different concentrations of HBV-DNA were detected under the optimized experiment conditions and the relevant CL intensity were obtained, which provided a novel research or clinic diagnosis method for the quantification detection of HBV-DNA.

  16. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Familial Idiopathic Cranial Neuropathy in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liang, Jianfeng; Yu, Yanbing

    Cranial neuropathy is usually idiopathic and familial cases are uncommon. We describe a family with 5 members with cranial neuropathy over 3 generations. All affected patients were women, indicating an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Our cases and a review of the literature suggest that familial idiopathic cranial neuropathy is a rare condition which may be related to autosomal dominant vascular disorders (e.g. vascular tortuosity, sclerosis, elongation or extension), small posterior cranial fossas, anatomical variations of the posterior circulation, hypersensitivity of cranial nerves and other abnormalities. Moreover, microvascular decompression is the treatment of choice because vascular compression is the main factor in the pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of familial cranial neuropathy in China.

  18. Positive Growth From Adversity and Beyond: Insights Gained From Cross-Examination of Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Netzer, Pninit; Moran, Galia

    2016-11-07

    Growth following adversity is a well-known phenomenon. Yet studies often focus on specific populations and/or specific types of adversities, thus limiting opportunities to identify underlying common processes of growth. The present study sought to identify shared positive change processes in different samples of individuals each of whom faced life adversities (clinical/nonclinical) and experienced growth as a result. We conducted a secondary analysis comparing in-depth interviews from 2 independent study samples including 27 Israeli adults that experienced spiritual growth and 31 American mental health peer-providers in recovery. Using the grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1998), the findings point to existing shared transformative positive change pertaining to one's way of being and adhering to a generative orientation (Erikson, 1963) in the world. These changes were conceptualized under 3 growth dimensions: (a) strengthened sense of self, manifested in self-integration, self-acceptance, and enhanced ability to face further adversity; (b) development of compassion, acceptance of others, and a deep sense of connection to others; and (c) a prosocial commitment characterized by generativity and active contribution. These findings point to shared growth processes among individuals with a different backgrounds and different kinds of adversities. This change goes beyond mere coping, to an inner transformation in one's self, connection to others, and development of a proactive-prosocial approach in the world. The implications for health care practitioners and the importance of acknowledging the potential for growth following adversity and supporting such growth are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Heritability of human cranial dimensions: comparing the evolvability of different cranial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Sjøvold, Torstein; González-José, Rolando; Santos, Mauro; Hernández, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative craniometrical traits have been successfully incorporated into population genetic methods to provide insight into human population structure. However, little is known about the degree of genetic and non-genetic influences on the phenotypic expression of functionally based traits. Many studies have assessed the heritability of craniofacial traits, but complex patterns of correlation among traits have been disregarded. This is a pitfall as the human skull is strongly integrated. Here we reconsider the evolutionary potential of craniometric traits by assessing their heritability values as well as their patterns of genetic and phenotypic correlation using a large pedigree-structured skull series from Hallstatt (Austria). The sample includes 355 complete adult skulls that have been analysed using 3D geometric morphometric techniques. Heritability estimates for 58 cranial linear distances were computed using maximum likelihood methods. These distances were assigned to the main functional and developmental regions of the skull. Results showed that the human skull has substantial amounts of genetic variation, and a t-test showed that there are no statistically significant differences among the heritabilities of facial, neurocranial and basal dimensions. However, skull evolvability is limited by complex patterns of genetic correlation. Phenotypic and genetic patterns of correlation are consistent but do not support traditional hypotheses of integration of the human shape, showing that the classification between brachy- and dolicephalic skulls is not grounded on the genetic level. Here we support previous findings in the mouse cranium and provide empirical evidence that covariation between the maximum widths of the main developmental regions of the skull is the dominant factor of integration in the human skull.

  20. Cranial-Base Morphology in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Po Chang; Tsau-Mau Chou

    2005-01-01

    The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear me...

  1. Characterization of a Composite Material to Mimic Human Cranial Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    with using real human tissue. 1 INTRODUCTION Prevention of head injury is receiving growing attention in the sporting arena as well as the...M. Alem, Mechanical properties of cranial bone. Journal of Biomechanics , 1970. 3(5): p. 497-511. 3. Wood, Jack L., Dynamic response of human...cranial bone. Journal of Biomechanics , 1971. 4(1): p. 1-12. 4. Wood, Jack L., Mechanical properties of human cranial bone in tension, in Department of

  2. Non-coding cancer driver candidates identified with a sample- and position-specific model of the somatic mutation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Malene; Bertl, Johanna; Guo, Qianyun; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Świtnicki, Michał; Hornshøj, Henrik; Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding mutations may drive cancer development. Statistical detection of non-coding driver regions is challenged by a varying mutation rate and uncertainty of functional impact. Here, we develop a statistically founded non-coding driver-detection method, ncdDetect, which includes sample-specific mutational signatures, long-range mutation rate variation, and position-specific impact measures. Using ncdDetect, we screened non-coding regulatory regions of protein-coding genes across a pan-cancer set of whole-genomes (n = 505), which top-ranked known drivers and identified new candidates. For individual candidates, presence of non-coding mutations associates with altered expression or decreased patient survival across an independent pan-cancer sample set (n = 5454). This includes an antigen-presenting gene (CD1A), where 5’UTR mutations correlate significantly with decreased survival in melanoma. Additionally, mutations in a base-excision-repair gene (SMUG1) correlate with a C-to-T mutational-signature. Overall, we find that a rich model of mutational heterogeneity facilitates non-coding driver identification and integrative analysis points to candidates of potential clinical relevance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21778.001 PMID:28362259

  3. Influence of sampling intake position on suspended solid measurements in sewers: two probability/time-series-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Santiago; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-01

    Total suspended solid (TSS) measurements in urban drainage systems are required for several reasons. Aiming to assess uncertainties in the mean TSS concentration due to the influence of sampling intake vertical position and vertical concentration gradients in a sewer pipe, two methods are proposed: a simplified method based on a theoretical vertical concentration profile (SM) and a time series grouping method (TSM). SM is based on flow rate and water depth time series. TSM requires additional TSS time series as input data. All time series are from the Chassieu urban catchment in Lyon, France (time series from 2007 with 2-min time step, 89 rainfall events). The probability of measuring a TSS value lower than the mean TSS along the vertical cross section (TSS underestimation) is about 0.88 with SM and about 0.64 with TSM. TSM shows more realistic TSS underestimation values (about 39 %) than SM (about 269 %). Interquartile ranges (IQR) over the probability values indicate that SM is more uncertain (IQR = 0.08) than TSM (IQR = 0.02). Differences between the two methods are mainly due to simplifications in SM (absence of TSS measurements). SM assumes a significant asymmetry of the TSS concentration profile along the vertical axis in the cross section. This is compatible with the distribution of TSS measurements found in the TSM approach. The methods provide insights towards an indicator of the measurement performance and representativeness for a TSS sampling protocol.

  4. Comparative cranial ontogeny of Tapirus (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Tapiridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, S Rocio; Giannini, Norberto P

    2017-11-01

    Skull morphology in tapirs is particularly interesting due to the presence of a proboscis with important trophic, sensory and behavioral functions. Several studies have dealt with tapir skull osteology but chiefly in a comparative framework between fossil and recent species of tapirs. Only one study examined an aspect of cranial ontogeny, development of the sagittal crest (Holbrook. J Zool Soc Lond 2002; 256; 215). Our goal is to describe in detail the morphological changes that occur during the postnatal ontogeny of the skull in two representative tapir species, Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus indicus, and to explore possible functional consequences of their developmental trajectories. We compared qualitative features of the skull on a growth series of 46 specimens of T. terrestris ordered on the basis of the sequence of eruption and tooth wear, dividing the sample into three age classes: class Y (very young juvenile), class J (from young juvenile to young adult) and class A (full and old adult). The qualitative morphological analysis consisted of describing changes in the series in each skull bone and major skull structure, including the type and degree of transformation (e.g. appearance, fusion) of cranial features (e.g. processes, foramina) and articulations (sutures, synchondroses, and synovial joints). We then measured 23 cranial variables in 46 specimens of T. terrestris that included the entire ontogenetic series from newborn to old adults. We applied statistical multivariate techniques to describe allometric growth, and compared the results with the allometric trends calculated for a sample of 25 specimens of T. indicus. Results show that the skull structure was largely conserved throughout the postnatal ontogeny in T. terrestris, so class Y was remarkably similar to class A in overall shape, with the most significant changes localized in the masticatory apparatus, specifically the maxillary tuber as a support of the large-sized permanent postcanine

  5. [Differences in Measured Values among Homogenous Assay Reagents of LDL-C in LP-X Positive Serum Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Misako; Kurosawa, Hideo; Sato, Ryo; Ito, Kumie; Tomono, Yoshiharu; Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The LDL-C level measures with homogeneous (direct) assays in almost of clinical laboratories. Several reports however showed differences in measured values among the assay reagents. We investigated the differences in LDL-C values among direct assays and Friedewald formula (F-f) in 58 LP-X positive serum samples from jaundice patients by comparing LDL-C values measured by anion-exchange chromatography (AEX-HPLC), largely comparable to ultracentrifugation method. Changes in LDL-C values during the treatment of 8 patients were also investigated. Direct assay reagents from Sekisui Medical (S-r), Denka-Seiken (D-r), Wako Chemical (W-r), and Kyowa Medics (K-r) were used for comparison. F-f, S-r, and D-r correlated with AEX-HPLC with r values 0.6. Two samples in which F-f values provided 500 mg/dL plus bias to AEX-HPLC (LDL-C value of 220 mg/dL) demonstrated increased levels of IDL-C before treatment. LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) of the 2 samples were relatively high and near to F-f data while LDL-C values (W-r and K-r) were relatively low and close to AEX-HPLC data. The jaundice treatment decreased LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) and converged to 220 mg/dL, indicating that S-r and D-r might react markedly to IDL. These changes were consistent with decreases in serum free cholesterol and phospholipid in support of LP-X. By contrast, W-r and K-r data showed upward tendency and also converged to 220 mg/dL. These results suggest that LDL-C direct assay reagents would be classified into 2 groups with respect to the reagent reactivity to LP-X.

  6. Accuracy of neuro-navigated cranial screw placement using optical surface imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovic, Raphael; Gupta, Shuarya; Guha, Daipayan; Mainprize, Todd; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Cranial neurosurgical procedures are especially delicate considering that the surgeon must localize the subsurface anatomy with limited exposure and without the ability to see beyond the surface of the surgical field. Surgical accuracy is imperative as even minor surgical errors can cause major neurological deficits. Traditionally surgical precision was highly dependent on surgical skill. However, the introduction of intraoperative surgical navigation has shifted the paradigm to become the current standard of care for cranial neurosurgery. Intra-operative image guided navigation systems are currently used to allow the surgeon to visualize the three-dimensional subsurface anatomy using pre-acquired computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. The patient anatomy is fused to the pre-acquired images using various registration techniques and surgical tools are typically localized using optical tracking methods. Although these techniques positively impact complication rates, surgical accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the navigation system and as such quantification of surgical error is required. While many different measures of registration accuracy have been presented true navigation accuracy can only be quantified post-operatively by comparing a ground truth landmark to the intra-operative visualization. In this study we quantified the accuracy of cranial neurosurgical procedures using a novel optical surface imaging navigation system to visualize the three-dimensional anatomy of the surface anatomy. A tracked probe was placed on the screws of cranial fixation plates during surgery and the reported position of the centre of the screw was compared to the co-ordinates of the post-operative CT or MR images, thus quantifying cranial neurosurgical error.

  7. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  8. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth. Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  11. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUALDI-RUSSO, E.; TASCA, M. A.; BRASILI, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring. PMID:10634693

  12. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Tasca, M A; Brasili, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring.

  13. Peripheral doses of cranial pediatric IMRT performed with attenuator blocks; Doses perifericas de IMRT cranial pediatrica realizada com blocos atenuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Schitz, Ivette; Schelin, Hugo Reuters, E-mail: soboll@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: iveteschitz@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Silva, Ricardo Goulart da, E-mail: ricardo.goulart@ymail.co [Hospital Angelina Caron, Campina Grande do Sul, PR (Brazil); Viamonte, Alfredo, E-mail: aviamonte@inca.gov.b [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper presents values of peripheral doses measured at six vital points of simulator objects which represent the ages of 2, 5 and 10 years old, submitted to a cranial IMRT procedure that applied compensator blocks interposed to 6 MV beams. The found values indicate that there is independence of dose with position of measurements and age of the patient, as the peripheral dose at the points nearest and the 2 year old simulator object where larger. The doses in thyroid reached the range of 1.4 to 2.9% of the dose prescribed in the isocenter, indicating that the peripheral doses for IMRT that employ compensator blocks can be greater than for the IMRT produced with sliding window technique

  14. A quantitative approach for sex estimation based on cranial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Michopoulou, Efrossyni

    2017-12-19

    This paper proposes a method for the quantification of the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial traits, namely the glabella, mastoid process and external occipital protuberance. The proposed method was developed using 165 crania from the documented Athens Collection and tested on 20 Cretan crania. It is based on digital photographs of the lateral view of the cranium, drawing of the profile of three sexually dimorphic structures and calculation of variables that express the shape of these structures. The combinations of variables that provide optimum discrimination between sexes are identified by means of binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis. The best cross-validated results are obtained when variables from all three structures are combined and range from 75.8 to 85.1% and 81.1 to 94.6% for males and females, respectively. The success rate is 86.3-94.1% for males and 83.9-93.5% for females when half of the sample is used for training and the rest for prediction. Correct classification for the Cretan material based upon the standards developed for the Athens sample was 80-90% for the optimum combinations of discriminant variables. The proposed method provides an effective way to capture quantitatively the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial structures; it gives more accurate results relative to other existing methods and it does not require specialized equipment. Equations for sex estimation based on combinations of variables are provided, along with instructions on how to use the method and Excel macros for calculation of discriminant variables with automated implementation of the optimum equations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David

    2005-04-01

    Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

  16. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  17. The role of cranial kinesis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bout, R G; Zweers, G A

    2001-12-01

    In birds, the ability to move the upper beak relative to the braincase has been the subject of many functional morphological investigations, but in many instances the adaptive significance of cranial kinesis remains unclear. Alternatively, cranial kinesis may be considered a consequence of the general design of the skull, rather than an adaptive trait as such. The present study reviews some results related to the mechanism and functional significance of cranial kinesis in birds. Quantitative three-dimensional X-ray has shown that in skulls morphologically as divers as paleognaths and neognaths the mechanism for elevation of the upper beak is very similar. One of the mechanisms proposed for avian jaw movement is a mechanical coupling of the upper and the lower jaw movement by the postorbital ligament. Such a mechanical coupling would necessitate upper beak elevation. However, independent control of upper and lower jaw has been shown to occur during beak movements in birds. Moreover, kinematic modeling and force measurements suggests that the maximum extensibility of collagen, in combination with the short distance of the insertion of the postorbital ligament to the quadrato-mandibular articulation do not constitute a block to lower jaw depression. The lower jaw ligaments serve to limit the maximal extension of the mandibula. It is suggested here that cranial kinesis in avian feeding may have evolved as a consequence of an increase in eye size. This increase in size led to a reduction of bony bars in the lateral aspect of the skull enabling the transfer of quadrate movement to the upper jaw. The selective forces favoring the development of a kinetic upper beak in birds may be subtle and act in different ecological contexts. Simultaneous movement of the upper and lower jaw not only increases the velocity of beak movements, but with elevated upper beak also less force is required to open the lower jaw. However, the penalty of increased mobility of elements in a

  18. Timing of ectocranial suture activity in Gorilla gorilla as related to cranial volume and dental eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Cooper, Gregory M; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-05-01

    Research has shown that Pan and Homo have similar ectocranial suture synostosis patterns and a similar suture ontogeny (relative timing of suture fusion during the species ontogeny). This ontogeny includes patency during and after neurocranial expansion with a delayed bony response associated with adaptation to biomechanical forces generated by mastication. Here we investigate these relationships for Gorilla by examining the association among ectocranial suture morphology, cranial volume (as a proxy for neurocranial expansion) and dental development (as a proxy for the length of time that it has been masticating hard foods and exerting such strains on the cranial vault) in a large sample of Gorilla gorilla skulls. Two-hundred and fifty-five Gorilla gorilla skulls were examined for ectocranial suture closure status, cranial volume and dental eruption. Regression models were calculated for cranial volumes by suture activity, and Kendall's tau (a non-parametric measure of association) was calculated for dental eruption status by suture activity. Results suggest that, as reported for Pan and Homo, neurocranial expansion precedes suture synostosis activity. Here, Gorilla was shown to have a strong relationship between dental development and suture activity (synostosis). These data are suggestive of suture fusion extending further into ontogeny than brain expansion, similar to Homo and Pan. This finding allows for the possibility that masticatory forces influence ectocranial suture morphology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Effect of osteopathy in the cranial field on visual function--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhouse, Mark E; Shechtman, Diana; Sorkin, Richard; Drowos, Joanna Lauren; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Patterson, Michael M; Shallo-Hoffmann, Josephine; Hardigan, Patrick; Snyder, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    The effects of osteopathy in the cranial field on visual function-particularly on changes in the visual field and on the binocular alignment of the eyes-have been poorly characterized in the literature. The authors examined whether osteopathy in the cranial field resulted in an immediate, measurable change in visual function among a sample of adults with cranial asymmetry. Randomized controlled double-blinded pilot clinical trial. Adult volunteers between ages 18 and 35 years who were free of strabismus or active ocular or systemic disease were recruited. Inclusion criteria were refractive error ranging between six diopters of myopia and five diopters of hyperopia, regular astigmatism of any amount, and cranial somatic dysfunction. All subjects were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group received a single intervention of osteopathy in the cranial field to correct cranial dysfunction. The control group received light pressure of a few ounces of force applied to the cranium without osteopathic manipulative treatment. Preintervention and postintervention optometric examinations consisted of distant visual acuity testing, Donder push-up (ie, accommodative system) testing, local stereoacuity testing, pupillary size measurements, and vergence system (ie, cover test with prism neutralization, near point of convergence) testing. Global stereoacuity testing and retinoscopy were performed only in preintervention to determine whether subjects met inclusion criteria. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for all ocular measures. Twenty-nine subjects completed the trial-15 in the treatment group and 14 in the control group. A hierarchical ANOVA revealed statistically significant effects within the treatment group and within the control group (P visual acuity of the right eye (OD) and left eye (OS), local stereoacuity, pupillary size measured under dim illumination OD and OS, and near point of convergence break and recovery. For the

  20. 76 FR 48062 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Approval for Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed... Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulator. The Agency is also summarizing its proposed findings regarding the... classification of the cranial electrotherapy stimulator based on new information. This action implements certain...

  1. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required.

  2. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-11-03

    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy.

  3. Giant cell arteritis (cranial arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenthaler, M

    1978-08-25

    Giant cell arteritis, which is probably due to disturbed immune mechanisms, has a spectrum of clinical symptoms in elderly people. In nearly all cases such general signs as loss of appetite, loss of weight and fever are present. The sedimentation rate is almost without exception about 100 mm in the first hour. The two most frequent and typical clinical syndromes are polymyalgia rheumatica and cranial arteritis. The polymyalgia rheumatica is characterized by periarticular pain which is mostly symmetrical and accentuated in the shoulder girdle. Increasingly severe temporal headache and ocular distrubances are found with cranial arteritis in more than 50% of cases. A combination of both diseases is frequent. Other arterial branches are rarely involved. The course of the disease is over a period of 1 1/2 to 2 years. Treatment with corticosteroids is indicated mainly because of the severe ocular complications with blindness. It should begin immediately, be intensive and last over a long period. Regular followup is necessary over several years in order to avoid relapses.

  4. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, Emily J

    2004-07-22

    It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society

  5. Epizootiology of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S.; Belser, Emily H.; Killmaster, Charlie H.; Bowers, John W.; Irwin, Brian J.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection byTrueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  6. A head phantom study for intraocular dose evaluation of 64-slice multidetector CT examination in patients with suspected cranial trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Kosuke, E-mail: matsuk@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Koshida, Kichiro [Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Noto, Kimiya; Takata, Tadanori [Department of Radiological Technology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Suzuki, Masayuki [Department of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Shimono, Tetsunori [Department of Radiology, Hoshigaoka Koseinenkin Hospital, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiological Technology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: In cases of suspected cranial trauma, cranial CT examinations should be performed to rule out pathology. There are some methods available for reducing intraocular doses; however, it is difficult for the operators to conduct the necessary measurements because of restrictions in time and patient mobility, especially in high-energy trauma cases. Therefore, we performed a head phantom study for intraocular dose evaluation of 64-slice multidetector CT examination in patients with suspected cranial trauma. Materials and methods: Assuming that the orbitomeatal (OM) line and bed were vertical, a head phantom was tilted from 10 degrees caudally to 25 degrees cranially at 5-degree intervals. At each tilted position, the phantom was examined using a 64-section multidetector CT device using three acquisition protocols. Intraocular doses during each examination were measured using small dosimeters. Results: Assuming that the OM line and bed were vertical, intraocular doses varied between 52 and 140%, 17-138%, and 90-142% during helical, non-helical, and helical CT angiographic examinations, respectively. Intraocular doses increased when the phantom was tilted cranially. Conclusion: If possible, the best way to reduce the intraocular dose is by angling the gantry cranially, tilting the head of each patient caudally and adopting a non-helical acquisition method. During procedure, the acquisition angle should be angled cranially more than 0 degrees based on the OM line. The estimation of intraocular dose using the acquisition angle and displayed volumetric CT dose index might be useful to evaluate the deterministic effect risks and to inform patients about the associated risks.

  7. A cephalometric analysis of the cranial base and frontal part of the face in patients with mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čutović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. The literature suggests different views on the correlation between the cranial base morphology and size and saggital intermaxillary relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate the cranial base morphology, including the frontal facial part in patients with mandibular prognathism, to clarify a certain ambiguities, in opposing viewspoints in the literature. Methods. Cephalometric radiographies of 60 patients were analyzed at the Dental Clinic of the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia. All the patients were male, aged 18-35 years, with no previous orthodontic treatment. On the basis of dental and sceletal relations of jaws and teeth, the patients were divided into two groups: the group P (patients with mandibular prognathism and the group E (the control group or eugnathic patients. A total of 15 cephalometric parametres related to the cranial base, frontal part of the face and sagittal intermaxillary relationships were measured and analyzed. Results. The results show that cranial base dimensions and the angle do not play a significant role in the development of mandibular prognathism. Interrelationship analysis indicated a statistically significant negative correlation between the cranial base angle (NSAr and the angles of maxillary (SNA and mandibular (SNB prognathism, as well as a positive correlation between the angle of inclination of the ramus to the cranial base (GoArNS and the angle of sagittal intermaxillary relationships (ANB. Sella turcica dimensions, its width and depth, as well as the nasal bone length were significantly increased in the patients with mandibular prognathism, while the other analyzed frontal part dimensions of the face were not changed by the malocclusion in comparison with the eugnathic patients. Conclusion. This study shows that the impact of the cranial base and the frontal part of the face on the development of profile in patients with mandibular prognathism is much smaller, but

  8. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power...

  9. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... peripheral. 4.123 Section 4.123 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies...

  11. Cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian children | Eyong | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cranial nerve palsies are common clinical problem routinely encountered in neurological practice; the dysfunction can occur at any point in the course of the nerve and may point to serious pathology. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and underlying aetiology of cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian ...

  12. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  13. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  14. Extra-articular stabilization of the cranial cruciate deficient stifle with anchor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, D; Saunders, B; Beale, B; Kowaleski, M

    2011-01-01

    Complete or partial rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) is a common injury of the canine stifle. Most practicing veterinarians would agree that optimal outcome is best achieved with surgical intervention. A popular method of stabilization is an extra-articular suture stabilization. The objective of this manuscript is to describe suture placement in a more isometric position as compared to traditional suture placement. A second objective is to introduce the veterinary surgeon to novel anchor products used for stabilization.

  15. Comparison of Cranial Facet Joint Violation Rate Between Percutaneous and Open Pedicle Screw Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Bin; Li, Zhengyao; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous and open pedicle screw placements have been widely used in lumbar fusion surgery. However, there are conflicting reports of cranial facet joint violation rate for the 2 techniques. To better determine the rate of cranial facet joint violation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in the present study. We searched the established electronic literature databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, World of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for trials involving the 2 pedicle screw placement techniques. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Four comparative trials with a cumulative sample size of 881 patients and 1755 cranial pedicle screws were identified and analyzed. The results showed that cranial facet joint violation rate was 18.18% (154/847) in percutaneous group and 18.72% (170/908) in open group. The pooled data revealed that there was no significant difference in the violation rate (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.24–2.30, P = 0.62). In addition, there was also no significant difference for the rate of severe violation between the 2 techniques (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.55–2.62, P = 0.64, random effect model). Based on the current data, the meta-analysis shows that similar cranial facet joint violation rate occurs during the percutaneous and open pedicle screw placement techniques. In addition, taking the limitations of this study into consideration, it was still not appropriate to draw such a strong conclusion. More well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess violation rate for the 2 techniques in the future. PMID:25654397

  16. Post-hatchling cranial ontogeny in the Early Triassic diapsid reptile Proterosuchus fergusi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Butler, Richard J

    2015-05-01

    The phylogenetic position of Proterosuchus fergusi (Lower Triassic of South Africa) as one of the most basal archosauriforms means that it is critically important for understanding the successful evolutionary radiation of archosaurs during the Mesozoic. The excellent sample of the species provides a unique opportunity to understand early archosauriform ontogeny. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of cranial ontogenetic variation were conducted on an ontogenetic sequence, in which the smallest individual is 37% of the size of the largest one and osteohistological evidence suggests that four of 11 collected specimens had not reached sexual maturity. Through ontogeny the skull of Proterosuchus became proportionally taller, the infratemporal fenestra larger, and the teeth more isodont and numerous but with smaller crowns. The sequence of somatic maturity supports relatively high growth rates during early ontogeny. The skull of juvenile specimens of Proterosuchus closely resembles adults of the basal archosauromorph Prolacerta, whereas adult specimens resemble adults of more derived archosauriforms. As a result, a plausible hypothesis is that ontogenetic modification events (e.g., heterochrony) may have been key drivers of the evolution of the general shape of the skull at the base of Archosauriformes. These changes may have contributed to the occupation of a new morphospace by the clade around the Permo-Triassic boundary. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  17. Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography. PMID:27195026

  18. A population of Langerin-positive dendritic cells in murine Peyer's patches involved in sampling β-glucan microparticles.

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    Magdia De Jesus

    Full Text Available Glucan particles (GPs are 2-4 μm hollow, porous shells composed of 1,3-β-D-glucan that have been effectively used for oral targeted-delivery of a wide range of payloads, including small molecules, siRNA, DNA, and protein antigens. While it has been demonstrated that the transepithelial transport of GPs is mediated by Peyer's patch M cells, the fate of the GPs once within gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is not known. Here we report that fluorescently labeled GPs administered to mice by gavage accumulate in CD11c+ DCs situated in Peyer's patch sub-epithelial dome (SED regions. GPs appeared in DCs within minutes after gavage and remained within the SED for days afterwards. The co-administration or sequential administration of GPs with differentially labeled GPs or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles demonstrated that the SED DC subpopulation in question was capable of internalizing particles of different sizes and material compositions. Phenotypic analysis identified the GP-containing DCs as being CD8α- and CD11blo/-, suggesting they are the so-called myeloid and/or double negative (DN subset(s of PP DCs. A survey of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs known to be expressed by leukocytes within the intestinal mucosa revealed that GP-containing SED DCs were positive for Langerin (CD207, a CLR with specificity for β-D-glucan and that has been shown to mediate the internalization of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The presence of Langerin+ DCs in the SED as determined by immunofluorescence was confirmed using Langerin E-GFP transgenic mice. In summary, our results demonstrate that following M cell-mediated transepithelial transport, GPs (and other micro/nanoparticles are sampled by a population of SED DCs distinguished from other Peyer's patch DC subsets by their expression of Langerin. Future studies will be aimed at defining the role of Langerin in antigen sampling and antigen presentation within

  19. Psychotic-like symptoms and positive schizotypy are associated with mixed and ambiguous handedness in an adolescent community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette; Navarro, Blas; Vicens-Vilanova, Jordi; Obiols, Jordi; Kwapil, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    The objective of this study was to replicate the association between atypical handedness and psychosis-proneness in a representative sample of adolescents from the general population. It expands previous studies by (1) analyzing a variety of atypical handedness indexes (left, mixed, ambiguous, and inconsistent), (2) measuring comprehensively the multidimensionality of psychosis-proneness, and (3) analyzing the association of different patterns of atypical handedness with nonclinical dimensions of both trait (schizotypy) and sub-clinical symptom (psychotic-like experiences) levels. Seven hundred and twenty-eight adolescents were assessed for handedness by the 12-item self-report Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire and for psychosis-proneness by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales. Writing-hand alone did not detect associations between laterality and psychosis-proneness. Mixed- rather than left-handedness was related to psychosis-proneness, and this was more evident when analyzing subjects with ambiguous handedness exclusively. When analysis was restricted to subjects with non-ambiguous handedness, strong left-handedness was related to psychosis-proneness. The positive dimension showed a stronger association than the negative one with atypical handedness. Results partially support mixed-handedness as a marker of developmental disorders underlying both atypical lateralization and psychosis-proneness. Among various possible mixed-handedness patterns, inconsistent hand use across primary actions, and for the same action across time, seems particularly related to psychosis-proneness and thus requires further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography to assess stifle lesions in dogs after cranial cruciate ligament rupture: 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, F; Cauvin, E; Viguier, E; Kraft, E; Sonet, J; Carozzo, C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis of lesions in the canine stifle associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Thirteen dogs that had a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture were included in this prospective clinical study. Two ultrasonographers who were unaware of specific historical and clinical data performed the sonography with a high frequency (8-16 MHz) linear transducer. Surgical treatment of the affected stifle was performed within two days of ultrasonography by a surgeon who was unaware of the ultrasonographic findings. The lesions observed during ultrasonography and arthrotomy were compared at the completion of the study. Visualisation of the superficial tendons (quadriceps and long digital extensor) and ligaments (patellar ligament, collateral ligaments) of the stifle using ultrasonography was excellent. However, the detection of deep stifle ligaments (cranial cruciate ligament and caudal cruciate ligament) was extremely difficult to perform using ultrasonography. For cranial cruciate ligament rupture, the sensitivity for ultrasonographic diagnosis was 15.4%. For meniscal lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for ultrasonographic diagnosis were 82%, 93%, 90% and 88% respectively. High frequency ultrasonography is a non-invasive method for accurately and efficiently detecting superficial ligaments, tendons and meniscal lesions associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the stifle of non-sedated dogs.

  1. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure with image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2011-08-09

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance in a sampling system for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach involves the capturing of an image of the collection instrument or the shadow thereof cast across the surface and the utilization of line average brightness (LAB) techniques to determine the actual distance between the collection instrument and the surface. The actual distance is subsequently compared to a target distance for re-optimization, as necessary, of the collection instrument-to-surface during an automated surface sampling operation.

  2. An unusual orbito-cranial foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Madhumati

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The rarity of orbito-cranial gun shot injury in both war and civilian practice has been reported. In a large series of 351 missile head injuries in the Vietnam war, orbital penetration was noted in 0.6% cases only. Review of literature shows that orbital injury was ipsilateral to the cerebral injury in most reported cases. We have previously reported a rare case of left parieto-occipital lobe injury due to gun shot wound of the contralateral (right orbit. The case reported here sustained a bullet injury to the left frontal bone but the missile was located below the contralateral (right optic canal. The rarity of the case prompted this report.

