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Sample records for cranberry phytochemical synergies

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of bioactive phytochemicals from cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Baranowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the rational human diet, the important role of fruits and vegetables, which are a source of bioactive phytochemicals, is emphasized. Among fruits particular attention, due to a number of documented health-promoting properties, is focused on cranberry. This fruit is characterized by the high content of antioxidant phenolic compounds, which may support the natural antioxidant defense system of the body in the prevention of damage caused by oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, cranberry is suggested for the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and cancer, whose etiology is associated directly with oxidative stress. The health-promoting potential of cranberry is also associated with its antibacterial activity resulting from the presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC type A with documented anti-adherence properties. The best-established medical applications of cranberry fruits are prevention and treatment of bacterial infections of the urinary tract (UTI, infections of gastric mucosa, and infections of the oral cavity. Due to the widespread use of cranberry and pharmaceutical preparations containing PACs in treating UTI, it is very important to evaluate the absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds in the human body.

  2. Cranberry phytochemicals inhibit glycation of human hemoglobin and serum albumin by scavenging reactive carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Hanwei; Wang, Wei; Khoo, Christina; Taylor, James; Gu, Liwei

    2011-08-01

    Protein glycation caused by sugars and reactive carbonyls is a contributing factor to diabetic complications, aging, and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of cranberry phytochemicals on protein glycation. Cranberries, purified to yield sugar-free phytochemical powder, were fractionated into ethyl acetate and water fractions. Water fraction was further separated into water fraction I, II, and III on a Sephadex LH-20 column. Cranberry phytochemical powder and its fractions significantly inhibited the formation of glycated hemoglobin. The concentrations of cranberry phytochemicals required to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (EC(50)) in albumin-glucose assay were lower than that of aminoguanidine except for water fraction I. Cranberry phytochemicals inhibited glycation of human serum albumin mediated by methylglyoxal, but the EC(50) were higher than that of aminoguanidine. Carbonyl scavenging assay showed that water fraction II scavenged 89.3% of methylglyoxal at 6 h of reaction. Fractions enriched with procyanidins showed higher antiglycation activities, suggesting procyanidins were the major active components. The hypothesis whether cranberry procyanidins scavenged reactive carbonyls by forming adducts was tested. Epicatechin was used as a model compound to react with methylglyoxal and glyoxal at pH 7.4. Five adducts were detected and their structures were tentatively identified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

  3. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer nontoxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable to individual phytochemicals, rather may be ascribed to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03 to 0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE's antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management.

  4. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is now widely believed that the actions of the antioxidant nutrients alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, because taken alone, the individual antioxidants studied in clinical trials do not appear to have consistent preventive effects. Work performed by our group and others has shown that fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. We proposed that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables are responsible for these potent antioxidant and anticancer activities and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods. This explains why no single antioxidant can replace the combination of natural phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables to achieve the health benefits. The evidence suggests that antioxidants or bioactive compounds are best acquired through whole-food consumption, not from expensive dietary supplements. We believe that a recommendation that consumers eat 5 to 10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily is an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health.

  5. Development of educational tools to connect public audiences with cranberry researchers and growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is a native fruit crop of North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. The delicious tangy cranberry is associated with health benefits due to its abundant phytochemicals, including vitamin C, manganese, and anti-oxidants. Cranberries are major cash crop...

  6. 7 CFR 926.11 - Processed cranberries or cranberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 926.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA... MARKETING ORDER § 926.11 Processed cranberries or cranberry products. Processed cranberries or...

  7. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  8. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  9. Interpersonal synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Michael A.; Michael eRichardson; Kevin eShockley; Ramenzoni, Verónica C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the perspective that interpersonal movement coordination results from establishing interpersonal synergies. Interpersonal synergies are higher-order control systems formed by coupling movement system degrees of freedom of two (or more) actors. Characteristic features of synergies identified in studies of intrapersonal coordination – dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation – are revealed in studies of interpersonal coordination that applied the uncontrolled manifold appr...

  10. 7 CFR 926.4 - Cranberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER §...

  11. Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the Cancer Inhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Weh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques, whereas in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma. Mechanisms of cranberry-linked cancer inhibition include cellular death induction via apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy; reduction of cellular proliferation; alterations in reactive oxygen species; and modification of cytokine and signal transduction pathways. Given the emerging positive preclinical effects of cranberries, future clinical directions targeting cancer or premalignancy in high risk cohorts should be considered.

  12. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  13. 7 CFR 457.132 - Cranberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (5) Volcanic eruption; (6) Failure of irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that...—Removal of the cranberries from the bog. Market price—The cash price per barrel of cranberries offered by...

  14. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections

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    Ruth G. Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs. This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. METHODS: Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies. Date of search: July 2012. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy. Risk ratios (RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta

  15. Cranberry: A good source of natural antioxidants

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    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of extracts of cranbeny fruit and mixed tea (containing 40% cranberry on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals has been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. All investigated extracts possess very high antioxidant activity, which increased dose-dependently at mass concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 mg/ml. The high contents of phenolic s (3.60-4.52 mg/g, anthocyanins (0.23-1.52 mg/g, flavan-3-ols (1.25-3.05 mg/g and vitamin C (0.07-0.15 mg/g in investigated extracts indicated that these compounds significantly contributed to the antioxidant activity. All these results show that the extracts of cranberry fruit and mixed tea can be used as easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement.

  16. Effects of cranberry extracts on gene expression in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Daniel B; Thompson, Jerry T; Khoo, Christina; Juturu, Vijaya; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2017-01-01

    Cranberry contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive molecules that have health-promoting properties. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if cranberry extracts (CEs) contain phytochemicals that exert anti-inflammatory effects. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with two CEs (CE and 90MX) and subsequently challenged with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) expression was decreased in the CE-treated cells, indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. Gene expression microarrays identified several immune-related genes that were responsive to CEs including interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 and 3 (IFIT 1 and 3), macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) and colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). In addition, in the CE-treated cells, metallothionein 1F and other metal-responsive genes were induced. Taken together, this data indicates that CEs contain bioactive components that have anti-inflammatory effects and may protect cells from oxidative damage.

  17. Native nematodes as new bio-insecticides for cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2015, an effort was made in central Wisconsin to find an entomopathogenic nematode capable controlling Wisconsin’s cranberry pests. Using a standard baiting method, a nematode of the Oscheius genus was collected from the mossy, sandy, peat-filled soils of a wild cranberry marsh. Thi...

  18. Toxicity of chelated iron (Fe-DTPA) in American cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is naturally adapted to environments with high concentrations of soluble iron. Yet, there is a need to further explore iron nutrition in cranberry given concerns of toxicity problems from irrigation with iron-rich water. This study investigated the threat o...

  19. Photosynthesis and Yellow Vine Syndrome of American Cranberry

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    Harvey J. M. Hou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. contains rich antioxidants and has significant health benefits in fighting a variety of human diseases. In the past ten years, cranberry growers have reported yellow vine syndrome, which is associated with reduced photosynthetic performance, in the cranberry bogs. It has been found that the yellow vine syndrome of cranberry is associated with nutritional imbalance; it might be an issue for cranberry quality and food security as well as the crop production. This review evaluates the present state of knowledge of yellow vine syndrome, together with recent advances that are resulting from an improved mechanistic understanding and a possible solution that will be of considerable value to cranberry growers. This review also includes results from the author’s own laboratory. Water stress, nutritional imbalance, and photoinhibition are the likely reasons for producing yellow vine of cranberry. Future endeavors should be placed on the combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical techniques at the molecular level and plant physiology at the field and greenhouse level. This may provide specific information in order to understand the molecular details of yellow vine of cranberry as well as a tool for guiding future breeding efforts and management practices.

  20. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonhuman food use. (4) Research and development projects approved by the committee dealing with the development of foreign and domestic markets, including, but not limited to dehydration, radiation, freeze... dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. Handlers may divert...

  1. Cranberry Extract Standardized for Proanthocyanidins Promotes the Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK Pathway and HSF-1

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    Pederson, Daniel B.; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms. PMID:25062095

  2. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Idehen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate. These phytochemicals exhibit strong antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cholesterol lowering abilities, which are potentially useful in lowering the risk of certain diseases. Therefore, the high concentration of phytochemicals in barley may be largely responsible for its health benefits. This paper reviews available information regarding barley phytochemicals and their potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.

  3. Phytochemicals and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem all over the world. Phytochemicals are potential agents to inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes, stimulate lipolysis, and induce apoptosis of existing adipocytes, thereby reducing the amount of adipose tissue. Flavonoids and stilbenoids represent the most researched groups of phytochemicals with regards to their effect on adipogenesis, but there are also a number of in vitro and in vivo studies with phenolic acids, alkaloids, and vitamins, as well as other plant compounds. Although phytochemicals like epigallocatechin-3-gallate, genistein, and resveratrol reduce lipid accumulation and induce adipocyte apoptosis in vitro and reduce body weight and adipose tissues mass in animal models of diet-induced obesity, well-conducted clinical trials are lacking. Pharmacological doses are often used in vitro and when applied in physiological doses in animals or humans, the phytochemicals are often ineffective in affecting adipogenesis. However, by combining several phytochemicals or using them as templates for synthesizing new drugs, there is a large potential in targeting adipogenesis using phytochemicals.

  4. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  5. A phenology model for Sparganothis fruitworm in Cranberries

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    Larvae of Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens, frequently attack cranberries, often resulting in economic damage to the crop. Because temperature dictates insect growth rate, development can be accurately estimated based on daily temperature measurements. To better predict S. sulfureana development acro...

  6. Synergy in supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Synergy and Cooperativity in Multi-metal Supramolecular Systems, T. NabeshimaHierarchically Assembled Titanium Helicates, Markus AlbrechtSupramolecular Hosts and Catalysts Formed by Self-assembly of Multinuclear Zinc Complexes in Aqueous Solution, Shin AokiSupramolecular Assemblies Based on Interionic Interactions, H. MaedaSupramolecular Synergy in the Formation and Function of Guanosine Quadruplexes, Jeffery T. DavisOn-Surface Chirality in Porous Self-Assembled Monolayers at Liquid-Solid Interface, Kazukuni Tahar

  7. Longevity Extension by Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are structurally diverse secondary metabolites synthesized by plants and also by non-pathogenic endophytic microorganisms living within plants. Phytochemicals help plants to survive environmental stresses, protect plants from microbial infections and environmental pollutants, provide them with a defense from herbivorous organisms and attract natural predators of such organisms, as well as lure pollinators and other symbiotes of these plants. In addition, many phytochemicals can extend longevity in heterotrophic organisms across phyla via evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In this review, we discuss such mechanisms. We outline how structurally diverse phytochemicals modulate a complex network of signaling pathways that orchestrate a distinct set of longevity-defining cellular processes. This review also reflects on how the release of phytochemicals by plants into a natural ecosystem may create selective forces that drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in heterotrophic organisms inhabiting this ecosystem. We outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in this vibrant and rapidly evolving field.

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Plants are the natural producers of medicinal agents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolics. These phytocompounds alone or in combination act as a therapeutic agent in various disease complications. Various chemical reagents are used to determine the major phytochemicals present in plant parts. Protocols involved in screening of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, fixed oils, and fats are shown in this chapter.

  9. Phytochemicals in Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Sharad, Shashwat; Radha K Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Traditional therapies, including the use of dietary components for wound healing and skin regeneration, are very common in Asian countries such as China and India. The increasing evidence of health-protective benefits of phytochemicals, components derived from plants is generating a lot of interest, warranting further scientific evaluation and mechanistic studies.

  10. Dialogue as interpersonal synergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    dialogue based on the notion of interpersonal synergy. Crucial to this synergetic model is the emphasis on dialogue as an emergent, self-organizing, interpersonal system capable of functional coordination. A consequence of this model is that linguistic processes cannot be reduced to the workings...... of individual cognitive systems but must be approached also at the interpersonal level. From such a perspective follows a number of new predictions: beyond simple synchrony, dialogue affords complementary dynamics, constrained by contextual sensitivity and functional specificity. We substantiate our arguments...... by reference to recent empirical studies supporting the idea of dialogue as interpersonal synergy....

  11. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  12. Nutrient signature of Quebec (Canada cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

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    Sébastien Marchand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendations for cranberry crops are guided by plant and soil tests. However, critical tissue concentration ranges used for diagnostic purposes are inherently biased by nutrient interactions and physiological age. Compositional data analysis using isometric log ratios (ilr of nutrients as well as time detrending can avoid numerical biases. The objective was to derive unbiased nutrient signature standards for cranberry in Quebec and compare those standards to literature data. Field trials were conducted during 3 consecutive years with varying P treatments at six commercial sites in Quebec. Leaf tissues were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. The analytical results were transformed into ilr nutrient balances of parts and groups of parts. High-yield reference ilr values were computed for cranberry yielding greater than 35 Mg ha-1. Many cranberry fields appeared to be over-supplied with K and either under-supplied with Mn or over-supplied with Fe as shown by their imbalanced [K | Ca, Mg] and [Mn | Fe] ratios. Nutrient concentration ranges from Maine and Wisconsin, USA, were combined into ilr values to generate ranges of balances. It was found that these nutrient ranges were much too broad for application in Quebec or outside the Quebec ranges for the [Ca | Mg] and the [Mn | Fe] balances, that were lower compared to those of high yielding cranberry crops in Quebec.

  13. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  14. Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals

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    G Phani Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is a major health problem in the 21st century, and many neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer′s Disease dementia, cerebrovascular impairment, seizure disorders, head injury and Parkinsonism, can be severly functionally debilitating in nature. In course of time, a number of neurotransmitters and signaling molecules have been identified which have been considered as therapeutic targets. Conventional as well newer molecules have been tried against these targets. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants play a vital role in maintaining the brain′s chemical balance by influencing the function of receptors for the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. In traditional practice of medicine, several plants have been reported to treat cognitive disorders. In this review paper, we attempt to throw some light on the use of medicinal herbs to treat cognitive disorders. In this review, we briefly deal with some medicinal herbs focusing on their neuroprotective active phytochemical substances like fatty acids, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes etc. The resistance of neurons to various stressors by activating specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors are also discussed. It was observed in the review that a number of herbal medicines used in Ayurvedic practices as well Chinese medicines contain multiple compounds and phytochemicals that may have a neuroprotective effect which may prove beneficial in different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Though the presence of receptors or transporters for polyphenols or other phytochemicals of the herbal preparations, in brain tissues remains to be ascertained, compounds with multiple targets appear as a potential and promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with a multifactorial etiology.

  15. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  16. Agricultural water requirements for commercial production of cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant water resources are essential for the commercial production of cranberries, which use irrigated water for frost protection, soil moisture management, and harvest and winter floods. Given water resource demands in southeastern Massachusetts, we sought to quantify the annual water requirement...

  17. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  18. Concentrations and export of phosphorus during the cranberry harvest flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C. D.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; DeMoranville, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The cranberry industry occupies a unique place in the history of southeastern Massachusetts, where commercial production of cranberries has existed for nearly two centuries. Currently, water quality represents one of the greatest challenges facing the industry, with federal regulations limiting the use of phosphorus (P) fertilizer via total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation. In response to environmental concerns, cranberry growers have decreased their annual P fertilizer application rates by a factor of four, from ~40 kg P ha-1 in the early 1970s to ~10 kg P ha-1 in 2013. Despite these industry-wide reductions, legacy P derived from periods of high P fertilizer application likely make cranberry farms non-point sources of P to surface water. In this study, concentrations and export of P were determined to characterize the sources and transport pathways of P in harvest floodwaters for four cranberry farms. Among the sites, a general pattern emerged of sharp increases in concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) and total particulate P (TPP) during the later part of the flood release. Differences in the exact timing of increases in TDP and TPP were interpreted to represent distinct transport pathways: (1) near-surface transport of TDP derived from soils, and (2) subsurface transport of TPP resulting from resuspension and erosion of ditch sediments. Values of total P (TP = TDP + TPP) export were relatively low for three sites (0.3-0.8 kg P ha-1) and high for one site (5.3 kg P ha-1). Export of TP from the high-P site accounted for roughly half of the annual value allocated to cranberry farms in a recent TMDL. Historical P fertilizer records from 2005-2013 showed similar present-day application rates among the sites (~10 kg P ha-1), but higher rates between 2005 and 2007 for the high-P site (30 vs. 10 kg P ha-1). Although other factors likely contribute, legacy P derived from past fertilizer applications imparts an important control on P export in cranberry

  19. Neural bases of hand synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is "synergy control" which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of "fixed" vs. "flexible" synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control.