  3. Cranial vault metastasis of giant cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Christina; Abreo, Fluerette; Nanda, Anil

    2008-08-01

    Giant cell tumors are benign bony tumors involving the epiphysis of long bones. Here, we present a case of giant cell tumor involving the parietal bone that had metastasized from the sacrum. A 36-year-old healthy woman presented to neurosurgery clinic in April 2005 reporting a "bump" over the left parietal area that had been increasing in size over the past 6 months. The lesion was nontender, and the patient had no other associated neurological symptoms. As we have presented here, cranial vault metastases can occur and should be considered in a differential diagnosis of bony lesions found in this location. These distant metastases, although relatively uncommon, must be managed aggressively. Newer radiation treatments seem to be a promising favorable adjunct to wide local resection and should be investigated further for these tumors.

  4. Cranial computed tomography in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thajeb, P.; Chen, S.T.

    1989-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of the nervous system. The appearance of ADEM on cranial CT scans has rarely been reported. The author reports seven cases in two institutions during a period of seven years. Only four of the seven patients had hypodense lesions in the white matter and six patients showed spotty, nodular, or gyral enhancement after contrast injections. The enhancement resolved with steroid therapy, leaving some persistent hypoattenuated areas even after 10 months follow-up, these findings support the dual components of the pathogenesis of ADEM. The vasculitic component may be responsive to steroids, nevertheless the demyelinating or necrotic areas may not, and the latter may be responsible for the sequelae of ADEM.

  5. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish, however two parts of lateral line nerve were separated on 54-day-old. Three nerves, profundus, facial and octaval were observed on 54-day-old, however, up to this age, epiphysial nerve was not observed.

  6. [Discussion about the sampling positions of the bag-type infusion sets for single use in the ethylene oxide residues detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zheng, Dixin; Geng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects the bag-type infusion sets for single use as samples, which are produced by different manufacturers and based on the ethylene oxide sterilization. The ethylene oxide sterilization residues in different parts of samples are detected by colorimetric analysis. Combined the comparison of the ethylene oxide residues testing results in the different parts of the same sample with the actual situation in clinical use, more reasonable sampling positions are found to detect the ethylene oxide sterilization residues. The result of this experiment will play a guiding role in the detection of the actual samples.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among a sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative females visiting an urban VCT center in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Malow, Robert M; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Marcelin, Abdias; Pape, Jean Willam

    2009-05-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of over 43,000 women attending the Groupe Hatien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Centers in Haiti between 1999-2004 were examined. Comparative analyses were conducted for several sub-samples. Analyses revealed that across the entire sample, HIV-positive women appeared to engage in more risky behaviors than HIV-negative women (p< .01); however, as a group, pregnant HIV-positive women reported safer behaviors than non-pregnant HIV-positive women (p<.01). Women from all groups were generally knowledgeable about the risk of HIV transmission through dirty needles and mother to child. However, inaccurate information about transmission through supernatural means and mosquitoes was very common. These results suggest that knowledge and education are negatively associated with HIV status in this sample. Addressing gaps in knowledge and behavior and reducing the risky behaviors of HIV-positive individuals are important directions for future programs.

  8. Cranial-Base Morphology in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Po Chang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranialbase morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

  9. Cranial shape and correlated characters in crocodilian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Rudyard W; Makovicky, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    Crocodilians show a high degree of cranial variation and convergence throughout their 80 million-year fossil record that complicates their phylogenetic reconstruction. Conflicting phylogenetic results from different data partitions and character homoplasies typify crocodilian phylogeny, and differences between molecular and morphological phylogenetic hypotheses are believed to be associated with the slender-snout skull shape of Gavialis gangeticus and Tomistoma schlegelii. Slender-snout skulls are one of five identified eusuchian cranial ecomorph shape categories (ESCs) thought to reflect functional or ecological specialization. This paper tested the effect of transitions among general, blunt and slender ESCs on cranial character-state distributions in phylogeny using the concentrated changes test. In addition, 'tree-free' character compatibility analysis of character independence was conducted on the morphological character matrix to determine if character correlations are observed independent of specific tree topologies. Results suggest cranial ESCs do affect cranial character-state gains in phylogeny. Concentrated changes identify a broad suite of character-state changes that significantly correlate with transitions to slender, general and blunt ESCs on morphological, molecular and combined-data tree topologies, but numbers of correlated characters for each category differ according to topology. Character compatibility analysis results do not mirror the concentrated changes test results and reflect hierarchically distributed support throughout the data. As cranial ESCs affect character-state transitions, it is possible that nonphylogenetic variables could affect inferences of crocodilian phylogeny by affecting cranial morphology.

  10. Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas are uncommon tumors. A 30-kg, 2-year-old, intact female German shepherd was presented for evaluation of cachexia and respiratory distress of a few days’ duration. Lateral radiographic projection of the thorax revealed significant pleural effusion. Computed tomography revealed a cranial mediastinal mass effect adjacent to the heart. On surgical exploration, a pedunculated mass attached to the esophagus, trachea, brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery and cranial vena cava without attachment to the right atrium and auricular appendage was removed and debrided by use of blunt dissection and dry gauzes, respectively. Histopathology results described the cranial mediastinal mass as hemangiosarcoma. At 8 months and 5 days post-operatively, the patient died. Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas, although a seemingly rare cause of thoracic pathology in young dogs, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for pleural effusion and soft tissue mass effect in the cranial mediastinum. This is the first case report in a dog to describe primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcoma. PMID:25089185

  11. [Investigation of BK and JC virus DNA positivities by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the clinical samples of patients with high risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Seyyal; Fidan, Kibriya; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Dalgıç, Aydın; Fidan, Işıl; Sucak, Gülsan; Müderris, Tuba

    2011-04-01

    Human polyomaviruses, namely BK (BKV) and JC (JCV) viruses are small DNA viruses that cause latent infections worldwide. Primary infections are usually acquired in the early periods of life and are generally asymptomatic. However BKV/JCV infections may cause severe clinical conditions in immunosuppressive patients such as bone marrow and solid organ transplantation or cancer patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the presence of BKV and JCV nucleic acids by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the clinical samples of patients with high risk. A total of 268 (62 blood, 206 urine) samples obtained from 115 immunocompromised patients hospitalized in Gazi University Hospital between July 2007 to January 2009, were included to the study. Viral nucleic acids were extracted from the samples with High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit (Roche, Germany). By using amplification mix (TIB Molbiol GmbH, Germany) that included primers targeting 174 (JCV) and 219 (BKV) base pair fragments of the small t antigen, and hybridization probes (Roche, Germany), nucleic acids were amplified with LightCycler (Roche Applied Science, Germany) system. As a result, total polyomavirus DNA positivity rate was found as 33.2% (89/268). When BKV and JCV DNA positivities were evaluated according to the samples, 25.2% (53/206) of urine samples yielded positive results for BKV, 14.5% (30/206) for JCV and 2.4% (5/206) for both BKV and JCV. Only one of the blood samples (1/62; 1.6%) were found positive by means of BKV DNA, while none of the blood samples were positive for JCV DNA. The distribution of BKV and JCV DNA positivity rates according to the inpatient clinics were as follows, respectively; 24.3% and 9.5% for pediatric nephrology, 9.6% and 8.2% for renal transplantation unit, 13.5% and 18.9% for adult nephrology, 30.8% and 15.4% for bone marrow transplantation unit, 22.9% and 8.6% for pediatric clinics. In samples from pediatric hematology patients, BKV

  12. Spontaneous carotid dissection presenting lower cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Pisanello, A; Giovanardi, F; Morandi, C; Zuccoli, G; Troiso, A

    2001-03-01

    Cranial nerve palsy in internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection occurs in 3--12% of all patients, but in 3% of these a syndrome of hemicranias and ipsilateral cranial nerve palsy is the sole manifestation of ICA dissection, and in 0.5% of cases there is only cranial nerve palsy without headache. We present two cases of lower cranial nerve palsy. The first patient, a 49-year-old woman, developed left eleventh and twelfth cranial nerve palsies and ipsilateral neck pain. The angio-RM showed an ICA dissection with stenosis of 50%, beginning about 2 cm before the carotid channel. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulant therapy and gradually improved, until complete clinical recovery. The second patient, a 38-year-old woman, presented right hemiparesis and neck pain. The left ICA dissection, beginning 2 cm distal to the bulb, was shown by ultrasound scanning of the carotid and confirmed by MR angiogram and angiography with lumen stenosis of 90%. Following hospitalisation, 20 days from the onset of symptoms, paresis of the left trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles became evident. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulant therapy and only a slight right arm paresis was present at 10 months follow-up. Cranial nerve palsy is not rare in ICA dissection, and the lower cranial nerve palsies in various combinations constitute the main syndrome, but in most cases these are present with the motor or sensory deficit due to cerebral ischemia, along with headache or Horner's syndrome. In the diagnosis of the first case, there was further difficulty because the cranial nerve palsy was isolated without hemiparesis, and the second case presented a rare association of hemiparesis and palsy of the eleventh cranial nerve alone. Compression or stretching of the nerve by the expanded artery may explain the palsies, but an alternative cause is also possible, namely the interruption of the nutrient vessels supplying the nerve, which in our patients is more likely.

  13. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

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    Esra Eruyar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  14. The Role of Genetic Drift in Shaping Modern Human Cranial Evolution: A Test Using Microevolutionary Modeling

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    Heather F. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The means by which various microevolutionary processes have acted in the past to produce patterns of cranial variation that characterize modern humans is not thoroughly understood. Applying a microevolutionary framework, within- and among-population variance/covariance (V/CV structure was compared for several functional and developmental modules of the skull across a worldwide sample of modern humans. V/CV patterns in the basicranium, temporal bone, and face are proportional within and among groups, which is consistent with a hypothesis of neutral evolution; however, mandibular morphology deviated from this pattern. Degree of intergroup similarity in facial, temporal bone, and mandibular morphology is significantly correlated with geographic distance; however, much of the variance remains unexplained. These findings provide insight into the evolutionary history of modern human cranial variation by identifying signatures of genetic drift, gene flow, and migration and set the stage for inferences regarding selective pressures that early humans encountered since their initial migrations around the world.

  15. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

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    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  16. The Effect of Dietary Adaption on Cranial Morphological Integration in Capuchins (Order Primates, Genus Cebus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C.apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C.albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  17. Ecological correlates to cranial morphology in Leporids (Mammalia, Lagomorpha

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    Brian P. Kraatz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian order Lagomorpha has been the subject of many morphometric studies aimed at understanding the relationship between form and function as it relates to locomotion, primarily in postcranial morphology. The leporid cranial skeleton, however, may also reveal information about their ecology, particularly locomotion and vision. Here we investigate the relationship between cranial shape and the degree of facial tilt with locomotion (cursoriality, saltation, and burrowing within crown leporids. Our results suggest that facial tilt is more pronounced in cursors and saltators compared to generalists, and that increasing facial tilt may be driven by a need for expanded visual fields. Our phylogenetically informed analyses indicate that burrowing behavior, facial tilt, and locomotor behavior do not predict cranial shape. However, we find that variables such as bullae size, size of the splenius capitus fossa, and overall rostral dimensions are important components for understanding the cranial variation in leporids.

  18. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Osteopathic Cranial Manipulative Medicine on Visual Function.

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    Sandhouse, Mark E; Shechtman, Diana; Fecho, Gregory; Timoshkin, Elena M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine (OCMM) on visual function have been poorly characterized in the literature. Based on a pilot study conducted by their research group, the authors conducted a study that examined whether OCMM produced a measurable change in visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The intervention and control (sham therapy) were applied during 8 weekly visits, and participants in both groups received 8 weekly follow-up visits. Adult volunteers aged between 18 and 35 years with unremarkable systemic or ocular history were recruited. Inclusion criteria were refractive error between 6 diopters of myopia and 5 diopters of hyperopia, regular astigmatism of any amount, and cranial somatic dysfunction. All participants were evaluated for cranial asymmetry and randomly assigned to the treatment or sham therapy group. The treatment group received OCMM to correct cranial dysfunctions, and the sham therapy group received light pressure applied to the cranium. Preintervention and postintervention ophthalmic examinations consisted of distance visual acuity testing, accommodative system testing, local stereoacuity testing, pupillary size measurements, and vergence system testing. A χ2 analysis was performed to determine participant masking. Analysis of variance was performed for all ophthalmic measures. Eighty-nine participants completed the trial, with 47 in the treatment group and 42 in the sham therapy group. A hierarchical analysis of variance revealed statistically significant within-groups effects (Ptherapy group, a statistically significant effect (Pmanipulative medicine may affect visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Active motion testing of the cranium for somatic dysfunction may affect the cranial system to a measurable level and explain interrater reliability issues in cranial studies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02728713).

  20. MEMO1 drives cranial endochondral ossification and palatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Feng, Weiguo; Jones, Kenneth L; Hynes, Nancy E; Clouthier, David E; Niswander, Lee; Williams, Trevor

    2016-07-15

    The cranial base is a component of the neurocranium and has a central role in the structural integration of the face, brain and vertebral column. Consequently, alteration in the shape of the human cranial base has been intimately linked with primate evolution and defective development is associated with numerous human facial abnormalities. Here we describe a novel recessive mutant mouse strain that presented with a domed head and fully penetrant cleft secondary palate coupled with defects in the formation of the underlying cranial base. Mapping and non-complementation studies revealed a specific mutation in Memo1 - a gene originally associated with cell migration. Expression analysis of Memo1 identified robust expression in the perichondrium and periosteum of the developing cranial base, but only modest expression in the palatal shelves. Fittingly, although the palatal shelves failed to elevate in Memo1 mutants, expression changes were modest within the shelves themselves. In contrast, the cranial base, which forms via endochondral ossification had major reductions in the expression of genes responsible for bone formation, notably matrix metalloproteinases and markers of the osteoblast lineage, mirrored by an increase in markers of cartilage and extracellular matrix development. Concomitant with these changes, mutant cranial bases showed an increased zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes accompanied by a reduction in both vascular invasion and mineralization. Finally, neural crest cell-specific deletion of Memo1 caused a failure of anterior cranial base ossification indicating a cell autonomous role for MEMO1 in the development of these neural crest cell derived structures. However, palate formation was largely normal in these conditional mutants, suggesting a non-autonomous role for MEMO1 in palatal closure. Overall, these findings assign a new function to MEMO1 in driving endochondral ossification in the cranium, and also link abnormal development of the cranial base

  1. Positive expectancies mediate the link between race and alcohol use in a sample of Native American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Luger, Elizabeth J; Guartos, Cynthia S

    2017-10-01

    Though abundant research suggests that Native Americans report high rates of alcohol use and related consequences, little research has examined drinking patterns among Native American college students. It is possible that drinking rates for this group may differ from their non-college counterparts and also from those of Caucasian college students. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol use differs between Native American and Caucasian college students, and specifically whether alcohol expectancy effects mediate the relationship between race and drinking. Participants were 43 Native American and 87 Caucasian college students who reported on their positive and negative expectancy effects and past-6-month drinking. Caucasians reported drinking significantly more alcohol and holding stronger positive expectancies. Bootstrapping mediational analysis with 95% confidence intervals indicated that positive but not negative expectancy effects mediated the relationship between race and past-6-month drinking. This preliminary research is the first to examine expectancy effects as mediators of the relationship between Native American and Caucasian race and drinking. Further understanding of the differences in positive expectancy effects between groups may have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol use among Native American college students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Review of variations in Mw < 7 earthquake motions on position and TEC (Mw = 6.5 Aegean Sea earthquake sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Omer; Inyurt, Samed; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-02-01

    Turkey is a country located in the middle latitude zone, where tectonic activity is intensive. Recently, an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 Mw occurred offshore in the Aegean Sea on 24 May 2014 at 09:25 UTC, which lasted about 40 s. The earthquake was also felt in Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria in addition to Turkey. In recent years, ionospheric anomaly detection studies have been carried out because of seismicity with total electron content (TEC) computed from the global navigation satellite system's (GNSS) signal delays and several interesting findings have been published. In this study, both TEC and positional variations have been examined separately following a moderate size earthquake in the Aegean Sea. The correlation of the aforementioned ionospheric variation with the positional variation has also been investigated. For this purpose, a total of 15 stations was used, including four continuously operating reference stations in Turkey (CORS-TR) and stations in the seismic zone (AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC), as well as international GNSS service (IGS) and European reference frame permanent network (EPN) stations. The ionospheric and positional variations of the AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC stations were examined using Bernese v5.0 software. When the precise point positioning TEC (PPP-TEC) values were examined, it was observed that the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU (total electron content unit) above the upper-limit TEC value at four stations located in Turkey, 3 days before the earthquake at 08:00 and 10:00 UTC. At the same stations, on the day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00, and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 5 TECU below the lower-limit TEC value. The global ionosphere model TEC (GIM-TEC) values published by the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) were also examined. Three days before the earthquake, at all stations, it was observed that the TEC values in the time period between 08:00 and 10:00 UTC were approximately 2 TECU

  4. Influence of the cranial base flexion on Class I, II and III malocclusions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Kélei Cristina Mathias; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Vieira, Camila Ivini Viana; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on the morphological characteristics of the skull base (flexion, anterior length and posterior length) and the concomitant development of malocclusions, by comparing differences in dimorphism, ethnicity and age. Methods: The articles were selected by means of electronic search on BBO, MEDLINE and LILACS databases from 1966 to 2016. A qualitative evaluation of the methodologies used on the articles was also performed. Results: Although the literature on this topic is abundant, only 16 articles were selected for the present systematic review. The cranial base angle itself does not seem to play a significant role in the development of malocclusions. In fact, the cranial base angle is relatively stable at the ages of 5 to 15 years. Conclusions: A more obtuse angle at the skull base, in association or not with a greater anterior length of the cranial base, can contribute to the development of Class II division 1 malocclusions. On the other hand, a more acute angle at the skull base can contribute to a more anterior positioning of the mandible and to the development of Class III malocclusions. PMID:29160345

  5. Major cranial changes during Triceratops ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R; Goodwin, Mark B

    2006-11-07

    This is the first cranial ontogenetic assessment of Triceratops, the well-known Late Cretaceous dinosaur distinguished by three horns and a massive parietal-squamosal frill. Our analysis is based on a growth series of 10 skulls, ranging from a 38 cm long baby skull to about 2 m long adult skulls. Four growth stages correspond to a suite of ontogenetic characters expressed in the postorbital horns, frill, nasal, epinasal horn and epoccipitals. Postorbital horns are straight stubs in early ontogeny, curve posteriorly in juveniles, straighten in subadults and recurve anteriorly in adults. The posterior margin of the baby frill is deeply scalloped. In early juveniles, the frill margin becomes ornamented by 17-19 delta-shaped epoccipitals. Epoccipitals are dorsoventrally compressed in subadults, strongly compressed and elongated in adults and ultimately merge onto the posterior frill margin in older adults. Ontogenetic trends within and between growth stages include: posterior frill margin transitions from scalloped to wavy and smooth; progressive exclusion of the supraoccipital from the foramen magnum; internal hollowing at the base of the postorbital horns; closure of the midline nasal suture; fusion of the epinasal onto the nasals; and epinasal expansion into a morphologically variable nasal horn. We hypothesize that the changes in horn orientation and epoccipital shape function to allow visual identity of juveniles, and signal their attainment of sexual maturity.

  6. An unusual case of cranial image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A K; Sinha, P

    2005-03-10

    We encountered an unusual practical case of craniofacial identification recently. The peculiarity of the case was that the skull itself was not available for examination unlike other such common cases. The supplied material exhibits were, a nearly front view photograph of a skeletonized face and a front view face photograph of the suspected victim. Further, the condition of the skull during taking its photograph was such that its lower and the upper jaws were not in a normal closed condition. The procedure involved in dealing with such a complicated craniofacial identification problem would be quite interesting from a forensic investigator's point of view, since standard methods of skull identification like photo/video superimposition techniques were not at all applicable here. As such, the present case report provides the details of the multiphase procedure adapted by us in dealing with this abnormal case. A solution to this unprecedented craniofacial identification problem was worked out by appropriate exploration of a newly introduced digital image processing technique that is based on craniofacial symmetry perception. The procedure leads to the reconstruction of a superimposable cranial image with upper and lower teeth in normal closed condition for establishment of its identity in usual way.

  7. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  8. Custom implant design for large cranial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Filipe M M; Heuzé, Y; Verius, M; Unterhofer, C; Freysinger, W; Recheis, W

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to introduce a computer-aided design (CAD) tool that enables the design of large skull defect (>100 [Formula: see text]) implants. Functional and aesthetically correct custom implants are extremely important for patients with large cranial defects. For these cases, preoperative fabrication of implants is recommended to avoid problems of donor site morbidity, sufficiency of donor material and quality. Finally, crafting the correct shape is a non-trivial task increasingly complicated by defect size. We present a CAD tool to design such implants for the neurocranium. A combination of geometric morphometrics and radial basis functions, namely thin-plate splines, allows semiautomatic implant generation. The method uses symmetry and the best fitting shape to estimate missing data directly within the radiologic volume data. In addition, this approach delivers correct implant fitting via a boundary fitting approach. This method generates a smooth implant surface, free of sharp edges that follows the main contours of the boundary, enabling accurate implant placement in the defect site intraoperatively. The present approach is evaluated and compared to existing methods. A mean error of 89.29 % (72.64-100 %) missing landmarks with an error less or equal to 1 mm was obtained. In conclusion, the results show that our CAD tool can generate patient-specific implants with high accuracy.

  9. The cranial morphometrics of the wildfowl (Anatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecsics Tibor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfowl (Anatidae are a diverse group of birds and globally distributed. These birds feed by widely varying methods, there are generalist and specialist species. In a number of vertebrate taxa trophic specializations have led to distinct differences in the morphology of the skull, like in birds. Our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between cranial morphology and feeding mechanism of wildfowl are limited. The aim of this article is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape and foraging habits and find the identifiable attributes of the differently adapted groups. We used morphometric methods with 7 linear measurements of the skull. We used principal component (PC analysis to identify the groups with different foraging habits. The PCs were related to measurements which represent the demanded muscle mass for feeding and the amount of capable food items. The grazers have a narrower bill and bigger bone surface which requires more muscle tissue than the broad billed filter-feeders. We observed the structural and functional differences between grazers and filter-feeders. There are no important differences in the bill measurements between omnivore dabbling and diving ducks. Only the bill is not enough to deduce the foraging habits.

  10. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-11-01

    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  11. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash S Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches.

  12. Remora cranial vein morphology and its functional implications for attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E

    2017-07-19

    Remora fishes adhere to, and maintain long-term, reversible attachment with, surfaces of varying roughness and compliance under wetted high-shear conditions using an adhesive disc that evolved from the dorsal fin spines typical of other fishes. Evolution of this complex hierarchical structure required extensive reorganization of the skull and fin spines, but the functional role of the soft tissues of the disc are poorly understood. Here I show that remora cranial veins are highly-modified in comparison to those of other vertebrates; they are transposed anteriorly and enlarged, and lie directly ventral to the disc on the dorsum of the cranium. Ancestrally, these veins lie inside the neurocranium, in the dura ventral to the brain, and return blood from the eyes, nares, and brain to the heart. Repositioning of these vessels to lie in contact with the ventral surface of the disc lamellae implies functional importance associated with the adhesive mechanism. The position of the anterior cardinal sinus suggests that it may aid in pressurization equilibrium during attachment by acting as a hydraulic differential.

  13. Ontogeny of the cranial system in Laonastes aenigmamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Keovichit, Kham; Adriaens, Dominique; Brabant, Loes; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornette, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Rodents, together with bats, are among the ecologically most diverse and most speciose groups of mammals. Moreover, rodents show elaborate specializations of the feeding apparatus in response to the predominantly fore-aft movements of the lower jaw. The Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus was recently discovered and originally thought to belong to a new family. The difficulties in classifying L. aenigmamus based on morphological characters stem from the fact that it presents a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characteristics, including the morphology of the jaw adductors. The origin of the unusual muscular organization in this species remains, however, unclear. Here, we investigate the development of the masticatory system in Laonastes to better understand the origin of its derived morphology relative to other rodents. Our analyses show that skull and mandible development is characterized by an overall elongation of the snout region. Muscle mass increases with positive allometry during development and growth, and so does the force-generating capacity of the jaw adductor muscles (i.e. physiological cross-sectional area). Whereas fetal crania and musculature are more similar to those of typical rodents, adults diverge in the elongation of the rostral part of the skull and the disproportionate development of the zygomaticomandibularis. Our data suggest a functional signal in the development of the unusual cranial morphology, possibly associated with the folivorous trophic ecology of the species. PMID:22607030

  14. Transplantation of human fetal-derived neural stem cells improves cognitive function following cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Munjal M; Christie, Lori-Ann; Hazel, Thomas G; Johe, Karl K; Limoli, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies typically involves radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence following surgical resection. Despite the many benefits of cranial radiotherapy, survivors often suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Thus, while patients afflicted with primary and secondary malignancies of the CNS now experience longer local regional control and progression-free survival, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with their cancer treatments. Multiple mechanisms contribute to disrupted cognition following irradiation, including the depletion of radiosensitive populations of stem and progenitor cells in the hippocampus. We have explored the potential of using intrahippocampal transplantation of human stem cells to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Past studies demonstrated the capability of cranially transplanted human embryonic (hESCs) and neural (hNSCs) stem cells to functionally restore cognition in rats 1 and 4 months after cranial irradiation. The present study employed an FDA-approved fetal-derived hNSC line capable of large scale-up under good manufacturing practice (GMP). Animals receiving cranial transplantation of these cells 1 month following irradiation showed improved hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning performance compared to irradiated, sham surgery controls. Significant newly born (doublecortin positive) neurons and a smaller fraction of glial subtypes were observed within and nearby the transplantation core. Engrafted cells migrated and differentiated into neuronal and glial subtypes throughout the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the host hippocampus. These studies expand our prior findings to demonstrate that transplantation of fetal-derived hNSCs improves cognitive deficits in irradiated animals, as assessed by two separate cognitive tasks.

  15. Eslicarbazepine acetate for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia: Evidence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2017-02-16

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), together with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, belongs to the dibenzazepine family. According to the latest clinical practice guidelines, tricyclic antidepressants, dual antidepressants (venlafaxine, duloxetine), and some antiepileptics (gabapentin, pregabalin) are first-line drugs for neuropathic pain; tramadol, lidocaine 5% patches, and capsaicin 8% patches are considered second-line drugs; and strong opioids constitute a third line of treatment. Such other antiepileptics as lamotrigine and lacosamide are not authorised as treatments for neuropathic pain by the regulatory agencies, but are nonetheless prescribed off-label in routine clinical practice. Carbamazepine, on the other hand, is indicated for trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. We conducted a literature search to gather evidence on the use of ESL for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia. Evidence is insufficient to recommend ESL for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia. Most of the available evidence comes from open and observational studies with small sample sizes and no control group; however, their favourable results call for further studies on the usefulness of ESL for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by Abbott m2000 system on samples collected by FTA Elute™ Card in a Chinese HIV-1 positive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Zhang, Hongyun; Marlowe, Natalia; Fei, Mandong; Yu, Judy; Lei, Xiaoqin; Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Di; Ma, Li; Chen, Wen

    2016-12-01

    HIV+/AIDS women have an increased risk of developing into CIN and cervical cancer compared to the general population. Limited medical resource and the lack of AIDS relevant knowledge impair the coverage and efficiency of cervical cancer screening. To compare the clinical performance of self-collected dry storage medium (FTA Elute card) and physician-collected PreservCyt medium in detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) among HIV-1 positive population. Three hundred HIV-1 positive women (aged 25-65) were recruited from Yunnan infectious hospital. Two cervicovaginal samples were collected from each participant: one was collected by the women themselves and applied on a FTA Elute card; the other one was collected by a physician and stored in PreservCyt solution. All the samples were tested for 14 HR HPV using Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay. Biopsies were taken for histological diagnosis if any abnormal impression was noticed under colposcopy. 291 (97.0%) of participants were eligible for this study. 101 (34.70%) participants were found HR HPV positive in both FTA card and PreservCyt samples, and 19 (6.53%) women were diagnosed as CIN2+. The HR HPV positive rate on samples collected by FTA Elute card and PreservCyt solution was 42.61% and 39.86%, respectively. The overall agreement was 87% (kappa=0.731) between FTA card and PreservCyt. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of FTA card and PreservCyt were 100%, 61.39% and 100%, 64.33%, respectively. In this study, FTA Elute card demonstrated a good performance on self-collected sample for HR HPV detection in HIV-1 positive population. For the women from low-resource area with HIV-1 infection, FTA Elute card could be an attractive sample collection method for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cranial base topology and basic trends in the facial evolution of Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Facial prognathism and projection are important characteristics in human evolution but their three-dimensional (3D) architectonic relationships to basicranial morphology are not clear. We used geometric morphometrics and measured 51 3D-landmarks in a comparative sample of modern humans (N = 78) and fossil Pleistocene hominins (N = 10) to investigate the spatial features of covariation between basicranial and facial elements. The study reveals complex morphological integration patterns in craniofacial evolution of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins. A downwards-orientated cranial base correlates with alveolar maxillary prognathism, relatively larger faces, and relatively larger distances between the anterior cranial base and the frontal bone (projection). This upper facial projection correlates with increased overall relative size of the maxillary alveolar process. Vertical facial height is associated with tall nasal cavities and is accommodated by an elevated anterior cranial base, possibly because of relations between the cribriform and the nasal cavity in relation to body size and energetics. Variation in upper- and mid-facial projection can further be produced by basicranial topology in which the midline base and nasal cavity are shifted anteriorly relative to retracted lateral parts of the base and the face. The zygomatics and the middle cranial fossae act together as bilateral vertical systems that are either projected or retracted relative to the midline facial elements, causing either midfacial flatness or midfacial projection correspondingly. We propose that facial flatness and facial projection reflect classical principles of craniofacial growth counterparts, while facial orientation relative to the basicranium as well as facial proportions reflect the complex interplay of head-body integration in the light of encephalization and body size decrease in Middle to Late Pleistocene hominin evolution. Developmental and evolutionary patterns of integration may

  18. Basin and Crater Ejecta Contributions to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) Regolith; Positive Implications for Robotic Surface Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah E.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of impacts of all sizes to laterally transport ejected material across the lunar surface is well-documented both in lunar samples [1-4] and in remote sensing data [5-7]. The need to quantify the amount of lateral transport has lead to several models to estimate the scale of this effect. Such models have been used to assess the origin of components at the Apollo sites [8-10] or to predict what might be sampled by robotic landers [11-13]. Here we continue to examine the regolith inside the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) and specifically assess the contribution to the SPA regolith by smaller craters within the basin. Specifically we asses the effects of four larger craters within SPA, Bose, Bhabha, Stoney, and Bellinsgauzen all located within the mafic enhancement in the center of SPA (Figure 1). The region around these craters is of interest as it is a possible landing and sample return site for the proposed Moon-Rise mission [14-17]. Additionally, understanding the provenance of components in the SPA regolith is important for interpreting remotely sensed data of the basin interior [18-20].

  19. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  20. Sexual health knowledge and stigma in a community sample of HIV-positive gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J.; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E.; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G.; Santiago-Rodríguez, Edda I.; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection and disease progression. Also, HIV-positive GBMSM are among those less likely to be retained in care. In this study we analyzed sexual health knowledge (SHK) and various manifestations of stigma in a community sample of HIV-positive GBMSM in Puerto Rico. The sample reports overall low SHK scores, and lower score were associated with low educational attainment, unemployment, low income, and with self-identifying heterosexual participants. Almost half of the sample reported moderate to severe perceived gay stigma, 68.4% reported moderate to severe hidden-gay stigma, and 30.6% reported moderate to severe HIV-felt stigma. Further research is recommended to obtain culturally congruent information and develop interventions addressing the multiple layers of stigma in the social context where the interventions will be delivered. PMID:29033695

  1. Evaluation of genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 line probe assay for the detection of MDR-TB in smear positive and negative sputum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaza, Abyot; Kebede, Abebaw; Yaregal, Zelalem; Dagne, Zekarias; Moga, Shewki; Yenew, Bazezew; Diriba, Getu; Molalign, Helina; Tadesse, Mengistu; Adisse, Desalegn; Getahun, Muluwork; Desta, Kassu

    2017-04-17

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses formidable challenges to TB control due to its complex diagnostic and treatment challenges and often associated with a high rate of mortality. Accurate and rapid detection of MDR-TB is critical for timely initiation of treatment. Line Probe Assay (LPA) is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic test based on DNA-STRIP technology for the identification of the M. tuberculosis complex and its resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and/or isoniazid (INH). Hain Lifescience, GmbH, Germany has improved the sensitivity of Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 LPA for the detection of MDR-TB; with the possibility of applying the tool in smear negative sputum samples. A cross sectional study was conducted on 274 presumptive MDR-TB patients referred to the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL), Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) who submitted sputum samples for laboratory diagnosis of drug resistant-TB testing. Seventy-two smear and culture positive samples processed in smear positive direct LPA category and 197 smear negative sputum samples were processed for direct LPA. Among the smear negative samples 145 (73.6%) were culture negative and 26 (13.2%) were culture positive. All specimens were processed using NALC-NaOH method and ZN smear microscopy done from sediments. Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 done from processed sputum sediments and the result was compared against the reference, BACTEC MGIT 960 culture and DST. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 assay was determined and P-value Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 LPA were 96.4, 100, 100 and 96.9%, respectively for the detection of MDR-TB from direct smear positive sputum samples. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Genotype MTBDR plus VER 2.0 LPA were 77.8, 97.2, 82.4 and 97.2%, respectively, for the detection of M. tuberculosis from direct smear negative sputum samples. Fourteen (53.8%) samples had valid results with LPA among the 26 smear negative culture

  2. Proteomics analysis of tissue samples from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and positive to human papillomavirus

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    Leandro Koifman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:The aim of this study was to identify possible protein biomarkers and/or candidates for therapeutic targets in tissues of patients with SCCP, infected by HPV, applying one dimensional electrophoresis (1DE, followed by direct mass spectrometry (MS analysis.Materials and Methods:Tissues from 10 HPV positive patients with SCCP and from 10 patients with HPV negative non-tumorous penile foreskins were analyzed applying 1D electrophoresis, followed by analysis with direct mass spectrometry (MS.Results:Sixty-three different proteins were identified in the first group and 50 in the second group. Recognition was possible for 28 proteins exclusively detected in Group 1 and 21 proteins presented only in Group 2.Conclusion:Some proteins in the first group are directly involved in the development of other types of cancer, and therefore, suitable for analysis. Complement C3 protein is a strong candidate for evaluating SCCP patients.

  3. Craniopelvic alignment in elderly asymptomatic individuals: analysis of 671 cranial centers of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Go; Yasuda, Tatsuya; Togawa, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Yamato, Yu; Kobayashi, Sho; Arima, Hideyuki; Hoshino, Hironobu; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2014-06-15

    Prospective radiographical analysis using the cranial center of gravity (CCG) of sagittal vertical axis (SVA) in elderly asymptomatic individuals. To determine sex differences and age-related correlations of CCG and relationships between CCG and other spinopelvic parameters/health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures. Few studies have investigated CCG in a relatively large sample of elderly asymptomatic individuals. Six hundred seventy-one healthy participants older than 50 years (mean age, 72.9 yr; range, 50-92 yr) were enrolled. Whole-spine standing radiographs were obtained. The following radiographical measurements were obtained: (1) CCG-C7 SVA, (2) C7-SVA, (3) CCG-SVA, (4) C2-C7 lordosis angle, (5) thoracic kyphosis, (6) lumbar lordosis, (7) pelvic incidence, and (8) sacral slope. HRQOL measures included the EuroQol-5D and Oswestry Disability Index. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between pairs of radiographical measures and HRQOL. Sex differences were observed in CCG-C7 SVA, CCG-SVA, C2-C7 Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, and pelvic incidence. Three SVA parameters (CCG-C7 SVA, C7-SVA, CCG-SVA) rapidly increased between seventh and ninth decades and were approximately 40, 80, and 120 mm, respectively, in the ninth decade. Age-related correlations were observed for all parameters without pelvic incidence, and the CCG measurement correlated the most with age. Furthermore, CCG-SVA correlated with other spinopelvic measurements and HRQOL. Age-related changes and sex difference in craniopelvic alignment were analyzed. Craniopelvic alignment became rapidly positive with age, particularly in the eighth decade. The CCG measurement correlated the most with age and may be a useful index marker of global spinal balance in decision making for surgical treatment of adult deformity involving cervical and thoracolumbar lesions. 4.

  4. The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata Muñoz, Víctor; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human skull is gracile when compared to many Middle Pleistocene hominins. It has been argued that it is less able to generate and withstand high masticatory forces, and that the morphology of the lower portion of the modern human face correlates most strongly with dietary characteristics. This study uses geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the relationship between skull morphology, muscle force and cranial deformations arising from biting, which is relevant in understanding how skull morphology relates to mastication. The three-dimensional skull anatomies of 20 individuals were reconstructed from medical computed tomograms. Maximal contractile muscle forces were estimated from muscular anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs). Fifty-nine landmarks were used to represent skull morphology. A partial least squares analysis was performed to assess the association between skull shape and muscle force, and FEA was used to compare the deformation (strains) generated during incisor and molar bites in two individuals representing extremes of morphological variation in the sample. The results showed that only the proportion of total muscle CSA accounted for by the temporalis appears associated with skull morphology, albeit weekly. However, individuals with a large temporalis tend to possess a relatively wider face, a narrower, more vertically oriented maxilla and a lower positioning of the coronoid process. The FEAs showed that, despite differences in morphology, biting results in similar modes of deformation for both crania, but with localised lower magnitudes of strains arising in the individual with the narrowest, most vertically oriented maxilla. Our results suggest that the morphology of the maxilla modulates the transmission of forces generated during mastication to the rest of the cranium by deforming less in individuals with the ability to generate proportionately larger temporalis muscle forces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All

  5. A report of the Maquet procedure for the management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog - a case report

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    Danilo Roberto Custódio Marques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is the major cause of lameness and degenerative joint disease in the canine stifle. The cause of this disease is multifactorial, especially involving degenerative and inflammatory changes. Many techniques have been described for the management of this condition, and current recommendations include the use of corrective osteotomies, most recently using the Maquet (or modified Maquet procedure. This technique is fundamentally similar to the classical tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA, but without the use of the bone plate. The main advantages of using this technique are a shorter operative time and less use of implants. The main complication of this technique is an increased risk of tibial crest fracture. This report describes the Maquet technique for the treatment of a three-year-old male West White Terrier dog with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Cruciate ligament rupture was diagnosed by a positive cranial tibial drawer test. Mediolateral stifle radiography performed under anesthesia with the stifle in 135° of extension demonstrated a tibial plateau angle of 22°. A cage of six millimeters was necessary to allow advancement. The Maquet technique produced excellent post-operative results, including early weight-bearing and neutralization of the cranial tibial drawer. The consolidation time of the osteotomy was 63 days.

  6. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A

    2017-04-01

    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  7. Custom made bioceramic implants in complex and large cranial reconstruction: a two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffa, Guido; Barbanera, Andrea; Faiola, Andrea; Fricia, Marco; Limoni, Paolo; Mottaran, Ruggero; Zanotti, Bruno; Stefini, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    Large cranial defects still represent a challenge in neurosurgery. Currently different biomaterials are available for cranial reconstruction including titanium, acrylic mesh and different types of calcium phosphate-based bone grafts. The goal of surgery is a perfect fit of the implant without infection and absorption, and a good aesthetic result. This paper describes a surgical method for cranioplasty, using a customised porous hydroxyapatite (HA) prosthesis. Sixty patients treated surgically with a customised porous-HA prosthesis for large cranial defects, were followed retrospectively. A two-year follow-up was carried out with periodic visits and CT scans. Safety (the incidence of adverse events and fractures of the implant) and clinical performance (biological and cosmetic results) were evaluated. Fifty one patients were followed-up, no rejection occurred and only one case of infection was recorded. Five patients had minor surgery-related complications, and no spontaneous implant fractures or mobilisation were reported. Three patients exhibited implant fractures as a result of trauma and all healed spontaneously. All patients showed a satisfactory clinical outcome with good cosmetic appearance in the early postoperative period and after a long-term follow-up. Cranioplasty performed with a customised porous-HA prosthesis gave a positive outcome, showing it to be an appropriate technique for use in large and complex cranial reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  9. Epethelial presence of Trueperella pyogenes predicts site-level presence of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Belser

    Full Text Available Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04, particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations.

  10. Radiographic location of the femoral footprint of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, A; Winkels, P; Böttcher, P

    2015-01-01

    To describe the radiographic location of the center of the femoral footprint of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) in dogs. Using femora from 49 adult, orthopedically sound dogs (bodyweight≥20 kg), a radiopaque marker was placed on the cranial border of the femoral footprint of the CrCL. Computed tomography and threedimensional (3D) reconstruction of each femur was performed subsequently, followed by manual segmentation of the footprint on the 3D models and calculation of its center. Finally, virtual digital radiographs in two planes were produced and the location of the calculated center of the CrCL was expressed using three different methods (4x4 box grid method and percentage position for the medio-lateral projection; o'clock position for the disto-proximal projection). In the medio-lateral radiographs the center of the femoral footprint was consistently located in the second rectangle from the top of the most caudal column of the 4x4 grid. The mean percentage caudo-cranial and proximo-distal location was 20.2% (±2.2) and 33.8% (±3.7), respectively. In the disto-proximal radiograph, the o'clock position of the CrCL center was between 2 and 3 o'clock in 97.6% of cases. The radiographic location of the center of the femoral footprint can be consistently predicted in medio-lateral and disto-proximal stifle radiographs of dogs over 20 kg. The reported data can be used to plan and verify the placement of the femoral tunnel opening for intra-articular anatomic CrCL repair.

  11. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia treated without cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J; Marckus, R; Kearns, P; Windebank, K

    2003-02-01

    Previous research has indicated that children who have received treatment for leukaemia which includes cranial irradiation exhibit deficits in their ability to focus attention. It has been suggested that the use of cranial irradiation may have a role to play in long term sequelae. To investigate neuropsychological functioning among children treated for leukaemia without cranial irradiation. In a cross sectional study, 17 leukaemic patients and their sibling controls were assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. All were treated on the UKALL XI protocol and none had received cranial irradiation. Participants completed the Arithmetic subtest and Digit Span subtest of the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised to assess focus-encode elements of attention; the Coding subtest and the Speed of Information subtest of the BAS to assess focus-execute aspects of attention; the VIGIL computerised battery to assess sustain elements of attention; and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test to assess the ability to shift attention. These children did not exhibit the deficits witnessed in previous cohorts, and were performing at comparable levels to their controls on all measures of attention These findings suggest that children who have received treatment for leukaemia without the use of cranial irradiation do not show the neuropsychological insult found in earlier treatment groups.

  12. Ets-1 Confers Cranial Features on Neural Crest Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théveneau, Eric; Duband, Jean-Loup; Altabef, Muriel

    2007-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) have the particularity to invade the environment where they differentiate after separation from the neuroepithelium. This process, called delamination, is strikingly different between cranial and trunk NCCs. If signalings controlling slow trunk delamination start being deciphered, mechanisms leading to massive and rapid cranial outflow are poorly documented. Here, we show that the chick cranial NCCs delamination is the result of two events: a substantial cell mobilization and an epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT). We demonstrate that ets-1, a transcription factor specifically expressed in cranial NCCs, is responsible for the former event by recruiting massively cranial premigratory NCCs independently of the S-phase of the cell cycle and by leading the gathered cells to straddle the basal lamina. However, it does not promote the EMT process alone but can cooperate with snail-2 (previously called slug) to this event. Altogether, these data lead us to propose that ets-1 plays a pivotal role in conferring specific cephalic characteristics on NCC delamination. PMID:17987123

  13. Ets-1 confers cranial features on neural crest delamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Théveneau

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NCC have the particularity to invade the environment where they differentiate after separation from the neuroepithelium. This process, called delamination, is strikingly different between cranial and trunk NCCs. If signalings controlling slow trunk delamination start being deciphered, mechanisms leading to massive and rapid cranial outflow are poorly documented. Here, we show that the chick cranial NCCs delamination is the result of two events: a substantial cell mobilization and an epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT. We demonstrate that ets-1, a transcription factor specifically expressed in cranial NCCs, is responsible for the former event by recruiting massively cranial premigratory NCCs independently of the S-phase of the cell cycle and by leading the gathered cells to straddle the basal lamina. However, it does not promote the EMT process alone but can cooperate with snail-2 (previously called slug to this event. Altogether, these data lead us to propose that ets-1 plays a pivotal role in conferring specific cephalic characteristics on NCC delamination.

  14. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Samantha L; Holliday, Casey M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2011-03-01

    Cranial kinesis is a widespread feature of gekkotan lizards. Previous studies of kinesis in lizards often described the relevant, mobile joints as synovial, thus characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity lined with articular cartilage. To date however, detailed investigations of cranial joint histology are lacking. We examined eight cranial joints (quadrate-articular, quadrate-pterygoid, quadrate-otooccipital, quadrate-squamosal, epipterygoid-prootic, epipterygoid-pterygoid, basisphenoid-pterygoid, and frontal-parietal) in five gekkotan species (Oedura lesueuerii, Eublepharis macularius, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, Tarentola annularis, and Chondrodactylous bibronii) using microcomputed tomography and serial histology. Particular focus was given to the relationship between the bony and soft-tissue components of the joint. Our results demonstrate that only three of these joints are synovial: the quadrate-articular, epipterygoid-pterygoid, and basisphenoid-pterygoid joints. The frontal-parietal and quadrate-pterygoid joints are syndesmosis (fibrous), the epipterygoid-prootic and quadrate-otooccipital joints are synchondroses (cartilaginous without a synovial cavity) and the quadrate-squamosal joint was not present. Based on previous descriptions, we determine that the structure of some cranial joints is variable among lizard taxa. We caution that osteology does not necessarily predict cranial joint histology. Although the functional implications of these findings remain to be explored we note that the development of synovial joints appears to be associated with a neural crest origin for the elements involved. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Genome wide signatures of positive selection: The comparison of independent samples and the identification of regions associated to traits

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    Thomas Merle B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of genome wide analyses of polymorphisms is to achieve a better understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype. Part of that goal is to understand the selective forces that have operated on a population. Results In this study we compared the signals of selection, identified through population divergence in the Bovine HapMap project, to those found in an independent sample of cattle from Australia. Evidence for population differentiation across the genome, as measured by FST, was highly correlated in the two data sets. Nevertheless, 40% of the variance in FST between the two studies was attributed to the differences in breed composition. Seventy six percent of the variance in FST was attributed to differences in SNP composition and density when the same breeds were compared. The difference between FST of adjacent loci increased rapidly with the increase in distance between SNP, reaching an asymptote after 20 kb. Using 129 SNP that have highly divergent FST values in both data sets, we identified 12 regions that had additive effects on the traits residual feed intake, beef yield or intramuscular fatness measured in the Australian sample. Four of these regions had effects on more than one trait. One of these regions includes the R3HDM1 gene, which is under selection in European humans. Conclusion Firstly, many different populations will be necessary for a full description of selective signatures across the genome, not just a small set of highly divergent populations. Secondly, it is necessary to use the same SNP when comparing the signatures of selection from one study to another. Thirdly, useful signatures of selection can be obtained where many of the groups have only minor genetic differences and may not be clearly separated in a principal component analysis. Fourthly, combining analyses of genome wide selection signatures and genome wide associations to traits helps to define the trait under selection or

  16. Fourth cranial nerve palsy and Brown syndrome: two interrelated congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-François; Brodsky, Michael C

    2013-06-01

    Based on neuroimaging data showing absence of the trochlear nerve, congenital superior oblique palsy is now classified as a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder. A similar absence of the abducens nerve is accompanied by misinnervation to the lateral rectus muscle from a branch of oculomotor nerve in the Duane retraction syndrome. This similarity raises the question of whether some cases of Brown syndrome could arise from a similar synkinesis between the inferior and superior oblique muscles in the setting of congenital superior oblique palsy. This hypothesis has gained support from the confluence of evidence from a number of independent studies. Using Duane syndrome as a model, we critically review the accumulating evidence that some cases of Brown syndrome are ultimately attributable to dysgenesis of the trochlear nerve.

  17. Weekly Energy Drink Use Is Positively Associated with Delay Discounting and Risk Behavior in a Nationwide Sample of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Steven E; Sweeney, Mary M; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2016-03-01

    Background: Energy drink use is associated with increased risk behavior among adolescents and college students. This study examined this relationship in a nationwide sample of young adults and also examined relations between energy drink use and delay discounting. Methods: Participants were 874 U.S. adults 18-28 years of age with past 30-day consumption of caffeine and alcohol. Participants completed an online survey of energy drink use, drug use, sexual activity, alcohol misuse (alcohol use disorders identification test [AUDIT]), sensation seeking (four-item Brief Sensation Seeking Scale [BSSS-4]), and delay discounting of monetary rewards and condom use. Results: Over one-third of participants (n = 303) reported consuming energy drinks at least once per week. Weekly energy drink users were more likely than less-than-weekly energy drink users to report a recent history of risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking (56% vs. 28%, p < 0.0001), illicit stimulant use (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001), and unprotected sex (63% vs. 45%, p < 0.0001). Covariate-adjusted analyses found that weekly energy drink users did not have significantly higher BSSS-4 scores (3.5 vs. 3.1, p = 0.098), but they had higher mean AUDIT scores (8.0 vs. 4.8, p < 0.0001), and they more steeply discounted delayed monetary rewards. Although weekly energy drink users did not show steeper discounting of delayed condom use, they showed a lower likelihood of using a condom when one was immediately available. Conclusions: This study extends findings that energy drink use is associated with risk behavior, and it is the first study to show that energy drink use is associated with monetary delay discounting.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and suicidal behavior: evidence for a positive association in a sample of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Gabriel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    To explore the association between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and suicidal behavior. Subjects referred for a psychiatric consultation were evaluated with structured interviews for mood and personality disorders (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders), a history of suicidal behavior, and levels of coping. A total of 311 subjects were investigated using a 3-group design to test the association between OCPD and suicidal behavior, controlling for the presence of depression. Subjects with OCPD and a history of depression were compared to depressed subjects without any Axis II diagnosis and to subjects without depression or personality disorders. The study was conducted at Verdun Community Psychiatric Clinic, Douglas Hospital, McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and subjects were recruited from 2003 until 2005. Subjects in the comorbid OCPD-depression group presented increased current and lifetime suicide ideation compared to the groups with depression alone or without depression or personality disorders (P = .004); they also had increased history of suicide attempts (P = .04), which were often multiple attempts (P = .01). They also scored lower on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and the Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Interestingly, comorbid OCPD-depression patients differed from patients with depression alone on the Moral Objections items of the RFL, on which individuals with OCPD-depression scored lowest. Limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, retrospective sample, and limited generalizability to the population at large. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a factor increasing risk for nonfatal suicidal behavior independently of risk conferred by depressive disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    In the study of craniofacial malformations, the cranial sutures are often of interest. The premature fusion of sutures occurring in e.g. Crouzon and Apert syndrome can lead to asymmetric head shape, enlarged intracranial pressure and blindness. In large population studies of such syndromes......, automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...... these transformations, any annotation on the atlas can automatically be transformed back to all cases. For this study, two rounds of tracing seven of the cranial sutures, were performed on the atlas by one observer. The average of the two rounds was automatically propagated to all the cases. For validation...

  20. Functional electrical stimulation improves brain perfusion in cranial trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate brain perfusion changes due to neuronal activation after functional electrical stimulation (FES. METHOD: It was studied 14 patients with hemiplegia who were submitted to a program with FES during fourteen weeks. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed before and after FES therapy. These patients were further separated into 2 groups according to the hemiplegia cause: cranial trauma and major vascular insults. All SPECT images were analyzed using SPM. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups related to patient's ages and extent of hypoperfusion in the SPECT. Patients with cranial trauma had a reduction in the hypoperfused area and patients with major vascular insult had an increase in the hypoperfused area after FES therapy. CONCLUSION: FES therapy can result in brain perfusion improvement in patients with brain lesions due to cranial trauma but probably not in patients with major vascular insults with large infarct area.

  1. Signaling mechanisms implicated in cranial sutures pathophysiology: Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Katsianou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal extension and skull expansion is a synchronized process that prevails along the osteogenic intersections of the cranial sutures. Cranial sutures operate as bone growth sites allowing swift bone generation at the edges of the bone fronts while they remain patent. Premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures can trigger craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by dramatic manifestations in appearance and functional impairment. Up until today, surgical correction is the only restorative measure for craniosynostosis associated with considerable mortality. Clinical studies have identified several genes implicated in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis syndromes with useful insights into the underlying molecular signaling events that determine suture fate. In this review, we exploit the intracellular signal transduction pathways implicated in suture pathobiology, in an attempt to identify key signaling molecules for therapeutic targeting.

  2. Effects on the maxilla and cranial base caused by cervical headgear: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Alió-Sanz, Juan; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, José; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to test the possible orthopedic effects of cervical headgear on the cranial base and maxilla. Study design: a sample consisting of 79 subjects with skeletal class II malocclusion was divided into two groups. The experimental group was made up of 41 patients all treated with cervical headgear. The control group included a total of 38 non-treated patients. Each one of these groups was then subdivided according to age into one of three groups: prepubescent, p...

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Cranial Simulants for Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    REPORT TYPE 08/28/2017 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Additive Manufacturing of Cranial Sin1ulants for Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injut’y 6...devices (IEOs) in warfare has resulted in devastating injuries to United States military personnel, with blast induced traumat ic brain Injury...hrgher fidelity 1es1 object. Mold and Oalllsllc Gelatin Sample of Rcanstic Brain Geomelrv I Acknowledgements Sandia N1tional 1.ahor:.t.ori" r ..uuhcr f’"""" Clwllltr\\M Paul ’""" (PE = ..

  4. Cranial shape variation in adult howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Luca; Bruner, Emiliano

    2017-12-05

    Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated. In this study we quantitatively analyzed the cranial shape variation in Alouatta seniculus, to evaluate possible influences and constraints in face and braincase associated with airorhynchy. We also considered the structural role of the pteric area within the cranial functional matrix. We applied landmark-based analysis and multivariate statistics to 31 adult crania, computing shape analyses based on 3D coordinates registration as well as the analysis of the Euclidean distance matrix to investigate patterns of intraspecific morphological variability. Our results suggest that allometry is the main source of variation involved in shaping cranial morphology in howlers, influencing the degree of facial proportions and braincase flattening, and generating the main sexual differences. Larger individuals are characterized by a higher degree of airorhynchy, neurocranial flattening, and expansion of the zygomatic arch. Allometric variations influence the skull as a whole, without distinct patterns for face and braincase, which behave as an integrated morphological unit. A preliminary survey on the pteric pattern suggests that the morphology of this area may be the result of variations in the vertical growth rates between face and braincase. Future studies should be dedicated to the ontogenetic series and focus on airorhynchy in terms of differential growth among distinct cranial districts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of tidal volume, sampling duration, and cardiac contractility on pulse pressure and stroke volume variation during positive-pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kook; Pinsky, Michael R

    2008-10-01

    Both pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation predict preload responsiveness. However, because ventilatory and cardiac frequencies are not the same, increasing the number of breaths sampled may increase calculated pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation because larger (max) and smaller (min) pulse pressure and stroke volume may occur. Tidal volume and contractility may also alter pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation. We hypothesized that the magnitude of pulse pressure variation would increase with sampling duration, and that both tidal volume and contractility would independently alter pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation. In seven pentobarbital-anesthetized intact dogs arterial and left ventricular pressure (Millar) and left ventricular volume (Leycom) were measured over 8 intermittent positive-pressure ventilation breaths at tidal volume of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mL/kg (f = 20/min, 40% inspiratory time) under baseline, esmolol (2 mg/min), dobutamine infusions (5 microg/kg/min) and following volume loading (500 mL NaCl). Stroke volume variation was calculated using pulse contour method (PiCCO, Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) averaged over 12 secs. Pulse pressure variation was calculated as 100 x (PPmax - PPmin)/PPmean and calculated over 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 breaths. Pulse pressure variation increased progressively with increasing sampling duration up to but not exceeding five breaths. The effect on sampling duration was increased by greater tidal volume. Esmolol infusion decreased both pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation as compared with baseline (p variation or stroke volume variation. Sampling duration, tidal volume, and beta-adrenergic blockade differentially alters pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. Thus, separate validation is required to define threshold

  6. Identity-related growth and loss in a sample of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men: initial scale development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Sarit A; Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E

    2013-02-01

    Past examinations of the impact of chronic illness on identity have focused primarily on positive adaptation (i.e., benefit finding or posttraumatic growth). Given that associations between these constructs and psychosocial wellbeing are equivocal, greater investigation is needed into interactions among perceived positive and negative identity changes pursuant to illness. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2006 and 2007 with an ethnically diverse sample of 129 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. Participants completed a brief quantitative survey, including a new measure, the Impact on Self-Concept Scale (ISCS), as well as gay-related stigma, quality of life, and regulatory focus. Factor analysis supported the existence of two ISCS subscales: self-growth and self-loss. Both subscales demonstrated strong internal consistency and were weakly but positively correlated. Preliminary assessment of construct validity indicated distinct patterns of association, with self-loss being more strongly associated with stigma and quality of life than self-growth. In multivariate models, associations between self-loss and both quality of life and regulatory focus were moderated by self-growth. The ISCS demonstrated preliminary reliability and validity in this sample. Findings suggest that self-growth and self-loss are meaningfully distinct constructs that may interact to produce important implications for understanding the experience of chronic illness.

  7. Enhanced Lithium-Induced Brain Recovery Following Cranial Irradiation Is Not Impeded by Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, Jordane; McPherson, Cameron S.; Denoyer, Delphine; Lai, Emily; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Lightowler, Sally; Shudo, Koishi; Ernst, Matthias; Ashley, David M.; Short, Jennifer L.; Wheeler, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury occurs in many patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and these deleterious effects are most profound in younger patients. Impaired neurocognitive functions in both humans and rodents are associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neural stem cell dysfunction. Here we evaluated the utility of lithium and a synthetic retinoid receptor agonist in reducing damage in a model of brain-focused irradiation in juvenile mice. We found that lithium stimulated brain progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation following cranial irradiation while also preventing oligodendrocyte loss in the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice. In response to inflammation induced by radiation, which may have encumbered the optimal reparative action of lithium, we used the anti-inflammatory synthetic retinoid Am80 that is in clinical use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Although Am80 reduced the number of cyclooxygenase-2-positive microglial cells following radiation treatment, it did not enhance lithium-induced neurogenesis recovery, and this alone was not significantly different from the effect of lithium on this proinflammatory response. Similarly, lithium was superior to Am80 in supporting the restoration of new doublecortin-positive neurons following irradiation. These data suggest that lithium is superior in its restorative effects to blocking inflammation alone, at least in the case of Am80. Because lithium has been in routine clinical practice for 60 years, these preclinical studies indicate that this drug might be beneficial in reducing post-therapy late effects in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy and that blocking inflammation in this context may not be as advantageous as previously suggested. PMID:23197851

  8. Fatal cranial injuries caused by an electric angle grinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmon, N; Allery, J P; Scolan, V; Rougé, D

    2001-03-01

    A case of fatal cranial injuries caused by an angle grinder is reported. The scalp lesions were typical of those produced by a cutting disk in a side-slipping movement. On the cranial vault were two bony losses of substance, one of which was deep enough for intracranial penetration of the disk. Signs of deflection of the disk, identical to those found on the scalp, were observed on the external bony table. Because of the circumstances in which the victim was discovered, in particular the damage to the machine which had a broken handle, and the lack of any indication of homicide or suicide, an accident is the most likely hypothesis.

  9. Use of cranial fixation pins in pediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Cherisse; Sandberg, David I; Hoh, Daniel J; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon

    2008-04-01

    Cranial fixation using pins during neurosurgical procedures is commonplace; however, parameters for the application of these devices in pediatric patients are not well defined. Variability in the thickness of the developing cranium necessitates age-specific considerations to reduce the risk of adverse events. To suggest possible guidelines for the use of cranial fixation pins in children, we surveyed neurosurgeons treating pediatric patients regarding their experience with such devices. An Institutional Review Board-approved, 30-item multiple choice survey was provided by electronic mail to 605 neurosurgeons treating pediatric patients. The survey included specific questions regarding their experience with cranial fixation pins with respect to age ranges of patients, selection of pin size, type of pin pressure applied, and complications encountered. One hundred sixty-four (27%) responses were received. One hundred fifty-eight of the 164 (96%) neurosurgeons reported using cranial fixation pins in their pediatric practice. Forty-four of the 164 (27%) apply fixation pins in patients aged 1 to 2 years. Eighty-two (50%) apply pins in patients aged 2 to 3 years, and 89 (54%) apply pins in patients aged 3 to 4 years. For patients aged 2 to 5 years old, the majority of responders use between 10 and 40 pounds of pressure, whereas for those older than 5 years of age, most use between 30 and 40 pounds of pressure. After age 10, patients are treated as adults. Eighty-nine of the 164 (54%) responders reported complications directly related to the use of cranial fixation pins, including cranial fracture, epidural or subdural hematoma, scalp laceration, or cerebrospinal fluid leak. One hundred fifty-four of the 164 (94%) neurosurgeons responded that they are not aware of any standard guidelines for cranial fixation pin use in pediatric patients. Seven (4%) who stated that they were aware of guidelines did not describe where they obtained those guidelines. Cranial fixation pins

  10. Hemicrania continua with contralateral cranial autonomic features: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjay; Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Makwana, Prayag

    2015-03-11

    Hemicrania continua is characterized by continuous strictly unilateral head pain with episodic exacerbations. Episodic exacerbations are associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. We report a 24-year female with a 2-year history of continuous right-sided headache with superimposed exacerbations. Episodic exacerbations were associated with marked agitation and contralateral cranial autonomic features. The patient showed a complete response to indomethacin within 8 hours. The dichotomy of pain and autonomic features is in accordance with the concept about the possibility of two separate pathways for pain and autonomic features in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

  11. Nasomaxillary complex in size, position and orientation in surgically treated and untreated individuals with cleft lip and palate: A cephalometric overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khanna, Rohit; Tikku, Tripti; Wadhwa, Jitesh

    2012-01-01

    .... Group II showed a marked reduction in the cranial base angle, maxillary base length, anterior and posterior maxillary positions, palatal plane angle, maxillary width, maxillary height, occlusal plane...

  12. Local mechanical anisotropy in human cranial dura mater allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, M S; Jimenez Hamann, M C; Otaño-Lata, S E; Malinin, T I

    1998-08-01

    Human cranial dura mater (CDM) allograft's success as a repair biomaterial is partly due to its high mechanical strength, which facilitates its ability to form water-tight barriers and resist high in-vivo mechanical loads. Previous studies on CDM allograft mechanical behavior used large test specimens and concluded that the allograft was mechanically isotropic. However, we have quantified CDM microstructure using small angle light scattering (SALS) and found regions of well-aligned fibers displaying structural symmetry between the right and left halves (Jimenez et al., 1998). The high degree of fiber alignment in these regions suggests that they are mechanically anisotropic. However, identification of these regions using SALS requires irreversible tissue dehydration, which may affect mechanical properties. Instead, we utilized CDM structural symmetry to estimate the fiber architecture of one half of the CDM using computer graphics to flip the SALS fiber architecture map of the corresponding half about the plane of symmetry. Test specimens (20 mm x 4 mm) were selected parallel and perpendicular to the preferred fiber directions and subjected to uniaxial mechanical failure testing. CDM allografts were found to be locally anisotropic, having an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) parallel to the fibers of 12.76 +/- 1.65 MPa, and perpendicular to the fibers of 5.21 +/- 1.01 MPa (mean +/- sem). These results indicate that uniaxial mechanical tests on large samples used in previous studies tended to mask the local anisotropic nature of the smaller constituent sections. The testing methods established in this study can be used in the evaluation of new CDM processing methods and post-implant allograft mechanical integrity.