  20. Phytochemicals and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian T

    2007-05-01

    Epidemiological studies showing a protective effect of diets rich in fruits and vegetables against cancer have focused attention on the possibility that biologically-active plant secondary metabolites exert anti-carcinogenic activity. This huge group of compounds, now collectively termed 'phytochemicals', provides much of the flavour and colour of edible plants and the beverages derived from them. Many of these compounds also exert anti-carcinogenic effects in animal models of cancer, and much progress has been made in defining their many biological activities at the molecular level. Such mechanisms include the detoxification and enhanced excretion of carcinogens, the suppression of inflammatory processes such as cyclooxygenase-2 expression, inhibition of mitosis and the induction of apoptosis at various stages in the progression and promotion of cancer. However, much of the research on phytochemicals has been conducted in vitro, with little regard to the bioavailability and metabolism of the compounds studied. Many phytochemicals present in plant foods are poorly absorbed by human subjects, and this fraction usually undergoes metabolism and rapid excretion. Some compounds that do exert anti-carcinogenic effects at realistic doses may contribute to the putative benefits of plant foods such as berries, brassica vegetables and tea, but further research with human subjects is required to fully confirm and quantify such benefits. Chemoprevention using pharmacological doses of isolated compounds, or the development of 'customised' vegetables, may prove valuable but such strategies require a full risk-benefit analysis based on a thorough understanding of the long-term biological effects of what are often surprisingly active compounds.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cranberry press cake extracts alone or in combination with β-lactams against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Block, Glenn; Rempel, Heidi; Oomah, B Dave; Harrison, Judy; McCallum, Jason; Boulanger, Simon; Brouillette, Éric; Gattuso, Mariza; Malouin, François

    2013-04-27

    Cranberry fruits possess many biological activities partly due to their various phenolic compounds; however the underlying modes of action are poorly understood. We studied the effect of cranberry fruit extracts on the gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus to identify specific cellular processes involved in the antibacterial action. Transcriptional profiles of four S. aureus strains grown in broth supplemented or not with 2 mg/ml of a commercial cranberry preparation (Nutricran®90) were compared using DNA arrays to reveal gene modulations serving as markers for biological activity. Ethanol extracted pressed cakes from fresh fruits also produced various fractions and their effects on marker genes were demonstrated by qPCR. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the most effective cranberry fraction (FC111) were determined against multiple S. aureus strains and drug interactions with β-lactam antibiotics were also evaluated. Incorporation assays with [(3)H]-radiolabeled precursors were performed to evaluate the effect of FC111 on DNA, RNA, peptidoglycan (PG) and protein biosynthesis. Treatment of S. aureus with Nutricran®90 or FC111 revealed a transcriptional signature typical of PG-acting antibiotics (up-regulation of genes vraR/S, murZ, lytM, pbp2, sgtB, fmt). The effect of FC111 on PG was confirmed by the marked inhibition of incorporation of D-[(3)H]alanine. The combination of β-lactams and FC111 in checkerboard assays revealed a synergistic activity against S. aureus including strain MRSA COL, which showed a 512-fold drop of amoxicillin MIC in the presence of FC111 at MIC/8. Finally, a therapeutic proof of concept was established in a mouse mastitis model of infection. S. aureus-infected mammary glands were treated with amoxicillin, FC111 or a combination of both; only the combination significantly reduced bacterial counts from infected glands (P<0.05) compared to the untreated mice. The cranberry fraction FC111 affects PG synthesis of S. aureus and

  2. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  3. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-08-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging.

  4. Mining and validation of pyrosequenced simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H; Senalik, D; McCown, B H; Zeldin, E L; Speers, J; Hyman, J; Bassil, N; Hummer, K; Simon, P W; Zalapa, J E

    2012-01-01

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a major commercial fruit crop in North America, but limited genetic resources have been developed for the species. Furthermore, the paucity of codominant DNA markers has hampered the advance of genetic research in cranberry and the Ericaceae family in general. Therefore, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology to perform low-coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing of the cranberry cultivar 'HyRed'. After de novo assembly, the obtained sequence covered 266.3 Mb of the estimated 540-590 Mb in cranberry genome. A total of 107,244 SSR loci were detected with an overall density across the genome of 403 SSR/Mb. The AG repeat was the most frequent motif in cranberry accounting for 35% of all SSRs and together with AAG and AAAT accounted for 46% of all loci discovered. To validate the SSR loci, we designed 96 primer-pairs using contig sequence data containing perfect SSR repeats, and studied the genetic diversity of 25 cranberry genotypes. We identified 48 polymorphic SSR loci with 2-15 alleles per locus for a total of 323 alleles in the 25 cranberry genotypes. Genetic clustering by principal coordinates and genetic structure analyzes confirmed the heterogeneous nature of cranberries. The parentage composition of several hybrid cultivars was evident from the structure analyzes. Whole genome shotgun 454 sequencing was a cost-effective and efficient way to identify numerous SSR repeats in the cranberry sequence for marker development.

  5. American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déziel, Bob; MacPhee, James; Patel, Kunal; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Neto, Catherine; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Hurta, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its prevalence is expected to increase appreciably in the coming decades. As such, more research is necessary to understand the etiology, progression and possible preventative measures to delay or to stop the development of this disease. Recently, there has been interest in examining the effects of whole extracts from commonly harvested crops on the behaviour and progression of cancer. Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 μg ml⁻¹ of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. WCE also decreased the proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following treatment of cells with 25 and 50 μg ml⁻¹ treatment of WCE for 6 h. These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. Changes in p16(INK4a) and pRBp107 protein expression levels also were evident, however, the changes noted in p16(INK4a) and pRBp107 protein expression levels were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.

  6. New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Polashock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  7. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Polashock, James J; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2012-11-06

    Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  8. Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-10-15

    Cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from 7 different cultivars were characterized for phytochemicals and assessed for antioxidant activities. In vitro colorimetric methods were used to measure total phenolic (TPC) and total proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. Free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). Regular-darkening (RD) seeds contained higher TPC, PAC and flavonoids which were absent in the non-darkening (ND) seeds. Bound and conjugated phenolics in RD and ND mainly included cinnamic and benzoic acids. DPPH, FRAP and ORAC showed strong positive correlation with TPC, PAC, and with specific phenolics such as free catechin and bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lipophilic extracts were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.20-76.89%). Carotenoid and tocopherol were limited to γ-tocopherol and β-carotene. Results from this study can contribute to the development of cranberry bean cultivars with increased health benefits and addresses specific phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

  10. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  11. Euclid & SKA Synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Kitching, Thomas D; Brown, Michael L; Bull, Philip; McEwen, Jason D; Oguri, Masamune; Scaramella, Roberto; Takahashi, Keitaro; Wu, Kinwah; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years two of the largest and highest fidelity experiments conceived have been approved for construction: Euclid is an ESA M-Class mission that will map three-quarters of the extra galactic sky with Hubble Space Telescope resolution optical and NIR imaging, and NIR spectroscopy, its scientific aims (amongst others) are to create a map of the dark Universe and to determine the nature of dark energy. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) has similar scientific aims (and others) using radio wavelength observations. The two experiments are synergistic in several respects, both through the scientific objectives and through the control of systematic effects. SKA Phase-1 and Euclid will be commissioned on similar timescales offering an exciting opportunity to exploit synergies between these facilities.

  12. Geneva international synergies

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Geneva has a long history of hosting international organizations, which is part of the reason why CERN is here, and it makes the canton an ideal place to forge links between such organizations. Over recent weeks, CERN has signed agreements with the ITU, WIPO and the WMO. At first sight, there may not seem to be much common ground between CERN and, say, the World Meteorological Organization, but scratch the surface, and you’ll soon find a common thread. All of these organizations have a vocation to stimulate technological innovation, and together we’re stronger.   Let’s start with ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. There, the synergies are evident. When ITU organized the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003, CERN provided a significant side event examining the Role of Science in the Information Society. The current agreement builds on that, allowing our two organizations to work together on important societal issues such as the extension of b...

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY Bauhinia forficata (FABACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the results of preliminary phytochemical screening, Toxicological Artemia salina bioassay and antimicrobial activity in Bauhinia forficata link, known for popularly Pata-de-vaca. The Bauhinia is a pantropical genus, its species are used in the treatment of several infections and diseases, especially diabetes. The phytochemical prospection used crude ethanolic extract (EBE) of the stem bark of Bauhinia forficata Link; the toxicity analyses in Artemia salina for give...

  14. Discrimination of American cranberry cultivars and assessment of clonal heterogeneity using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are an economically important fruit crop derived from a North American native species. We report the application of 12 simple sequence repeats (SSR) or microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity of cranberry cultivars. We studied 164 samples of 21...

  15. Citizen science project to correlate growing degree days with cranberry phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are coordinating a citizen science project among cranberry growers. Collaborators will be collecting daily high and low temperatures and recording plant phenology throughout the summer according to a standardized protocol. This project will allow for more accurate correlation between cranberry gr...

  16. Creation of citizen science project to correlate growing degree days with cranberry phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are coordinating a citizen science project among cranberry growers. Collaborators will be collecting daily high and low temperatures and recording plant phenology throughout the summer according to a standardized protocol. This project will allow for more accurate correlation between cranberry gr...

  17. Multi-species mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries: Early evidence using a paraffin emulsion carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption has proven to be a powerful pest management tool in many cropping systems, helping to reduce reliance on insecticide applications. However, a sustainable mating disruption program has not yet been developed for cranberries. In the cranberry system, two of the major ...

  18. Effects of cranberry juice on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Andrew, Marilee A; Wang, Joanne; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Grady, Richard W; Phillips, Brian; Shen, Danny D; Anderson, Gail D

    2009-07-01

    Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the beta-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxicillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated in 18 healthy women who received on four separate occasions a single oral test dose of amoxicillin at 500 mg and 2 g with or without cranberry juice cocktail (8 oz) according to a crossover design. A parallel cefaclor-cranberry juice interaction study was also conducted in which 500 mg cefaclor was administered with or without cranberry juice cocktail (12 oz). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and nonlinear mixed-effects compartmental modeling. We conclude that the concurrent use of cranberry juice has no significant effect on the extent of oral absorption or the renal clearance of amoxicillin and cefaclor. However, delays in the absorption of amoxicillin and cefaclor were observed. These results suggest that the use of cranberry juice at usual quantities as prophylaxis for UTI is not likely to alter the pharmacokinetics of these two oral antibiotics.

  19. Effects of Cranberry Juice on Pharmacokinetics of β-Lactam Antibiotics following Oral Administration▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Andrew, Marilee A.; Wang, Joanne; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Grady, Richard W.; Phillips, Brian; Shen, Danny D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2009-01-01

    Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of β-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the β-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxicillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated in 18 healthy women who received on four separate occasions a single oral test dose of amoxicillin at 500 mg and 2 g with or without cranberry juice cocktail (8 oz) according to a crossover design. A parallel cefaclor-cranberry juice interaction study was also conducted in which 500 mg cefaclor was administered with or without cranberry juice cocktail (12 oz). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and nonlinear mixed-effects compartmental modeling. We conclude that the concurrent use of cranberry juice has no significant effect on the extent of oral absorption or the renal clearance of amoxicillin and cefaclor. However, delays in the absorption of amoxicillin and cefaclor were observed. These results suggest that the use of cranberry juice at usual quantities as prophylaxis for UTI is not likely to alter the pharmacokinetics of these two oral antibiotics. PMID:19398645

  20. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of phenolics and glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their synergy with streptomycin against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Maria J; Borges, Anabela; Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo S; Simões, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effects of different classes of important and common dietary phytochemicals (5 simple phenolics - tyrosol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid; chalcone - phloridzin; flavan-3-ol - (-) epicatechin; seco-iridoid - oleuropein glucoside; 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual combinations of streptomycin with the different phytochemicals on antibacterial activity. A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and dual combinations (streptomycin-phytochemicals) were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. The results showed that all of the isothiocyanates had significant antimicrobial activities, while the phenolics were much less efficient. No antimicrobial activity was observed with phloridzin. In general P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism and L. monocytogenes the most resistant. The application of dual combinations demonstrated synergy between streptomycin and gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, allylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate against the Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, phytochemical products and more specifically the isothiocyanates were effective inhibitors of the in vitro growth of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, they can act synergistically with less efficient antibiotics to control bacterial growth.

  2. Investigation of some important phytochemical, nutritional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2013-09-02

    Sep 2, 2013 ... quantitative phytochemical analysis showed that the leaf and stem extracts ... laevis, whose medicinal values have stood the test of time. ... components originating from phytochemicals in plants. ... drained soils (Burkill, 1984).

  3. Effects of dietary consumption of cranberry powder on metabolic parameters in growing rats fed high fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Rogers, Theodore J; Wilkes, Samuel E; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2010-10-01

    The effect of dietary consumption of a cranberry powder (CP) containing increased amounts of procyanidins and other phytochemicals on metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome was investigated in growing rats fed a high fructose diet. Dietary treatments were control (starch based), high fructose (HF), and HF containing either 3.3, 6.6, or 33 g CP/kg diet. Fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides tended to be higher with HF feeding and were reduced by feeding CP. The area under curve following an oral glucose tolerance test was 35-50% higher in animals fed HF diet vs. control and was decreased to control levels by the low or medium but not high CP diet. Feeding CP tended to lower fasting plasma insulin. Homeostatic models of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-BCF) were lowest in animals fed low or medium CP diets (p metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and the medium level of CP in the diet produced a better response than the lower and higher CP levels. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010

  4. Sensitivity of drainage efficiency of cranberry fields to edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.

    2014-05-01

    Water management on a cranberry farm requires intelligent irrigation and drainage strategies to sustain strong productivity and minimize environmental impact. For example, to avoid propagation of disease and meet evapotranspiration demand, it is imperative to maintain optimal moisture conditions in the root zone, which depends on an efficient drainage system. However, several drainage problems have been identified in cranberry fields. Most of these drainage problems are due to the presence of a restrictive layer in the soil profile (Gumiere et al., 2014). The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of a restrictive layer on the drainage efficiency by the bias of a multi-local sensitivity analysis. We have tested the sensitivity of the drainage efficiency to different input parameters set of soil hydraulic properties, geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Soil water flux dynamic for every input parameters set was simulated with finite element model Hydrus 1D (Simanek et al., 2008). Multi-local sensitivity was calculated with the Gâteaux directional derivatives with the procedure described by Cheviron et al. (2010). Results indicate that drainage efficiency is more sensitive to soil hydraulic properties than geometrical parameters and climatic conditions. Then, the geometrical parameters of the depth are more sensitive than the thickness. The drainage efficiency was very insensitive to the climatic conditions. Understanding the sensitivity of drainage efficiency according to soil hydraulic properties, geometrical and climatic conditions are essential for diagnosis drainage problems. However, it becomes important to identify the mechanisms involved in the genesis of anthropogenic soils cranberry to identify conditions that may lead to the formation of a restrictive layer. References: Cheviron, B., S.J. Gumiere, Y. Le Bissonnais, R. Moussa and D. Raclot. 2010. Sensitivity analysis of distributed erosion models: Framework. Water Resources Research

  5. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, W J

    1997-10-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, nonnutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of chronic disease such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension as well as other medical conditions. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and pectin, contains a host of active phytochemicals. The phytochemicals in grains reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  6. Phytochemicals in Food and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-29

    The International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF2015) was held from June 26 to 29, 2015, in Shanghai, China. It is for the first time that a Phytochemical Society of Europe conference took place in China, which provided an opportunity for 270 scientists from 48 countries to communicate their up-to-date knowledge on phytochemicals. ISPMF2015 comprised exciting and various programs with 16 sessions, including 12 plenary lectures, 20 invited talks, 55 short oral presentations, and more than 130 posters. With the help of Prof. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a special issue of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition containing 11 reviews from scientists was presented in this conference. In this special issue, bioactive flavonoids and polysaccharides for human health received significant attention.