  13. REDSHIFTS, SAMPLE PURITY, AND BCG POSITIONS FOR THE GALAXY CLUSTER CATALOG FROM THE FIRST 720 SQUARE DEGREES OF THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zenteno, A.; Desai, S.; Bazin, G. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aird, K. A. [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bertin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Santiago (Chile); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others

    2012-12-10

    We present the results of the ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up of 224 galaxy cluster candidates detected with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in the 720 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey completed in the 2008 and 2009 observing seasons. We use the optical/NIR data to establish whether each candidate is associated with an overdensity of galaxies and to estimate the cluster redshift. Most photometric redshifts are derived through a combination of three different cluster redshift estimators using red-sequence galaxies, resulting in an accuracy of {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.017, determined through comparison with a subsample of 57 clusters for which we have spectroscopic redshifts. We successfully measure redshifts for 158 systems and present redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The redshift distribution of the confirmed clusters extends to z = 1.35 with a median of z{sub med} = 0.57. Approximately 18% of the sample with measured redshifts lies at z > 0.8. We estimate a lower limit to the purity of this SPT SZ-selected sample by assuming that all unconfirmed clusters are noise fluctuations in the SPT data. We show that the cumulative purity at detection significance {xi} > 5({xi} > 4.5) is {>=}95% ({>=}70%). We present the red brightest cluster galaxy (rBCG) positions for the sample and examine the offsets between the SPT candidate position and the rBCG. The radial distribution of offsets is similar to that seen in X-ray-selected cluster samples, providing no evidence that SZ-selected cluster samples include a different fraction of recent mergers from X-ray-selected cluster samples.

  14. Glenoid fossa position in surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Nipun, Cheerkoly Appunninair

    2015-08-01

    Relative position of the glenoid fossa would play a significant role in the morphology of lower face. The aim of the present study was to cephalometrically evaluate the position of the glenoid fossa in a group of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in order to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in skeletal disharmonies associated with this anomaly. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 59 patients (32 males and 27 females) with surgically repaired UCLP (mean age 19.5±1.4 years) along with an equal number of age and gender matched skeletal Class I controls were analyzed for sagittal and vertical position of the glenoid fossa as well as lower anterior face height (LAFH), mandibular plane and length. Paired samples t-test revealed a statistically significant anterior positioning of the glenoid fossa in UCLP subjects. A more cranial positioning of the glenoid fossa, basion, pterygomaxillary fissure, and posterior nasal spine were also seen to be associated with the cleft group on vertical evaluation. Effective length of mandible was normal with significantly steeper mandibular plane and increased LAFH. Further investigations using three dimensional imaging techniques is necessary for better clinical interpretation. The glenoid fossa is positioned more cranially and anteriorly in UCLP individuals, clinically contributing to the mandibular prominence and concave facial profile inspite of their mandibular length being normal. Steep mandibular planes and increased LAFH reportedly associated with a cranially positioned glenoid fossa is observed in UCLP patients also. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, S. P.; Lang, A E

    1988-01-01

    Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patient...

  16. An examination of actor-partner social support effects on HIV-related problems and interpersonal outcomes among a sample of HIV-positive African American dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Rafferty, Katherine A; Billig, Ashley K; Wendorf, Angela R; Brouwer, Amanda M; Stevens, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Social support is an important resource that has been associated with better mental and physical health outcomes among HIV-positive people. However, researchers have not adequately explored how social support functions among HIV-positive African Americans. The purpose of the current study was to understand whether HIV-related support resources are associated with relational functioning and HIV-related problems among a sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. Exactly 34 HIV-infected (i.e., seroconcordant) dyads compromised of HIV-positive African American adults and their HIV-positive adult "informal supporters" from 3 Midwestern urban cities completed psychosocial questionnaires and a communication task. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, we analyzed dyadic data to determine whether there were actor and/or partner effects within dyadic relationships on measures of conflict and HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and health symptoms. We found significant negative relationships between perceived support and HIV-related problems and perceptions of problem inequity within dyads and a positive relationship between perceived support and communication about these problems within dyads. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relationship between social support and HIV symptoms, relational conflict, or perceptions about dyadic partners' HIV-related problems. Although our study precludes drawing causal conclusions, we found evidence of a relationship between the personal experience of HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and perceptions of social support among a small sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. These findings suggest the need to consider how support-related communication within HIV-infected dyads might influence and be influenced by problem perceptions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions in daily life predicts future course of depression in both general population and patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Petra; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Peeters, Frenk; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Positive affect (PA) is closely linked to prevention of, and recovery from, depression. Previous studies have investigated PA reactivity to pleasant situations with respect to its protective properties in relation to mood disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine, and replicate, whether moment-to-moment transfer of PA in daily life (PA persistence) is relevant to the prediction of future course of depression. Individuals from three different studies (one general population sample (n=540), and two patient samples (n=43 and n=50) with matching controls (n=39 and n=21, respectively)) participated in an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) study. Time-lagged multilevel analyses were used to assess the degree of transfer (or persistence) of momentary positive affective states over time, in relation to naturalistic outcome (study 1) or treatment outcome (studies 2 and 3). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90R) in sample 1 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) in samples 2 and 3. In study 1, participants with greater momentary PA persistence were less likely to show depressive symptoms at follow-up. In study 2, patients were more likely to respond to treatment if they displayed greater momentary PA persistence, particularly in those with recurrent depression. In study 3, patients with greater momentary PA persistence were similarly more likely to respond to treatment, especially when treated with imipramine rather than placebo. The ability to transfer PA from one moment to the next is an important factor in the prevention of and recovery from depressive symptoms. Patients with recurrent depression and those who receive antidepressants rather than placebo may benefit most from this effect. The results suggest that treatment-induced improvement in depression is mediated by increased levels of momentary transfer of PA in daily life, acquisition of which may be contingent on duration of exposure to depressive experience.

  18. Moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions in daily life predicts future course of depression in both general population and patient samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Höhn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Positive affect (PA is closely linked to prevention of, and recovery from, depression. Previous studies have investigated PA reactivity to pleasant situations with respect to its protective properties in relation to mood disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine, and replicate, whether moment-to-moment transfer of PA in daily life (PA persistence is relevant to the prediction of future course of depression. METHOD: Individuals from three different studies (one general population sample (n=540, and two patient samples (n=43 and n=50 with matching controls (n=39 and n=21, respectively participated in an Experience Sampling Method (ESM study. Time-lagged multilevel analyses were used to assess the degree of transfer (or persistence of momentary positive affective states over time, in relation to naturalistic outcome (study 1 or treatment outcome (studies 2 and 3. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90R in sample 1 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS in samples 2 and 3. RESULTS: In study 1, participants with greater momentary PA persistence were less likely to show depressive symptoms at follow-up. In study 2, patients were more likely to respond to treatment if they displayed greater momentary PA persistence, particularly in those with recurrent depression. In study 3, patients with greater momentary PA persistence were similarly more likely to respond to treatment, especially when treated with imipramine rather than placebo. CONCLUSION: The ability to transfer PA from one moment to the next is an important factor in the prevention of and recovery from depressive symptoms. Patients with recurrent depression and those who receive antidepressants rather than placebo may benefit most from this effect. The results suggest that treatment-induced improvement in depression is mediated by increased levels of momentary transfer of PA in daily life, acquisition of which may be contingent on

  19. Cranial Nerve Development Requires Co-Ordinated Shh and Canonical Wnt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A.; Leroux-Berger, Margot; Iulianella, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerves govern sensory and motor information exchange between the brain and tissues of the head and neck. The cranial nerves are derived from two specialized populations of cells, cranial neural crest cells and ectodermal placode cells. Defects in either cell type can result in cranial nerve developmental defects. Although several signaling pathways are known to regulate cranial nerve formation our understanding of how intercellular signaling between neural crest cells and placode cells is coordinated during cranial ganglia morphogenesis is poorly understood. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is one key pathway that regulates multiple aspects of craniofacial development, but whether it co-ordinates cranial neural crest cell and placodal cell interactions during cranial ganglia formation remains unclear. In this study we examined a new Patched1 (Ptch1) loss-of-function mouse mutant and characterized the role of Ptch1 in regulating Shh signaling during cranial ganglia development. Ptch1Wig/ Wig mutants exhibit elevated Shh signaling in concert with disorganization of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Importantly, we discovered that enhanced Shh signaling suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in the cranial nerve region. This critically affected the survival and migration of cranial neural crest cells and the development of placodal cells as well as the integration between neural crest and placodes. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel and critical role for Shh signaling in cranial nerve development via the cross regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:25799573

  20. Is cranial molding preventable in preterm infants? A systematic literature review of the effectiveness of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wielenga (Joke); K. Helder MScN (Onno); P. Mansvelt (Petri); A. van den Hoogen (Agnes)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: A systematic review of published studies was conducted to study the evidence supporting interventions to prevent or reduce cranial molding of the preterm infant in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Background: Incidence of cranial molding has increased over recent decades. Cranial

  1. Post-operative central nervous system infections after cranial surgery in China: incidence, causative agents, and risk factors in 1,470 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, R; Zhu, Y; Shen, Y; Shen, J; Tong, Y; Yu, H; Wen, L

    2014-05-01

    A post-operative central nervous system infection (PCNSI) is a dangerous complication after cranial surgery. Although a large number of neurosurgical procedures are performed in hospitals in China, PCNSI-related data from this country are rarely reported. To address this issue, we examined the incidence of PCNSI after cranial surgery, the potential risk factors, and the offending etiologic agents in a large Chinese population. The medical records and post-operative courses for patients >16 years of age who underwent elective or emergency cranial surgeries between May 2010 and May 2012 and who survived for >7 days were reviewed retrospectively. Pre-operative data, surgery-related records, and post-operative variables were evaluated as risk factors for PCNSI after cranial surgery. Among 1,470 surgeries, 1,340 were craniotomies and 130 involved the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There were 109 patients with PCNSIs, resulting in a total infection rate of 7.4 %. The dominant Gram-positive organism isolated (Staphylococcus aureus) was the most common pathogen isolated. Based on multivariate analysis, the risk of PCNSI was increased by a CSF leak [odds ratio (OR), 3.545; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 2.053-6.122; p China. CSF leakage, CSF drainage of any kind, subsequent short-term surgery, and surgery duration were major risk factors, indicating that surgery-focused management might be the most effective way to minimize the risk for PCNSI after cranial surgery.

  2. Schwannoma originating from lower cranial nerves: report of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Noda, Tomoyuki; Wada, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular tumor was enucleated, facial palsy, hoarseness, dysphagia and paresis of the deltoid muscle occurred transiently after the operation. The patient's hearing had also slightly deteriorated. Case 3 is a dumbbell-typed schwannoma originating from the hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal canal was markedly enlarged by the tumor. As the hypoglossal nerves were embedded in the tumor, the tumor around the hypoglossal nerves was not resected. The tumor was significantly enlarged for a while after stereotactic irradiation. Case 4 is an intracranial cystic schwannoma originating from the IXth or Xth cranial nerves. The tumor was resected through the cerebello-medullary fissure. The tumor capsule attached to the brain stem was not removed. Hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Cranial nerve palsy readily occurs after the removal of the schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves. Mechanical injury caused by retraction, extension and compression of the nerve and heat injury during the drilling of the petrous bone should be cautiously avoided.

  3. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Corey S.; Jantz, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1912, Franz Boas published a study demonstrating the plastic nature of the human body in response to changes in the environment. The results of this study have been cited for the past 90 years as evidence of cranial plasticity. These findings, however, have never been critiqued thoroughly for their statistical and biological validity. This study presents a reassessment of Boas' data within a modern statistical and quantitative genetic framework. The data used here consist of head and face measurements on over 8,000 individuals of various European ethnic groups. By using pedigree information contained in Boas' data, narrow sense heritabilities are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. In addition, a series of t tests and regression analyses are performed to determine the statistical validity of Boas' original findings on differentiation between American and European-born children and the prolonged effect of the environment on cranial form. Results indicate the relatively high genetic component of the head and face diameters despite the environmental differences during development. Results point to very small and insignificant differences between European- and American-born offspring, and no effect of exposure to the American environment on the cranial index in children. These results contradict Boas' original findings and demonstrate that they may no longer be used to support arguments of plasticity in cranial morphology. PMID:12374854

  4. Middle cranial fossa variations including bilateral foramina entering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current observation indicated the presence of unusual bilateral foramina in the middle cranial fossa communicating with the sphenoid air sinuses. They were located anterolateral to the sella turcica and medial to the superior orbital fissure behind the optic canal. The complexity of sphenoid bone development and non ...

  5. Penetrating cranial nail injury an unusual domestic assault: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rare case of intracranial nail injury caused by domestic violence is presented. The 35-year old female patient was found unconscious with a 12cm nail almost completely buried into her skull. Xray of the skull showed the nail in the cranial cavity. A burr hole was made and the nail removed. Immediate post-operative period ...

  6. State of the art cranial ultrasound imaging in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Camfferman, Fleur A; Leijser, Lara M; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Cranial ultrasound (CUS) is a reputable tool for brain imaging in critically ill neonates. It is safe, relatively cheap and easy to use, even when a patient is unstable. In addition it is radiation-free and allows serial imaging. CUS possibilities have steadily expanded. However, in many neonatal

  7. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  8. Cranial helminths of Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Mañas, S; Asensio, V; Eira, C; Palazón, S

    2006-04-30

    A survey was carried out to investigate the presence of cranial helminths in 337 American minks (Mustela vison) from Spain. This information was obtained partly in order to evaluate potential conservation problems and sanitary risks to the congeneric European mink (Mustela lutreola), one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. Skulls and rectal faeces of each specimen were simultaneously analysed. Troglotrema acutum and Skrjabingylus nasicola were found in 5.6% of the M. vison analysed. No cranial lesions were seen in any of the examined skulls. The finding of both helminths in Spanish free-living M. vison specimens enlarges their natural definitive host spectrum in Western Europe. One relatively important focus of T. acutum in M. vison was detected (30.4%) in the Spanish Alava province while S. nasicola was found to be very infrequent. The suitability of both analytical methods was assessed in order to know to what degree coprological analysis reflects the real prevalence of cranial helminths in this host. It is possible to conclude that coprological analysis can be used instead of necropsies to analyse the possible incidence of pathogenic cranial helminths in mustelids. This aspect is very important and useful when trying to analyse the helminthological status of endangered species such as the native mink (M. lutreola) particularly in areas where both congeneric species are present and strict competition occurs.

  9. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D

    2017-03-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)-a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life.

  10. Cranial nerve functional neurosurgery : Evaluation of surgical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guerinel, C.; Sindou, M.; Auque, J.; Blondet, E.; Brassier, G.; Chazal, J.; Cuny, E.; Devaux, B.; Fontaine, D.; Finiels, P. -J.; Fuentes, J. -M.; D'Haens, J.; Massager, N.; Mercier, Ph.; Mooij, J.; Nuti, C.; Rousseaux, P.; Serrie, A.; Stecken, J.; de Waele, L.; Keravel, Y.

    We report the results of an investigation carried out on the activity of functional neurosurgery of the cranial nerves in the French-speaking countries, based on the analysis of a questionnaire addressed to all the members of the SNCLF Eighteen centers responded to this questionnaire., which showed

  11. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life. PMID:28405385

  12. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfort, M. A.; White, G. L.; Vermeulen, F. M.

    Objective To evaluate whether fetal cranial shape is related to shoulder dystocia. Methods We compared shoulder dystocia cases (n = 18) with controls (normal vaginal deliveries, n = 18) in a retrospective matched- pairs observational study. Subjects were matched for known maternal and fetal risk

  13. Challenges and outcome of cranial neuroendoscopic surgery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges and outcome of cranial neuroendoscopic surgery in a resource constrained developing African country. ... Major challenges experienced were patient dependent in 28 ± 1.0 patients (95% CL), learning curve related in 21 ± 0.4 patients, and poor endoscopy support infrastructure in 15 ± 0.5 patients.

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562) of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ... Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039). Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases.

  15. Is phenytoin contraindicated in patients receiving cranial irradiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia); Probert, J.C. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zwi, L.J. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Medicine and Surgery

    1995-02-01

    Three recent publications have reported the development of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and sodium phenytoin. Some authors have recommended that patients receiving whole brain radiation therapy and who have had seizures should not be prescribed phenytoin but an alternative anticonvulsant. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the development of this potentially lethal complication in patients receiving whole brain radiation and phenytoin, with reference to the single recorded case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin in Auckland, New Zealand. While the clinical picture in the 16 patients reported in the literature and the current case report differed from the classical form of erythema multiforme, a similar pattern of presentation and outcome appeared in all patients reviewed, suggesting that the combination of phenytoin, cranial irradiation and the gradual reduction of concomitant steroids seem to lead to the development of erythema multiforme and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The data presented, although sparse, suggest that phenytoin should not be prescribed in patients receiving cranial irradiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Challenges and outcome of cranial neuroendoscopic surgery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-20

    Mar 20, 2016 ... Background: Cranial neuroendoscopy has been safely applied to the surgical treatment of different lesions of the brain in our center ... Conclusion: Highlighted are the myriad obstacles which interface the successful set up of neuroendoscopy service .... advancement in optics and computer technology.[1].

  17. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint A. Boyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001. Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with

  18. Positive and negative life events and reasons for living modulate suicidal ideation in a sample of patients with history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglaoui Bakhiyi, Camélia; Jaussent, Isabelle; Beziat, Séverine; Cohen, Renaud; Genty, Catherine; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Leboyer, Marion; Le Vaou, Pascal; Guillaume, Sébastien; Courtet, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The influence of life events on suicidal behavior remains inconclusive, while reasons for living (RFL) may be protective. To analyze the association between positive and negative life events and suicidal ideation (SI) and the interaction between life events and RFL on SI. Patients with history of suicide attempts (n = 338) underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including SI (Beck's Suicidal Ideation scale), RFL (Reasons for Living Inventory, RFLI) and life events (family, school, student or professional, social, health and religion-related and other life events) during the last twelve months. The only negative life events associated with SI were health-related events (OR = 2.01 95%CI[1.04;3.92]). Family-related positive life events and RFL were negatively associated with SI (OR = 0.73 95%CI[0.58;0.91] and OR = 0.98 95%CI[0.97;0.98], respectively). No significant interaction between the number of positive life events and RFLI total score with current SI (p = 0.57) was detected. Family-related positive life events and RFL did not have any additive effect on SI. Positive life events did not moderate the association between health-related negative life events and SI. This was a retrospective study, the presence of axis II disorders was not investigated and results cannot be generalized due to the sample choice (only suicide attempters). Patients with history of suicide attempts could be less sensitive to negative life events, except for those related to health. Clinicians should pay more attention to somatic problems in patients at risk of suicide. Family support, positive psychology and therapies that strengthen RFL should be developed to prevent suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Experience Sampling Study of Physical Activity and Positive Affect: Investigating the Role of Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity Across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S; Sweet, Shane N

    2013-04-18

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE)] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity). The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women's well-being.

  20. Do people with schizophrenia experience more negative emotion and less positive emotion in their daily lives? A meta-analysis of experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyein; Gonzalez, Rachel; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Pence, Sunny; Fulford, Daniel; Gard, David E

    2017-05-01

    Research on emotion experience in response to valenced stimuli has consistently shown that people with schizophrenia have the capacity to experience emotion. Specifically, people with schizophrenia report similar experiences to both positive and negative emotion-eliciting stimuli as individuals without the disorder. However, it is less clear if people with schizophrenia experience similar levels of positive emotion and negative emotion outside of standardized laboratory contexts, as in their daily lives. One reliable method for assessing emotion experience in schizophrenia has been the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), or Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Using the PRISMA guidelines for meta-analysis, we reviewed the literature for all studies that included people with and without schizophrenia, and that included a positive or negative emotion assessment during participants' daily lives. The current study is a meta-analysis of 12 EMA studies of emotion experience, which included a total of 619 people with schizophrenia and 730 healthy controls. Results indicate that people with schizophrenia consistently report more negative and less positive emotion than healthy control participants. These findings differ from laboratory-based studies, which may be due to several factors, including environmental differences, effects of the disorder that appear more clearly in daily life, or additional concerns, such as depression, which has been shown to be related to negative emotion in schizophrenia. Importantly, these findings are in line with questionnaire-based measures of emotion experience, lending some support for their use in research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytogenetic confirmation of a positive NIPT result: evidence-based choice between chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis depending on chromosome aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result.

  2. Rizatriptan in migraineurs with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms: a double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, Piero; Fofi, Luisa; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Aurilia, Cinzia; Egeo, Gabriella; Vanacore, Nicola; Bonassi, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The objective and background is to confirm in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the high triptan response rates we had previously reported in an open study in migraine patients with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 80 migraineurs with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms were assigned to receive rizatriptan 10 mg wafer or placebo (ratio 1:1) and treated for a single moderate or severe migraine attack. The primary endpoints were pain freedom at 2 h and total migraine freedom at 2 h. Secondary endpoints included pain relief, no associated symptoms and sustained pain freedom or relief. Significantly more patients reported pain freedom at 2 h after taking rizatriptan (54 %) than after placebo (8 %) (therapeutic gain 46 % [28 %; 64 %]; P < 0.001). Similarly, significantly more patients reported total migraine freedom at 2 h after rizatriptan (51 %) than after placebo (8 %) (therapeutic gain 43 % [26 %; 61 %]; P < 0.001). Rizatriptan was also more effective than placebo on most secondary endpoints. We confirm in a placebo-controlled study our previous data suggesting that the presence of unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms in migraineurs predicts a positive response to triptans, probably owing to intense trigeminal peripheral afferent activation which strongly recruits peripheral neurovascular 5-HT1B/1D receptors. Acute and preventive pharmacological trials in migraine should focus also on this subset of migraine patients.

  3. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Jayashree [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shannon, Mark E. [Applied Biosystems; Johnson, Mahlon D. [University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine; Ruff, David W. [Applied Biosystems; Hughes, Lori A [ORNL; Kerley, Marilyn K [ORNL; Carpenter, D A [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  4. Cystic lesion of posterior cranial fossa: is it Dandy-Walker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella De Nardi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidental discovery of a fluid collection within the posterior cranial fossa in a fetus or a newborn can be a tricky incidental finding during a routine scan, alarming for a Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM.The main cystic lesions of the posterior cranial fossa are DWM, Blake’s Pouch Cyst (BPC, Arachnoid Cyst (AC and Mega Cisterna Magna (MCM, although the latter is not a proper cyst. The key event for the development of a DWM is a cerebellar vermis hypoplasia that causes the persistence of the superior membranous area, which expands into the posterior fossa forming a large cystic 4th ventricle. BPC is caused by the persistence and herniation of a different membrane, the inferior membranous area, that is supposed to disappear leaving a median opening that would become the foramen of Magendie. MCM originates if this membrane eventually disappears, leaving an enlarged posterior fossa cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid physiologically connected with the subarachnoid fluid. Finally, ACs are caused by a defined duplication of the arachnoid membrane filled with CSF-like fluid. Consequently, the radiological finding of a regular cerebellar vermis excludes the hypothesis of DWM and the position of the choroid plexus helps differentiating between DWM and BPC in controversial cases. Moreover, radiological findings in DWM include cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle and enlargement of the posterior fossa. Absence of hydrocephalus comes out in favor of MCM. Absence of communication with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid defines an AC.This review assesses the cystic lesions of posterior cranial fossa on the basis of embryological development, radiological findings and associated clinical aspects, in order to clarify the radiological differential diagnosis through embryology.

  5. The role of discrimination in alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking HIV-negative and positive men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Pantalone, David W; Kahler, Christopher W; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences. Past studies have provided some support for this association. However, they have not explored the role other drinking motives play, how these relationships might differ across MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative, or how this relationship extends to alcohol-related problems. In this study, we used path modeling to explore associations between perceived discrimination experiences, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking MSM with and without HIV. In both HIV-negative and positive MSM, perceived discrimination was significantly positively associated with alcohol problems. Drinking to cope appears to play an important role in this relationship in both samples. Reporting more discrimination experiences was associated with drinking more frequently for sexual reasons among both groups. While the total effect of drinking to facilitate sex was positively associated with alcohol-related problems, sex motives did not mediate associations between discrimination and either drinking outcome. These results suggest that interventions addressing discrimination and specific drinking motivations may be useful in helping reduce alcohol use of heavy drinking MSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors in a large sample of HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung Phuong Thi; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hwang, Lu Y; Markham, Christine M; Swartz, Michael D; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Anh Hue; Latkin, Carl A; Vidrine, Damon J

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking presents a salient risk for HIV-positive populations. This study is among the first to examine smoking prevalence, nicotine dependence, and associated factors in a large sample of HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study of 1133 HIV-positive people was conducted from January to September 2013 at 8 ART clinics in Hanoi (the capital) and Nam Dinh (a rural area). Smoking history and nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence-FTND) were assessed by participant self-report. Logistic regression and Tobit linear regression were performed to identify factors significantly associated with smoking outcomes. Prevalence of current, former, and never smokers in the sample was 36.1%, 9.5%, and 54.4%, respectively. The current smoking proportion was higher in males (59.7%) than females (2.6%). The mean FTND score was 3.6 (SD = 2.1). Males were more likely to currently smoke than females (OR = 23.4, 95% CI = 11.6-47.3). Individuals with problem drinking (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9) and ever drug use (OR = 3.7, 95%CI = 2.5-5.7) were more likely to be current smokers. Older age and currently feeling pain were associated with lower nicotine dependence. Conversely, receiving care in Nam Dinh, greater alcohol consumption, ever drug use, and a longer smoking duration were associated with greater nicotine dependence. Given the high prevalence of smoking among HIV-positive patients, smoking screening and cessation support should be offered at ART clinics in Vietnam. Risk factors (i.e., substance use) linked with smoking behavior should be considered in prevention programs.

  7. Pregnancy intent among a sample of recently diagnosed HIV-positive women and men practicing unprotected sex in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hoffman, Susie; Myer, Landon; Moodley, Jennifer; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Constant, Debbie; Jennings, Karen; Zweigenthal, Virginia; Stein, Zena A

    2014-12-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women and men often neglect their fertility desires. We examined factors associated with pregnancy intent among recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 106) and men (N = 91) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in an SRH intervention conducted in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town. Participants were recruited when receiving their first CD4 results at the clinic. All reported unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Logistic regression identified predictors of pregnancy intent for the total sample and by gender. About three fifths of men and one fifth of women reported intent to conceive in the next 6 months. In the full-sample multiple regression analysis, men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.62)] and those whose main partner shared intent to conceive (AOR = 3.80) had significantly higher odds of pregnancy intent; those with more years of education (AOR = 0.81) and more biological children (AOR = 0.62) had lower odds of intending pregnancy. In gender-specific analyses, partner sharing pregnancy intent was positively associated with intent among both men (AOR = 3.53) and women (AOR = 13.24). Among men, odds were lower among those having more biological children (AOR = 0.71) and those unemployed (AOR = 0.30). Among women, relying on hormonal contraception was negatively associated with intent (AOR = 0.08), and main partner knowing her HIV status (AOR = 5.80) was positively associated with intent to conceive. Findings underscore the importance of providing integrated SRH services, and we discuss implications for clinical practice and care.

  8. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening—case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma...... levels. The cause of death in case 1 was collision-induced brain injury, while it was drowning in case 2 and 3 and thus not drug intoxication. However, the toxicological findings could help explain the decedent’s inability to cope with brain injury or drowning incidents. The presented findings could help...... establish reference concentrations in brain samples and assist in interpretation of results from forensic drug screening in brain tissue. This is to the author’s knowledge the first report of LSD, iso-LSD, and oxo-HO-LSD measured in brain tissue samples....

  9. Preoperative Frailty Score for 30-Day Morbidity and Mortality After Cranial Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Samuel B; Piper, Keaton; Kimmell, Kristopher T; Vates, G Edward

    2017-11-01

    Evaluating preoperative frailty is critical for guiding shared surgical decision-making. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel preoperative frailty index for classification of adverse outcomes following cranial neurosurgery procedures. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all cranial neurosurgery cases from 2006 to 2014. Sequential univariate and multivariate testing was used to identify significant independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Frailty scores were computed by summating across weighted predictors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis quantified the discriminative capacity of the frailty score for classifying mortality and other major adverse outcomes. List-wise exclusion of patients with incomplete datasets yielded a final sample of 27,098 patients (mortality rate = 3.9%). Multivariate regression testing identified 19 independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed impressive outcome discrimination (area under the curve = 0.87, P mortality (15.4%) and major adverse outcomes (32.0%) compared with patients in the "low-risk" group (n = 21,943, mortality = 1.2%, major adverse outcomes = 4.0%). The frailty score remained highly discriminative across all age groups examined. Neurosurgical patients undergo extensive preoperative evaluation, but the field currently lacks a robust bedside scoring system for quantifying patient frailty. In this study, we introduced a novel preoperative frailty index capable of classifying 30-day morbidity and mortality outcomes following cranial neurosurgeries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Kerwin, Lauren; Feusner, Jamie

    2008-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive procedure that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population. Whether CES is an effective treatment for patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not previously been explored. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CES in alleviating anxiety in patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed GAD. Twelve patients from 29 to 58 years of age with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD were enrolled from August 2005 to March 2006 through the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Anxiety Disorders Program. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation treatment was administered for 6 weeks using the Alpha-Stim Stress Control System at 0.5-Hz frequency and 300-muA intensity. The primary efficacy measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Response to treatment was defined as a reduction of 50% or more on the HAM-A and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 ("much improved" or "very much improved," respectively). Cranial electrotherapy stimulation was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-A scores (t = 3.083, p = .01). At endpoint, 6 patients (50% of the intent-to-treat sample and 67% of completers) had a 50% decrease in HAM-A score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2. One additional patient significantly improved in anxiety scores but did not meet criteria for response. Adverse events were generally mild in severity, mostly consisting of headache and nausea. This preliminary study suggests that CES may reduce symptoms of anxiety in GAD. We hope that these preliminary results will encourage further research to explore the use of CES in clinical settings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00539357.

  11. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Discrimination of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Liquid Samples by Using NaOH-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solution and Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Atsushi; Kono, Mari; Kawauchi, Sawako; Takagi, Yuri; Morikawa, Takashi; Funakoshi, Kunihiro

    2012-01-01

    Background For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI), and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation) for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. Conclusions/Significance Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history of UTIs. The method

  13. Rapid discrimination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples by using NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI, and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history

  14. Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial em um gato: reconstituição com fáscia lata Cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a cat: reconstitution with fascia lata

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    Érika Fernanda Villamayor Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Em gatos, a ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCC trata-se de diagnóstico raro e a correção cirúrgica propicia o retorno mais rápido à função do membro. Foi atendida, no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, uma gata apresentando claudicação aguda e dor à palpação do joelho direito. O diagnóstico de RLCC foi realizado através dos testes de compressão tibial e gaveta cranial positivos e confirmado na cirurgia. Optou-se por realizar a reconstituição do ligamento com fáscia lata e, após achados clínicos pós-operatórios e em longo prazo concluiu-se que a técnica apresentou resultados satisfatórios neste caso.The cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is rare diagnosis in cats and the surgical correction provides a faster return to limb function. A cat with acute lameness and pain on palpation of the right stifle was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of UFSM. The diagnosis of CCLR was performed by positive tibial compression test and positive cranial drawer sign and confirmed by surgery. We chose to perform the reconstruction of the ligament with fascia lata and after of the observe clinical postoperative and in the long-term it was concluded that the technique showed satisfactory results in this case.

  15. Chorionic Villus Sampling, Early Amniocentesis, and Termination of Pregnancy Without Diagnostic Testing: Comparison of Fetal Risk Following Positive Non-invasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Craig M; Knutzen, Dana M; Ennen, Christopher S; Dolinsky, Brad M; Napolitano, Peter G

    2016-05-01

    With the increased accuracy of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) techniques, the likelihood of false-positive screening results has been reduced for high-risk populations. Following a positive screening test, a diagnostic procedure to confirm the result is strongly recommended, although some patients have terminated pregnancies because of a positive NIPT alone. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), the diagnostic procedure of choice in the first trimester, is not available in all locations. Amniocentesis before 15 weeks, referred to as early amniocentesis (EA), is associated with a 1% rate of talipes and an increased rate of early pregnancy loss compared with CVS. Our objective was to compare the level of risk for euploid pregnancies following a positive NIPT based on the invasive procedure chosen. Using data from a 2003 meta-analysis, we estimated the rates of adverse pregnancy outcome in euploid pregnancies based on the positive predictive value (PPV) of NIPT and the invasive procedure used-that is, CVS, EA, or termination of pregnancy (TOP). Following NIPT, we found that the rate of adverse fetal outcomes in euploid pregnancies was lower for CVS than for EA at all PPV levels. As the PPV of NIPT increased, the difference in risk between EA and CVS decreased. The risk to euploid pregnancies of TOP was excessive at all PPVs. CVS is the recommended diagnostic test in the first trimester because it is safer than EA for the fetus. However, EA is better than no testing when early TOP is planned. Patients should be strongly counselled against TOP without confirmatory testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A Nested PCR Assay to Avoid False Positive Detection of the Microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Environmental Samples in Shrimp Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenlak, Pattana; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Williams, Bryony A. P.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2016-01-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways. To overcome this problem, a sensitive and specific nested PCR method was developed for detection of the spore wall protein (SWP) gene of EHP (SWP-PCR). The new SWP-PCR method did not produce false positive results from closely related microsporidia. The first PCR step of the SWP-PCR method was 100 times (104 plasmid copies per reaction vial) more sensitive than that of the existing SSU-PCR method (106 copies) but sensitivity was equal for both in the nested step (10 copies). Since the hepatopancreas of cultivated shrimp is not currently known to be infected with microsporidia other than EHP, the SSU-PCR methods are still valid for analyzing hepatopancreatic samples despite the lower sensitivity than the SWP-PCR method. However, due to its greater specificity and sensitivity, we recommend that the SWP-PCR method be used to screen for EHP in feces, feed and environmental samples for potential EHP carriers. PMID:27832178

  17. In Vivo Measurement of Mesokinesis in Gekko gecko: The Role of Cranial Kinesis during Gape Display, Feeding and Biting.

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    Stéphane J Montuelle

    Full Text Available Cranial kinesis refers to movements of skeletal sub-units relative to one another at mobile sutures within the skull. The presence and functional significance of cranial kinesis has been investigated in various vertebrates, with much of our understanding coming from comparative studies and manipulation of ligamentous specimens. Drawing on these studies, cranial kinesis in lizards has been modeled as a four-bar linkage system involving streptostyly (rotation of the quadrate, hypokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the palato-maxillary sub-unit, mesokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the snout at the fronto-parietal suture and metakinesis (sliding movements between parietal and supraocciptal bones. In vivo studies, although limited, suggest that cranial kinesis serves an important role during routine behaviors such as feeding. Here, we use X-ray Reconstruction Of Moving Morphology to further quantify mesokinesis in vivo in Gekko gecko during three routine behaviors: gape display, biting and post-ingestion feeding. During gape display, the snout rotates dorsally above rest position, with mesokinesis accounting for a 10% increase in maximum gape over that achieved solely by the depression of the lower jaw. During defensive biting, the snout rotates ventrally below rest position to participate in gape closure. Finally, ventroflexion of the snout also occurs during post-ingestion feeding, accounting for 42% of gape closure during intra-oral transport, 86% during puncture-crushing, and 61% during pharyngeal packing. Mesokinesis thus appears to facilitate prey puncturing by allowing the snout to rotate ventrally so that the upper teeth pierce the prey item, thus limiting the need for large movements of the lower jaw. This is suggested to maintain a firm grip on the prey and reduce the possibility of prey escape. More generally, this study demonstrates that mesokinesis is a key component of defensive biting and gape display

  18. In Vivo Measurement of Mesokinesis in Gekko gecko: The Role of Cranial Kinesis during Gape Display, Feeding and Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuelle, Stéphane J; Williams, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    Cranial kinesis refers to movements of skeletal sub-units relative to one another at mobile sutures within the skull. The presence and functional significance of cranial kinesis has been investigated in various vertebrates, with much of our understanding coming from comparative studies and manipulation of ligamentous specimens. Drawing on these studies, cranial kinesis in lizards has been modeled as a four-bar linkage system involving streptostyly (rotation of the quadrate), hypokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the palato-maxillary sub-unit), mesokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the snout at the fronto-parietal suture) and metakinesis (sliding movements between parietal and supraocciptal bones). In vivo studies, although limited, suggest that cranial kinesis serves an important role during routine behaviors such as feeding. Here, we use X-ray Reconstruction Of Moving Morphology to further quantify mesokinesis in vivo in Gekko gecko during three routine behaviors: gape display, biting and post-ingestion feeding. During gape display, the snout rotates dorsally above rest position, with mesokinesis accounting for a 10% increase in maximum gape over that achieved solely by the depression of the lower jaw. During defensive biting, the snout rotates ventrally below rest position to participate in gape closure. Finally, ventroflexion of the snout also occurs during post-ingestion feeding, accounting for 42% of gape closure during intra-oral transport, 86% during puncture-crushing, and 61% during pharyngeal packing. Mesokinesis thus appears to facilitate prey puncturing by allowing the snout to rotate ventrally so that the upper teeth pierce the prey item, thus limiting the need for large movements of the lower jaw. This is suggested to maintain a firm grip on the prey and reduce the possibility of prey escape. More generally, this study demonstrates that mesokinesis is a key component of defensive biting and gape display behaviors, as well as

  19. The score distribution and factor structure of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive Scale (CAPE-P15) in a Canadian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mashal K; Jacobson, Jill A; Bowie, Christopher R; Munhall, Kevin G

    2017-12-13

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) share several risk factors with psychotic disorders and confer greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Thus, individuals with PLEs not only comprise a valuable population in which to study the aetiology and premorbid changes associated with psychosis, but also represent a high-risk population that could benefit from clinical monitoring or early intervention efforts. We examined the score distribution and factor structure of the current 15-item Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive Scale (CAPE-P15) in a Canadian sample. The CAPE-P15, which measures current PLEs in the general population, was completed by 1741 university students. The distribution of total scores was positively skewed, and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 3-factor structure produced the best fit. The CAPE-P15 has a similar score distribution and consistently measures three types of positive PLEs: persecutory ideation, bizarre experiences and perceptual abnormalities when administered in Canada vs Australia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening-Case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar; Linnet, Kristian

    2017-09-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). LSD was measured in the brain tissue of all presented cases at a concentration level from 0.34-10.8μg/kg. The concentration level in the target organ was higher than in peripheral blood. Additional psychoactive compounds were quantified in blood and brain tissue, though all below toxic concentration levels. The cause of death in case 1 was collision-induced brain injury, while it was drowning in case 2 and 3 and thus not drug intoxication. However, the toxicological findings could help explain the decedent's inability to cope with brain injury or drowning incidents. The presented findings could help establish reference concentrations in brain samples and assist in interpretation of results from forensic drug screening in brain tissue. This is to the author's knowledge the first report of LSD, iso-LSD, and oxo-HO-LSD measured in brain tissue samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute brachial plexus neuropathy with involvement of cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberbuhler, Paz; León Cejas, Luciana V; Binaghi, Daniela; Reisin, Ricardo C

    2013-11-15

    Acute brachial plexus neuropathy is characterized by acute onset of shoulder girdle and arm pain, followed by weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. It affects primarily nerves of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus and the long thoracic nerve. Cranial nerve involvement is an infrequent association and implies a diagnostic challenge. We report a unique case of acute brachial plexus neuropathy with involvement of the cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII. Fifty six year-old woman who developed acute dysphonia, dysphagia and left shoulder pain, followed, six days later, by left arm weakness. Needle examination showed only fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in the left deltoid muscle. MRI of the brachial plexus shows enlargement of the trunks, cords and terminal branches, with mild gadolinium enhancement. This case illustrates the unique presentation of neuralgic amyotrophy with involvement of nerves outside the brachial plexus, and the importance of MRI for diagnosis, in the absence of electrophysiologic involvement. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

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    Chanyoung eLee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for the cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules which are associated with cell differentiation can be modeled using Turing’s reaction-diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor. In this study we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in both of normal and defect conditions. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones.

  3. Cranial neuropathy and severe pain due to early disseminated Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Derek; Smith, Kelsey; DeSimone, Daniel; Sohail, Muhammad Rizwan

    2018-01-23

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department in the summer with a right seventh cranial nerve lower motor neuron palsy and worsening paraesthesias for 6 weeks. He had debilitating pain at the scalp and spine. Prior work up was unrevealing. The patient resided in the upper Midwest region of the USA and worked outdoors, optimising the landscape for white tailed deer. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid testing revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and positive IgM Lyme serology. Brain MRI demonstrated enhancement of multiple cranial nerves bilaterally. He was diagnosed with early Lyme neuroborreliosis and treated with 28 days of intravenous ceftriaxone. While the painful meningoradiculitis, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is more commonly seen in Europe, facial palsy is more frequently encountered in the USA. Clinical manifestations of neuroborreliosis are important to recognise as the classic presentation varies by geography and on occasion repeat serological testing may be necessary. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. [Computer tomographic image of the cranial vault].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumair, J; Fochem, K

    1983-06-01

    Imaging of the vault of the cranium via CT must be considered as an additional examination. It is possible to assess the CT image already stored during examination of the brain, without additionally exposing the patient, merely by changing position and breadth of the window. In our opinion, primary indication for CT of the vault of the cranium exists only if diagnosis based on survey remains doubtful. However, examination will always be combined with a representation of the individual strata of the brain. Our studies have also shown that in many cases CT assessment of the vault of the cranium necessarily also involves comparison with the surveys.

  5. Investigation of platelet-rich plasma in rabbit cranial defects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaloo, Tara L; Moy, Peter K; Freymiller, Earl G

    2002-10-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone healing. Fifteen rabbits were included in this randomized, blinded, prospective pilot study. Four equal 8 mm diameter cranial bone defects were created and immediately grafted with autogenous bone, PRP alone, autogenous bone and PRP, and no treatment as a control. The defects were evaluated by digital subtraction radiography with step-wedge calibration, histology, and histomorphometric analysis performed at 1, 2, and 4 months. The results showed a significant increase in histomorphometric bone area and radiographic bone density in both bone and bone and PRP samples as compared with the control and PRP alone. No significant increase in bone formation was seen with the addition of PRP to autogenous bone. No significant difference in bone formation was seen between defects treated with PRP alone and control sites. No significant improvement, radiographically or histomorphometrically, was seen with the addition of PRP in bone formation in noncritical sized defects in the rabbit cranial model. However, bone and bone and PRP showed a histomorphometric tendency toward increased bone formation at 1, 2, and 4 months. Copyright 2002 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  6. Plexin a4 expression in adult rat cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E

    2014-11-01

    PlexinsA1-A4 participate in class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilin 1 and 2. PlexinA4 is the latest member of the PlexinA subfamily to be identified. In previous studies, we described the expression of PlexinA4 in the brain and spinal cord of the adult rat. Here, antibodies to PlexinA4 were used to reveal immunolabeling in most of the cranial nerve surveyed. Labeling was found in the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves. This is the first detailed description of the cellular and subcellular distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult cranial nerves. The findings will set the basis for future studies on the potential role of PlexinA4 in regeneration and repair of the adult central and peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital multiple cranial neuropathies: Relevance of orofacial electromyography in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Francis; Flores-Guevara, Roberto; Baudon, Jean-Jacques; Vazquez, Marie-Paule

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diagnoses and outcomes of infants with 2 or more cranial neuropathies identified using orofacial electromyography (EMG). This retrospective study involved 90 patients. Diagnoses took into account clinical, radiological, and genetic data. EMG examined the orbicularis oculi, genioglossus, and levator veli palatini muscles, and blink responses. To evaluate outcome, neurological disability, respiratory complications, and feeding difficulties were recorded. The patients had malformation syndromes (59), encephalopathies (29), or no underlying disorders (2). Neurogenic EMG signs were detected in a mean of 4 muscles, reflecting a mean of 3 affected nerves. EMG identified a higher number of neuropathies than clinical examination alone (82 vs. 31, facial; 56 vs. 2, pharyngeal; 25 vs. 3, hypoglossal). Poor outcome and death were more frequent when EMG identified ≥4 affected nerves (P = 0.02). EMG highlights multiple cranial neuropathies that can be clinically silent in infants with malformation syndromes or encephalopathies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byju, N; Jose, James; Saifudheen, K; Gafoor, V Abdul; Jithendranath, P

    2012-10-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a well-recognized entity, but its clinical presentation is varied and often mimics many neurological disorders, making it a diagnostic challenge. Cerebral venous thrombosis has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, which may evolve suddenly or over weeks. It mimics many neurological conditions such as meningitis, encephalopathy, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and stroke. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies, are rarely reported. We describe a pregnant lady who presented with sensorineural deafness of the right ear and paralysis of the 9(th), 10(th), and 12(th) cranial nerves on the right side. She was diagnosed to have thrombosis of the right transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus with extension to the jugular vein and confluence of sinuses. She improved with anticoagulant treatment.

  9. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Mary; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2010-11-01

    More prevalent in women than men, clinical depression affects approximately 15 million American adults in a given year. Psychopharmaceutical therapy accompanied by psychotherapy and wellness interventions (e.g., nutrition, exercise, counseling) is effective in 80% of diagnosed cases. A lesser known adjunctive therapy is that of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES). The major hypothesis for the use of CES in depression is that it may reset the brain to pre-stress homeostasis levels. It is conjectured that the pulsed electrical currents emitted by cranial electrical stimulators affect changes in the limbic system, the reticular activating system, and/or the hypothalamus that result in neurotransmitter secretion and downstream hormone production. While evidence is good for applied research, basic research about the mechanisms of action for CES remains in its infancy. A review of the literature provides an overview of current research findings and implications for clinical mental health practice.

  10. MR of acoustic neuromas; Relationship to cranial nerves

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    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author).

  11. Use of Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad for Cranial Base Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Pushkar; Ghadge, Murarji Tanaji; Singh, Divya; Gadre, Kiran

    2017-03-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction for closure of skull base defects after removal of anterior cranial base lesions is challenging. Persistent skull base defect produces extremely high risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks and consecutive infectious complications. The authors' article focuses on the use of pedicled buccal fat pad for the reconstruction of anterior cranial base defects using combined endoscope-assisted approach and Lefort I access osteotomy. High effectiveness and minimal invasiveness are principal advantages of the technique. Other benefits include proximity of donor site to defect, simplicity of surgical technique, minimal postoperative discomfort, and very low risk of benign complications. Local pedicled grafts are the preferred material for plasty, adding aesthetic results in an ablative surgery using intraoral incision and access osteotomy. Thus, the technique solves the problem of relying on complex alloplastic reconstruction of anterior craniobasal defects.

  12. A new mathematical model for pattern formation by cranial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Kajimoto, Yoshinaga; Miura, Takashi

    2016-11-07

    Cranial sutures are narrow mesenchymal tissues that connect skull bones to each other. Given that they serve as growth centers in the skull, these undifferentiated tissues play crucial roles in skull development. Cranial sutures are also of clinical importance, because the premature fusion of skull bones results in a pathological condition called craniosynostosis. In newborns, skull sutures are wide and straight; during adolescence, they become thinner and start winding to form an interdigitating pattern. From a functional aspect, as the degree of interdigitation becomes larger, the strength of the connection between bones increases. However, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of mesenchymal narrow bands or formation of interdigitation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we presented a new mathematical model that can reproduce the suture width maintenance and interdigitation formation. We can predict the width of the mesenchyme bands and wavelengths of suture interdigitations from the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cranial Nerve Palsies: Sarcoidosis to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial palsies are a very rare feature of SLE. Similarly, peripheral sensory-motor axonal neuropathy is very uncommon in SLE. The combination of the two as the presenting symptoms of SLE is a diagnostic challenge particularly in an elderly male patient with a known diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This case serves to highlight the diagnostic considerations in such a patient. The lack of response to standard therapy and the presence of subtle clues like anemia, proteinuria, and mild serositis should prompt the physician to look for alternate diagnoses. The potential association of SLE and sarcoidosis is also discussed. SLE can be present in elderly male patients with cranial and peripheral neuropathy.

  14. Potential Therapeutic Use of Relaxin in Healing Cranial Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Osmotic pump implantation 2. Necropsy 3 A. Subtasks (i) Tail blood (ii) Heart puncture and exsanguination (iii) Bone harvest (iv) Bone processing and...the cranial defect to circulating values. 2. To reproducibly create bilateral, parietal defects of comparable diameter. Using a dental burr and a... implantations . Yanpeng Diao, PhD Role: Co-I Research ID: NA Nearest person month work: 1.2 Contribution to project: harvesting of bones from GFP

  15. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The age-related emergence of cranial morphological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carolan

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of ancestry from skeletal remains is problematic for subadults because of a lack of systematic research on the topic. This paper addresses the need for systematic research into geographical variation through childhood and puberty through the examination of the emergence of cranial morphological traits through an analysis of 756 subadults from 4 months in utero to Population specific differences in the expression of most traits are apparent from their first appearance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pubertal spurts in cranial base and mandible. Comparisons within individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A B; Roche, A F; Wagner, B

    1985-01-01

    Serial data from cephalometric radiographs were analyzed for 34 boys and 33 girls who had cephalometric radiographs annually near each birthday from at least age 7 through 18 years. Spurts were defined for this study as increases between successive cranial base increments that exceeded 0.75mm/year in boys or 0.5mm/year in girls. The corresponding criterion for the mandible was 1.0mm/year in either sex. Pubescence was defined as the 4- year period spanning 2 years before and after peak height velocity. Spurts during pubescence were common, tending to occur about 1.6yr earlier in girls than boys. The mean increments at first pubertal spurt (FPS) and the mean sizes of FPS were about 25% to 33% greater in the boys than in the girls. The rate of growth during the year before FPS tended to be greater in the girls, while in the year after FPS it tended to be greater in the boys. The timing of FPS in either cranial base of mandible was not closely related to the onset of ossification in the ulnar sesamoid, the age at peak height velocity, or age at menarche. FPS generally occurred after the onset of ossification of the ulnar sesamoid, but before peak height velocity and menarche. There was no evidence of difference between craniofacial EPS in children who passed rapidly or slowly through pubescence, nor was any difference noted between the size of pubertal spurts in tall or short boys. larger total increments after peak height velocity were found in the short boys. Significant correlations were identified between the cranial base and the mandible in the timing but not in the magnitude of FPS. The children were approximately equally divided between those in whom cranial base spurts occurred first, those in whom mandibular spurts were first, and those in whom FPS occurred in both areas within the same annual interval.

  18. Severe cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahavi, A; Luckman, J; Yassur, I; Michowiz, S; Goldenberg-Cohen, N

    2016-04-01

    Falls from heights are the most common traumatic event associated with emergency department visits in children. This study investigated the incidence and clinical course of cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children. The computerized records of a tertiary pediatric medical center were searched for all patients admitted to the emergency department in 2004-2014 with a head injury caused by falling from a height. Those with cranial neuropathies involving optic and eye-motility disturbances were identified, and their clinical, imaging, and outcome data were evaluated. Of the estimated 61,968 patients who presented to the emergency department during the study period because of a fall, 18,758 (30.3 %) had head trauma. Only 12 (seven boys, five girls, average age 6.7 years) had a visual disturbance. Eight were diagnosed with traumatic optic neuropathy, one after a 6-month delay, including two with accompanying cranial nerve (CN) III injuries. Five patients had anisocoria or an abnormal pupillary response to light at presentation, one patient had CN VI paralysis and temporary vision loss, and one patient had an isolated CN III injury diagnosed on follow-up. Visual improvement varied among the patients. Cranial neuropathies due to falls from heights are rare in children and are associated with high visual morbidity. Vision or ocular motility impairment, especially monocular vision loss, may be missed during acute intake to the emergency department, and a high index of suspicion is needed. Assessment of the pupillary response to light is essential.

  19. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SCHWANNOMA ORIGINATING FROM LOWER CRANIAL NERVES: REPORT OF 4 CASES

    OpenAIRE

    OYAMA, HIROFUMI; KITO, AKIRA; MAKI, HIDEKI; HATTORI, KENICHI; NODA, TOMOYUKI; WADA, KENTARO

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular ...

  1. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening—case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma...... and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography − tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC......-MS/MS). LSD was measured in the brain tissue of all presented cases at a concentration level from 0.34 −10.8 μg/kg. The concentration level in the target organ was higher than in peripheral blood. Additional psychoactive compounds were quantified in blood and brain tissue, though all below toxic concentration...

  2. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parole release decisions: impact of positive and negative victim and nonvictim input on a representative sample of parole-eligible inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed administrative data from the New Jersey State Parole Board to determine the extent to which victim and nonvictim input impacted parole release decisions. Positive and negative input, in both verbal and written forms, was studied for a representative sample of 820 parole-eligible adult inmates. Victim input was not found to be a significant predictor of parole release; measures of institutional behavior, crime severity, and criminal history were significant. Though insignificant, verbal input had a greater effect than written input. Results suggest that the impact of victim input is not generalizable across different types of offenders or across different paroling jurisdictions. It can no longer be assumed that victim rights laws and public participation at parole guarantee victim-desired outcomes.

  4. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  5. The management of cranial injuries in antiquity and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshettry, Varun R; Mindea, Stefan A; Batjer, H Hunt

    2007-01-01

    Cranial injuries were among the earliest neurosurgical problems faced by ancient physicians and surgeons. In this review, the authors trace the development of neurosurgical theory and practice for the treatment of cranial injuries beginning from the earliest ancient evidence available to the collapse of the Greco-Roman civilizations. The earliest neurosurgical procedure was trephination, which modern scientists believe was used to treat skull fractures in some civilizations. The Egyptian papyri of Edwin Smith provide a thorough description of 27 head injuries with astute observations of clinical signs and symptoms, but little information on the treatment of these injuries. Hippocrates offered the first classification of skull fractures and discussion of which types required trephining, in addition to refining this technique. Hippocrates was also the first to understand the basis of increased intracranial pressure. After Hippocrates, the physicians of the Alexandrian school provided further insight into the clinical evaluation of patients with head trauma, including the rudiments of a Glasgow Coma Scale. Finally, Galen of Pergamon, a physician to fallen gladiators, substantially contributed to the understanding of the neuroanatomy and physiology. He also described his own classification system for skull fractures and further refined the surgical technique of trephination. From the study of these important ancient figures, it is clearly evident that the knowledge and experience gained from the management of cranial injuries has laid the foundation not only for how these injuries are managed today, but also for the development of the field of neurosurgery.

  6. Morphometric Analysis of Cranial Shape in Fossil and Recent Euprimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Verity Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of morphology allows for identification of subtle evolutionary patterns or convergences in anatomy that can aid ecological reconstructions of extinct taxa. This study explores diversity and convergence in cranial morphology across living and fossil primates using geometric morphometrics. 33 3D landmarks were gathered from 34 genera of euprimates (382 specimens, including the Eocene adapiforms Adapis and Leptadapis and Quaternary lemurs Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, and Megaladapis. Landmark data was treated with Procrustes superimposition to remove all nonshape differences and then subjected to principal components analysis and linear discriminant function analysis. Haplorhines and strepsirrhines were well separated in morphospace along the major components of variation, largely reflecting differences in relative skull length and width and facial depth. Most adapiforms fell within or close to strepsirrhine space, while Quaternary lemurs deviated from extant strepsirrhines, either exploring new regions of morphospace or converging on haplorhines. Fossil taxa significantly increased the area of morphospace occupied by strepsirrhines. However, recent haplorhines showed significantly greater cranial disparity than strepsirrhines, even with the inclusion of the unusual Quaternary lemurs, demonstrating that differences in primate cranial disparity are likely real and not simply an artefact of recent megafaunal extinctions.

  7. Phylogeny, diet, and cranial integration in australodelphian marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goswami

    Full Text Available Studies of morphological integration provide valuable information on the correlated evolution of traits and its relationship to long-term patterns of morphological evolution. Thus far, studies of morphological integration in mammals have focused on placentals and have demonstrated that similarity in integration is broadly correlated with phylogenetic distance and dietary similarity. Detailed studies have also demonstrated a significant correlation between developmental relationships among structures and adult morphological integration. However, these studies have not yet been applied to marsupial taxa, which differ greatly from placentals in reproductive strategy and cranial development and could provide the diversity necessary to assess the relationships among phylogeny, ecology, development, and cranial integration. This study presents analyses of morphological integration in 20 species of australodelphian marsupials, and shows that phylogeny is significantly correlated with similarity of morphological integration in most clades. Size-related correlations have a significant affect on results, particularly in Peramelia, which shows a striking decrease in similarity of integration among species when size is removed. Diet is not significantly correlated with similarity of integration in any marsupial clade. These results show that marsupials differ markedly from placental mammals in the relationships of cranial integration, phylogeny, and diet, which may be related to the accelerated development of the masticatory apparatus in marsupials.

  8. Surgical pitfalls with custom-made porous hydroxyapatite cranial implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zanotti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cranioplasty implants are used primarily in cases of surgical cranial decompression following pathological elevations of intracranial pressure. Available bone substitutes include porous hydroxyapatite (HA and polymethylmethacrylate. Whichever material is used, however, prosthetic cranial implants are susceptible to intra- and postsurgical complications and even failure. The aim of this study was to investigate such occurrences in HA cranioplasty implants, seeking not only to determine the likely causes (whether correlated or not with the device itself but also, where possible, to suggest countermeasures. Methods: We analyzed information regarding failures or complications reported in postmarketing surveillance and clinical studies of patients treated worldwide with custom-made HA cranial implants (Custom Bone Service Fin-Ceramica Faenza, Italy in the period 1997-2013. Results: The two most common complications were implant fractures (84 cases, 2.9% of the total fitted and infections (51 cases, 1.77%. Conclusion: Although cranioplasties are superficial and not difficult types of surgery, and use of custom-made implants are often considered the "easy" option from a surgical perspective, these procedures are nonetheless plagued by potential pitfalls. If performed well they yield more than satisfactory results from the points of view of both the patient and surgeon, but lack of appropriate care can open the door to numerous potential sources of failure, which can compromise-even irreparably-the ability to heal.

  9. Tibial osteotomies for cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Kowaleski, Michael P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2008-02-01

    To review the biomechanical considerations, experimental investigations, and clinical data pertaining to tibial osteotomy procedures for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) insufficiency in dogs. Literature review. Literature search through Pub Med, Veterinary Information Network, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau Abstracts, and conference proceedings abstracts (November 1977 to March 2007). Reported tibial osteotomy procedures attempt to eliminate sagittal instability (cranial tibial thrust) in CrCL-deficient stifles by altering the conformation of the proximal tibia. Functional stability can be achieved by decreasing the tibial plateau slope (cranial tibial closing wedge osteotomy [CTWO], tibial plateau leveling osteotomy [TPLO], combined TPLO and CTWO, proximal intraarticular osteotomy, chevron wedge osteotomy), altering the alignment of the patellar tendon (tibial tuberosity advancement), or both (triple tibial osteotomy). Clinical reports assessing the efficacy of these procedures frequently use subjective outcome measures, and the periods of follow-up evaluation are highly variable. Satisfactory results have been reported in most (>75%) dogs irrespective of the type of tibial osteotomy procedure. Currently available data does not allow accurate comparisons between different tibial osteotomy procedures, or with traditional methods of stabilizing the CrCL-deficient stifle. Carefully designed long-term clinical studies and further biomechanical analyses are required to determine the optimal osteotomy technique, and whether these procedures are superior to other stabilization methods. Limb function in dogs with CrCL insufficiency can be improved using the currently described tibial osteotomy techniques.

  10. The Wnt Co-Receptor Lrp5 Is Required for Cranial Neural Crest Cell Migration in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Willems

    Full Text Available During vertebrate neurulation, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, delaminate from the neural plate border, and migrate as separate streams into different cranial regions. There, they differentiate into distinct parts of the craniofacial skeleton. Canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to be essential for this process at different levels but the involved receptors remained unclear. Here we show that the frizzled co-receptor low-density-lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5 plays a crucial role in CNCC migration and morphogenesis of the cranial skeleton. Early during induction and migration of CNCCs, lrp5 is expressed ubiquitously but later gets restricted to CNCC derivatives in the ventral head region besides different regions in the CNS. A knock-down of lrp5 does not interfere with induction of CNCCs but leads to reduced proliferation of premigratory CNCCs. In addition, cell migration is disrupted as CNCCs are found in clusters at ectopic positions in the dorsomedial neuroepithelium after lrp5 knock-down and transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. These migratory defects consequently result in malformations of the craniofacial skeleton. To date, Lrp5 has mainly been associated with bone homeostasis in mammals. Here we show that in zebrafish, lrp5 also controls cell migration during early morphogenetic processes and contributes to shaping the craniofacial skeleton.

  11. Cranial neural crest contributes to the bony skull vault in adult Xenopus laevis: insights from cell labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua B; Hanken, James

    2005-03-15

    As a step toward resolving the developmental origin of the ossified skull in adult anurans, we performed a series of cell labeling and grafting studies of the cranial neural crest (CNC) in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We employ an indelible, fixative-stable fluorescent dextran as a cell marker to follow migration of the three embryonic streams of cranial neural crest and to directly assess their contributions to the bony skull vault, which forms weeks after hatching. The three streams maintain distinct boundaries in the developing embryo. Their cells proliferate widely through subsequent larval (tadpole) development, albeit in regionally distinct portions of the head. At metamorphosis, each stream contributes to the large frontoparietal bone, which is the primary constituent of the skull vault in adult anurans. The streams give rise to regionally distinct portions of the bone, thereby preserving their earlier relative position anteroposteriorly within the embryonic neural ridge. These data, when combined with comparable experimental observations from other model species, provide insights into the ancestral pattern of cranial development in tetrapod vertebrates as well as the origin of differences reported between birds and mammals. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Computed tomographic arthrography of the stifle for detection of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament and meniscal tears in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samii, Valerie F; Dyce, Jonathan; Pozzi, Antonio; Drost, Wm Tod; Mattoon, John S; Green, Eric M; Kowaleski, Michael P; Lehman, Amy M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of single-detector computed tomographic arthrography (CT arthrography) for the diagnosis of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament and meniscal lesions in the dog stifle. Four normal and 25 abnormal stifle joints, determined to have lesions related to intra-articular ligamentous insufficiency based on clinical history, orthopedic examination, and survey orthogonal radiographs, were imaged using a previously developed CT arthrography protocol. Surgery was performed immediately following the CT procedure. Three board-certified radiologists inexperienced at interpreting CT stifle arthrograms reviewed all CT studies independently, and then as a group, without knowledge of surgical or necropsy findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for determination of cranial and caudal cruciate and meniscal tears were calculated for each individual reviewer and based on group consensus. All reviewers identified the normal canine stifle joints imaged correctly. Reviewers did well in discriminating normal from torn cranial cruciate ligaments, with sensitivities of 96-100% and specificities of 75-100%. No reviewer correctly identified the solitary caudal cruciate ligament tear and specificity ranged from 89.3% to 100%. Reviewers were less adept at discriminating normal from torn meniscal fibrocartilage, with sensitivities of 13.3-73.3% and specificities of 57.1-100%. Interpretive accuracy improved slightly when consensus scores were compared with surgical findings. Single-detector CT arthrography may be useful for identifying pathology of the canine cruciate ligaments but is of limited value for assessing the menisci.