  7. Are High Proanthocyanidins Key to Cranberry Efficacy in the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostalova, Jitka; Vidlar, Ales; Simanek, Vilim; Galandakova, Adela; Kosina, Pavel; Vacek, Jan; Vrbkova, Jana; Zimmermann, Benno F; Ulrichova, Jitka; Student, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    Most research on American cranberry in the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) has used juices. The spectrum of components in juice is limited. This study tested whether whole cranberry fruit powder (proanthocyanidin content 0.56%) could prevent recurrent UTI in 182 women with two or more UTI episodes in the last year. Participants were randomized to a cranberry (n = 89) or a placebo group (n = 93) and received daily 500 mg of cranberry for 6 months. The number of UTI diagnoses was counted. The intent-to-treat analyses showed that in the cranberry group, the UTIs were significantly fewer [10.8% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.04, with an age-standardized 12-month UTI history (p = 0.01)]. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cranberry group experienced a longer time to first UTI than the placebo group (p = 0.04). Biochemical parameters were normal, and there was no significant difference in urinary phenolics between the groups at baseline or on day180. The results show that cranberry fruit powder (peel, seeds, pulp) may reduce the risk of symptomatic UTI in women with a history of recurrent UTIs.

  8. The first genetic map of the American cranberry: exploration of synteny conservation and quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Laura; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Honig, Josh; Das, Sushma Parankush; Rajah, Veeran D; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Bassil, Nahla; Rowland, Lisa J; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2013-03-01

    The first genetic map of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been constructed, comprising 14 linkage groups totaling 879.9 cM with an estimated coverage of 82.2 %. This map, based on four mapping populations segregating for field fruit-rot resistance, contains 136 distinct loci. Mapped markers include blueberry-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cranberry-derived sequence-characterized amplified region markers previously used for fingerprinting cranberry cultivars. In addition, SSR markers were developed near cranberry sequences resembling genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis or defense against necrotrophic pathogens, or conserved orthologous set (COS) sequences. The cranberry SSRs were developed from next-generation cranberry genomic sequence assemblies; thus, the positions of these SSRs on the genomic map provide information about the genomic location of the sequence scaffold from which they were derived. The use of SSR markers near COS and other functional sequences, plus 33 SSR markers from blueberry, facilitates comparisons of this map with maps of other plant species. Regions of the cranberry map were identified that showed conservation of synteny with Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana. Positioned on this map are quantitative trait loci (QTL) for field fruit-rot resistance (FFRR), fruit weight, titratable acidity, and sound fruit yield (SFY). The SFY QTL is adjacent to one of the fruit weight QTL and may reflect pleiotropy. Two of the FFRR QTL are in regions of conserved synteny with grape and span defense gene markers, and the third FFRR QTL spans a flavonoid biosynthetic gene.

  9. Postural Synergies and Their Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Latash

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments of a particular approach to analyzing motor synergies based on the principle of motor abundance has allowed a quantitative assessment of multieffector coordination in motor tasks involving anticipatory adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations and in voluntary posturalsway. This approach, the uncontrolled manifold (UCM hypothesis, is based on an assumption that the central nervous system organizes covariation of elemental variables to stabilize important performance variables in a task-specific manner. In particular, this approach has been used to demonstrate and to assess the emergence of synergies and their modification with motor practice in typical persons and persons with Down syndrome. The framework of the UCM hypothesis allows the formulation of testable hypotheses with respect to developing postural synergies in typically and atypically developing persons.

  10. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  11. Vegetation Survey of the Cranberry Pool lmpoundment of the Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines an intensive effort to survey the vegetation in the Cranberry Pool impoundment at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 2000. The percentages...

  12. Early-season flood enhances native biological control agents in Wisconsin cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is predicated on the concept that crop plants are protected when predators suppress herbivore populations. However, many factors, including concurrent crop protection strategies, may modify the effectiveness of a predator in a given agroecosystem. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry...

  13. Entrepreneurial Creativity through Motivational Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines and describes entrepreneurial creativity, which is the generation and implementation of novel, appropriate ideas to establish a new venture. Discusses the need for motivational synergy, which results when strong levels of personal interest and involvement are combined with the promise of rewards that confirm competence. (Author/CR)

  14. Influence of Pollen, Chia Seeds and Cranberries Addition on the Physical and Probiotics Characteristics of Yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Pop; Romina Vlaic; Anca Fărcaş; Liana Salanţă; Delia Ghicăşan; Cristina Semeniuc; ROTAR, Ancuţa M.

    2015-01-01

    Yoghurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of bee pollen, chia seeds and cranberries on the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days) at refrigerated temperature (4°C) was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 1,4 % chia seeds and 7,6% cranberries significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of (106–107 cfu...

  15. [Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Puentes, V; Uberos, J; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Blanca-Jover, E; Narbona-López, E

    2015-06-01

    Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population. A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis. A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects. Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and urinary tract infections: study model and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bourg, G; Botto, Henri; Sotto, Albert

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. Among cranberry compounds, a group of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with A-type linkages were isolated which exhibit bacterial anti-adhesion activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These PAC inhibit P-fimbriae synthesis and induce a bacterial deformation. This activity was demonstrated on both antibiotic susceptible a...

  17. Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy--the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Kristine; Nordeng, Hedvig; Holst, Lone

    2013-12-07

    Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial therapy as the first line treatment. According to our data and the outcomes studied, cranberry does not appear to be a harmful adjunctive self-treatment.

  18. Cranberry in children: prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are common in childhood. In 30-50% of children with UTI the infections occur recurrently, especially in those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, neurogenic bladder (NB, previous cystitis or pyelonephritis and malformative uropathies. To reduce the likelihood of UTI, antibiotic prophylaxis has been regarded as the therapeutic standard for many years. However, the disadvantage of long-term antibiotic therapy is the potential for development of collateral effects and resistant organisms in the host. Such reasons have induced scientists to search for alternative modalities of UTI prevention and have contributed to determining the increasing desire for "naturalness" of the population and preventing excessive medication. The use of cranberry fulfils these needs by potentially replacing or enhancing traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cranberry in preventing UTI in pediatric populations. We searched Pubmed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Internet. Cranberry in patients with previous UTI was evaluated in three studies, cranberry in patients with VUR in three studies and four studies analyzed the efficacy of cranberry in children with NB. In seven of nine studies cranberry had a significant effect in preventing UTI.

  19. Addition of cranberry to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi, Anahita; Hajiebrahimi, Shahin; Seyedmajidi, Seyedali; Rajabikashani, Majid; Firoozabadi, Mona; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy with two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. Some studies have shown that cranberry inhibits the adhesion of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including H. pylori. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cranberry on H. pylori eradication with a standard therapy including lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (LCA) in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Methods: In this study, H. pylori-positive patients with PUD were randomized into two groups: Group A: A 14-day LCA triple therapy with 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, and 500 mg clarithromycin bid; Group B: A 14-day 500 mg cranberry capsules bid plus LCA triple therapy. A 13C-urea breath test was performed for eradication assessment 6 weeks after the completion of the treatment. Findings: Two hundred patients (53.5% males, between 23 and 77 years, mean age ± standard deviation: 50.29 ± 17.79 years) continued treatment protocols and underwent 13C-urea breath testing. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 74% in Group A (LCA without cranberry) and 89% in Group B (LCA with cranberry) (P = 0.042). Conclusion: The addition of cranberry to LCA triple therapy for H. pylori has a higher rate of eradication than the standard regimen alone (up to 89% and significant). PMID:27843960

  20. Antiviral effects of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on foodborne viral surrogates--a time dependence study in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-12-01

    Cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are widely known for their antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The effect of CJ and cranberry PAC on the infectivity of foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage, and ϕX-174 (ssDNA) bacteriophage after 0 min to 1h at room temperature was evaluated. Viruses at titers of ∼5log(10)PFU/ml were mixed with equal volumes of CJ at pH 2.6, CJ at pH 7.0, 0.30 mg/ml CJ PAC, 0.60mg/ml PAC, or water and incubated for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min, and 1h at room temperature. Infectivity was determined using standard plaque assays. The viral reduction rates of the four tested viruses were found to vary considerably. Among the tested viruses, FCV-F9 titers were decreased the most by ∼5log(10)PFU/ml within 30 min. MS2 titers were decreased the least by only ∼1log(10)PFU/ml after 1h with CJ at pH 2.6 and 0.30 mg/ml PAC, and ∼0.5log(10)PFU/ml with CJ at pH 7.0 and 0.15 mg/ml PAC. MNV-1 and ϕ-X174 showed comparable titer reductions which was between that of FCV-F9 and MS2. In most cases, viral reduction within the first 10 min of treatment accounted for ≥50% of the total reduction. Transmission electron microscopy on FCV-F9 treated with CJ and PAC revealed structural changes. This study shows potential of using natural bioactive compounds for controlling foodborne viral diseases. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of CJ components and to understand the differences in viral titer reduction profiles.

  1. The impact of cranberries on gut microbiota and cardiometabolic health: proceedings of the cranberry health research conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary guidance is consistent in recommending greater consumption of fruits and vegetables to promote health. Amongst fruits and vegetables, berry fruits are particularly promising in their ability to lower biomarkers of disease risk. There has been a growing body of evidence that the phytochemic...

  2. Atividade antibacteriana e efeito interativo in vitro de um produto a base de cranberry sobre Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raïssa Mayer Ramalho Catão; Luanne Eugênia Nunes; Anna Paula Porto Viana; Wilma Raianny Vieira da Rocha; Ana Cláudia Dantas de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    ... substâncias com atividades antimicrobianas, principalmente, em decorrência do aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antimicrobianos, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, conhecido como cranberry, é...

  3. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  4. Metabolomics for measuring phytochemicals, and assessing human and animal responses to phytochemicals, in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Tony K; Rowan, Daryl D

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics, comprehensive metabolite analysis, is finding increasing application as a tool to measure and enable the manipulation of the phytochemical content of foods, to identify the measures of dietary intake, and to understand human and animal responses to phytochemicals in the diet. Recent applications of metabolomics directed toward understanding the role of phytochemicals in food and nutrition are reviewed.

  5. SYNERGY EFFECTS IN WORK TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca C. ZOLTAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organization increasingly utilizes all kind of teams in order to surpass their competitors through flexibility, adaptability and innovation, features which are seen to characterize the teams. For this purpose, the concept of synergy in teams’ activity is often mentioned as the prime reason for which collective work is considered to be superior comparative with individual work. But what exactly does it mean? The present paper aims to shed some light on the concept of synergy in work teams and its positive effects, namely, the social consequences of collective work such as social compensation, social indispensability, social comparison, social identity, but also its negative effects, such as free-riding, social loafing and sucker effect. These are important group phenomena that managers should be aware of because they have a major impact on team performance, and consequently, on organization performance.

  6. Construction of a high-density American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) composite map using genotyping-by-sequencing for multi-pedigree linkage mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a recently domesticated, but economically important, fruit crop with limited molecular resources. New genetic resources could accelerate genetic gain in cranberry through characterization of its genomic structure and by enabling molecular-assist...

  7. Cranberry and grape seed extracts inhibit the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  8. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  9. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lean Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900 mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens, on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml−1 in the control specimen was compared with CFU ml−1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing ≥50% reduction in CFU ml−1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35% subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65% against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45% against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67% of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation.

  10. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, M M; Middlebrook, P F; Gatfield, C T; Potvin, G; Wells, G; Schillinger, J F

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate liquid cranberry products as prophylaxis against bacterial urinary tract infection in a pediatric neuropathic bladder population. Forty cases managed by clean intermittent catheterization with or without pharmacotherapy were enrolled in a randomized single-blind cross-over study. Subjects ingested 15 mL/kg/day of cranberry cocktail or water for six months followed by the reverse for another six months. Initial catheter urine samples and subsequent monthly and interim cultures were obtained. Associated symptoms were recorded along with follow-up attendance/compliance registry. The number of negative culture months to the number of months contributed was tabulated and compared between interventions. Individual, cumulative and antimicrobial subset analysis was performed. Twenty one patients completed the study;12 dropped out for reasons related to the cranberry (taste, caloric load and cost); seven patients dropped out for other reasons (parents too busy, death, no stated reason). Wilcoxon matched-pairs Signed-ranks analysis revealed no difference between intervention periods (2-tailed P=.5566 [whole group]; p=.2845 [antimicrobial subset]) with respect to infection. Fewer infections were observed in nine patients taking cranberry juice and in nine patients given water; no difference was noted in three. Liquid cranberry products, on a daily basis, at the dosage employed, did not have any effect greater than that of water in preventing urinary tract infections in this pediatric neuropathic bladder population.

  11. Effects of cranberry extracts on growth and biofilm production of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kerry L; Sarkisian, Simon A; Woodmansee, Suzanne; Rowley, David C; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-09-01

    Biofilm producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli are the most common cause of catheter related urinary tract infections (UTIs). The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is utilized widely as a prophylaxis for UTIs due to its prevention of microbial adhesion. Cranberry contains proanthocyanidins (PACs), which have been implicated as active constituents responsible for its bacterial antiadhesive properties. Despite overwhelming data supporting cranberry's beneficial effects against human pathogenic bacteria, there is limited information regarding its effects on biofilm formation. This study evaluated the effects of three proprietary PAC-standardized cranberry extracts on the inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm production against a panel of clinically relevant pathogens: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli. The extracts inhibited the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp.) but not the Gram-negative species (E. coli) with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.02-5 mg/mL. The extracts also inhibited biofilm production by the Gram-positive bacteria but did not eradicate their established biofilm. These results suggest that cranberry may have beneficial effects against the growth and biofilm producing capability of Gram-positive bacteria pathogens.

  12. Towards a substantive theory of synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Beneke

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on synergy suggests that synergy is systemic and hence should be viewed in the context of processes, but that an integrative definition of this phenomenon does not exist. Against this background the article explains synergy as a concept describing the systemic processes whereby business units of diversified organisations may generate greater value through working as one system rather than working as separate entities. Through the application of grounded theory in a modernistic qualitative context and the use of a case study a substantive theory is presented for leading change towards synergy in a diversified organisation that has business units in three continents.

  13. Cultural synergy in information institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Smiraglia, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Cultural forces govern a synergistic relationship among information institutions that shapes their roles collectively and individually. Cultural synergy is the combination of perception- and behavior-shaping knowledge within, between, and among groups. Our hyperlinked era makes information-sharing among institutions critically important for scholarship as well as for the advancement of humankind. Information institutions are those that have, or share in, the mission to preserve, conserve, and disseminate information objects and their informative content. A central idea is the notion of social

  14. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

  15. Effective force control by muscle synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J Berger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies have been proposed as a way for the central nervous system (CNS to simplify the generation of motor commands and they have been shown to explain a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns across a variety of conditions. However, whether human subjects are able to control forces and movements effectively with a small set of synergies has not been tested directly. Here we show that muscle synergies can be used to generate target forces in multiple directions with the same accuracy achieved using individual muscles. We recorded electromyographic (EMG activity from 13 arm muscles and isometric hand forces during a force reaching task in a virtual environment. From these data we estimated the force associated to each muscle by linear regression and we identified muscle synergies by non-negative matrix factorization. We compared trajectories of a virtual mass displaced by the force estimated using the entire set of recorded EMGs to trajectories obtained using 4 to 5 muscle synergies. While trajectories were similar, when feedback was provided according to force estimated from recorded EMGs (EMG-control on average trajectories generated with the synergies were less accurate. However, when feedback was provided according to recorded force (force-control we did not find significant differences in initial angle error and endpoint error. We then tested whether synergies could be used as effectively as individual muscles to control cursor movement in the force reaching task by providing feedback according to force estimated from the projection of the recorded EMGs into synergy space (synergy-control. Human subjects were able to perform the task immediately after switching from force-control to EMG-control and synergy-control and we found no differences between initial movement direction errors and endpoint errors in all control modes. These results indicate that muscle synergies provide an effective strategy for motor

  16. Effective force control by muscle synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Denise J; d'Avella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Muscle synergies have been proposed as a way for the central nervous system (CNS) to simplify the generation of motor commands and they have been shown to explain a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns across a variety of conditions. However, whether human subjects are able to control forces and movements effectively with a small set of synergies has not been tested directly. Here we show that muscle synergies can be used to generate target forces in multiple directions with the same accuracy achieved using individual muscles. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from 13 arm muscles and isometric hand forces during a force reaching task in a virtual environment. From these data we estimated the force associated to each muscle by linear regression and we identified muscle synergies by non-negative matrix factorization. We compared trajectories of a virtual mass displaced by the force estimated using the entire set of recorded EMGs to trajectories obtained using 4-5 muscle synergies. While trajectories were similar, when feedback was provided according to force estimated from recorded EMGs (EMG-control) on average trajectories generated with the synergies were less accurate. However, when feedback was provided according to recorded force (force-control) we did not find significant differences in initial angle error and endpoint error. We then tested whether synergies could be used as effectively as individual muscles to control cursor movement in the force reaching task by providing feedback according to force estimated from the projection of the recorded EMGs into synergy space (synergy-control). Human subjects were able to perform the task immediately after switching from force-control to EMG-control and synergy-control and we found no differences between initial movement direction errors and endpoint errors in all control modes. These results indicate that muscle synergies provide an effective strategy for motor coordination.

  17. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  18. Cranberry Juice and Combinations of Its Organic Acids Are Effective against Experimental Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Heidi D; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren B; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P juice (P juice, were tested in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E. coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents.

  19. Improving the Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Goat Cheese by the Addition of Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Apostu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the goat milk cheeses have gained popularity due to the increased interest of consumers in both the tradition of cheesemaking and the sensorial and nutritional value attributed to goat milk. This study aimed to assess and compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese with a mixture of cranberry fruits in different concentrations. The following average values were obtained for the chemical parameters analyzed: pH 4.85 ± 0.155, titratable acidity (°T 150 ± 0,094, dry matter (% 58.33 ± 1.55, and fat (% 27.74 ± 53.24. Sensory evaluation highlighted the influence of the addition of cranberry on the eating quality of goat cheese and its consumer acceptability. Results showed that the goat cheese supplementation with 9% cranberry significantly improves the stability of acidic flavor during storage.

  20. Emerging Applications of Metabolomics in Studying Chemopreventive Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals from diet and herbal medicines are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents to block and suppress carcinogenesis. Chemical diversity of phytochemicals, together with complex metabolic interactions between phytochemicals and biological system, can overwhelm the capacity of traditional analytical platforms, and thus pose major challenges in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals. Recent progresses in metabolomics have transformed it to beco...

  1. Cranberry Flavonoids Modulate Cariogenic Properties of Mixed-Species Biofilm through Exopolysaccharides-Matrix Disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyeop Kim

    Full Text Available The exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtfs are essential virulence factors associated with the initiation of cariogenic biofilms. EPS forms the core of the biofilm matrix-scaffold, providing mechanical stability while facilitating the creation of localized acidic microenvironments. Cranberry flavonoids, such as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs and myricetin, have been shown to inhibit the activity of Gtfs and EPS-mediated bacterial adhesion without killing the organisms. Here, we investigated whether a combination of cranberry flavonoids disrupts EPS accumulation and S. mutans survival using a mixed-species biofilm model under cariogenic conditions. We also assessed the impact of cranberry flavonoids on mechanical stability and the in situ pH at the biofilm-apatite interface. Topical application of an optimized combination of PACs oligomers (100-300 μM with myricetin (2 mM twice daily was used to simulate treatment regimen experienced clinically. Treatments with cranberry flavonoids effectively reduced the insoluble EPS content (>80% reduction vs. vehicle-control; p<0.001, while hindering S. mutans outgrowth within mixed-species biofilms. As a result, the 3D architecture of cranberry-treated biofilms was severely compromised, showing a defective EPS-matrix and failure to develop microcolonies on the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA surface. Furthermore, topical applications of cranberry flavonoids significantly weaken the mechanical stability of the biofilms; nearly 90% of the biofilm was removed from sHA surface after exposure to a shear stress of 0.449 N/m2 (vs. 36% removal in vehicle-treated biofilms. Importantly, in situ pH measurements in cranberry-treated biofilms showed significantly higher pH values (5.2 ± 0.1 at the biofilm-apatite interface vs. vehicle-treated biofilms (4.6 ± 0.1. Altogether, the data provide important insights on how cranberry flavonoids treatments modulate

  2. Cranberry Flavonoids Modulate Cariogenic Properties of Mixed-Species Biofilm through Exopolysaccharides-Matrix Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongyeop; Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yifei; Singh, Ajay P; Vorsa, Nicholi; Koo, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) are essential virulence factors associated with the initiation of cariogenic biofilms. EPS forms the core of the biofilm matrix-scaffold, providing mechanical stability while facilitating the creation of localized acidic microenvironments. Cranberry flavonoids, such as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) and myricetin, have been shown to inhibit the activity of Gtfs and EPS-mediated bacterial adhesion without killing the organisms. Here, we investigated whether a combination of cranberry flavonoids disrupts EPS accumulation and S. mutans survival using a mixed-species biofilm model under cariogenic conditions. We also assessed the impact of cranberry flavonoids on mechanical stability and the in situ pH at the biofilm-apatite interface. Topical application of an optimized combination of PACs oligomers (100-300 μM) with myricetin (2 mM) twice daily was used to simulate treatment regimen experienced clinically. Treatments with cranberry flavonoids effectively reduced the insoluble EPS content (>80% reduction vs. vehicle-control; pbiofilms. As a result, the 3D architecture of cranberry-treated biofilms was severely compromised, showing a defective EPS-matrix and failure to develop microcolonies on the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) surface. Furthermore, topical applications of cranberry flavonoids significantly weaken the mechanical stability of the biofilms; nearly 90% of the biofilm was removed from sHA surface after exposure to a shear stress of 0.449 N/m2 (vs. 36% removal in vehicle-treated biofilms). Importantly, in situ pH measurements in cranberry-treated biofilms showed significantly higher pH values (5.2 ± 0.1) at the biofilm-apatite interface vs. vehicle-treated biofilms (4.6 ± 0.1). Altogether, the data provide important insights on how cranberry flavonoids treatments modulate virulence properties by disrupting the biochemical and ecological changes

  3. Influence of Pollen, Chia Seeds and Cranberries Addition on the Physical and Probiotics Characteristics of Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of bee pollen, chia seeds and cranberries on the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at refrigerated temperature (4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 1,4 % chia seeds and 7,6% cranberries significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of (106–107 cfu/g probiotic bacteria at the end of 21-day shelf life.

  4. Differences between kinematic synergies and muscle synergies during two-digit grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eTagliabue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The large number of mechanical degrees of freedom of the hand is not fully exploited during actual movements such as grasping. Usually, angular movements in various joints tend to be coupled, and EMG activities in different hand muscles tend to be correlated. The occurrence of covariation in the former was termed kinematic synergies, in the latter muscle synergies. This study addresses two questions: (i Whether kinematic and muscle synergies can simultaneously accommodate for kinematic and kinetic constraints. (ii If so, whether there is an interrelation between kinematic and muscle synergies. We used a reach-grasp-and-pull paradigm and recorded the hand kinematics as well as 8 surface EMGs. Subjects had to either perform a precision grip or side grip and had to modify their grip force in order to displace an object against a low or high load. The analysis was subdivided into three epochs: reach, grasp-and-pull, and static hold. Principal component analysis (PCA, temporal or static was performed separately for all three epochs, in the kinematic and in the EMG domain. PCA revealed that (i Kinematic- and muscle-synergies can simultaneously accommodate kinematic (grip type and kinetic task constraints (load condition. (ii Upcoming grip and load conditions of the grasp are represented in kinematic- and muscle-synergies already during reach. Phase plane plots of the principal muscle-synergy against the principal kinematic synergy revealed (iii that the muscle-synergy is linked (correlated, and in phase advance to the kinematic synergy during reach and during grasp-and-pull. Furthermore (iv, pair-wise correlations of EMGs during hold suggest that muscle-synergies are (in part implemented by coactivation of muscles through common input. Together, these results suggest that kinematic synergies have (at least in part their origin not just in muscular activation, but in synergiestic muscle activation. In short: kinematic synergies may result from muscle

  5. Phytochemical notes on cissampelos spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Galvis Luis Enrique

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cissampelos ovalifolia D. C. and C. pareira L. from Guyana, India and several regions of Colombia are discussed. A description of extraction procedures, isolation, purification, chromatographic (CC, TLC and spectroscopic techniques (IR, H +-NMR, MS as well as a comparison of the BBI alkaloids present in the material studied,
    are presented.Se discuten aspectos fitoquímicos y farmacológicos de Cissampelos ovalifolia D. C. y C. pareira L. y se describen procedimientos de extracción, aislamiento, purificación, crornatoqraña (CC, CCF y espectroscopia (IR, H+ -RMN, SM de dos alcaloides BBI aislados de esas especies. Se hace una
    comparación entre material estudiado proveniente de la Guayana Británica, la India y varias partes de Colombia.

  6. Isolation and Identification of Intestinal CYP3A Inhibitors from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using Human Intestinal Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N.; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, a cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC50) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

  7. Cultural Synergy and Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Vogt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores informal codes and rhythms of social behavior at work and their relation to organizational change and wellbeing. After a merger within a public service organization we organized 8 focus groups of 2-3 clerical or academic employees within a head office and a division office (N...... = 21). Word counts of ‘I’ and ‘we’ revealed that people sharing pre-merger organizational background (homogeneous groups) used ‘we’ more often than heterogeneous groups. Head office employees were concerned with workload and social code, whereas division office employees mainly discussed meetings......, commitment, and office space. Organizational background rather than office cultures guided these differences. We found that in a merged organization cultural synergies are possible to create if practical and social values for employees are offered. Thus, interesting new ways to transform problems...

  8. phytochemical screening and preliminary evaluation of analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... being screened for phytochemical constituents and ... extract of Cissus polyantha in laboratory animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant Material. The plant .... 1980), as well as release of lipoxygenase products. (Insel ...

  9. Original Research Article Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out ... This article is available in Embase, Index Corpenicus, Scopus, PubsHub, Chemical Abstracts, Socolar, EBSCO, African ... Qualitative assay, for the presence of plant.

  10. Phytochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Studies of Asiasari Radix et ... three species of the genus Asarum: A. heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag., ..... third-instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Coquillett ...

  11. phytochemical and microscopical evaluation of desmodium velutinum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... leaves based on the method outlined in Evans. (2009). ... dark blue or dark green colour indicates the presence of tannins. ... by a yellow fluorescence. 5. Test for .... phytochemical constituents reported or detected in different ...

  12. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Abstract. Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study.

  13. Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins prevent formation of Candida albicans biofilms in artificial urine through biofilm- and adherence-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Hallie S; Bernardo, Stella M; Howell, Amy B; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-02-01

    Candida albicans is a common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is responsible for increased morbidity and healthcare costs. Moreover, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired catheter-associated UTIs. Thus, development of specific approaches for the prevention of Candida urinary infections is needed. Cranberry juice-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) have efficacy in the prevention of bacterial UTIs, partially due to anti-adherence properties, but there are limited data on their use for the prevention and/or treatment of Candida UTIs. Therefore, we sought to systematically assess the in vitro effect of cranberry-derived PACs on C. albicans biofilm formation in artificial urine. C. albicans biofilms in artificial urine were coincubated with cranberry PACs at serially increasing concentrations and biofilm metabolic activity was assessed using the XTT assay in static microplate and silicone disc models. Cranberry PAC concentrations of ≥16 mg/L significantly reduced biofilm formation in all C. albicans strains tested, with a paradoxical effect observed at high concentrations in two clinical isolates. Further, cranberry PACs were additive in combination with traditional antifungals. Cranberry PACs reduced C. albicans adherence to both polystyrene and silicone. Supplementation of the medium with iron reduced the efficacy of cranberry PACs against biofilms. These findings indicate that cranberry PACs have excellent in vitro activity against C. albicans biofilm formation in artificial urine. We present preliminary evidence that cranberry PAC activity against C. albicans biofilm formation is due to anti-adherence properties and/or iron chelation.

  14. Relationship of black vine weevil egg density and damage to two cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory trials compared Metarhizium anisopliae and Steinernema kraussei to imidacloprid for black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus, larval control in cranberry. Two field sites were treated in fall of 2009 and soil samples collected during 2009 and 2010 to assess treatment effic...

  15. 78 FR 28149 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... New York; Revising Determination of Sales History AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... locally by the Cranberry Marketing Committee (Committee). This change would modify sales history... amounts increased by 25 barrels, the calculated yields used to develop the additional sales history should...

  16. Multi-species pheromone-based mating disruption: Moth birth control in cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a proven method of pest control, but in cranberries, tailoring this technology to modern production practices has been difficult. Using the wax carrier, SPLAT, we have overcome many of these difficulties and now have three years of data suggesting that mating dis...

  17. Solid-phase extraction of antioxidant compounds from commercial cranberry extract and its antiradical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the fractionation and determination of major antioxidant compounds (phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C in commercial cranberry extract. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids and total and monomers of anthocyanins, determined spectrophotometrically, was 1.67 mg/g, 0.41 mg/g, 5.12 mg/g and 3.32 mg/g. The content of vitamin C, determined volumetrically, was 121.74 mg/g. Commercial cranberry extract was dissolved in 80 % acetone and the solution was fractionated using solid phase extraction (SPE in order to abstract vitamin C, neutral and acidic phenols. The free radical scavenging activity of the cranberry extract and its fractions was investigated on stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals employing electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The most effective fractions were those containing vitamin C (AADPPH= AAOH=100%, neutral (AADPPH=89.50% and AAOH=43.11% and acidic (AADPPH=83.98% and AAOH=38.58% phenols. The presence of vitamin C, abstracted from cranberry extract, was determined by Fe(III-mediated ascorbate oxidation which yields characteristic ESR doublet spectrum of ascorbyl radical.

  18. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P .... coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents....

  19. Adhesion of Asaia bogorensis to Glass and Polystyrene in the Presence of Cranberry Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Kregiel, Dorota; Czyzowska, Agata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected.