  13. Regional brain glucose metabolism and neurocognitive function in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Kevin R; Minoshima, Satoshi; Edelmann, Michelle; Morris, Brannon; Sabin, Noah D; Brinkman, Tara M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Shulkin, Barry

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between regional brain metabolism, as measured by (18)F-FDG PET, and neurocognitive outcomes in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with cranial radiation. Thirty-eight adult survivors of ALL were randomly selected from a large cohort treated with cranial radiation therapy (19 with 18 Gy and 19 with 24 Gy of exposure). At a mean age of 26.4 (range, 22.3-37.4) years, and 23.5 (range, 20.4-32.8) years since diagnosis, patients underwent comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations and brain (18)F-FDG PET imaging during a resting condition. (18)F-FDG PET images were analyzed stereotactically, and pixel values were normalized to global activity. Predefined region-of-interest and voxel-based correlation analyses were performed. Compared with national norms, survivors demonstrated lower vocabulary (P working memory (P < 0.001), oral naming speed (P < 0.001), and cognitive flexibility (P < 0.001). Metabolic activity was higher in basal gangliar structures for those treated with 24 Gy of cranial radiation therapy (P = 0.04). Metabolic activity was positively correlated with oral naming speed in both lateral frontal lobes (ρ = 0.48 and 0.47 for right and left frontal regions, respectively, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with cognitive flexibility in the sections of the basal ganglia (P < 0.01 for both caudate and putamen). Neurocognitive impairment in long-term survivors of ALL treated with cranial radiation appears to be associated with increased metabolic activity in frontal cerebral cortical and subcortical regions in the basal ganglia, suggesting decreased efficiency of the frontostriatal brain circuit. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery simulation using an artificial cranial base model created by selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Kenichi; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; de Souza, Daniel G; Gun, Ramazan; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Prevedello, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) requires anatomical knowledge and surgical skills; the learning curve for this technique is steep. To a great degree, these skills can be gained by cadaveric dissections; however, ethical, religious, and legal considerations may interfere with this paradigm in different regions of the world. We assessed an artificial cranial base model for the surgical simulation of EEA and compared its usefulness with that of cadaveric specimens. The model is made of both polyamide nylon and glass beads using a selective laser sintering (SLS) technique to reflect CT-DICOM data of the patient's head. It features several artificial cranial base structures such as the dura mater, venous sinuses, cavernous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, and cranial nerves. Under endoscopic view, the model was dissected through the nostrils using a high-speed drill and other endonasal surgical instruments. Anatomical structures around and inside the sphenoid sinus were accurately reconstructed in the model, and several important surgical landmarks, including the medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses and vidian canals, were observed. The bone was removed with a high-speed drill until it was eggshell thin and the dura mater was preserved, a technique very similar to that applied in patients during endonasal cranial base approaches. The model allowed simulation of almost all sagittal and coronal plane EEA modules. SLS modeling is a useful tool for acquiring the anatomical knowledge and surgical expertise for performing EEA while avoiding the ethical, religious, and infection-related problems inherent with use of cadaveric specimens.

  15. The internal cranial morphology of an armoured dinosaur Euoplocephalus corroborated by X-ray computed tomographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuto; Arbour, Victoria M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Currie, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    Internal cranial anatomy is a challenging area to study in fossilized skulls because of small sample sizes and varied post-mortem preservational alterations. This difficulty has led to the lack of correspondence between results obtained from direct osteological observation and from more indirect reconstruction methods. This paper presents corroborating evidence from direct osteological observation and from reconstruction based on computed X-ray tomography (CT) on the internal cranial anatomy of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Euoplocephalus tutus. A remarkable specimen of Euoplocephalus preserves rarely observed internal cranial structures such as vascular impressions in the nasal cavity, olfactory turbinates and possible impressions of conchae. Comparison with fossils and CT models of other taxa and other Euoplocephalus specimens adds osteological evidence for the previously reconstructed nasal cavity in this dinosaur and revises the previously described braincase morphology. A new interpretation of the ethmoidal homology identifies a mesethmoid, sphenethmoid and ectethmoid. These ethmoidal ossifications are continuous with the mineralized walls of the nasal cavity. The location of the olfactory fenestra provides further evidence that the olfactory regions of the nasal cavity are pushed to the sides of the main airway. This implies that the function of the vascular impressions in the nasal cavity and the looping of the cavity are not related to olfaction. A byproduct of the elongate, looping airway is a dramatic increase in surface area of the nasal respiratory mucosa, which in extant species has been linked to heat and water balance. A role in vocalization as a resonating chamber is another possible function of the looping and elongation of the nasal cavity. Olfaction remains as a possible function for the enlarged olfactory region, suggesting that multiple functions account for different parts of the ankylosaurid nasal cavity that underwent substantial modification

  16. Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of brain simulants used for cranial gunshot simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Geoghegan, Patrick Henry; Jermy, Mark Christopher; Taylor, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical properties of the human brain at high strain rate were investigated to analyse the mechanisms that cause backspatter when a cranial gunshot wound occurs. Different concentrations of gelatine and a new material (M1) developed in this work were tested and compared to bovine brain samples. Kinetic energy absorption and expansion rate of the samples caused by the impact of a bullet from .22 air rifle (AR) (average velocity (uav) of 290m/s) and .22 long rifle (LR) (average velocity (uav) of 330m/s) were analysed using a high speed camera (24,000fps). The AR projectile had, in the region of interest, an average kinetic energy (Ek) of 42±1.3J. On average, the bovine brain absorbed 50±5% of Ek, and the simulants 46-58±5%. The Ek of the .22 LR was 141±3.7J. The bovine brain absorbed 27% of the .22LR Ek and the simulants 15-29%. The expansion of the sample, after penetration, was measured. The bovine brain experienced significant plastic deformation whereas the gelatine solution exhibited a principally elastic response. The permanent damage patterns in the M1 material were much closer to those in brain tissue, than were the damage patterns in the gelatine. The results provide a first step to developing a realistic experimental simulant for the human brain which can produce the same blood backspatter patterns as a human brain during a cranial gunshot. These results can also be used to improve the 3D models of human heads used in car crash and blast trauma injury research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cranial ultrasonographic findings in healthy full-term neonates: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lun Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of minor and major anomalies detected by cranial ultrasonographic screening examinations in healthy full-term neonates is 6.3% and 0.06%, respectively. Thus, cranial ultrasonographic screening testing may play a role in the early diagnosis of intracranial anomalies of otherwise healthy neonates. However, this examination cannot exclude or detect all cranial abnormalities, including many potential neurologic diseases of neonates, so continuing clinical diligence is still important for all infants.

  18. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  19. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged...... and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  20. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...... findings are consistent with previous studies relating the total cranial thickness to the same parameters, in that we found a high correlation between diploeic and total cranial thickness (except at the left euryon for females). Finally, we recommend that future studies try to incorporate CT or MR scan...

  1. The origin and the fate of the cranial ribs in the avian chondrocrania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Zaher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The origin and the fate of the cranial ribs in three birds; Streptopelia senegalensis aegyptiaca, Pterocles alchata caudacutus and Passer domesticus niloticus, have been described. The requested characters for true cranial ribs are determined. The probable assumption that cranial ribs are developed in all birds is suggested, but because of their rapid regression several successive young stages are needed for their identification. The present finding invalidates De Beers & Barrington’s and Slaby’s theory that the metotic cartilage in birds originates from the cranial ribs.

  2. Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a stool sample of a young Senegalese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Bruno; Bassène, Hubert; Khelaifia, Saber; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ruimy, Raymond; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2018-02-07

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, referred to as strain Marseille-P3518 T , was isolated from a stool sample with 2% NaCl concentration from a healthy 15-year-old male living in Dielmo, a village in Senegal. Cells are aerobic, rod-shaped and motile and display endospore formation. Strain Marseille-P3518 T can grow in a medium with 0-20% (w/v) sodium chloride (optimally at 5-7.5% w/v). The major fatty acids were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (45.8%), 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (26.9%) and 12-methyl-tridecanoic acid (12.8%). The genome is 4,347,479 bp long with 42.1% G+C content. It contains 4282 protein-coding and 107 RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Marseille-P3518 T is a member of the Bacillaceae family and is closely related to Sediminibacillus albus (97.4% gene sequence similarity). Strain Marseille-P3518 T was clearly differentiated from its phylogenetic neighbors on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic features. Strain Marseille-P3518 T is, therefore, considered to be a novel representative of the genus Sediminibacillus, for which the name Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is Marseille-P3518 T (CSUR P3518T, DSM69894).

  3. Image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery for cranial lesions: large margins compensate for reduced image guidance frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshi, Harun; Kaul, David; Wust, Peter; Wiener, Edzard; Budach, Volker; Buadch, Volker; Graf, Reinhold

    2013-10-01

    We investigated patient positioning during radiosurgery of cranial lesions, and calculated clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins using a modified common margin recipe. We simulated CTV-to-PTV margins for reduced image guidance, and repositioning for the first table angle only. Patients were immobilized with a thermoplastic mask. Positioning was verified and corrected using the ExacTrac/Novalis Body. Each patient was repositioned before each beam. A common margin recipe was adapted for estimation of CTV-to-PTV margins. Necessary margins were estimated to correct positioning for the initial table angle only in comparison. In total, 269 radiosurgery treatments with 967 different-angle setups (mean 3.6 different angles) were performed on 190 patients. Residual translational errors were (one standard deviation) 0.3 mm in left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, with a mean three-dimensional vector of 0.5 mm. Margins for residual errors after correction were calculated in LR, SI, and AP directions as 0.8 mm. For simulated reduced frequency setup correction, we calculated CTV-to-PTV margins as 1.9, 1.9, and 1.6 mm, respectively. The ExacTrac/Novalis Body system allows for accurate positioning of the patient with a residual error comparable to invasive mask fixation. If verification is only performed after initial positioning, adaption of CTV-to-PTV margins should be considered.

  4. Triple intrathecal therapy alone with omission of cranial radiation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi-Che; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hou, Jen-Yin; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Ting-Huan; Chang, Ching-Yi; Liang, Der-Cherng

    2014-06-10

    To eliminate the toxicities and sequelae of cranial irradiation (CrRT) and to minimize the adverse impact of traumatic lumbar puncture (TLP) with blasts, a prospective study of a modified CNS-directed therapy was conducted in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Since June 1999, children with newly diagnosed ALL have been treated with triple intrathecal therapy (TIT) alone without CrRT. The first TIT was delayed until the disappearance of blasts from peripheral blood (PB) for up to 10 days of multidrug induction, and CrRT was omitted in all patients. If PB blasts persisted on treatment day 10 (d10), the TIT was then performed. Of a total of 156 patients, 152 were eligible. Seventeen patients did not have PB blasts at diagnosis. Three fourths of the remaining patients achieved complete clearance of PB blasts by d10. Only hyperleukocytosis at diagnosis showed a significantly lower clearance rate. Six standard-risk patients were upgraded to high risk because of detectable PB blasts on d10. TLPs were encountered in four patients (2.6%), but none were contaminated with lymphoblasts. Neither CNS-2 (less than 5 WBCs/μL with blasts in a nontraumatic sample) nor CNS-3 (≥5 WBCs/μL with blasts in a nontraumatic sample or the presence of cranial nerve palsy) was present. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates±SE were 84.2%±3.0% and 90.6%±2.4%, respectively. No isolated CNS relapse occurred, but two patients experienced combined CNS relapses. The 7-year cumulative risk of any CNS relapse was 1.4%±1.0%. Delaying first TIT until circulating blasts have cleared may improve CNS control in children with newly diagnosed ALL and preclude the need for CrRT. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Are cranial germ cell tumours really tumours of germ cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotting, P J

    2006-12-01

    Germ cell tumours of the brain and those that occur in the gonads are believed to share a common origin from germ cell progenitors. This 'germ cell theory' rests upon similar histopathology between these tumours in different locations and the belief that endogenous somatic cells of the brain could not give rise to the range of cell types seen in germ cell tumours. An alternative 'embryonic cell theory' has been proposed for some classes of cranial germ cell tumours, but this still relies on the misplacement of cells in the brain (in this case the earliest embryonic stem cells) during early embryonic development. Recent evidence has demonstrated that neural stem cells of the brain can also give rise to many of the cell types seen in germ cell tumours. These data suggest that endogenous progenitor cells of the brain are a plausible alternative origin for these tumours. This idea is of central importance for studies aiming to elucidate the mechanisms of tumour development. The application of modern molecular analyses to reveal how tumour cells have altered with respect to their cell of origin relies on the certain identification of the cell from which the particular tumour arose. If the identity of this cell is mistaken, then studies to elucidate the mechanisms by which the progenitor cell has been subverted from its normal behaviour will not yield useful information. In addition, it will prove impossible to generate an appropriate animal model in which to study the underlying causes of those tumours. This article makes the case that current assumptions of the origins of cranial germ cell tumours are unreliable. It reviews the evidence in favour of the 'germ cell theory' and argues in favour of a 'brain cell theory' in which endogenous neural progenitor cells of the brain are the likely origin for these tumours. Thus, the case is made that cranial germ cell tumours, like other brain tumours, arise by the transformation of progenitor cells normally resident in the

  6. Chronic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with HTLV-I infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Y; Kira, J

    1995-10-01

    Two patients presenting with recurrent multiple cranial neuropathy showed diffuse thickening and gadolinium enhancement of the dura mater on brain MRI. Both had anti-HTLV-I antibodies in serum. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction study of the peripheral blood disclosed that the HTLV-I proviral DNA loads increased considerably in one case and moderately in the other. Both showed a spontaneous proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as an increase in helper/inducer T cells. Neither had any other underlying infections or autoimmune diseases. Thus it is possible that hypertrophic pachymeningitis developed as a result of multiorgan involvement of HTLV-I infection in these patients.

  7. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-07

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  8. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  9. Primary extra-cranial meningioma following total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.J.; Beggs, I. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Patton, J.T.; Porter, D. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Orthopaedics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Salter, D.M.; Al-Nafussi, A. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Pathology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    A 61-year-old man presented with pain at the left hip and decreased mobility 10 years after total hip replacement. Imaging demonstrated a large destructive expansile mass adjacent to the prosthesis. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of an extra-cranial meningioma. Primary tumours after total hip replacement are rare and include soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas and lymphomas. To our knowledge, no previous cases of primary extracranial meningioma have been identified. The imaging features, histology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  11. Evaluation of meniscal click for detecting meniscal tears in stifles with cranial cruciate ligament disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Brittany A; Ting, Dennis; Bonczynski, Jennifer J; Yasuda, Koji

    2015-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of palpable meniscal click by evaluating the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy of preoperative palpable meniscal click compared with examination during surgery. Prospective case series. Dogs (n = 56) with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury. Stifles were examined before anesthesia (EBA) and during anesthesia (EDA) before surgery for palpable meniscal click. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for EBA and EDA using examination during surgery as the gold standard. EBA was 45.8% sensitive and 94.4% specific for meniscal tear. EDA was 58.3% sensitive and 94.4% specific for meniscal tear. Positive predictive value for palpable meniscal click during EBA was 84.6%, negative predictive value was 72.3%, and diagnostic accuracy was 75.0%. Positive predictive value for palpable meniscal click during EDA was 87.5%, negative predictive value was 77.3%, and diagnostic accuracy was 80.0%. EBA and EDA were significantly associated with the presence of intra-operative meniscal injury (P = .0002 and P click during physical examination is strongly indicative of a meniscal tear diagnosed at surgery. The meniscus should always be carefully examined at surgery despite preoperative findings, because the absence of a palpable meniscal click is not a strong indicator for a normal meniscus. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Osteointegration in cranial bone reconstruction: a goal to achieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprio, Simone; Fricia, Marco; Maddalena, Giuseppe F; Nataloni, Angelo; Tampieri, Anna

    2016-11-02

    The number of cranioplasty procedures is steadily increasing, mainly due to growing indications for decompressive procedures following trauma, tumor or malformations. Although autologous bone is still considered the gold standard for bone replacement in skull, there is an urgent need for synthetic porous implants able to guide bone regeneration and stable reconstruction of the defect. In this respect, hydroxyapatite scaffolds with highly porous architecture are very promising materials, due to the excellent biocompatibility and intrinsic osteogenic and osteoconductive properties that enable deep bone penetration in the scaffold and excellent osteointegration. Osteointegration is here highlighted as a key aspect for the early recovery of bone-like biomechanical performance, for which custom-made porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds play a major role. There are still very few cases documenting the clinical performance of porous scaffolds following cranioplasty. This paper reports 2 clinical cases where large cranial defects were repaired by the aid of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with customized shapes and 3D profiles (Fin-Ceramica, Faenza, Italy). In the long term (i.e., after 2 years), these scaffolds yielded extensive osteointegration through formation and penetration of new organized bone. These results confirm that porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds, uniquely possessing chemico-physical and morphological/mechanical properties very close to those of bone, can be considered as a tool to provide effective bone regeneration in large cranial bone defects. Moreover, they may potentially prevent most of the postsurgical drawbacks related to the use of metal or plastic implants.

  13. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  14. Phenytoin Induced Erythema Multiforme after Cranial Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanci, Atilla; Tekkök, İsmail Hakkı

    2015-08-01

    The prophylactic use of phenytoin during and after brain surgery and cranial irradiation is a common measure in brain tumor therapy. Phenytoin has been associated with variety of adverse skin reactions including urticaria, erythroderma, erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. EM associated with phenytoin and cranial radiation therapy (EMPACT) is a rare specific entity among patients with brain tumors receiving radiation therapy while on prophylactic anti-convulsive therapy. Herein we report a 41-year-old female patient with left temporal glial tumor who underwent surgery and then received whole brain radiation therapy and chemotherapy. After 24 days of continous prophylactic phenytoin therapy the patient developed minor skin reactions and 2 days later the patient returned with generalized erythamatous and itchy maculopapuler rash involving neck, chest, face, trunk, extremities. There was significant periorbital and perioral edema. Painful mucosal lesions consisting of oral and platal erosions also occurred and prevented oral intake significantly. Phenytoin was discontinued gradually. Systemic admistration of corticosteroids combined with topical usage of steroids for oral lesions resulted in complete resolution of eruptions in 3 weeks. All cutaneous lesions in patients with phenytoin usage with the radiotherapy must be evoluated with suspicion for EM.

  15. Recurring fibrous dysplasia of anthro maxillary with cranial base invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, Kátia Maria Marabuco de

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fibrous dysplasia is an osseous lesion with an unknown etiology. It is characterized by the osseous maturation insufficiency. It may affect any bone, but the affection of craniofacial bones is the most critical for otorhinolaryngology. Maxilla is the most affected facial bone and the orbitary invasion is an uncommon event. The symptoms are unspecific and for its low suspicion and uncommonness, the diagnosis is generally late. The monostotic form presents a slow growth and asymptomatic course and needs to be followed up. The polyostotic type has a progressive behavior and is associated to recurrence and complications. Objective: To present two cases of patients with fibrous dysplasia diagnosis and describe the clinical presentation, radiological findings and the treatment of this pathology. Cases Report: Two cases of fibrous dysplasia are reported, which initially presented unspecific symptomatology, but with characteristic radiologic signs. They were submitted to surgical treatment for resection of the lesions and evolved with frequent recurrences with extensive affection of the facial sinuses, one patient had cranial base invasion and frontal craniotomy was needed for tumoral excision. Final Comments: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon osteopathy. The tomography is the choice method for characterization of the tumoral expansion, and helps in the surgical planning. The surgical strategy is indicated for symptomatic lesions, functions alterations or anatomic disorders. This article describes two uncommon manifestations of recurrent fibrous dysplasia with an extensive affection of anthro maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoid sinuses, in addition to orbitary and cranial base invasion.

  16. The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris-Wiman, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of {sup 3}H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion.

  17. Complete Cranial Iliac Osteotomy to Approach the Lumbosacral Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach using a complete cranial iliac osteotomy (CCIO to access the lumbosacral (LS foramen in dogs from lateral was developed using cadavers and applied in a clinical patient with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS. The foraminal enlargement in the cadavers and the patient was documented on postoperative CT scans. The preoperative CT scan of the patient showed moderate cranial telescoping of the sacral roof and a moderate central disk protrusion, leading to moderate to severe compression of the cauda equina. In addition, there was lateral spondylosis with consequential stenosis of the right LS foramen. The right L7 nerve had lost its fat attenuation and appeared thickened. After a routine L7S1 dorsal laminectomy with a partial discectomy, a CCIO was performed, providing good access to the LS foramen and the adhesions around the proximal L7 nerve caudoventral to the foramen. The osteotomy was stabilized with a locking plate and a cerclage wire. The dog recovered well from the procedures and after 36 h, the dog walked normally and was discharged from the hospital. Eight and 16 weeks later, the signs of the DLSS had markedly improved. From these data, it can be concluded that the CCIO is a useful approach to the LS foramen and intervertebral disk in selected patients with DLSS, giving good access to the structures around the LS foramen.

  18. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  19. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  20. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Hashizume, Chisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kosaki, Katsura; Nagai, Aiko

    2010-06-01

    Skull base metastases are challenging situations because they often involve critical structures such as cranial nerves. We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which can give high doses to the tumors sparing normal structures. We treated 11 cases of skull base metastases from other visceral carcinomas. They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1). The interval between the onset of cranial nerve symptoms and Novalis SRT was 1 week to 7 months. Eleven tumors of 8-112 ml in volume were treated by Novalis SRT with 30-50 Gy in 10-14 fractions. The tumors were covered by 90-95% isodose. Imaging and clinical follow-up has been obtained in all 11 patients for 5-36 months after SRT. Seven patients among 11 died from primary carcinoma or other visceral metastases 9-36 months after Novalis SRT. All 11 metastatic tumors were locally controlled until the end of the follow-up time or patient death, though retreatment for re-growth was done in 1 patient. In 10 of 11 patients, cranial nerve deficits were improved completely or partially. In some patients, the cranial nerve symptoms were relieved even during the period of fractionated SRT. Novalis SRT is thought to be safe and effective treatment for skull base metastases with involvement of cranial nerves and it may improve cranial nerve symptoms quickly.

  1. Temporal changes in cranial size in South African vlei rats ( Otomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We hypothesised that cranial size should vary in space and time within species according to Bergmann's Rule, which predicts an inverse relationship between body size and temperature. We used the greatest length of the skull (GLS) as a robust indicator of body size. Cranial size of both O. auratus and O. angoniensis ...

  2. Asymmetric class III malocclusion: association with cranial base deformation and occult torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Joyce T; Teng, Edward; Heller, Justin B; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

    2012-09-01

    The etiology of Angle class III malocclusion with facial asymmetry has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the etiology, patients with asymmetric prognathism (n = 30) from a single institution were assessed for previously undiagnosed torticollis and cranial base asymmetry. Presence of torticollis was determined by measuring restricted head movement when turning the head against a wall and cranial base tilt with upward gaze. Cranial base asymmetry was evaluated by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography scans. Thirty-one percent of patients with prognathism presented with concurrent facial asymmetry. In patients with asymmetric prognathism, cranial base tilt was present on upward gaze in all patients; mean angle between head and wall was 31 degrees greater than that in control patients, and a 22% to 36% difference in the angle was present when comparing one side with the other. Based on these findings, all patients with asymmetric prognathism were found to be affected by torticollis. By computed tomography scan, 85% of these torticollis patients showed slight anteromedial displacement of the glenoid fossa ipsilateral to torticollis, and 73% demonstrated temporal fossa shift of 4 mm or greater. The current study demonstrates a strong association between asymmetric class III malocclusion, torticollis, and cranial base asymmetry. We conclude that undiagnosed torticollis is a likely etiology for otherwise idiopathic cranial base asymmetry and that cranial base asymmetry in turn causes facial asymmetry and malocclusion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating cranial base asymmetry and torticollis in patients with class III malocclusion to allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes.

  3. Twist1 contributes to cranial bone initiation and dermal condensation by maintaining Wnt signaling responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, L. Henry; DiNuoscio, Gregg J.; Atit, Radhika P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specification of cranial bone and dermal fibroblast progenitors in the supraorbital arch mesenchyme is Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent. The mechanism underlying how these cells interpret instructive signaling cues and differentiate into these two lineages is unclear. Twist1 is a target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and is expressed in cranial bone and dermal lineages. Results Here, we show that onset of Twist1 expression in the mouse cranial mesenchyme is dependent on ectodermal Wnts and mesenchymal β-catenin activity. Conditional deletion of Twist1 in the supraorbital arch mesenchyme leads to cranial bone agenesis and hypoplastic dermis, as well as craniofacial malformation of eyes and palate. Twist1 is preferentially required for cranial bone lineage commitment by maintaining Wnt responsiveness. In the conditional absence of Twist1, the cranial dermis fails to condense and expand apically leading to extensive cranial dermal hypoplasia with few and undifferentiated hair follicles. Conclusions Thus, Twist1, a target of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, also functions to maintain Wnt responsiveness and is a key effector for cranial bone fate selection and dermal condensation. PMID:26677825

  4. Cranial morphology of Javanese Homo erectus: new evidence for continuous evolution, specialization, and terminal extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Indriati, Etty; Jacob, Teuku; Kurniawan, Iwan; Baba, Hisao

    2008-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the evolution of Homo during the early to middle Pleistocene is far from complete. This is not only because of the small number of fossil samples available, but also due to the scarcity of standardized datasets which are reliable in terms of landmark identification, interobserver error, and other distorting factors. This study aims to accurately describe the cranial morphological changes of H. erectus in Java using a standardized set of measurements taken by the authors from 18 adult crania from Sangiran, Trinil, Sambungmacan, and Ngandong. The identification of some obscure landmarks was aided by the use of micro-CT imaging. While recent studies tend to emphasize evolutionary conservatism in Javanese H. erectus, our results reinforce the theory that chronologically later groups experienced distinct morphological changes in a number of cranial traits. Some of these changes, particularly those related to brain size expansion, are similar to those observed for the genus Homo as a whole, whereas others are apparently unique specializations restricted to Javanese H. erectus. Such morphological specializations in Java include previously undescribed anteroposterior lengthening of the midcranial base and an anterior shift of the posterior temporal muscle, which might have influenced the morphology of the angular torus and supramastoid sulcus. Analyses of morphological variation indicate that the three crania from Sambungmacan variously fill the morphological gap between the chronologically earlier (Bapang-AG, Bapang Formation above the Grenzbank zone in Sangiran) and later (Ngandong) morphotypes of Java. At least one of the Bapang-AG crania, Sangiran 17, also exhibits a few characteristics which potentially indicate evolution toward the Ngandong condition. These strongly suggest the continuous, gradual morphological evolution of Javanese H. erectus from the Bapang-AG to Ngandong periods. The development of some unique features in later Javanese H

  5. The evolution of cranial form in mid-Pleistocene Homo

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    G. Philip Rightmire

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of the brain and cranium in archaic populations remain poorly understood. Hominin fossils from Middle Pleistocene localities in Africa and Europe have been allocated to one or more species distinct from Homo erectus, the Neanderthals and modern humans, based on the assumption that characters of the vault and face are developmentally independent. However, it is possible that increased frontal width, parietal lengthening, midvault expansion and occipital rounding all reflect encephalisation occurring within the H. erectus lineage. If specimens from Broken Hill and Elandsfontein (in southern Africa and Sima de los Huesos and Petralona (in Europe differ from H. erectus only in brain volume, then it will be difficult to distinguish and diagnose Homo rhodesiensis or Homo heidelbergensis adequately. In this study, correlation analysis showed that the brain fails to influence vault breadth within either H. erectus or the mid-Pleistocene sample. Instead, the (large cranial base has a major effect on width. Variation in brain volume is not associated with frontal flattening. In H. erectus and in individuals such as Bodo and Petralona, the massive face seems to override the brain as a determinant of frontal curvature. Small H. erectus crania have rounded occipitals, whilst larger individuals show greater flexion. Later hominins do not follow this trend, and encephalisation cannot explain the occipital rounding that is present. Few of the vault characters considered diagnostic for the mid-Pleistocene fossils can be attributed to increasing brain volume. The situation is complex, as of course the brain must influence some traits indirectly. The cranial base is also an instrument of change. Discriminant analysis identified basicranial breadth as critical to distinguishing individuals such as Broken Hill, Sima de los Huesos and Petralona from H. erectus.

  6. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

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    Mark Hubbe

    Full Text Available Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  7. A prospective randomized trial on preventative methods for positional head deformity: physiotherapy versus a positioning pillow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Seidl, Maximilian; Wilbrand, Martina; Streckbein, Philipp; Böttger, Sebastian; Pons-Kuehnemann, Joern; Hahn, Andreas; Howaldt, Hans-Peter

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of stretching exercises versus available bedding pillows on positional head deformities. Fifty children aged 5 months or younger with positional head deformity were included in this prospective clinical trial (n=20 plagiocephaly, n=10 brachycephaly, n=20 combination). A random distribution was performed for treatment with the bedding pillow alone (n=25) or with stretching exercises (n=25) for 6 weeks. Anthropometric caliper measurements were done before and after that interval. Cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) and cranial index (CI) were calculated and analyzed using a descriptive statistical general linear model. ΔCVAI in the stretching group was 2.09% for plagiocephaly and 2.34% for combined head deformities. Using the bedding pillow, ΔCVAI was 3.01% in plagiocephal children and 2.86% for combined head deformity. The ΔCI in the stretching group was 0.94% for isolated brachycephal children and 2.24% for combined head deformity. ΔCI in the pillow group was 3.63% for brachycephaly and 3.23% in children with combined head deformities, respectively. Bedding pillows and stretching exercises both resulted in improvements in positional cranial deformation. For children with combined plagiocephaly and brachycephaly, improvement in cranial asymmetry was slightly greater when using bedding pillows versus stretching. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Control-released Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Incorporated in β-Tricalcium Phosphate for Murine Cranial Model

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    Azusa Shimizu, MD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that control-released bFGF incorporated in β-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration in the murine cranial defect model and may be promising for the clinical treatment of cranial defects.

  9. Comparison of cranial facet joint violation rate between percutaneous and open pedicle screw placement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Bin; Li, Zhengyao; Li, Ye

    2015-02-01

    Percutaneous and open pedicle screw placements have been widely used in lumbar fusion surgery. However, there are conflicting reports of cranial facet joint violation rate for the 2 techniques. To better determine the rate of cranial facet joint violation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in the present study. We searched the established electronic literature databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, World of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for trials involving the 2 pedicle screw placement techniques. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Four comparative trials with a cumulative sample size of 881 patients and 1755 cranial pedicle screws were identified and analyzed. The results showed that cranial facet joint violation rate was 18.18% (154/847) in percutaneous group and 18.72% (170/908) in open group. The pooled data revealed that there was no significant difference in the violation rate (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.24-2.30, P = 0.62). In addition, there was also no significant difference for the rate of severe violation between the 2 techniques (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.55-2.62, P = 0.64, random effect model). Based on the current data, the meta-analysis shows that similar cranial facet joint violation rate occurs during the percutaneous and open pedicle screw placement techniques. In addition, taking the limitations of this study into consideration, it was still not appropriate to draw such a strong conclusion. More well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess violation rate for the 2 techniques in the future.