  20. Interference of cranberry constituents in cell-cell signaling system of Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mark; Weiss, Ervin I; Ofek, Itzhak; Steinberg, Doron

    2009-10-01

    Cranberry juice has long been recognized in folk medicine as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary track infections. It acts as an antibiofilm agent against various pathogens. Quorum sensing is process where bacteria communicate with each other via signal molecules known as autoinducers. This process is strongly involved in various bacterial pathological and physiological pathways. Various strains of Vibrio harveyi bacteria were incubated with different concentrations of nondialyzable material of cranberry (NDM) with or without addition of exogenous autoinducer. Bioluminescence regulated by the autoinducers was measured in GENios reader. Effect of NDM alone or NDM supplemented with autoinducer on quorum sensing was determined as change in bioluminescence in each treated sample compared to appropriate control in every strain. Using model of V. harveyi, we found an inhibitory effect of cranberry constituents on bacterial signaling system. This effect was reversible, since exogenous autoinducer was able to recover bioluminescence which was decreased by NDM. We hypothesized that cranberry NDM interacts with V. harveyi quorum sensing by competition with autoinducer for binding to autoinducer sensor.

  1. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events.

  2. Desiccation Tolerance and Cryopreservation of In-Vitro Grown Blueberry and Cranberry Shoot Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-vitro grown shoot tips of two cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) cultivars, Wilcox (PI 614079) and Franklin (PI 554998) and three blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars, Berkeley (PI 554883), O’Neal (PI 554944) and Brigitta (PI 618166) from the tissue culture collections of the USDA-ARS Nation...

  3. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.). In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order for which genome sequence data are currently lacking. In addition, cranberries produce a host of important polyphenolic secondary compounds, some of which are beneficial to human health. Whereas next-generation sequencing technology is allowing the advancement of whole-genome sequencing, one major obstacle to the successful assembly from short-read sequence data of complex diploid (and higher ploidy) organisms is heterozygosity. Cranberry has the advantage of being diploid (2n = 2x = 24) and self-fertile. To minimize the issue of heterozygosity, we sequenced the genome of a fifth-generation inbred genotype (F ≥ 0.97) derived from five generations of selfing originating from the cultivar Ben Lear. Results The genome size of V. macrocarpon has been estimated to be about 470 Mb. Genomic sequences were assembled into 229,745 scaffolds representing 420 Mbp (N50 = 4,237 bp) with 20X average coverage. The number of predicted genes was 36,364 and represents 17.7% of the assembled genome. Of the predicted genes, 30,090 were assigned to candidate genes based on homology. Genes supported by transcriptome data totaled 13,170 (36%). Conclusions Shotgun sequencing of the cranberry genome, with an average sequencing coverage of 20X, allowed efficient assembly and gene calling. The candidate genes identified represent a useful collection to further study important biochemical pathways and cellular processes and to use for marker development for breeding and the study of horticultural characteristics, such as disease resistance. PMID:24927653

  4. Inhibition of adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria to uroepithelial cells by extracts from cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermel, Gwennola; Georgeault, Sylvie; Inisan, Claude; Besnard, Matthieu

    2012-02-01

    Cranberry extract has been reported as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary tract infections due to its anti-adhesive capacity. In order to compare the effects of proanthocyanidin (procyanidin) (PAC)-standardized cranberry extracts and commercial PAC A2, we first investigated the presence of genes encoding known adhesins on 13 strains of uropathogenic strains coming from patients with cystisis. After this characterization, the anti-adhesive effects of PAC A2 were assayed on selected uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains before testing cranberry extracts. Before checking inhibitory effect on bacterial adhesion to cells, we showed that neither PAC A2 or three cranberry extracts (A, B, and C) specifically inhibited the growth and did not supply any potential nutrient to E. coli strains, including the unrelated control strain. PAC A2 exhibited an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of two selected uropathogenic strains of E. coli. This work also showed that a preliminary exposure of bacteria to PAC A2 significantly reduced the adhesion. This phenomenon has been also observed with a lesser impact when uroepithelial cells were pretreated with PAC A2. Moreover, the assays were more robust when bacteria were in fast growing conditions (exponential phase): the adhesion to uroepithelial cells was greater. Significant reduction of adhesion to urepithelial cells was observed: around 80% of inhibition of adhesion with the cranberry extracts at equivalent PAC concentration of 50 μg/mL. The effects of the different assayed extracts were not obviously different except for extract B, which inhibited approximately 55% of adhesion at an equivalent PAC concentration of 5 μg/mL.

  5. Synergy, redundancy and unnormalized Granger causality

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortés, Jesus M; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We analyze by means of Granger causality the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. Whilst fully conditioned Granger causality is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to put in evidence synergetic effects. We show that maximization of the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables, puts in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target, provided that an {\\it unnormalized} definition of Granger causality is adopted. Along the same lines we also introduce a pairwise index of synergy (w.r.t. to information flow to a third variable) which is zero when two independent sources additively influence a common target, differently from previous definitions of synergy.

  6. Phytochemical Study of Swertia Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mozaffarian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae grow widely in eastern and southern Asian countries such as Japan, China and India and are used as traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complains because of their bitter principles. Several studies have been carried out on hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, mono amino oxidase inhibitory and antidepressant effects of these plants and it has been shown that xanthones and iridoids are responsible for their activities. Purpose of the study: In order to gain better knowledge of endemic plants of Flora Iranica, Swertia longifolia Boiss. growing in the northern parts of Iran, was subjected to phytochemical studies. Methods: Dried and milled aerial parts of the plant were extracted with petroleum ether and ethanol of which results of petroleum ether extract has been reported previously. For purification of ethanol extract, it was acidified with acetic acid and subsequently extracted with chloroform and then with n-butanol. The n-butanol extract was analyzed using different chromatographic methods and the structures of the isolated components were established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Results: Four components including an iridoid glycoside (loganic acid, a secoiridoid glycoside (gentiopicroside, a secoiridoid dilactone (gentiolactone and a nucleoside (uridine were isolated from n-butanol extract of the plant. Major conclusion: Similar to other species of Swertia, iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides could be considered as major constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss.

  7. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  8. Are muscle synergies useful for neural control ?

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    Aymar ede Rugy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The observation that the activity of multiple muscles can be well approximated by a few linear synergies is viewed by some as a sign that such low-dimensional modules constitute a key component of the neural control system. Here, we argue that the usefulness of muscle synergies as a control principle should be evaluated in terms of errors produced not only in muscle space, but also in task space. We used data from a force-aiming task in two dimensions at the wrist, using an EMG-driven virtual biomechanics technique that overcomes typical errors in predicting force from recorded EMG, to illustrate through simulation how synergy decomposition inevitably introduces substantial task space errors. Then, we computed the optimal pattern of muscle activation that minimizes summed-squared muscle activities, and demonstrated that synergy decomposition produced similar results on real and simulated data. We further assessed the influence of synergy decomposition on aiming errors in a more redundant system, using the optimal muscle pattern computed for the elbow-joint complex (i.e., 13 muscles acting in two dimensions. Because EMG records are typically not available from all contributing muscles, we also explored reconstructions from incomplete sets of muscles. The redundancy of a given set of muscles had opposite effects on the goodness of muscle reconstruction and on task achievement; higher redundancy is associated with better EMG approximation (lower residuals, but with higher aiming errors. Finally, we showed that the number of synergies required to approximate the optimal muscle pattern for an arbitrary biomechanical system increases with task-space dimensionality, which indicates that the capacity of synergy decomposition to explain behaviour depends critically on the scope of the original database. These results have implications regarding the viability of muscle synergy as a putative neural control mechanism, and also as a control algorithm to

  9. Coevolution: A synergy in biology and ecology

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    WenJun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synergy refers to that in an open and complex system consisting of a large number of subsystems, far from equilibrium, its subsystems interact in a nonlinear way to produce synergistic effects and thus make the system generate a self-organization structure in space/time with certain functions. Biologists and ecologists, tend to use coevolution/coadaptation to represent the terminology "synergy". Coevolution and research methodology were briefly discussed in present paper.

  10. Neurohormetic phytochemicals: An evolutionary-bioenergetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by 'neurohormetic phytochemicals' (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  11. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habash, MB; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    1999-01-01

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  12. Examining the Synergy of Practice

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    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public health nurses in Ireland are charged with conducting a home visit to every postnatal mother within 48 hours of hospital discharge. This represents the beginning of a long-term relationship, not only with the mother and newborn child but also with the family. This article fundamentally demonstrates the essential work of the public health nurse in promoting the health of the baby within a family. In this article, the expertise the public health nurse uses in the first visit is examined in the context of 3 competencies: communication, partnerships with the family, and partnerships with individual family members. This expertise provides the foundation for a long-term therapeutic relationship with the family to the essential benefit of the baby’s early childhood growth and developmental milestones. Consequently, the first postnatal visit by public health nursing in Ireland represents a synergy of practice, which provides the foundation for enduring family relationships focused on potentializing both individual family members’ health and the family as a dynamic unit.

  13. Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumney, Pamela J.; Hindra, Sasha; Guzman, Lizette; Le, Jennifer; Nageotte, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy. Design: A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated. Results: Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%–100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (≥75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34–38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed. Conclusion: One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings. PMID:26535612

  14. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS-based global metabolomics reveal metabolome modifications in plasma of young women after cranberry juice consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J; Su, Zhihua; Khoo, Christina; Gu, Liwei

    2017-07-01

    Plasma metabolome in young women following cranberry juice consumption were investigated using a global UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS approach. Seventeen female college students, between 21 and 29 years old, were given either cranberry juice or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Plasma samples were collected before and after juice consumption. Plasma metabolomes were analyzed using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS followed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). S-plot was used to identify discriminant metabolites. Validated OPLS-DA analyses showed that the plasma metabolome in young women, including both exogenous and endogenous metabolites, were altered following cranberry juice consumption. Cranberry juice caused increases of exogenous metabolites including quinic acid, vanilloloside, catechol sulfate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol sulfate, coumaric acid sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, 5-(trihydroxphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 3-(hydroxyphenyl)proponic acid, hydroxyphenylacetic acid and trihydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, the plasma levels of endogenous metabolites including citramalic acid, aconitic acid, hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, hippuric acid, 2-hydroxyhippuric acid, vanilloylglycine, 4-acetamido-2-aminobutanoic acid, dihydroxyquinoline, and glycerol 3-phosphate were increased in women following cranberry juice consumption. The metabolic differences and discriminant metabolites observed in this study may serve as biomarkers of cranberry juice consumption and explain its health promoting properties in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging applications of metabolomics in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Chi

    2013-10-01

    Phytochemicals from diet and herbal medicines are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents to block and suppress carcinogenesis. Chemical diversity of phytochemicals, together with complex metabolic interactions between phytochemicals and biological system, can overwhelm the capacity of traditional analytical platforms, and thus pose major challenges in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals. Recent progresses in metabolomics have transformed it to become a robust systems biology tool, suitable for examining both chemical and biochemical events that contribute to the cancer prevention activities of plant preparations or their bioactive components. This review aims to discuss the technical platform of metabolomics and its existing and potential applications in chemoprevention research, including identifying bioactive phytochemicals in plant extracts, monitoring phytochemical exposure in humans, elucidating biotransformation pathways of phytochemicals, and characterizing the effects of phytochemicals on endogenous metabolism and cancer metabolism.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN BLUEBERRIES IS INFLUENCED BY UV ILLUMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  17. Hydrologic and nutrient response of groundwater to flooding of cranberry farms in southeastern Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Casey D.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal flooding of cranberry farms is essential for commercial production of cranberries in southeastern Massachusetts, with close to 90% of growers using a flood for harvesting and winter protection. Although periodic flooding results in increased groundwater recharge, it may also exacerbate subsurface transport of dissolved forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Given the paucity of information on groundwater exchange with cranberry floodwaters, hydrometric measurements were used to solve for the residual term of groundwater recharge in water budgets for three cranberry farms during the harvest and winter floods. Combined with continuous monitoring of water-table depth and discrete sampling of groundwater for analysis of nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), values of groundwater recharge were used to evaluate the hydrologic and nutrient response of groundwater to flooding of cranberry farms. Mean values of groundwater recharge were 11 (±6) and 47 (±11) cm for the harvest and winter floods, respectively (one standard deviation in parentheses). The factor-of-four difference in ground recharge was related to flood holding times that, on average, were twenty days longer for the winter flood. The total estimated seasonal groundwater recharge of 58 cm was about four times higher than that assigned to cranberry farms in regional groundwater flow models. During the floods, 10 to 20-cm increases in water-table depth were observed for wells within 10 m of the farm, contrasting with decreases (or minimal variation) in water-table depth for wells located 100 m or farther from the farm. These spatial patterns in the hydrologic response of groundwater suggested a zone of influence of approximately 100 m from the flooded edge of the farm. Analysis of 43 groundwater samples collected from 10 wells indicated generally low concentrations of TDP in groundwater (edge of farms). For one groundwater well located in proximity to the farm (∼10 m

  18. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  19. BARLERIA CRISTATA LINN.: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran Narmadha; Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical examination (qualitative and quantitative) and HPTLC analysis of phytochemicals of the crude extract Barleria cristata Linn. leaves were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaves revealed the presence of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. HPTLC finger printing analysis support the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds (Quercetin) in this...

  20. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  1. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  2. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUTION OF VENTILAGO CALYCULATA

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    S. Yadav et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ventilago calyculata (Rhamnaceae commonly known as Pitti. Ventilago calyculata is present in hotter parts of India, Burma, Siam, China, in forest region. The plant is antimalarial, Antiviral, stomachic, skin disorder. Phytochemical studies had revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannin, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone. Present study was carried out to determine, the morphological, microscopical and phytochemical profiles. Microscopy show thick unicellular covering trichomes, vein islet no.-3, vein termination no.-6, Anomocytic type stomata, lignifed, xylem, etc. The physical parameter such as moisture content, ash value and extractive value were evaluated.

  3. Phytochemical and Bioactive Studies on Conyza blinii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuYanfang; ZhengJunhua; GuoDean; MaJunjiang

    2001-01-01

    Conyza blinii Lévl. (Compositae), commonly called Jin Long Dan Cao, is distributed in southwest districtsof China. Its aerial parts are used in folk medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, gastroenteritis andother inflammatory diseases. Preliminary pharmacological and clinical tests showed that the aerial parts of C.blinii possessed expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and antibacterial effects. Although many otherplants of Conyza have been studied phytochemically, there have been rare reports on the chemical constituentsof C. blinii. Moreover, studies on the saponins of Conyza plants have not been observed until now. Therefore,we conducted a detailed phytochemical investigation and extensive bioassays on C. blinii.

  4. Modelling natural and artificial hands with synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchi, Antonio; Gabiccini, Marco; Santello, Marco

    2011-11-12

    We report on recent work in modelling the process of grasping and active touch by natural and artificial hands. Starting from observations made in human hands about the correlation of degrees of freedom in patterns of more frequent use (postural synergies), we consider the implications of a geometrical model accounting for such data, which is applicable to the pre-grasping phase occurring when shaping the hand before actual contact with the grasped object. To extend applicability of the synergy model to study force distribution in the actual grasp, we introduce a modified model including the mechanical compliance of the hand's musculotendinous system. Numerical results obtained by this model indicate that the same principal synergies observed from pre-grasp postural data are also fundamental in achieving proper grasp force distribution. To illustrate the concept of synergies in the dual domain of haptic sensing, we provide a review of models of how the complexity and heterogeneity of sensory information from touch can be harnessed in simplified, tractable abstractions. These abstractions are amenable to fast processing to enable quick reflexes as well as elaboration of high-level percepts. Applications of the synergy model to the design and control of artificial hands and tactile sensors are illustrated.