  10. Does Receiving a Blood Transfusion Predict for Length of Stay in Children Undergoing Cranial Vault Remodeling for Craniosynostosis? Outcomes Using the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michael R; Alden, Tord; Momin, Mohmed Vasim; Olsson, Alexis B; Jurado, Ray J; Abdullah, Fizan; Miloro, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Recent interventions have aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusions in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling. However, little is known regarding whether the receipt of a blood transfusion influences the length of hospital stay. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the receipt of a blood transfusion in patients undergoing cranial vault remodeling is associated with an increased length of stay. To address the research purposes, we designed a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP Peds) dataset. The primary predictor variable was whether patients received a blood transfusion during cranial vault remodeling. The primary outcome variable was length of hospital stay after the operation. The association between the receipt of blood transfusions and length of stay was assessed using the Student t test. The association between other covariates and the outcome variable was assessed using linear regression, analysis of variance, and the Tukey test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. The sample was composed of 756 patients who underwent cranial vault remodeling: 503 who received blood transfusions and 253 who did not. The primary predictor variable of blood transfusion was associated with an increased length of stay (4.1 days vs 3.0 days, P = .03). Other covariates associated with an increased length of stay included race, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premature birth, presence of a congenital malformation, and number of sutures involved in craniosynostosis. The receipt of a blood transfusion in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling was associated with an increased length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A STUDY OF TUMOURS OF THE CRANIAL NERVE AND PARASPINAL NERVE

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    Sudesh Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION One of the frequent sites of tumour formation is the cranial nerves and paraspinal nerves. The cranial nerves perform a plethora of functions and so the signs and symptoms caused may be different. They are mainly classified into four different types. The aim of the study is: 1. To study the tumours arising from the cranial nerves in an epidemiological point of view. 2. To study the tumours histopathologically. 3. To classify the tumours according to WHO classification. Thirty-eight brain tumor cases were studied in the Department of Medicine, A. J. Shetty Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. Cranial nerve tumours accounts for 4(10% among the intracranial tumours. Schwannomas makes up 3(7.39% among the Intracranial tumours. and constituted 3(75% among cranial nerve tumours. All the 3 schwannomas were located in CP angle. The geographic distribution of cases was found to be 28 cases from Mangalore and 10 cases from Kerala.

  12. Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S P; Lang, A E

    1988-01-01

    Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patients affected with these disorders are often mistakenly considered to have psychiatric problems. Although the two disorders are quite distinct pathophysiologically, therapy with botulinum toxin has proven very effective in both. We review the clinical features, proposed pathophysiologic features, differential diagnosis and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin, of cranial dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052771

  13. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  14. Ophthalmoplegic and lower cranial nerve variants merge into each other and into classical Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bruggen, JP; van der Meche, FGA; de Jager, AEJ; Polman, CH

    We delineated the place of cranial nerve variants within the concept of clinically defined Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), In the ophthalmoplegic variant (n = 7) the oculomotor nerves were early involved, In a lower cranial nerve variant (n = 9) the cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were early involved.

  15. Continuous positive airway pressure alters cranial blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia I. Yiallourou

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Application of CPAP via a full-fitted mask at 15 cm H2O was found to have a significant effect on intracranial venous outflow and spinal CSF flow at the C2 vertebral level in healthy adult-age awake volunteers. CPAP can be used to non-invasively provoke changes in intracranial and CSF flow dynamics.

  16. An Isolated Bee Sting Involving Multiple Cranial Nerves

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    Hassan Motamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows with little erythema and  cm in size, bilateral blindness developed and gradually improved. Lateral movement of eyes was restricted with no pain. Involvement of cranial nerves including II, V, and VI was found. With conservative therapy after a year significant improvement has been achieved.

  17. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.

    1982-10-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  18. Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.

    1986-04-01

    Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success.

  19. Repair of tegmen defect using cranial particulate bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arin K; Poe, Dennis S

    2015-01-01

    Bone paté is used to repair cranial bone defects. This material contains bone-dust collected during the high-speed burring of the cranium. Clinical and experimental studies of bone dust, however, have shown that it does not have biological activity and is resorbed. We describe the use of bone paté using particulate bone graft. Particulate graft is harvested with a hand-driven brace and 16mm bit; it is not subjected to thermal injury and its large size resists resorption. Bone paté containing particulate graft is much more likely than bone dust to contain viable osteoblasts capable of producing new bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Analysis in Blood and Tumor Samples From Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Estrogen Receptor Positive and HER2 Negative Breast Cancer Receiving Palbociclib and Endocrine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  2. Outcome Analysis of Cranial Molding Therapy in Nonsynostotic Plagiocephaly

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    Han-Su Yoo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that nonsynostotic plagiocephaly does not spontaneously improve, and the craniofacial deformities that result from it. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of helmet therapy for the nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patient, and to suggest a new treatment strategy based on this analysis.MethodsA total of 108 pediatric patients who had undergone helmet therapy after being diagnosed with nonsynostotic plagiocephaly were included in this study. The patients were classified according to the initiation age of the helmet therapy, severity, and helmet wearing time. The treatment effect was compared using cranial vault asymmetry (CVA and the cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI, which were obtained from diagonal measurements before and after therapy.ResultsThe discrepancy of CVA and CVAI of all the patients significantly decreased after helmet therapy. According to the initiation time of helmet therapy, the treatment effect was best at 5 months old or less. The helmet wearing time per day was proportional to the treatment effect up to 20 hours. In addition, the rate of the successful treatment (final CVA ≤5 mm significantly decreased when the initiation age was 9.1 months or older and the treatment period was less than 7.83 months.ConclusionsThis study showed the effectiveness of the helmet therapy for nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patients. Based on analysis of this study, helmet therapy should be started at the age of 9 months or younger for 7.83 months or more, and the helmet wearing time should be more than 20 hours a day.

  3. Different cranial ontogeny in Europeans and Southern Africans.

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    Marina L Sardi

    Full Text Available Modern human populations differ in developmental processes and in several phenotypic traits. However, the link between ontogenetic variation and human diversification has not been frequently addressed. Here, we analysed craniofacial ontogenies by means of geometric-morphometrics of Europeans and Southern Africans, according to dental and chronological ages. Results suggest that different adult cranial morphologies between Southern Africans and Europeans arise by a combination of processes that involve traits modified during the prenatal life and others that diverge during early postnatal ontogeny. Main craniofacial changes indicate that Europeans differ from Southern Africans by increasing facial developmental rates and extending the attainment of adult size and shape. Since other studies have suggested that native subsaharan populations attain adulthood earlier than Europeans, it is probable that facial ontogeny is linked with other developmental mechanisms that control the timing of maturation in other variables. Southern Africans appear as retaining young features in adulthood. Facial ontogeny in Europeans produces taller and narrower noses, which seems as an adaptation to colder environments. The lack of these morphological traits in Neanderthals, who lived in cold environments, seems a paradox, but it is probably the consequence of a warm-adapted faces together with precocious maturation. When modern Homo sapiens migrated into Asia and Europe, colder environments might establish pressures that constrained facial growth and development in order to depart from the warm-adapted morphology. Our results provide some answers about how cranial growth and development occur in two human populations and when developmental shifts take place providing a better adaptation to environmental constraints.

  4. Intra-cranial recordings of brain activity during language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings in the neurophysiology of language production have provided a detailed description of the brain network underlying this behavior, as well as some indications about the timing of operations. Despite their invaluable utility, these data generally suffer from limitations either in terms of temporal resolution, or in terms of spatial localization. In addition, studying the neural basis of speech is complicated by the presence of articulation artifacts such as electro-myographic activity that interferes with the neural signal. These difficulties are virtually absent in a powerful albeit much less frequent methodology, namely the recording of intra-cranial brain activity (intra-cranial electroencephalography). Such recordings are only possible under very specific clinical circumstances requiring functional mapping before brain surgery, most notably in patients that suffer from pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Here we review the research conducted with this methodology in the field of language production, with explicit consideration of its advantages and drawbacks. The available evidence is shown to be diverse, both in terms of the tasks and the cognitive processes tested and in terms of the brain localizations being studied. Still, the review provides valuable information for characterizing the dynamics of the neural events occurring in the language production network. Following modality specific activities (in auditory or visual cortices), there is a convergence of activity in superior temporal sulcus, which is a plausible neural correlate of phonological encoding processes. Later, between 500 and 800 ms, inferior frontal gyrus (around Broca's area) is involved. Peri-rolandic areas are recruited in the two modalities relatively early (200-500 ms window), suggesting a very early involvement of (pre-) motor processes. We discuss how some of these findings may be at odds with conclusions drawn from available meta-analysis of language production studies.

  5. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

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    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  6. VITOM 3D: Preliminary Experience in Cranial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Zefferino; Cardia, Andrea; Milani, Davide; Lasio, Giovanni Battista; Fornari, Maurizio; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    Optimal vision and ergonomics are important factors contributing to achievement of good results during neurosurgical interventions. The operating microscope and the endoscope have partially filled the gap between the need for good surgical vision and maintenance of a comfortable posture during surgery. Recently, a new technology called video-assisted telescope operating monitor or exoscope has been used in cranial surgery. The main drawback with previous prototypes was lack of stereopsis. We present the first case report of cranial surgery performed using the VITOM 3D, an exoscope conjugating 4K resolution view and three-dimensional technology, and discuss advantages and disadvantages compared with the operating microscope. A 50-year-old patient with vertigo and headache linked to a petrous ridge meningioma underwent surgery using the VITOM 3D. Complete removal of the tumor and resolution of symptoms were achieved. The telescope was maintained over the surgical field for the duration of the procedure; a video monitor was placed at 2 m from the surgeons; and a control unit allowed focusing, magnification, and repositioning of the camera. VITOM 3D is a video system that has overcome the lack of stereopsis, a major drawback of previous exoscope models. It has many advantages regarding ergonomics, versatility, and depth of field compared with the operating microscope, but the holder arm and the mechanism of repositioning, refocusing, and magnification need to be ameliorated. Surgeons should continue to use the technology they feel confident with, unless a distinct advantage with newer technologies can be demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unconstrained cranial evolution in Neandertals and modern humans compared to common chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of lines of evidence support the idea that neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) have been important in generating cranial differences between Neandertals and modern humans. But how do Neandertals and modern humans compare with other species? And how do these comparisons illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? To address these questions, we used 27 standard cranial measurements collected on 2524 recent modern humans, 20 Neandertals and 237 common chimpanzees to estimate split times between Neandertals and modern humans, and between Pan troglodytes verus and two other subspecies of common chimpanzee. Consistent with a neutral divergence, the Neandertal versus modern human split-time estimates based on cranial measurements are similar to those based on DNA sequences. By contrast, the common chimpanzee cranial estimates are much lower than DNA-sequence estimates. Apparently, cranial evolution has been unconstrained in Neandertals and modern humans compared with common chimpanzees. Based on these and additional analyses, it appears that cranial differentiation in common chimpanzees has been restricted by stabilizing natural selection. Alternatively, this restriction could be due to genetic and/or developmental constraints on the amount of within-group variance (relative to effective population size) available for genetic drift to act on. PMID:26468243

  8. Unconstrained cranial evolution in Neandertals and modern humans compared to common chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D; Stringer, Chris B

    2015-10-22

    A variety of lines of evidence support the idea that neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) have been important in generating cranial differences between Neandertals and modern humans. But how do Neandertals and modern humans compare with other species? And how do these comparisons illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? To address these questions, we used 27 standard cranial measurements collected on 2524 recent modern humans, 20 Neandertals and 237 common chimpanzees to estimate split times between Neandertals and modern humans, and between Pan troglodytes verus and two other subspecies of common chimpanzee. Consistent with a neutral divergence, the Neandertal versus modern human split-time estimates based on cranial measurements are similar to those based on DNA sequences. By contrast, the common chimpanzee cranial estimates are much lower than DNA-sequence estimates. Apparently, cranial evolution has been unconstrained in Neandertals and modern humans compared with common chimpanzees. Based on these and additional analyses, it appears that cranial differentiation in common chimpanzees has been restricted by stabilizing natural selection. Alternatively, this restriction could be due to genetic and/or developmental constraints on the amount of within-group variance (relative to effective population size) available for genetic drift to act on. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. STP Position Paper: Recommended Practices for Sampling and Processing the Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerve, and Eye) during Nonclinical General Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology charged a Nervous System Sampling Working Group with devising recommended practices to routinely screen the central and peripheral nervous systems in Good Laboratory Practice-type nonclinical general toxicity studies. Brains should be trimmed ...

  10. Symptomatic Arnold-Chiari malformation and cranial nerve dysfunction: a case study of applied kinesiology cranial evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Scott; Blum, Charles

    2005-05-01

    To present an overview of possible effects of Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) and to offer chiropractic approaches and theories for treatment of a patient with severe visual dysfunction complicated by ACM. A young woman had complex optic nerve neuritis exacerbated by an ACM type I of the brain. Applied kinesiology chiropractic treatment was used for treatment of loss of vision and nystagmus. After treatment, the patient's ability to see, read, and perform smooth eye tracking showed improvement. Further studies into applied kinesiology and cranial treatments for visual dysfunctions associated with ACM may be helpful to evaluate whether this single case study can be representative of a group of patients who might benefit from this care.

  11. Is more research always needed? Estimating optimal sample sizes for trials of retention in care interventions for HIV-positive East Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyei, Jennifer; Li, Lingfeng; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-01-01

    Given the serious health consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, randomised control trials of interventions to improve retention in care may be warranted. As funding for global HIV research is finite, it may be argued that choices about sample size should be tied to maximising health. For an East African setting, we calculated expected value of sample information and expected net benefit of sampling to identify the optimal sample size (greatest return on investment) and to quantify net health gains associated with research. Two hypothetical interventions were analysed: (1) one aimed at reducing disengagement from HIV care and (2) another aimed at finding/relinking disengaged patients. When the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold was within a plausible range (1-3 × GDP; US$1377-4130/QALY), the optimal sample size was zero for both interventions, meaning that no further research was recommended because the pre-research probability of an intervention's effectiveness and value was sufficient to support a decision on whether to adopt the intervention and any new information gained from additional research would likely not change that decision. In threshold analyses, at a higher WTP of $5200 the optimal sample size for testing a risk reduction intervention was 2750 per arm. For the outreach intervention, the optimal sample size remained zero across a wide range of WTP thresholds and was insensitive to variation. Limitations, including not varying all inputs in the model, may have led to an underestimation of the value of investing in new research. In summary, more research is not always needed, particularly when there is moderately robust prestudy belief about intervention effectiveness and little uncertainty about the value (cost-effectiveness) of the intervention. Users can test their own assumptions at http://torchresearch.org.

  12. Enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in vanishing white matter: expanding the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Thomas Jose; Montealegre, Denia Ramirez; Matsumoto, Julie Ann

    2017-10-12

    Abnormal cranial or spinal nerve contrast enhancement on MRI in cases of suspected pediatric leukodystrophy is recognized as an important clue to the diagnosis of either metachromatic leukodystrophy or globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease). We report a case of genetically confirmed childhood vanishing white matter with enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in addition to the more typical intracranial findings. This case expands the limited differential diagnosis of cranial nerve or spinal nerve enhancement in cases of suspected leukodystrophy and may aid in more efficient work-up and earlier diagnosis of vanishing white matter.

  13. Stress sensitivity mediates the relationship between traumatic life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms differentially by gender in a college population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Anglin, Deidre M; Klugman, Joshua T; Reeves, Lauren E; Fineberg, Anna M; Maxwell, Seth D; Kerns, Connor M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stress sensitivity mediates the relationship between traumatic life events and total attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, as well as the relationship between traumatic life events and endorsement of 8 or more attenuated positive psychotic symptoms as distressing (a threshold that has been associated with higher risk for psychosis in clinical groups). Participants (n = 671, aged 17-35, 29% male) were college students who were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Life Events Checklist. Bootstrapping results indicated that stress sensitivity significantly mediated the relationships between traumatic life events and the number of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms endorsed and between traumatic life events and those who endorsed 8 or more distressing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. Stratified gender analyses indicated the findings were specific to females. Results suggest that stress sensitivity may represent a specific vulnerability factor for risk of attenuated psychotic symptoms in those previously exposed to traumatic life events and that this liability appears stronger in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Observed adducts on positive mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry - Proton/ammonium adduct selectivities of 600-sample in-house chemical library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Furuya, Asami; Yatsu, Takahiro; Igarashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Reiko; Izutani, Chisato; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Shibue, Toshimichi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, direct analysis in real time adduct selectivities of a 558 in-house high-resolution mass spectrometry sample library was evaluated. The protonated molecular ion ([M + H]+) was detected in 462 samples. The ammonium adduct ion ([M + NH4]+) was also detected in 262 samples. [M + H]+ and [M + NH4]+ molecular ions were observed simultaneously in 166 samples. These adduct selectivities were related to the elemental compositions of the sample compounds. [M + NH4]+ selectivity correlated with the number of oxygen atom(s), whereas [M + H]+ selectivity correlated with the number of nitrogen atom(s) in the elemental compositions. For compounds including a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom [M + H]+ was detected; [M + NH4]+ was detected for compounds including an oxygen atom only. Density functional theory calculations were performed for selected library samples and model compounds. Energy differences were observed between compounds detected as [M + H]+ and [M + NH4]+, and between compounds including a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom in their elemental compositions. The results suggested that the presence of oxygen atoms stabilizes [M + NH4]+, but not every oxygen atom has enough energy for detection of [M + NH4]+. It was concluded that the nitrogen atom(s) and oxygen atom(s) in the elemental compositions play important roles in the adduct formation in direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

  15. Intraoperative biopsy of the major cranial nerves in the surgical strategy for adenoid cystic carcinoma close to the skull base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, Achille; Pizzigallo, Angelo; Gessaroli, Manlio; Sturiale, Carmelo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2012-02-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands has a propensity for perineural invasion, which could favor spread along the major cranial nerves, sometimes to the skull base and through the foramina to the brain parenchyma. This study evaluated the relationship between neural spread and relapse in the skull base. During surgery, we performed multiple biopsies with extemporaneous examination of the major nerves close to the tumor to guide the surgical resection. The percentage of actuarial local control at 5 years for patients with a positive named nerve and skull base infiltration was 12.5%, compared with 90.0% in patients who were named nerve-negative and without infiltration of the skull base (P = .001). Our study shows that local control of disease for patients who are named nerve-positive with skull base infiltration is significantly more complex compared with patients who are named nerve-negative without infiltration of the skull base. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Forms of Aggression, Social-Psychological Adjustment, and Peer Victimization in a Japanese Sample: The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to examine the frequency and stability of relational and physical aggression and their associations with social-psychological adjustment or peer victimization, and how friendships are involved in the relations between forms of aggression and peer victimization in Japanese children. The sample consisted of 452…

  17. Clinical and neurological study on the Sturge-Weber syndrome. With particular emphasis on consecutive cranial CT and EEG changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Takako

    1987-07-01

    The author studied the relationship between facial nevus and intracranial changes seen on cranial computed tomography (CCT) scannings in 12 children with typical Sturge-Weber syndrome. The evaluation of epileptic attacks, repeat EEG and cranial CT examinations with or without enhancement during the follow-up period of 8 years in average were analysed. In 7 cases (58.3 %), the dominant side of facial hemangioma was identical with that of calcification on CCT. Three cases of central facial nevus showed calcification in one hemisphere, on either side. One who had facial nevus on one side showed dominant calcification on the other side on CT. The area and side of the facial nevus did not always coincide with those of the intracranial lesion. In 4 of the 9 patients who were followed up by repeat CCT, we recognized increases in degree of brain atrophy with or without increases in the area of calcification. In the enhancement study, 6 patients (89 %) showed positive choroid plexus images with abnormal enhancement on the same side as the calcification. On EEG 5 cases showed epileptiform activity over the hemisphere with calcification, and 3 showed it on the intact side of the brain.

  18. Seizure detection using wavelet decomposition of the prediction error signal from a single channel of intra-cranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisheng Zhang; Parhi, Keshab K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel patient-specific algorithm for detection of seizures in epileptic patients from a single-channel intra-cranial electroencephaolograph (iEEG) recording. Instead of extracting features from the EEG signal, first the EEG signal is filtered by a prediction error filter (PEF) to compute a prediction error signal. A two-level wavelet decomposition of the prediction error signal leads to two detail signals and one approximate signal. Eight features are extracted every one second using a 2-second window with a 50% overlap. These features are input to two different types of classifiers: a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier and an AdaBoost classifier. The algorithm is tested using the intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) from the Freiburg database. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can achieve a sensitivity of 95.0% and an average false positive rate (FPR) of 0.124 per hour, using the linear SVM classifier. The AdaBoost classifier achieves a sensitivity of 98.75% and an average FPR of 0.075 per hour. These results are obtained with leave-one-out cross-validation. In addition, for 13 out of 18 patients, the AdaBoost classifier requires only one feature, while it requires 4 features for the remaining 5 patients.

  19. Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavirajan, Harish C; Lueck, Kristin; Chuang, Kenneth

    2014-07-08

    Depression is a mood disorder with a prevalence of approximately 1% to 3% worldwide, representing the fourth leading cause of disease burden globally. The current standard treatments of psychological therapy and antidepressant medications are not effective for everyone, and psychotropic drugs may be associated with significant adverse effects. Cranial electrical stimulation (CES) treatment, in which a low intensity electrical current is administered through the use of a small, portable electrical device, has been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of depression with minimal adverse effects. This systematic review investigated the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of CES in treatment of acute depression compared to sham, or simulated, CES treatment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) compared with sham CES for acute depression. We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis review group's specialized register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) to February 24, 2014 This register contains relevant randomized controlled trials from: The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We examined reference lists of review papers and books on CES. We contacted authors, other experts in the field and CES manufacturing companies for knowledge of suitable published or unpublished trials. Randomized controlled trials of CES versus sham CES for the acute treatment of depressive disorder in adults aged 18 to 75 years. We planned to extract data from the original reports of included studies independently by two authors. The main outcomes to be assessed were:(1) the efficacy of CES in reducing symptoms of depression as reflected in change scores on standardized depression rating scales.(2) the tolerability of CES treatment to participants, as reflected in rates of discontinuation due to adverse

  20. Enterovirus 71 can directly infect the brainstem via cranial nerves and infection can be ameliorated by passive immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soon Hao; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2014-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications.

  1. Delayed cranial neuropathy after neurosurgery caused by herpes simplex virus reactivation: report of three cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Gons, R.A.R.; Menovsky, T.; Verduyn Lunel, F.M.; Vlasakker, C.J.W. van de; Vries, J. de

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed cranial neuropathy is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical interventions of which the exact etiology is uncertain. Several authors have hypothesized that reactivation of herpesviruses may play a role. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The first patient underwent microvascular decompression

  2. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Gabriel; Rintala, Diana H; Thornby, John I; Yang, June; Wade, Walter; Vasilev, Christine

    2006-01-01

    .... Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), a noninvasive technique that delivers a microcurrent to the brain via ear clip electrodes, has been shown to effectively treat several neurological and psychiatric disorders...

  3. Cranial Reconstruction following the Removal of an Infected Synthetic Dura Mater Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Yoshioka, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Staged cranial reconstruction after the removal of an infected synthetic dura mater substitute using an algorithmic approach is feasible and safe, produces satisfactory cosmetic results, and is not associated with any complications.

  4. Structural and mechanical characterization of custom design cranial implant created using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Moiduddin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The study reveals that the use of mesh implants in cranial reconstruction satisfies the need of lighter implants with an adequate mechanical strength, thus restoring better functionality and esthetic outcomes for the patients.

  5. Cranial morphology of Platypterygius longmani Wade, 1990 (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous of Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KEAR, BENJAMIN P

    2005-01-01

    ...) ichthyosaur Platypterygius longmani Wade, 1990 are described in detail. The material is used to reconstruct some of the cranial musculature and provide a brief functional analysis of the skull and mandible...

  6. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2016-09-01

    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

  7. Toward robust deconvolution of pass-through paleomagnetic measurements: new tool to estimate magnetometer sensor response and laser interferometry of sample positioning accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Oda,Hirokuni; Xuan, Chuang; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-01-01

    Pass-through superconducting rock magnetometers (SRM) offer rapid and high-precision remanence measurements for continuous samples that are essential for modern paleomagnetism studies. However, continuous SRM measurements are inevitably smoothed and distorted due to the convolution effect of SRM sensor response. Deconvolution is necessary to restore accurate magnetization from pass-through SRM data, and robust deconvolution requires reliable estimate of SRM sensor response as well as understa...

  8. Methylation marker analysis and HPV16/18 genotyping in high-risk HPV positive self-sampled specimens to identify women with high grade CIN or cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, V.M.; Heideman, D.A.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Rozendaal, L.; Bosgraaf, R.P.; Hesselink, A.T.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Steenbergen, R.D.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Berkhof, J.; Meijer, C.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Methylation marker analysis using bi-marker panel MAL/miR-124-2 is a promising triage test for identifying cervical (pre)cancer in high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) positive women. Bi-marker panel MAL/miR-124-2 can be applied directly on self-sampled cervico-vaginal material and its

  9. Development of a robust method for isolation of shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) from fecal, plant, soil and water samples from a leafy greens production region in California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, Michael B; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    ...)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis...

  10. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

  11. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiosurgery with dynamic conformal arc radiosurgery for small cranial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F Calvo-Ortega; David Delgado; Sandra Moragues; Miquel Pozo; Joan Casals

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To dosimetrically compare the fixed gantry intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with dynamic conformal arc radiosurgery (DCARS) for cranial lesions. This study investigates whether IMRS can be an adequate dosimetric alternative to DCARS for cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Subjects and Methods: Forty-five SRS procedures for solitary brain metastasis (range: 0.44–29.18 cm 3) performed at our institution were selected for this study. Two plans were generated per patient: One...

  12. Asymptomatic Brain Lesions on Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dolapcioglu, Can; Guleryuzlu, Yuksel; Uygur-Bayramicli, Oya; Ahishali, Emel; Dabak, Resat

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to examine the frequency and type of asymptomatic neurological involvement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Fifty-one IBD patients with no known neurological diseases or symptoms and 30 controls with unspecified headaches without neurological origins were included. Patients and controls underwent cranial MRI assessments for white matter lesions, sinusitis, otitis-mastoiditis, and other brain parenchyma...

  13. Changes in Cranial Base Morphology in Class I and Class II Division 1 Malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Anirudh; Pandey, Harsh; Bajaj, Kamal; Pandey, Lavesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The cranial base plays a key role in craniofacial growth; it helps to integrate spatially and functionally different patterns of growth in various adjoining regions of the skull such as components of the brain, the nasal and oral cavity and the pharynx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in cranial base flexure between skeletal and dental Class I and Class II division 1.

  14. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Virtual temporal bone: an interactive 3-dimensional learning aid for cranial base surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kockro, R A; Hwang, P Y

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have developed an interactive virtual model of the temporal bone for the training and teaching of cranial base surgery. METHODS: The virtual model was based on the tomographic data of the Visible Human Project. The male Visible Human's computed tomographic data were volumetrically reconstructed as virtual bone tissue, and the individual photographic slices provided the basis for segmentation of the middle and inner ear structures, cranial nerves, vessels, and brainstem. These st...

  16. Evaluation of vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Alexandre Navarro Alves; Tatarunas, Angelica Cecilia; Matera, Julia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most important stifle injuries and a common cause of lameness in dogs. Our objective was to measure the vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) using a pressure sensitive walkway. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to collect vertical force data from the pads of 10 Pitbulls affected with unilateral CCLR. Ten healthy...

  17. Functional Deficits of Cranial Nerves in Patients with Jugular Foramen Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Raquet, F.; Mann, W.; Amedee, R.; Maruer, J.; Gilsbach, J

    1991-01-01

    Lower cranial neuropathies are a leading presenting symptom in patients with tumors involving the jugular foramen. The purpose of this study is to assess acute and chronic functional deficits along with neurologic findings in 31 patients who underwent resection of a tumor involving the jugular foramen. Preoperative nerve dysfunction made intraoperative preservation unlikely, while postoperative lower cranial nerve dysfunction was found to be transient in many patients. Compensation of permane...

  18. The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves: Head and Face Sensation and Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions. Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some ...

  19. Caldesmon regulates actin dynamics to influence cranial neural crest migration in Xenopus

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Shuyi; Kee, Yun; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Caldesmon (CaD) is an important actin modulator that associates with actin filaments to regulate cell morphology and motility. Although extensively studied in cultured cells, there is little functional information regarding the role of CaD in migrating cells in vivo. Here we show that nonmuscle CaD is highly expressed in both premigratory and migrating cranial neural crest cells of Xenopus embryos. Depletion of CaD with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides causes cranial neural crest cells t...

  20. Multiple Cranial Neuropathies Without Limb Involvements: Guillain-Barre Syndrome Variant?

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ju Young; Jung, Han Young; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyo Sang; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2013-01-01

    Acute multiple cranial neuropathies are considered as variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which are immune-mediated diseases triggered by various cases. It is a rare disease which is related to infectious, inflammatory or systemic diseases. According to previous case reports, those affected can exhibit almost bilateral facial nerve palsy, then followed by bulbar dysfunctions (cranial nerves IX and X) accompanied by limb weakness and walking difficulties due to motor and/or sensory dysfunction...

  1. Complications of Citrobacter neonatal meningitis: assessment by real-time cranial sonography correlated with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R S; Rosenberg, H K; Zimmerman, R A; Stanford, A N

    1983-01-01

    Real-time cranial sonography via the anterior fontanelle was used serially over a 3- and 6-week period, respectively, to evaluate two infants who developed multicystic encephalomalacia secondary to Citrobacter neonatal meningitis. Sonographic findings included heterogeneous parenchymal echogenicity, gyral prominence, periventricular hypoechoic areas from which cystic spaces evolved, and development of hydrocephalus. Serial cranial computed tomography over the same time period confirmed the sonographic observations in each case.

  2. The revised anatomy of the canals connecting the orbit with the cranial cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    Orbits are connected with the middle cranial fossa via the optic canal, the superior orbital fissure, the M-type orbitomeningeal foramen, the metoptic canal, an accessory anterior opening of the foramen rotundum, and Warwick's canal. They are also in communication with the anterior cranial fossa via the ethmoidal canals and the A-type orbitomeningeal foramen. The anatomy of these conduits has been recently enriched with several details that are summarized and reviewed in this article.

  3. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  4. Imaging the cranial nerves: Part I: Methodology, infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A.Z. St. Jan Brugge Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brugge (Belgium); A.Z. St. Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Many disease processes manifest either primarily or secondarily by cranial nerve deficits. Neurologists, ENT surgeons, ophthalmologists and maxillo-facial surgeons are often confronted with patients with symptoms and signs of cranial nerve dysfunction. Seeking the cause of this dysfunction is a common indication for imaging. In recent decades we have witnessed an unprecedented improvement in imaging techniques, allowing direct visualization of increasingly small anatomic structures. The emergence of volumetric CT scanners, higher field MR scanners in clinical practice and higher resolution MR sequences has made a tremendous contribution to the development of cranial nerve imaging. The use of surface coils and parallel imaging allows sub-millimetric visualization of nerve branches and volumetric 3D imaging. Both with CT and MR, multiplanar and curved reconstructions can follow the entire course of a cranial nerve or branch, improving tremendously our diagnostic yield of neural pathology. This review article will focus on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of normal anatomy and on infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital pathology affecting the cranial nerves. A detailed discussion of individual cranial nerves lesions is beyond the scope of this article. (orig.)

  5. Cranial base and maxillary changes in patients treated with Frankel' s functional regulator (1b).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alió-Sanz, Juan-Jose; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, Jose; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess cranial base and maxillary growth in patients with Class II-type I malocclusions when treated with Frankel' s functional regulator (FR-1b). The treatment group was made up of 43 patients that were divided into two groups: prepubescent (n: 28), and pubescent (n: 15). The control group included 40 patients who did not receive any kind of treatment and were likewise divided into a prepubescent group (n: 19), and a pubescent group (n: 21). A computerized cephalometric study was carried out and superimpositions were done in order to assess the antero-posterior, vertical and rotational movement of the maxilla. The results indicate that anterior cranial length is not affected by the regulator but the cranial deflection of the treatment group was diminished. Although a slight counterclockwise rotation effect on the upper jaw was observed due to treatment, no growth restriction of the maxilla in a vertical or antero-posterior direction was observed compared to other non-treated Class II-type I malocclusion patients. The functional regulator does not have any effect on anterior cranial length, but it does affect the angulation of the cranial base. According to our results, the appliance has demonstrated a flattening effect of the cranial base (pfunctional regulator induces counterclockwise rotation rather than vertical or sagittal changes in the maxilla.

  6. Morphological evolution through integration: a quantitative study of cranial integration in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandini; Harvati, Katerina; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Klingenberg, Christian P

    2012-01-01

    Morphological integration refers to coordinated variation among traits that are closely related in development and/or function. Patterns of integration can offer important insight into the structural relationship between phenotypic units, providing a framework to address questions about phenotypic evolvability and constraints. Integrative features of the primate cranium have recently become a popular subject of study. However, an important question that still remains under-investigated is: what is the pattern of cranial shape integration among closely related hominoids? To address this question, we conducted a Procrustes-based geometric morphometrics study to quantify and analyze shape covariation patterns between different cranial regions in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. A total of fifty-six 3D landmarks were collected on 407 adult individuals. We then sub-divided the landmarks corresponding to cranial units as outlined in the 'functional matrix hypothesis.' Sub-dividing the cranium in this manner allowed us to explore patterns of covariation between the face, basicranium and cranial vault, using the two-block partial least squares approach. Our results suggest that integrated shape changes in the hominoid cranium are complex, but that the overall pattern of integration is similar among human and non-human apes. Thus, despite having very distinct morphologies the way in which the face, basicranium and cranial vault covary is shared among these taxa. These results imply that the pattern of cranial integration among hominoids is conserved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER ANTIGEN IN STOOL SAMPLES AND ITS RELATION TO H. PYLORI POSITIVE CHOLECYSTITIS IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CALCULAR CHOLECYSTITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ehsan H; Gerges, Shawkat S; Ahmed, Rehab; Mostafa, Zeinab M; Al-Hamid, Hager Abd; Abd El-Galil, Heba; Thabet, Suzan

    2015-12-01

    Evidences supporting the association between H. pylori infection and chronic cholecystitis could be found by using direct culture or staining of H. pylori in gallbladder tissues as well as indirect techniques. Stool antigen test has been widely used due to its noninvasive nature. Various stool antigen tests were developed to detect H. pylori using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies This study evaluated the frequency of H. pylori antigen in stool samples of patients with chronic calcular cholecystitis as regard gall bladder histopathological changes. Fifty patients were included presented with symptomatic qholecystolithiasis recruited from the outpatient clinic of National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute during 2014-2015. Full history and clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Stool samples were collected, prepared and examined for detection of H. pylori antigen. Cholecystectomy was done for all patients; 45 patients (90%) by laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and 5 patients (10%) by open surgery and removed gallbladders were submitted to pathology department for detection of H. pylori in tissue under microscope using Giemsa stain. The results showed that (82%) were females with mean age (42.6 +/- 1 years). The mean BMI was (29 + 7.2) H. pylori-specific antigen in stool samples was detected in 40% of patients and 38% were detected in patients; tissue, with significant correlation between H. pylori-specific antigen in stool and in tissue. Histopathological pictures infection in tissue were 68.4% mucosal erosions, 63.2% mucosal atrophy, 57.9% mucosal hyperplasia, 26.3% metaplasia, 42.1% musculosa hypertrophy, 26.3% fibrosis, but lymphoid aggregates were in 42.1% of cases.

  8. Stereotactic radiosurgery for non-vestibular cranial nerve schwanommas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Astous, Myreille; Ho, Allen L; Pendharkar, Arjun; Choi, Clara Y H; Soltys, Scott G; Gibbs, Iris C; Tayag, Armine T; Thompson, Patricia A; Adler, John R; Chang, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Non-vestibular cranial nerve schwannomas (NVCNS) are rare lesions, representing Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has arisen as a mainstay of treatment for many benign tumors, including schwanommas. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of NVCNS treated by SRS to characterize tumor control, symptom relief, toxicity, and the role of hypo-fractionation of SRS dose. Eighty-eight (88) patients, with ninety-five (95) NVCNS were treated with either single or multi-session SRS from 2001 to 2014. Local control was achieved in 94 % of patients treated (median follow-up of 33 months, range 1-155). Complications were seen in 7.4 % of cases treated with SRS. At 1-year, 57 % of patients had improvement or resolution of their symptoms, while 35 % were stable and 8 % had worsening or increased symptoms. While 42 % received only one session, results on local control were similar for one or multiple sessions (p = 0.424). SRS for NVCNS is a treatment modality that provides excellent local control with minimal complication risk compared to traditional neurosurgical techniques. Tumor control obtained with a multi-session treatment was not significantly different from single session treatment. Safety profile was also comparable for uni or multi-session treatments. We concluded that, as seen in VS treated with CK SRS, radiosurgery treatment can be safely delivered in cases of NVCNS.

  9. Serial cranial computed tomography in acute infantile hemiplegia

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    Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Hiroatsu; Yamasaki, Shun (Shizuoka Prefectural Children' s Hospital (Japan)); Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Shozo

    1982-11-01

    Serial cranial computed tomography (CCT) was studied in 20 children with acute infantile hemiplegia. These children were devided into two groups: hemiplegia following fever, hemiconvulsion and unconsiousness (the convulsive group) and hemiplegia without convulsion (the non-convulsive group). There were 15 cases in the convulsive group and 5 cases in the non-convulsive group. We could investigate the CCT immediately after the onset in 6 convulsive cases and 3 non-convulsive cases, but the immediate CCT revealed no abnormalities in both groups. Within several days after the onset the abnormally low density area appeared on the CCT in both groups. In three cases there were abnormally high density areas complicating these abnormalities. Over more than a month, the hemispheric low density area changed into the hemispheric atrophy and the lobar low density area changed into the focal wedge-shaped atrophy or diminished. The small or lacunar low density area changed into the low density spot and the hemorrhagic infarction into the porencephaly. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery were found in two non-convulsive cases and the stenosis of the internal carotid artery in a convulsive case with purulent meningitis.

  10. Hypothalmic hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K.S.L.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.T.; Ma, J.T.C.; Ho, J.H.C.; Tse, V.K.C.; Ling, N.

    1986-06-01

    Eight patients, one male and seven females, with no pre-existing hypothalamic-pituitary disease, who developed symptoms of hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma were studied 5 years or more after radiotherapy. All were GH deficient. Four of the patients with no GH response during insulin tolerance tests (ITT) showed increased GH in response to synthetic human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF-44). Four patients had impaired cortisol responses to ITT, and gradual but diminished cortisol responses to ovine corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF-41). There was no significant difference between mean peak increments in response to ITT and those in response to CRF-41. TSH responses to TRH were delayed in five and absent in two patients; four of these had low free T4 index. Prolactin was raised in all seven women and increased further in response to TRH. Two patients had impaired gonadotrophin responses to LHRH. None of the patients had clinical or biochemical evidence of diabetes insipidus. These data suggest that post-irradiation hypopituitarism in these patients results from radiation damage to the hypothalamus leading to varying degrees of deficiency of the hypothalamic releasing or inhibitory factors.

  11. Signaling mechanisms controlling cranial placode neurogenesis and delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Rhonda N T; Stark, Michael R; Zhao, Tianyu; Zhou, Chengji J

    2014-05-01

    The neurogenic cranial placodes are a unique transient epithelial niche of neural progenitor cells that give rise to multiple derivatives of the peripheral nervous system, particularly, the sensory neurons. Placode neurogenesis occurs throughout an extended period of time with epithelial cells continually recruited as neural progenitor cells. Sensory neuron development in the trigeminal, epibranchial, otic, and olfactory placodes coincides with detachment of these neuroblasts from the encompassing epithelial sheet, leading to delamination and ingression into the mesenchyme where they continue to differentiate as neurons. Multiple signaling pathways are known to direct placodal development. This review defines the signaling pathways working at the finite spatiotemporal period when neuronal selection within the placodes occurs, and neuroblasts concomitantly delaminate from the epithelium. Examining neurogenesis and delamination after initial placodal patterning and specification has revealed a common trend throughout the neurogenic placodes, which suggests that both activated FGF and attenuated Notch signaling activities are required for neurogenesis and changes in epithelial cell adhesion leading to delamination. We also address the varying roles of other pathways such as the Wnt and BMP signaling families during sensory neurogenesis and neuroblast delamination in the differing placodes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. State of the art cranial ultrasound imaging in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Camfferman, Fleur A; Leijser, Lara M; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-02-02

    Cranial ultrasound (CUS) is a reputable tool for brain imaging in critically ill neonates. It is safe, relatively cheap and easy to use, even when a patient is unstable. In addition it is radiation-free and allows serial imaging. CUS possibilities have steadily expanded. However, in many neonatal intensive care units, these possibilities are not optimally used. We present a comprehensive approach for neonatal CUS, focusing on optimal settings, different probes, multiple acoustic windows and Doppler techniques. This approach is suited for both routine clinical practice and research purposes. In a live demonstration, we show how this technique is performed in the neonatal intensive care unit. Using optimal settings and probes allows for better imaging quality and improves the diagnostic value of CUS in experienced hands. Traditionally, images are obtained through the anterior fontanel. Use of supplemental acoustic windows (lambdoid, mastoid, and lateral fontanels) improves detection of brain injury. Adding Doppler studies allows screening of patency of large intracranial arteries and veins. Flow velocities and indices can be obtained. Doppler CUS offers the possibility of detecting cerebral sinovenous thrombosis at an early stage, creating a window for therapeutic intervention prior to thrombosis-induced tissue damage. Equipment, data storage and safety aspects are also addressed.

  13. Absence of the fourth cranial nerve in congenital Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-François; Kress, Bodo; Rohde, Stefan; Kolling, Gerold

    2012-06-01

    To elucidate the aetiology of congenital Brown syndrome. Four consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral congenital Brown syndrome had a comprehensive standardized ocular motility examination. Any compensatory head posture was measured. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with regard for the IV cranial nerve (CN) was performed in all patients. Orbital MRI was performed in 2/4 patients, with images acquired in eight directions of gaze and superior oblique (SO) muscle areas compared. CN IV could not be identified bilaterally in two patients, but was absent only on the side of the Brown syndrome in the two other patients. On the normal side, orbital MRI revealed a smaller SO muscle area in upgaze than in downgaze, demonstrating normal actions of this muscle. On the side of the Brown syndrome, the SO area remained the same in upgaze and in downgaze and approximately symmetric to the area of SO in downgaze on the normal side. These cases add further anatomical support to the theory of paradoxical innervation in congenital Brown syndrome. CN IV was absent in two patients on the side of the Brown syndrome, but without muscle hypoplasia. SO muscle size did not vary in up- and downgaze, which we interpreted as a sign of constant innervation through branches of CN III. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  14. Assessment of the Circle of Willis with Cranial Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ayse; Coban, Gokmen; Cinar, Celal; Oran, Ismail; Uz, Aysun

    2015-09-06

    The circle of Willis is a major collateral pathway important in ischemic conditions. The aim of our study was to assess the structural characteristics of the circle of Willis within the Turkish adult population, along with variations and arteries involved in the measurement of diameters and lengths on cranial computed tomography angiography (CTA). One hundred adult patients who underwent CTA images were evaluated retrospectively. Results of the study revealed 82% adult, 17% fetal, and 1% transitional configurations. A complete polygonal structure was observed in 28% of cases. Variations of the circle of Willis were more common in the posterior portion. Hypoplasia was found to be the most common variation and was observed as a maximum in the posterior communicating artery (AComP). The patency and size of arteries in the circle of Willis are important in occlusive cerebrovascular diseases and cerebrovascular surgery. Although CTA is an easily accessible non-invasive clinical method for demonstrating the vascular structure, CTA should be evaluated taking into account image resolution quality and difficulties in the identification of small vessels.

  15. Ataxia and cranial neuropathies from subcutaneously injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Roneil; Weinstein, Jill M; Kumar, Neeraj; Victor, Thomas A; Bernstein, Lawrence

    2011-04-01

    CONTEXT. Although neurological toxicity from elemental mercury vapor and organic mercury exposure has been commonly reported in the literature, it is rarely reported from soft tissue injection of elemental mercury. We present a case of neurological dysfunction from subcutaneous injection of elemental mercury. CASE DETAILS. A 35-year-old Latin American man subacutely developed gait ataxia, diplopia, and vomiting 1 year after subcutaneous injection of elemental mercury, a practice common in Afro-Caribbean and Latin-American cultures. Physical examination showed an indurated plaque on his right shoulder at the injection site, left third nerve and bilateral sixth nerve palsies, nystagmus, dysarthria, and gait and limb ataxia. The patient's serum and 24-h urine mercury levels were significantly elevated; he underwent excision of the mercury reservoir and chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid but experienced only mild improvement after 1 year. DISCUSSION. Neurological sequelae from elemental mercury, specifically cognitive dysfunction, tremor, cortical myoclonus, and peripheral neuropathy, have been reported but cranial neuropathies, ataxia, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and the presence of anti-Purkinje cell type-Tr antibody have not. Treatment involves removal of any existing mercury reservoir and chelation; however, improvement in neurological dysfunction after treatment has rarely been reported in the literature.

  16. [Atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome: multiple cranial neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, J M; Alañá-García, M; Cacabelos-Pérez, P; Ortín-Castaño, A; Ciudad-Bautista, J; López-Alburquerque, J T

    Multiple cranial neuropathy is a condition rarely seen in everyday clinical practice. It has many different causes, and in spite of careful clinical investigation many cases remain of unknown aetiology. It is also considered to be an atypical variant, topographically circumscribed, of the Guillan Barr syndrome (GBS). A 23 years old man developed a progressive illness over ten days. He complained of diplopia, facial diplegia and a nasal voice. Subsequently, he also developed weakness of the neck and tongue muscles, dysphagia, abolition of reflexes of the left arm and right triceps reflex but without involvement of the respiratory muscles or other limbs. CSF studies showed slightly raised protein with no cells. Neurophysiological studies showed a demyelinating disorder with secondary axonal damage. In spite of further studies, no aetiological agent was found. These observations suggested this case is of a topographical variant of GBS. Such cases have also been classified as the Miller Fisher syndrome, pharyngo cervico brachial paralysis, are flexic paraparesia and bilateral lumbar polyradiculopathy. In view of the diversity of the clinical and biological characteristics of the cases reviewed, which may mean different aetiopathogeneses, we consider that a thorough search should be made for the aetiology before these conditions are labelled as atypical variants of GBS.

  17. The earliest ossicone and post-cranial record of Giraffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowitz, Melinda; Barry, John C; Solounias, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    The oldest Giraffa material presently known consists of dental specimens. The oldest post-cranial Giraffa material belongs to the Plio-Pleistocene taxon Giraffa sivalensis, where the holotype is a third cervical vertebra. We describe three non-dental specimens from the Early Late Miocene of the Potwar Plateau, including an 8.1 million year old ossicone, 9.4 million year old astragalus, and 8.9 million year old metatarsal and refer them to Giraffa. The described ossicone exhibits remarkable similarities with the ossicones of a juvenile modern giraffe, including the distribution of secondary bone growth, posterior curvature, and concave pitted undersurface where the ossicone would attach to the skull. The astragalus has a notably flat grove of the trochlea, medial twisting between the trochlea and the head, and a square-shaped sustentacular facet, all of which characterize the astragalus of Giraffa camelopardalis. The newly described astragalus is narrow and rectangular, unlike the boxy shaped bone of the modern giraffe. The metatarsal is large in size and has a shallow central trough created by thin medial and lateral ridges, a feature unique to Giraffa and Sivatherium. Our described material introduce the earliest non-dental material of Giraffa, a genus whose extinct representation is otherwise dominated by teeth, and demonstrate that the genus has been morphologically consistent over 9 million years.

  18. Eighth cranial nerve dysfunction in hyperostosis cranialis interna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, J J; Huygen, P L; Noten, J F; Kuijpers, W

    1992-01-01

    Hyperostosis cranialis interna is a recently described autosomal dominant bone disorder characterised by hyperostosis and osteosclerosis confined to the skull, especially the calvarium and the skull base. In the affected family members, we found variable simultaneous involvement of cranial nerves I, II, VII and VIII from late childhood onwards, most likely due to nerve entrapment. Auditory and vestibular functions were followed in 3 young family members for 8 years. At the first examination, pure tone audiograms were normal in all 3 cases and case 1 showed no caloric response in the right ear. During follow-up, this ear developed severe hearing loss progressing to deafness. The left ear showed transient sensorineural hearing loss and a temporarily diminished caloric response. Similar observations were made in case 2. Both cases showed abnormal brain stem auditory-evoked responses during and after the sudden hearing loss, in which initially only wave I was preserved and later on wave V returned with significantly prolonged I-V interval. The latter phenomenon was also observed in case 3 on both sides in the presence of normal audiograms during and after transient unilateral facial nerve paralysis, which was accompanied by bilateral diminished caloric responses.

  19. Prenatal cranial ossification of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Oliver; Franke, Helena; Hipsley, Christy A; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Müller, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Being descendants of small terrestrial ungulate mammals, whales underwent enormous transformations during their evolutionary history, that is, extensive changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior were evolved during secondary adaptations to life in water. However, still only little is known about whale ontogenetic development, which help to identify the timing and sequence of critical evolutionary events, such as modification of the cetacean ear. This is particularly true for baleen whales (Mysticeti), the group including the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. We use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to reinvestigate humpback whale fetuses from the Kükenthal collection at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, thus, extending historic descriptions of their skeletogenesis and providing for the first time sequences of cranial ossification for this species. Principally, the ossification sequence of prenatal Megaptera follows a typical mammalian pattern with the anterior dermal bones being the first ossifying elements in the skull, starting with the dentary. In contrast to other mammals, the ectotympanic bone ossifies at an early stage. Alveolar structure can be observed in both the maxillae and dentaries in these early prenatal specimens but evidence for teeth is lacking. Although the possibility of obtaining new embryological material is unlikely due to conservation issues, our study shows that reexamination of existing specimens employing new technologies still holds promise for filling gaps in our knowledge of whale evolution and ontogeny. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How acceptable is it for HIV positive African, Caribbean and Black women to provide breast milk/fluid samples for research purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, L; Tharao, W; Muchenje, M; Khatundi, I M; Ongoiba, F

    2017-01-03

    The African, Caribbean and Black communities have been found to be reluctant to participate in health research in North America. This is partly attributed to historical experiences as well as their cultural beliefs. Cultural beliefs about the uses of breast milk/fluids could further hinder the participation of African, Caribbean, and Black communities in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids samples. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews and three group interviews (n = 10) with HIV+ African, Caribbean and Black women living in Ontario, Canada to explore their cultural beliefs about breast milk/fluids and their acceptance of participating in research that involves the provision of breast fluid samples. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews. Our respondents believed that breast milk/fluids should be used for infant feeding and for curative purposes for a variety of children's health ailments as well as ailments experienced by other family members. The cultural belief that breast milk/fluids could be used to bewitch the baby and mother and the perception that it is intrusive (equating breast milk/fluids research to DNA testing), could prevent African, Caribbean and Black women from participating in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids. Despite these fears, some respondents expressed that they would participate if the research results would benefit them directly, for example, by finding a cure for HIV, enabling HIV+ mothers to breastfeed, or contributing to developing new drugs or vaccines for HIV. Women's recommendations to facilitate successful recruitment included giving incentives to participants, and employing a recruiter who was trustworthy, informed, and culturally sensitive. Cultural beliefs could present barriers to recruitment and participation of Africa, Caribbean and Black communities in health research involving breast milk/fluid samples. Successful recruitment for future studies would necessitate researchers

  1. Dynamic behaviors of the non-neural ectoderm during mammalian cranial neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Heather J; Niswander, Lee A

    2016-08-15

    The embryonic brain and spinal cord initially form through the process of neural tube closure (NTC). NTC is thought to be highly similar between rodents and humans, and studies of mouse genetic mutants have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of NTC with relevance for human neural tube defects. In addition, studies using amphibian and chick embryos have shed light into the cellular and tissue dynamics underlying NTC. However, the dynamics of mammalian NTC has been difficult to study due to in utero development until recently when advances in mouse embryo ex vivo culture techniques along with confocal microscopy have allowed for imaging of mouse NTC in real time. Here, we have performed live imaging of mouse embryos with a particular focus on the non-neural ectoderm (NNE). Previous studies in multiple model systems have found that the NNE is important for proper NTC, but little is known about the behavior of these cells during mammalian NTC. Here we utilized a NNE-specific genetic labeling system to assess NNE dynamics during murine NTC and identified different NNE cell behaviors as the cranial region undergoes NTC. These results bring valuable new insight into regional differences in cellular behavior during NTC that may be driven by different molecular regulators and which may underlie the various positional disruptions of NTC observed in humans with neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arthroscopic assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Little

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR is a degenerative condition in dogs that typically has a non-contact mechanism. Subsequent contralateral rupture often develops in dogs with unilateral CR. Synovitis severity is an important factor that promotes ligament degradation. Consequently, we wished to evaluate the utility of arthroscopy for assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with CR. Herein, we report results of a prospective study of 27 dogs with unilateral CR and bilateral radiographic osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic images and synovial biopsies from the lateral and medial joint pouches were obtained bilaterally and graded for synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and synovitis. Synovial tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+ macrophages, CD3(+ T lymphocytes, Factor VIII+ blood vessels, and synovial intima thickness were quantified histologically and related to arthroscopic observations. Risk of subsequent contralateral CR was examined using survival analysis. We found that arthroscopic scores were increased in the index stifle, compared with the contralateral stifle (p0.34, p0.31, p<0.05. Strong intra-observer and moderate inter-observer agreement for arthroscopic scoring was found. Dog age and arthroscopic vascularity significantly influenced risk of contralateral CR over time. We conclude that arthroscopic grading of synovitis is a precise tool that correlates with histologic synovitis. Arthroscopy is useful for assessment of stifle synovitis in client-owned dogs, and could be used in longitudinal clinical trials to monitor synovial responses to disease-modifying therapy.

  3. Comparison between patient characteristics and cranial MR findings in chronic thinner intoxication

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    Uchino, Akira; Kato, Akira; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Kudo, Sho [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima (Japan); Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi [Department of Psychiatry, Hizen National Hospital, Saga (Japan); Takashima, Yuki [Department of Neurology, Hizen National Hospital, Saga (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Chronic thinner intoxication is one of the most serious social problems among teenagers and young adults in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with thinner intoxication who had positive MR findings. During the past 4 years, cranial MR imaging of 85 patients (51 males and 34 females) with chronic thinner intoxication was done at a national psychiatric hospital. The MR imaging was performed on a 1.0-T scanner with use of standard pulse sequences including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The established characteristic MR findings of chronic thinner intoxication were observed in 8 of the 85 patients: 4 males and 4 females. The female patients tended toward emaciation and were approximately 5 years younger than the male patients. Six of the 8 patients had severe neurological symptoms such as cerebellar ataxia and decreased visual acuity. In contrast, only 3 of 77 (4%) patients with normal MR findings had mild neurological abnormalities such as tremor. If patients with chronic thinner intoxication have significant neurological symptoms, MR imaging should be performed for evaluation of brain abnormalities. Emaciated female patients may be particularly vulnerable to neurological damage caused by thinner intoxication. (orig.)

  4. Cranial Suture Closure in Domestic Dog Breeds and Its Relationships to Skull Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Madeleine; Haussman, Sinah

    2016-04-01

    Bulldog-type brachycephalic domestic dog breeds are characterized by a relatively short and broad skull with a dorsally rotated rostrum (airorhynchy). Not much is known about the association between a bulldog-type skull conformation and peculiar patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure in domestic dogs. In this study, we aim to explore breed-specific patterns of cranial suture and synchondrosis closure in relation to the prebasial angle (proxy for airorhynchy and thus bulldog-type skull conformation) in domestic dogs. For this purpose, we coded closure of 18 sutures and synchondroses in 26 wolves, that is, the wild ancestor of all domestic dogs, and 134 domestic dogs comprising 11 breeds. Comparisons of the relative amount of closing and closed sutures and synchondroses (closure scores) in adult individuals showed that bulldog-type breeds have significantly higher closure scores than non-bulldog-type breeds and that domestic dogs have significantly higher closure scores than the wolf. We further found that the prebasial angle is significantly positively correlated with the amount of closure of the basispheno-presphenoid synchondrosis and sutures of the nose (premaxillo-nasal and maxillo-nasal) and the palate (premaxillo-maxillary and interpalatine). Our results show that there is a correlation between patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure and skull shape in domestic dogs, although the causal relationships remain elusive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multimodality cranial image fusion using external markers applied via a vacuum mouthpiece and a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, R.A.; Seydl, K.; Lukas, P. [Dept. of Radiotherapy-Radiooncology, Univ. Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Bale, R.J.; Trieb, T. [Dept. of Radiology 1, Interdisciplinary Stereotactic Intervention- and Planning Lab. (SIP-LAB), Univ. Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Moncayo, R.; Donnemiller, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Eisner, W.; Burtscher, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Stockhammer, G. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)

    2003-04-01

    Purpose: To present a simple and precise method of combining functional information of cranial SPECT and PET images with CT and MRI, in any combination. Material and Methods: Imaging is performed with a hockey mask-like reference frame with image modality-specific markers in precisely defined positions. This frame is reproducibly connected to the VBH vacuum mouthpiece, granting objectively identical repositioning of the frame with respect to the cranium. Using these markers, the desired 3-D imaging modalities can then be manually or automatically registered. This information can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of follow-up, while the same vacuum mouthpiece allows precisely reproducible stereotactic head fixation during radiotherapy. Results: 244 CT and MR data sets of 49 patients were registered to a root square mean error (RSME) of 0.9 mm (mean). 64 SPECT-CT fusions on 18 of these patients gave an RMSE of 1.4 mm, and 40 PET-CT data sets of eight patients were registered to 1.3 mm. An example of the method is given by means of a case report of a 52-year-old patient with bilateral optic nerve meningioma. Conclusion: This technique is a simple, objective and accurate registration tool to combine diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment, and follow-up, all via an individualized vacuum mouthpiece. Especially for low-resolution PET and even more so for some very diffuse SPECT data sets, activity can now be accurately correlated to anatomic structures. (orig.)

  6. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Curnoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  7. Ultrasound evaluation of cranial and long bone fractures in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Gerard; Migliore, Salvatore; Bennett, Donald R; McCann, Michael D; Kalynych, Colleen J; Falgatter, Kiva; Simon, Leslie

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound has been utilized in various settings for evaluation and treatment of skeletal injuries. Bone has different tissue acoustic impedance than soft tissue allowing visualization of the cortical disruption found in fractures. To determine emergency physicians' accuracy in diagnosing cranial and long bone fractures using ultrasound. This multi-center prospective double-blinded study used high-frequency linear ultrasound to detect induced fractures among eight test locations from eight cadaver models. After a standard orientation, blinded emergency physicians interpreted real-time sonographic images of test locations. Proximal tibia combined sensitivity (SE)/specificity (SP) was 87.3/69.8% with a combined positive predictive value (PPV)/negative predictive value (NPV) of 84.6/74.3%. Distal radius combined SE/SP was 93.7/93.5% with a combined PPV/NPV of 93.4/90.8%. Frontal combined SE/SP was 84.1/88.9% with a PPV/NPV of 84.9/88.3%. Temporal-parietal combined SE/SP was 95.2/87.9% with a PPV/NPV of 94.8/88.2%. Time to decision varied from less than 10 seconds to 357 seconds. Mean time to decision was 43 to 63 seconds depending on fracture site. Ultrasound by trained emergency medicine physicians can reliably identify fractures in the radius, tibia, frontal, and temporal bones in a very short amount of time, allowing for triage, treatment, and resource management.

  8. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  9. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Jack Tseng

    Full Text Available Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus KT/312045, an ST1-MSSA PVL positive isolated from pus sample in East Coast Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaili, Zarizal; Lean, Soo-Sum; Mohamad, Noor Muzamil; Rachman, Abdul R Abdul; Desa, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2016-09-01

    Most of the efforts in elucidating the molecular relatedness and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Malaysia have been largely focused on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Therefore, here we report the draft genome sequence of the methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with sequence type 1 (ST1), spa type t127 with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) pathogenic determinant isolated from pus sample designated as KT/314250 strain. The size of the draft genome is 2.86 Mbp with 32.7% of G + C content consisting 2673 coding sequences. The draft genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number AOCP00000000.

  11. Comparison of cranial sex determination by discriminant analysis and logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores-Ampuero, Anabel; Alemán, Inmaculada

    2016-04-05

    Various methods have been proposed for estimating dimorphism. The objective of this study was to compare sex determination results from cranial measurements using discriminant analysis or logistic regression. The study sample comprised 130 individuals (70 males) of known sex, age, and cause of death from San José cemetery in Granada (Spain). Measurements of 19 neurocranial dimensions and 11 splanchnocranial dimensions were subjected to discriminant analysis and logistic regression, and the percentages of correct classification were compared between the sex functions obtained with each method. The discriminant capacity of the selected variables was evaluated with a cross-validation procedure. The percentage accuracy with discriminant analysis was 78.2% for the neurocranium (82.4% in females and 74.6% in males) and 73.7% for the splanchnocranium (79.6% in females and 68.8% in males). These percentages were higher with logistic regression analysis: 85.7% for the neurocranium (in both sexes) and 94.1% for the splanchnocranium (100% in females and 91.7% in males).

  12. Biting through constraints: cranial morphology, disparity and convergence across living and fossil carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali; Milne, Nick; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-06-22

    Carnivory has evolved independently several times in eutherian (including placental) and metatherian (including marsupial) mammals. We used geometric morphometrics to assess convergences associated with the evolution of carnivory across a broad suite of mammals, including the eutherian clades Carnivora and Creodonta and the metatherian clades Thylacoleonidae, Dasyuromorphia, Didelphidae and Borhyaenoidea. We further quantified cranial disparity across eutherians and metatherians to test the hypothesis that the marsupial mode of reproduction has constrained their morphological evolution. This study, to our knowledge the first to extensively sample pre-Pleistocene taxa, analysed 30 three-dimensional landmarks, focused mainly on the facial region, which were digitized on 130 specimens, including 36 fossil taxa. Data were analysed with principal components (PC) analysis, and three measures of disparity were compared between eutherians and metatherians. PC1 showed a shift from short to long faces and seemed to represent diet and ecology. PC2 was dominated by the unique features of sabre-toothed forms: dramatic expansion of the maxilla at the expense of the frontal bones. PC3, in combination with PC1, distinguished metatherians and eutherians. Metatherians, despite common comparisons with felids, were more similar to caniforms, which was unexpected for taxa such as the sabre-toothed marsupial Thylacosmilus. Contrary to previous studies, metatherian carnivores consistently exhibited disparity which exceeded that of the much more speciose eutherian carnivore radiations, refuting the hypothesis that developmental constraints have limited the morphological evolution of the marsupial cranium.

  13. Decision tree analysis as a supplementary tool to enhance histomorphological differentiation when distinguishing human from non-human cranial bone in both burnt and unburnt states: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, T; Goodburn, B; Singhrao, S K

    2016-01-01

    This feasib