  5. Flight Synchrony among the Major Moth Pests of Cranberries in the Upper Midwest, USA

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    Shawn A. Steffan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The cranberry fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii Riley, sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens, and blackheaded fireworm (Rhopobota naevana Hübner are historically significant pests of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton in the Upper Midwest (Wisconsin, USA. Their respective natural histories are well documented but correlations between developmental benchmarks (e.g., larval eclosion and degree-day accruals are not yet known. Treatment timings are critical to the optimization of any given control tactic, and degree-day accrual facilitates optimization by quantifying the developmental status of pest populations. When key developmental benchmarks in the pest life cycle are linked to degree-days, real-time weather data can be used to predict precise treatment timings. Here, we provide the degree-day accumulations associated with discrete biological events (i.e., initiation of flight and peak flight for the three most consistent moth pests of cranberries in Wisconsin. Moths were trapped each spring and summer from 2003 to 2011. To characterize flight dynamics and average timing of flight initiation, pheromone-baited trap-catch data were tallied for all three pest species within each of seven growing seasons. These flight dynamics were then associated with the corresponding degree-day accumulations generated using the cranberry plant’s developmental thresholds. Finally, models were fit to the data in order to determine the peak flight of each species. The initiation of the spring flight among all three moth species was highly synchronous, aiding in the timing of control tactics; however, there were substantial differences in the timing of peak flight among the moth species. Characterization of the relationship between temperature and pest development allows pest management professionals to target specific life stages, improving the efficacy of any given pest control tactic.

  6. Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Contreras, María Del Mar; Uberos, José; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-β-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software.

  7. Microwave-Osmotic/Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Whole Cranberries: Comparison with Other Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Derek; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2015-12-01

    A novel drying method for frozen-thawed whole cranberries was developed by combining microwave osmotic dehydration under continuous flow medium spray (MWODS) conditions with microwave vacuum finish-drying. A central composite rotatable design was used to vary temperature (33 to 67 °C), osmotic solution concentration (33 to 67 °B), contact time (5 to 55 min), and flow rate (2.1 to 4.1 L/min) in order to the determine the effects of MWODS input parameters on quality of the dried berry. Quality indices monitored included colorimetric and textural data in addition to anthocyanin retention and cellular structure. Overall it was found that the MWODS-MWV process was able to produce dried cranberries with quality comparable to freeze dried samples in much shorter time. Additionally, cranberries dried via the novel process exhibited much higher quality than those dried via either vacuum or convective air drying in terms of color, anthocyanin content, and cellular structure.

  8. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonetta A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Bonetta,1 Francesco Di Pierro21Unità Operativa Radioterapia Oncologica, Istituti Ospedalieri di Cremona, Cremona; 2Velleja Research, Milan, ItalyBackground: Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs. Because LUTIs are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized V. msacrocarpon (ecVM in this condition.Methods: A total of 370 consecutive patients were entered into this study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer; 184 patients were also treated with ecVM while 186 served as controls. Cranberry extract therapy started on the simulation day, at which time a bladder catheterization was performed. During EBRT (over 6–7 weeks, all patients underwent weekly examination for urinary tract symptoms, including regular urine cultures during the treatment period.Results: Compliance was excellent, with no adverse effects or allergic reactions being observed, apart from gastric pain in two patients. In the cranberry cohort (n = 184, 16 LUTIs (8.7% were observed, while in the control group (n = 186 45 LUTIs (24.2% were recorded. This difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, lower rates of nocturia, urgency, micturition frequency, and dysuria were observed in the group that received cranberry extract.Conclusion: Cranberry extracts have been reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs significantly in women and children. Our data extend these results to patients with prostate cancer undergoing irradiation to the pelvis, who had a significant reduction in LUTIs compared with controls. These results were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency, suggesting a generally

  9. Team Synergies in Sport: Theory and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group

  10. Robustness of muscle synergies during visuomotor adaptation

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    Reinhard eGentner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During visuomotor adaptation a novel mapping between visual targets and motor commands is gradually acquired. How muscle activation patterns are affected by this process is an open question. We tested whether the structure of muscle synergies is preserved during adaptation to a visuomotor rotation. Eight subjects applied targeted isometric forces on a handle instrumented with a force transducer while electromyographic (EMG activity was recorded from 13 shoulder and elbow muscles. The recorded forces were mapped into horizontal displacements of a virtual sphere with simulated mass, elasticity, and damping. The task consisted of moving the sphere to a target at one of eight equally spaced directions. Subjects performed three baseline blocks of 32 trials, followed by six blocks with a 45° CW rotation applied to the planar force, and finally three wash-out blocks without the perturbation. The sphere position at 100 ms after movement onset revealed significant directional error at the beginning of the rotation, a gradual learning in subsequent blocks, and aftereffects at the beginning of the wash-out. The change in initial force direction was closely related to the change in directional tuning of the initial EMG activity of most muscles. Throughout the experiment muscle synergies extracted using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm from the muscle patterns recorded during the baseline blocks could reconstruct the muscle patterns of all other blocks with an accuracy significantly higher than chance indicating structural robustness. In addition, the synergies extracted from individual blocks remained similar to the baseline synergies throughout the experiment. Thus synergy structure is robust during visuomotor adaptation suggesting that changes in muscle patterns are obtained by rotating the directional tuning of the synergy recruitment.

  11. Phytochemical Investigations of Caesalpinia digyna Root

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    R. Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical examination of petroleum ether extract of Caesalpinia digyna root resulted in the isolation of four compounds namely, friedelin, hexacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds have been characterized on basis of physical and spectral data. All the four compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant

  12. Boosting beneficial phytochemicals in vegetable crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants contain an astonishing diversity of biochemical pathways, which eventually result in the production and accumulation of innumerable phytochemical compounds. From an historical point of view, people have primarily selected plants on the basis of traits that are linked to the presence of

  13. Nutrient signature of Quebec (Canada cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. Perfil nutritivo de atocas (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. - cranberry cultivadas no Québec, Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marchand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendations for cranberry crops are guided by plant and soil tests. However, critical tissue concentration ranges used for diagnostic purposes are inherently biased by nutrient interactions and physiological age. Compositional data analysis using isometric log ratios (ilr of nutrients as well as time detrending can avoid numerical biases. The objective was to derive unbiased nutrient signature standards for cranberry in Quebec and compare those standards to literature data. Field trials were conducted during 3 consecutive years with varying P treatments at six commercial sites in Quebec. Leaf tissues were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. The analytical results were transformed into ilr nutrient balances of parts and groups of parts. High-yield reference ilr values were computed for cranberry yielding greater than 35 Mg ha-1. Many cranberry fields appeared to be over-supplied with K and either under-supplied with Mn or over-supplied with Fe as shown by their imbalanced [K | Ca, Mg] and [Mn | Fe] ratios. Nutrient concentration ranges from Maine and Wisconsin, USA, were combined into ilr values to generate ranges of balances. It was found that these nutrient ranges were much too broad for application in Quebec or outside the Quebec ranges for the [Ca | Mg] and the [Mn | Fe] balances, that were lower compared to those of high yielding cranberry crops in Quebec.As recommendações de fertilizantes da cultura atoca são determinadas a partir de análises de planta e solo. No entanto, as faixas críticas de concentração nos tecidos utilizados para fins de diagnóstico são influenciadas por interações de nutrientes e pela idade fisiológica. A análise de dados composicionais log isométricas (ilr de nutrientes, bem como a idade fisiológica podem ser removidas numéricamente na interpretação dos dados analíticos dos tecidos. Nosso objetivo foi obter padrões imparciais para o perfil nutrivo da atóca, cultivada

  14. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  15. Shared muscle synergies in human walking and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Filipe O; Torricelli, Diego; Moreno, Juan C; Taylor, Julian; Gomez-Soriano, Julio; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Piazza, Stefano; Santos, Cristina; Pons, José L

    2014-10-15

    The motor system may rely on a modular organization (muscle synergies activated in time) to execute different tasks. We investigated the common control features of walking and cycling in healthy humans from the perspective of muscle synergies. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) muscle synergies extracted from walking trials are similar to those extracted during cycling; 2) muscle synergies extracted from one of these motor tasks can be used to mathematically reconstruct the electromyographic (EMG) patterns of the other task; 3) muscle synergies of cycling can result from merging synergies of walking. A secondary objective was to identify the speed (and cadence) at which higher similarities emerged. EMG activity from eight muscles of the dominant leg was recorded in eight healthy subjects during walking and cycling at four matched cadences. A factorization technique [nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF)] was applied to extract individual muscle synergy vectors and the respective activation coefficients behind the global muscular activity of each condition. Results corroborated hypotheses 2 and 3, showing that 1) four synergies from walking and cycling can successfully explain most of the EMG variability of cycling and walking, respectively, and 2) two of four synergies from walking appear to merge together to reconstruct one individual synergy of cycling, with best reconstruction values found for higher speeds. Direct comparison of the muscle synergy vectors of walking and the muscle synergy vectors of cycling (hypothesis 1) produced moderated values of similarity. This study provides supporting evidence for the hypothesis that cycling and walking share common neuromuscular mechanisms.

  16. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification of urinary proanthocyanin A2 dimer and its potential use as a biomarker of cranberry intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of a biomarker for the consumption of cranberries has confounded the interpretation of several studies investigating the effect of cranberry products, especially juices, on health outcomes. The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric ...

  17. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

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    Mariusz eTadych

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase.

  18. First study on antimicriobial activity and synergy between isothiocyanates and antibiotics against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from clinical and animal source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2012-05-01

    The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of several infections that were controlled in the past, associated with recent increase of bacterial resistance have created the necessity for more studies towards to the development of new antimicrobials and new treatment strategies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro synergy between different classes of important glucosinolates hydrolysis products-isothiocyanates with antibiotics (gentamycin and vancomycin), against important pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. A disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals and combinations between gentamycin, vancomycin and phytochemicals were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. The results showed a selective antimicrobial effect of isothiocyanates, and this effect was strictly related with their chemical structure. In general the benzylisothiocyanate was the most effective compound against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were the bacteria most affected either by the phytochemicals alone or by the combination phytochemical-antibiotic. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the less affected pathogen. The most important synergism detected occurred between the commercial antibiotics with benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate. In conclusion, some isothiocyanates are effective inhibitors of in vitro bacterial growth, and they can act synergistically with antibiotics.

  19. IT Portfolio Selection and IT Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo Je

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. The primary objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to provide a methodological framework of IT (Information Technology) portfolio management, and (2) to identify the effect of IT synergy on IT portfolio selection of a firm. The first chapter presents a methodological framework for IT project…

  20. SYNERGY ENTERPRISES AND STANDARDIZATION OF WORKING PRACTICE

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    Mikhail N. Konotopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main causes of low productivity in domestic enterprises, as well as the issues of production processes standardization and the coordination of work in relation to the possible organizational interventions aimed at improving the synergy of workforce joint activities.

  1. Team synergies in sport: Theory and measures

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    Duarte Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.

  2. Consistency of muscle synergies during pedaling across different mechanical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether muscle synergies are constrained by changes in the mechanics of pedaling. The decomposition algorithm used to identify muscle synergies was based on two components: "muscle synergy vectors," which represent the relative weighting of each muscle within each synergy, and "synergy activation coefficients," which represent the relative contribution of muscle synergy to the overall muscle activity pattern. We hypothesized that muscle synergy vectors would remain fixed but that synergy activation coefficients could vary, resulting in observed variations in individual electromyographic (EMG) patterns. Eleven cyclists were tested during a submaximal pedaling exercise and five all-out sprints. The effects of torque, maximal torque-velocity combination, and posture were studied. First, muscle synergies were extracted from each pedaling exercise independently using non-negative matrix factorization. Then, to cross-validate the results, muscle synergies were extracted from the entire data pooled across all conditions, and muscle synergy vectors extracted from the submaximal exercise were used to reconstruct EMG patterns of the five all-out sprints. Whatever the mechanical constraints, three muscle synergies accounted for the majority of variability [mean variance accounted for (VAF) = 93.3 ± 1.6%, VAF (muscle) > 82.5%] in the EMG signals of 11 lower limb muscles. In addition, there was a robust consistency in the muscle synergy vectors. This high similarity in the composition of the three extracted synergies was accompanied by slight adaptations in their activation coefficients in response to extreme changes in torque and posture. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that these muscle synergies reflect a neural control strategy, with only a few timing adjustments in their activation regarding the mechanical constraints.

  3. Gallic acid as a protective antioxidant against anthocyanin degradation and color loss in vitamin-C fortified cranberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (pgallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice.

  4. How do Takeovers Create Synergies? Evidence from France

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    Hamza Taher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on bidder-target asymmetry, our study investigates the source of synergy gains derived from corporate takeovers and their specific contribution to bidder value creation. Prior researches have focused on the relevance of only one source of potential synergy. We find that French takeovers tend to create long-term operating and financial synergies. These two synergy components are positive and significant with a large contribution of the former. Furthermore, cutbacks in investment expenditures represent the most significant source of operating synergies, while post-acquisition market power is non-significant. Moreover, both total and operating synergies are higher in focused takeovers initiated by “value” as opposed to “glamour” bidders. Lastly, financial synergies are likely to arise from bidder leverage level and target relative size.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  6. FUNCTIONAL FOODS OR PHYTOCHEMICALS, CLASSIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquibol S., Nancy; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Lengua C., Laura; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Delmás, Inés; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rivera C., Dolores; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.Lima, Perú; Bazán, Dora; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Aguirre M., Rosa; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Bravo A., Martha; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We described the benefits of funtional or phytochemicals foods in disease prevention and health promotion. This article is a contribution for the development of this new research area. Los alimentos funcionales o fitoquímicos tienen diversos beneficios en la prevención de enfermedades y contribuyen a reducir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Se presenta el siguiente articulo como conttibución para el desarrollo de esta nueva área de investigación.

  7. Solid-state bioconversion of phenolics from cranberry pomace and role of Lentinus edodes beta-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z; Shetty, K

    2000-03-01

    Cranberry pomace contains large amounts of phenolic glycosides, which are important sources of free phenolics that have many food uses such as antioxidants, flavorings, and nutraceuticals. Our hypothesis was that these glycosides in cranberry pomace could be hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase produced by Lentinus edodes during solid-state fermentation. On the basis of this hypothesis, our objective was to investigate the potential of using cranberry pomace as a substrate for the production of free phenolics and beta-glucosidase through solid-state fermentation by a food-grade fungus L. edodes. Our results suggested that L. edodes beta-glucosidase played a major role in release of phenolic aglycons from cranberry pomace during solid-state fermentation. After 50 days of cultivation, the yield of total free phenolics reached the maximum of 0.5 mg per g of pomace, while the beta-glucosidase activity was about 9 units per g of pomace. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 60 degrees C and at pH 3.5 and was stable at temperatures up to 50 degrees C and between pH 3 and 6.5. The major free phenolics produced from cranberry pomace were identified by HPLC as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. These results suggest that cranberry pomace is a potential substrate for producing food-grade phenolics and fungal beta-glucosidase. The L. edodes beta-glucosidase showed good stability and tolerance to low pH and, therefore has potential applications in wine and juice processing for aroma and flavor enrichment through enzymatic hydrolysis of glucoside precursors.

  8. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Alberto; Di Pierro, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs). Because LUTIs are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized V. msacrocarpon (ecVM) in this condition. Methods A total of 370 consecutive patients were entered into this study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer; 184 patients were also treated with ecVM while 186 served as controls. Cranberry extract therapy started on the simulation day, at which time a bladder catheterization was performed. During EBRT (over 6–7 weeks), all patients underwent weekly examination for urinary tract symptoms, including regular urine cultures during the treatment period. Results Compliance was excellent, with no adverse effects or allergic reactions being observed, apart from gastric pain in two patients. In the cranberry cohort (n = 184), 16 LUTIs (8.7%) were observed, while in the control group (n = 186) 45 LUTIs (24.2%) were recorded. This difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, lower rates of nocturia, urgency, micturition frequency, and dysuria were observed in the group that received cranberry extract. Conclusion Cranberry extracts have been reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs significantly in women and children. Our data extend these results to patients with prostate cancer undergoing irradiation to the pelvis, who had a significant reduction in LUTIs compared with controls. These results were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency), suggesting a generally protective effect of cranberry extract on the bladder mucosa. PMID:22977312

  9. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BLACKBERRY AND CRANBERRY LIQUEURS, PREPARED BY THE METHOD OF ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of antioxidant activity of berry liqueurs prepared by the method of ultrasonic extraction in comparison with liqueurs, obtained by the traditional method are presented in the article. Blackberries and cranberries, characterized by a high content of antioxidants were chosen as the research subjects. Ultrasonic extraction method with which cranberry and blackberry liqueurs were prepared was studied in terms of the given experimental work. An extractor with submersible ultrasonic transducer was used as an experimental device. The process was carried out in the frequency range of 20 - 20.5 kHz at 20-22о С. In accordance with the traditional technology of preparation of berry liqueur cranberry and blueberry were kept for a long-term (more than 2 months in 40% ethanol solution at a ratio of berries to extractant of 1: 5. Ultrasonic extraction involves brief contact of berries and extractant (up to 15 minutes with the application of ultrasonic vibrations. Operating parameters of extraction were determined experimentally in the research process. With the increase in exposure time, the yield of biologically active substances increases to reach an equilibrium state corresponding to the most complete raw materials depletion. The optimum extraction time during which the maximum possible transfer of solids in the extract occurs was determined. Ultrasonic extraction method can significantly reduce the processing time and provide a more complete extraction of substances. Diffusion boundary layer is disrupted, the penetration of the extractant in the material is improved during the application of ultrasonic waves. All this leads to a significant acceleration of transition of the active ingredients from the raw material into extractant and to obtaining a product with antioxidant activity greater than the traditional product by 2 times.

  10. Bumble bee parasite strains vary in resistance to phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Young, Evan C; Sadd, Ben M; Stevenson, Philip C; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2016-11-24

    Nectar and pollen contain diverse phytochemicals that can reduce disease in pollinators. However, prior studies showed variable effects of nectar chemicals on infection, which could reflect variable phytochemical resistance among parasite strains. Inter-strain variation in resistance could influence evolutionary interactions between plants, pollinators, and pollinator disease, but testing direct effects of phytochemicals on parasites requires elimination of variation between bees. Using cell cultures of the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, we determined (1) growth-inhibiting effects of nine floral phytochemicals and (2) variation in phytochemical resistance among four parasite strains. C. bombi growth was unaffected by naturally occurring concentrations of the known antitrypanosomal phenolics gallic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid. However, C. bombi growth was inhibited by anabasine, eugenol, and thymol. Strains varied >3-fold in phytochemical resistance, suggesting that selection for phytochemical resistance could drive parasite evolution. Inhibitory concentrations of thymol (4.53-22.2 ppm) were similar to concentrations in Thymus vulgaris nectar (mean 5.2 ppm). Exposure of C. bombi to naturally occurring levels of phytochemicals-either within bees or during parasite transmission via flowers-could influence infection in nature. Flowers that produce antiparasitic phytochemicals, including thymol, could potentially reduce infection in Bombus populations, thereby counteracting a possible contributor to pollinator decline.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties

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    Ashour AA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asmaa A Ashour,1 Dina Raafat,2 Hanan M El-Gowelli,3 Amal H El-Kamel1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Background: The growing threat of microbial resistance against traditional antibiotics has prompted the development of several antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs, including silver NPs (AgNPs. In this article, a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using the cranberry powder aqueous extract is reported.Materials and methods: Cranberry powder aqueous extracts (0.2%, 0.5%, and 0.8% w/v were allowed to interact for 24 hours with a silver nitrate solution (10 mM at 30°C at a ratio of 1:10. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared NPs were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, measurement of ζ-potential, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties of AgNPs were then investigated against several microbial strains. Finally, in vivo appraisal of both wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of either plain AgNPs (prepared using 0.2% extract or AgNP-Pluronic F-127 gel was conducted in a rat model after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P wound infection.Results: The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, where a surface-plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed between 432 and 438 nm. Both size and concentration of the formed AgNPs increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The developed NPs were stable, almost spherical, and polydisperse, with a size range of 1.4–8.6 nm. The negative ζ-potential values, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, indicated the presence of a capping agent adsorbed onto the surface of the particles. In

  12. Knowledge Management. Synergy between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Craciun Bucur Matei

    2011-01-01

    There are, however, not much time, work to provide the reader synergies between theory and practice. The objective of this paper is to bring them closer to the reader the foundation and direction of knowledge management and aspects of it, because later this knowledge to develop the example of Best Practice and to be enhanced. It consists of two models of strategies in relation to the implementation of knowledge management, with special traits, oriented consultancy. The economic areas and the ...

  13. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

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    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  14. Synergy within a Scientific Research Centre

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    Paul Marinescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the social-economic systems prove us that the whole is distinct from the sum of the parts. The concurrence of the components forming a system produces cumulated effects whose value exceeds the sum of effects of the components considered individually. Interactions at the level of parts help us understand the causes that sometimes generate spectacular outcomes of the system composing them. As a matter of fact, organizations exist because they mean more than the sum of the parts. Synergy facilitates precisely this pulling together of the members of an organization around a joint vision. From this perspective, we can connect organizational dynamics to the components of organizational culture. In this article, we aim at making a summary analysis of how synergy has intensifying effects by cooperation among the departments of CSOL-UB, but also between the latter and other entities: TEAM WORK,AERS, CARO, CAEN, SPHERAA SCHOOL, etc.Synergy analysis at the level of CSOL-UB leads us to the conclusion that cooperation among its departments generates benefits to the partners as well.

  15. Effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-/nitrate-free fermented sausage made from deer meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on the physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat and pork fat. Antioxidant interactions between acid whey and cranberry compounds were also explored. Methods Four formulations of fermented venison sausage were prepared: F1 (control), F2 (with 5% liquid acid whey), F3 (with 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries), and F4 (with 5% liquid acid whey and 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries). Each sample was analyzed for pH, water activity (aw), heme iron content, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value and conjugated dienes at the end of the manufacturing process and at 30 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Fatty acid composition was measured once at the end of the manufacturing process. Results At the end of ripening, all samples presented statistically different values for a pH range of 4.47 to pH 4.59. The sum of the unsaturated fatty acids was higher, while the conjugated diene and the TBARS values were lower in sausages with freeze-dried cranberries as compared to the control sausage. The highest content of heme iron (21.52 mg/kg) at day 90 was found in the sausage formulation with the addition of freeze-dried cranberries, which suggests that the addition of cranberries stabilized the porphyrin ring of the heme molecule during storage and thereby reduced the release of iron. The use of liquid acid whey in combination with cranberries appears to not be justified in view of the oxidative stability of the obtained products. Conclusion The results suggest that the application of freeze-dried cranberries can lower the intensity of oxidative changes during the storage of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat. PMID:27165018

  16. Effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-/nitrate-free fermented sausage made from deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on the physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat and pork fat. Antioxidant interactions between acid whey and cranberry compounds were also explored. Methods Four formulations of fermented venison sausage were prepared: F1 (control, F2 (with 5% liquid acid whey, F3 (with 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries, and F4 (with 5% liquid acid whey and 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries. Each sample was analyzed for pH, water activity (aw, heme iron content, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS value and conjugated dienes at the end of the manufacturing process and at 30 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Fatty acid composition was measured once at the end of the manufacturing process. Results At the end of ripening, all samples presented statistically different values for a pH range of 4.47 to pH 4.59. The sum of the unsaturated fatty acids was higher, while the conjugated diene and the TBARS values were lower in sausages with freeze-dried cranberries as compared to the control sausage. The highest content of heme iron (21.52 mg/kg at day 90 was found in the sausage formulation with the addition of freeze-dried cranberries, which suggests that the addition of cranberries stabilized the porphyrin ring of the heme molecule during storage and thereby reduced the release of iron. The use of liquid acid whey in combination with cranberries appears to not be justified in view of the oxidative stability of the obtained products. Conclusion The results suggest that the application of freeze-dried cranberries can lower the intensity of oxidative changes during the storage of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat.

  17. Metabolism and growth inhibitory activity of cranberry derived flavonoids in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasain, Jeevan K; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Keeton, Adam B; Piazza, Gary A; Barnes, Stephen

    2016-09-14

    In the present study, anti-proliferative activities of cranberry derived flavonoids and some of their in vivo metabolites were evaluated using a panel of human bladder tumor cell lines (RT4, SCABER, and SW-780) and non-tumorigenic immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC). Among the compounds tested, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methylquercetin), myricetin and quercetin showed strong concentration-dependent cell growth inhibitory activities in bladder cancer cells with IC50 values in a range of 8-92 μM. Furthermore, isorhamnetin and myricetin had very low inhibitory activity against SV-HUC even at very high concentrations (>200 μM) compared to bladder cancer cells, indicating that their cytotoxicity is selective for cancer cells. To determine whether the differential cell growth inhibitory effects of isomeric flavonoids quercetin 3-O-glucoside (active) and hyperoside (quercetin 3-O-galactoside) (inactive) are related to their metabolism by the cancer cells, SW-780 cells were incubated with these compounds and their metabolism was examined by LC-MS/MS. Compared to quercetin 3-O-glucoside, hyperoside undergoes relatively less metabolic biotransformation (methylation, glucuronidation and quinone formation). These data suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside may be the active forms of quercetin in prevention of bladder cancer in vivo and emphasize the importance of metabolism for the prevention of bladder cancer by diets rich in cranberries.

  18. IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF VACCINIUM MACROCARPON (CRANBERRY) ON URINARY TRACT PATHOGENS IN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Saima; Chiragh, Sadia; Tariq, Sumbal; Alam, Muhammad Adeel; Wazir, Muhammad Salim; Suleman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (purinary tract infection caused by E coli.

  19. Development and Validation of 697 Novel Polymorphic Genomic and EST-SSR Markers in the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted selection approaches in cranberry breeding programs. To increase the number of available markers in the species, this study identified, tested, and validated microsatellite markers from existing nuclear and transcriptome sequencing data. In total, new primers were designed, synthesized, and tested for 979 SSR loci; 697 of the markers amplified allele patterns consistent with single locus segregation in a diploid organism and were considered polymorphic. Of the 697 polymorphic loci, 507 were selected for additional genetic diversity and segregation analyses in 29 cranberry genotypes. More than 95% of the 507 loci did not display segregation distortion at the p < 0.05 level, and contained moderate to high levels of polymorphism with a polymorphic information content >0.25. This comprehensive collection of developed and validated microsatellite loci represents a substantial addition to the molecular tools available for geneticists, genomicists, and breeders in cranberry and Vaccinium.

  20. Phytochemical and Bioactive Studies on Conyza blinii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yanfang; Zheng Junhua; Guo Dean; Ma Junjiang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Conyza blinii Levl. (Compositae), commonly called Jin Long Dan Cao, is distributed in southwest districts of China. Its aerial parts are used in folk medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, gastroenteritis and other inflammatory diseases. Preliminary pharmacological and clinical tests showed that the aerial parts of C.blinii possessed expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and antibacterial effects. Although many other plants of Conyza have been studied phytochemically, there have been rare reports on the chemical constituents of C. blinii. Moreover, studies on the saponins of Conyza plants have not been observed until now. Therefore,we conducted a detailed phvtochemical investigation and extensive bioassays on C. blinii.

  1. Phytochemical screening of Plumbago zeylanica: A potent Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Tyagi; Ekta Menghani

    2014-01-01

    The results of the phytochemical screening carried out on Plumbago zeylanica leaf sample showed the existence of beneficial phytonutrients. The results showed that Plumbago zeylanica all six solvent extract contained reducing sugar, terpenoids , tannin, alkaloids and flavonoid. The results of the phytochemical screening on the three species of medicinal plants were discussed in relations to their usefulness to mankind.

  2. Bumble bee parasite strains vary in resistance to phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Sadd, Ben M.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Irwin, Rebecca E.; Adler, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Nectar and pollen contain diverse phytochemicals that can reduce disease in pollinators. However, prior studies showed variable effects of nectar chemicals on infection, which could reflect variable phytochemical resistance among parasite strains. Inter-strain variation in resistance could influence evolutionary interactions between plants, pollinators, and pollinator disease, but testing direct effects of phytochemicals on parasites requires elimination of variation between bees. Using cell cultures of the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, we determined (1) growth-inhibiting effects of nine floral phytochemicals and (2) variation in phytochemical resistance among four parasite strains. C. bombi growth was unaffected by naturally occurring concentrations of the known antitrypanosomal phenolics gallic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid. However, C. bombi growth was inhibited by anabasine, eugenol, and thymol. Strains varied >3-fold in phytochemical resistance, suggesting that selection for phytochemical resistance could drive parasite evolution. Inhibitory concentrations of thymol (4.53–22.2 ppm) were similar to concentrations in Thymus vulgaris nectar (mean 5.2 ppm). Exposure of C. bombi to naturally occurring levels of phytochemicals—either within bees or during parasite transmission via flowers—could influence infection in nature. Flowers that produce antiparasitic phytochemicals, including thymol, could potentially reduce infection in Bombus populations, thereby counteracting a possible contributor to pollinator decline. PMID:27883009

  3. Photon-Ion Catalysis Synergy Material and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The co-operation action mechanism and model of photon-ion catalysis synergy material composed of thallium and valency-variable rare earth elements and semiconductor oxide were proposed. The radiation catalysis reactions of water and oxygen assisted by the synergy material that could largely increase electron, free radical and negative ion products were discussed. The applications of photon-ion catalysis synergy material in areas of air cleaning material, antibacterial material, healthy material and energy resource material were suggested.

  4. THE VALUE OF EXTERNAL SYNERGY WITH FUZZY VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmir SABOLOVIC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is interconnection of concept of internal synergy value of business (Sabolovic 2009; Hand – Lev 2004; Ohlson 1995 in terms of fuzzy measure (Casta et. al. 1998, 2003, 2005; Cummis – Derrig 1997; Kosko 1993; Sugeno 1977; Zadeh 1965 to value of external synergy (Damodaran 2006. The conception of fair value of business measurement and assets misevaluations from internal synergy is applied to network economics on measurement of value changes in business combinations.

  5. Atividade antibacteriana e efeito interativo in vitro de um produto a base de cranberry sobre Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raïssa Mayer Ramalho Catão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Produtos derivados de plantas estão sendo bastante estudados devido à possibilidade de apresentarem substâncias com atividades antimicrobianas, principalmente, em decorrência do aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antimicrobianos, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, conhecido como cranberry, é uma planta nativa, bastante difundida na América do Norte por suas propriedades terapêuticas, particularmente, na prevenção e tratamento de infecções urinárias, Este estudo objetivou avaliar in vitro a atividade antibacteriana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de um produto comercial a base de cranberry bem como as possíveis interações deste produto quando em associação com antimicrobianos, frente a cepas de Escherichia coli, As avaliações da atividade antibacteriana e da CIM foram realizadas utilizando-se discos de papel filtro estéreis (Cefar®, embebidos em 30µL da solução contendo frutos de cranberry em diferentes concentrações, O estudo da interferência do produto sobre a efetividade dos antimicrobianos foi realizado embebendo-se os discos de antibióticos, com 30µL da solução de cranberry [20mg/mL] equivalente a ½ CIM, Os resultados mostraram que a solução de cranberry apresentou atividade para todas as cepas de E, coli testadas independentemente do perfil de resistência e foi capaz de provocar diferentes efeitos interativos quando associado aos antimicrobianos, Estes dados comprovam o potencial antibacteriano deste fruto, promissor, para estudos de desenvolvimento de novos fármacos, entretanto, também mostram que em algumas situações, pode interferir sobre a efetividade de antimicrobianos de uso clínico.

  6. Leveraging synergy for multiple agent infotaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintautas, Vadas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Social computation, whether in the form of a search performed by a swarm of agents or the predictions of markets, often supplies remarkably good solutions to complex problems, which often elude the best experts. There is an intuition, built upon many anecdotal examples, that pervading principles are at play that allow individuals trying to solve a problem locally to aggregate their information to arrive at an outcome superior than any available to isolated parties. Here we show that the general structure of this problem can be cast in terms of information theory and derive general mathematical conditions for information sharing and coordination that lead to optimal multi-agent searches. Specifically we illustrate the problem in terms of the construction of local search algorithms for autonomous agents looking for the spatial location of a stochastic source. We explore the types of search problems -defined in terms of the properties of the source and the nature of measurements at each sensor -for which coordination among multiple searchers yields an advantage beyond that gained by having the same number of independent searchers. We assert that effective coordination corresponds to synergy and that ineffective coordination corresponds to redundancy as defined using information theory. We classify explicit types of sources in terms of their potential for synergy. We show that sources that emit uncorrelated particles based on a Poisson process, provide no opportunity for synergetic coordination while others, particularly sources that emit correlated signals, do allow for strong synergy between searchers. These general considerations are crucial for designing optimal algorithms for particular search problems in real world settings.

  7. GENERATING THEMATIC ROUTES BY INNOVATIVE PROJECTS SYNERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model project that can help support SMEs in tourism, by developing andpromoting cultural tourism. The project title is „Generating TRIPS” (Generating Thematic Routes by InnovativeProjects Synergy. The project aims to conceive, design and develop an adequate „info-infrastructure” (a platformwith a set of business models and a set of best practices, all synergically integrated in order to offer support to theSMEs in the field of tourist services for addressing better and better the increasing demands of tourists for adiversified tourist

  8. Biomimetic microstructures for photonic and fluidic synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Maria; Mpatzaka, Theodora; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Vainos, Nikolaos A.

    2017-08-01

    Nature-inspired micro- and nano-structures offer a unique platform for the development of novel synergetic systems combining photonic and microfluidic functionalities. In this context, we examine the paradigm of butterfly Vanessa cardui and develop artificial diffractive microstructures inspired by its natural designs. Softlithographic and nanoimprint protocols are developed to replicate surfaces of natural specimens. Further to their optical behavior, interphases tailored by such microstructures exhibit enhanced hydrophobic properties, as compared to their planar counterparts made of the same materials. Such synergies exploited by new design approaches pave the way to prospective optofluidic, lab-on-chip and sensing applications.

  9. Biomimetic microstructures for photonic and fluidic synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileiou Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature-inspired micro- and nano-structures offer a unique platform for the development of novel synergetic systems combining photonic and microfluidic functionalities. In this context, we examine the paradigm of butterfly Vanessa cardui and develop artificial diffractive microstructures inspired by its natural designs. Softlithographic and nanoimprint protocols are developed to replicate surfaces of natural specimens. Further to their optical behavior, interphases tailored by such microstructures exhibit enhanced hydrophobic properties, as compared to their planar counterparts made of the same materials. Such synergies exploited by new design approaches pave the way to prospective optofluidic, lab-on-chip and sensing applications.

  10. Implementation synergies that exploit situational knowledge strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This paper illustrates how strategic and situated forms of knowledge may increase capacity to implement energy strategies in local urban development projects. Through analysis of front runner implementation projects, we show that the involved planners utilize situational learning processes.......g. regulation, with broader context‐specific learning processes. In doing so, we argue that – what we call – an implementation synergy is established by interlacing different forms of situational knowledge with strategic knowledge about how to reach a desired energy target. In conclusion, the paper identifies...

  11. Evaluation of cranberry juice on bacteriuria and pyuria in spinal cord injured patient with neurogenic bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Rajaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common medical complication experienced by individuals living with SCI . Several factors are responsible for the high prevalence of UTIs in individual with SCI. Concerns regarding the overuse of antibiotics in individuals with SCI and emerge multi-drug-resistant bacteria , has prompted consideration for consumer –directed alternatives to improve urinary tract health. This study was designed to evaluation of cranberry juice on bacteriuria and pyuria and in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder in Shahrekord, Iran. Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial .60 patients (51 male and 9 female with creatinine levels below 1.5 mg/dl and in the analysis of their urine white blood cell (WBC counts were greater than 10 in a high-powered field (pyuria or with a presence of bacteriuria (>= 104 cc/ml in their urine culture selected in this study. Urine analysis and culture were carried out at before and after intervention.Samples was divided into two two groups of 30.The case patients were given a dose of 250 to 300 ml of cranberry juice cocktail with 30% concentration, daily with meals.The control group was fed the same amount of a placebo cocktail.After two weeks, first morning urine analysis and culture test were done.Data collected and analyzed using K-squared method using the SPSS software and Paired-T test technique. Results: Urine analysis and culture before and after interventions show , Urinary PH in case and control groups did not any significant statistical difference before and after intervention (P>0.05. A change in pyuria and bacteriuria levels in case patients was observed after the treatment which was statistically significant (P95٪. Conclusion: Consumption of cranberries can be effective in treating SCI patients with UTI under certain conditions. The effectiveness was most profound in patients with normal GFR who did not use

  12. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R; Mukkavilli, Rao; Yang, Chunhua; Yadav, Pooja; Tandon, Vibha; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Prakash, Satya; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger extract (GE), viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S). However, no study has yet examined the in vivo collaboration among ginger phytochemicals or evaluated the importance, if any, of the natural 'milieu' preserved in whole extract. Here, we comparatively evaluated in vivo efficacy of GE with an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent to those present in whole extract. Orally fed GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetic evaluations and bioavailability measurements addressed the efficacy differences between GE and Mix. Plasma concentration-time profiles revealed multiple peaking phenomenon for ginger constituents when they were fed as GE as opposed to Mix, indicating enterohepatic recirculation. Bioavailability of 6G, 8G, 10G and 6S was 1.6-, 1.1-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, when dosed with GE compared with Mix. In addition, gingerol glucuronides were detected in feces upon intravenous administration confirming hepatobiliary elimination. These data ascribe the superior in vivo efficacy of GE to higher area under the concentration time curves, greater residence time and enhanced bioavailability, of ginger phytochemicals, when fed as a natural extract compared with artificial Mix, emphasizing the usefulness of consuming whole foods over single agents. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R.; Mukkavilli, Rao; Yang, Chunhua; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger extract (GE), viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S). However, no study has yet examined the in vivo collaboration among ginger phytochemicals or evaluated the importance, if any, of the natural ‘milieu’ preserved in whole extract. Here, we comparatively evaluated in vivo efficacy of GE with an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent to those present in whole extract. Orally fed GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetic evaluations and bioavailability measurements addressed the efficacy differences between GE and Mix. Plasma concentration-time profiles revealed multiple peaking phenomenon for ginger constituents when they were fed as GE as opposed to Mix, indicating enterohepatic recirculation. Bioavailability of 6G, 8G, 10G and 6S was 1.6-, 1.1-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, when dosed with GE compared with Mix. In addition, gingerol glucuronides were detected in feces upon intravenous administration confirming hepatobiliary elimination. These data ascribe the superior in vivo efficacy of GE to higher area under the concentration time curves, greater residence time and enhanced bioavailability, of ginger phytochemicals, when fed as a natural extract compared with artificial Mix, emphasizing the usefulness of consuming whole foods over single agents. PMID:24431413

  14. Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from rhizomes of Elephantorrhiza elephantina and Pentanisia prunelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Smart J; Msagati, Titus A M; Krause, Rui W M

    2014-01-01

    Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Ee) and Pentanisia prunelloides (Pp) are two medicinal plants which are widely used to remedy various ailments including diarrhoea, dysentery, inflammation, fever, rheumatism, heartburn, tuberculosis, haemorrhoids, skin diseases, perforated peptic ulcers and sore joints in southern Africa (South Africa, Swaziland, Botswana and Zimbabwe). The following study was conducted to explore the in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant properties and phytochemical profile of the two medicinal plants. The cytotoxicity of the aqueous and methanol extracts and fractions of both species was studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests (BST) for the first time. The results demonstrated that the lethality (LC50) for crude extracts for both plants ranged between 1.8 and 5.8 ppm and was relatively greater than that for the methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of the extracts which ranged between 2.1 ppm and 27 ppm. This suggested that crude extracts were more potent than their respective fractions, further explaining that the different fractions of phytochemicals in these plant species work jointly (in synergy) to exert their therapeutic efficacy. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the two medicinal plants demonstrated a high degree of antioxidant capacity against the DPPH radical with the Duh and Yen inhibition percentage ranging between 4.5% and 72%. Phytochemical studies of the rhizome extracts showed that the major compounds present include flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, triterpenoids (oleanolic acid), the steroidal saponin Diosgenin, the sugars, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, Arabinose and hexoses. This is the first report of the detection and isolation of diosgenin and oleanolic acid from the rhizome extracts of Ee and Pp. All structures were determined using spectroscopic/spectrometric techniques (1H NMR and 13C and LC-ESI-MS) and by comparison with literature data.

  15. Chemopreventive Potential of Synergy1 and Soybean in Reducing Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci in Fisher 344 Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Gourineni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergy1, a prebiotic composed of Inulin and Oligofructose (1 : 1. Soybean meal is a natural source of isoflavones. The objective was to investigate the effects of feeding Synergy1 and SM on the incidence of azoxymethane- (AOM- induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF in Fisher 344 male rats. Rats (54 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n=6. Control group (C was fed AIN-93G and treatment groups Syn1 and SM at 5% and 10% singly and in combinations. Rats were injected with two s/c injections of AOM at 7 and 8 weeks of age at 16 mg/kg body weight and killed at 17 weeks by CO2 asphyxiation. Colonic ACF enumeration and hepatic enzyme activities were measured. Reductions (% in total ACF among treatment groups fed combinations were higher (67–77 compared to groups fed singly (52–64. Synergistic mechanisms among phytochemicals may be responsible suggesting protective role in colon carcinogenesis with implications in food product development.

  16. Managing Risk and Synergies R&D-Collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas

    2004-01-01

    &D collaborations simultaneously. We use modern portfolio theory as an analogy to show how companies active in mobile telecommunication manage risks and create synergies by simultaneously engaging in several inter-firm collaborations.Keywords: Portfolio theory, risk, synergy, R&D collaboration, mobile commerce...

  17. Influence of locomotion speed on biomechanical subtask and muscle synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Kai; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the relationship of biomechanical subtasks, and muscle synergies with various locomotion speeds. Ground reaction force (GRF) of eight healthy subjects is measured synchronously by force plates of treadmill at five different speeds ranging from 0.5m/s to 1.5m/s. Four basic biomechanical subtasks, body support, propulsion, swing, and heel strike preparation, are identified according to GRF. Meanwhile, electromyography (EMG) data, used to extract muscle synergies, are collected from lower limb muscles. EMG signals are segmented periodically based on GRF with the heel strike as the split points. Variability accounted for (VAF) is applied to determine the number of muscle synergies. We find that four muscle synergies can be extracted in all five situations by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Furthermore, the four muscle synergies and biomechanical subtasks keep invariant as the walking speed changes.

  18. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle synergy analysis in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Fei; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu; Wu, De; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To explore the mechanism of lower extremity dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children through muscle synergy analysis. Approach. Twelve CP children were involved in this study, ten adults (AD) and eight typically developed (TD) children were recruited as a control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected bilaterally from eight lower limb muscles of the subjects during forward walking at a comfortable speed. A nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies. In view of muscle synergy differences in number, structure and symmetry, a model named synergy comprehensive assessment (SCA) was proposed to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies. Main results. There existed larger variations between the muscle synergies of the CP group and the AD group in contrast with the TD group. Fewer mature synergies were recruited in the CP group, and many abnormal synergies specific to the CP group appeared. Specifically, CP children were found to recruit muscle synergies with a larger difference in structure and symmetry between two legs of one subject and different subjects. The proposed SCA scale demonstrated its great potential to quantitatively assess the lower-limb motor dysfunction of CP children. SCA scores of the CP group (57.00 ± 16.78) were found to be significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of the control group (AD group: 95.74 ± 2.04; TD group: 84.19 ± 11.76). Significance. The innovative quantitative results of this study can help us to better understand muscle synergy abnormality in CP children, which is related to their motor dysfunction and even the physiological change in their nervous system.

  20. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain (WG) cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases—coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and some form of cancers. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of WG...... are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...... fraction of the phenolics is absorbed in the small intestine, but the availability can be increased by bioprocessing. The major part, however, is passed to the large intestine where the microbiota, which degrade and metabolize DF to SCFAs and gases, also convert the phenolic compounds into a range of other...

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  2. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sunayna; Kumar, Puneet; Malik, Jai

    2013-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  3. Phytochemicals for health, the role of pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochfort, Simone; Panozzo, Joe

    2007-10-03

    Pulses are the seeds of legumes that are used for human consumption and include peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, and fava beans. Pulses are an important source of macronutrients, containing almost twice the amount of protein compared to cereal grains. In addition to being a source of macronutrients and minerals, pulses also contain plant secondary metabolites that are increasingly being recognised for their potential benefits for human health. The best-studied legume is the soybean, traditionally regarded as an oilseed crop rather than a pulse. The potential health benefits of soy, particularly with respect to isoflavone content, have been the subject of much research and the focus of several reviews. By comparison, less is known about pulses. This review investigates the health potential of pulses, examining the bioactivity of pulse isoflavones, phytosterols, resistant starch, bioactive carbohydrates, alkaloids and saponins. The evidence for health properties is considered, as is the effect of processing and cooking on these potentially beneficial phytochemicals.

  4. Phytochemical study of Cistus libanotis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bruno, Maurizio; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of our ongoing study on Mediterranean Flora, we focused the attention on Cistus genus. These plants possess interesting secondary metabolites and are used in many fields, principally in perfumery and more recently as raw material for food supplements (botanicals). n this article, we report the phytochemical analysis of Cistus libanotis L. from Tunisia. Among the diterpenes, labdane compounds resulted absent, in favour of two clerodanes, one of that never reported in Cistus sp. The main representative compounds were found to be several flavonoids with various grades of O-methylation. Other interesting components were two cinnamic esters of borneol, reported here for the first time in Cistus. The identified compounds confirm in part the reported biological properties and add chemotaxonomic data to this complicated genus.

  5. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Begonia malabarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, N; Viswanathan, M B; Saraswathy, A; Balakrishna, K; Brindha, P; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the various extracts of the leaves of Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of six known compounds, viz. friedelin, epi-friedelinol, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, quercetin and beta-sitosterol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The aqueous and organic solvent extracts were also tested against ten human pathogenic bacteria and four fungal strains by the agar-well diffusion method. All the extracts were devoid of antifungal activity against the tested fungi. The hexane extract did not show any activity. The aqueous extracts showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria except Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The chloroform and methanol extracts showed activity against all the tested bacteria. The study supported the claim of the usefulness of the plant in respiratory tract infections and also suggests its use in diarrhoea and skin diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adesuyi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola were Investigated. The Nutritional Analyses involves Proximate analyses; Anti-Nutrient composition and Mineral composition. The Phytochemical parameters carried out were Flavonoids; Phenol; Alkaloids; Saponin and Tannin. The proximate Analyses showed that the sample has high level of Carbohydrate 88.30%, little amount of Crude Fibre and Protein 1.23 and 1.86%, respectively and negligible amount of Ash content 0.47% and Crude Fat 0.19%. Also a considerable level 7.6% of moisture was shown. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of Carbohydrate, dietary fibre and Protein. The Anti-Nutrient composition presents are in negligible amount. The Parameters are Oxalate (0.423 g/100 g, Phytate (0.57 g/100 g and Trypsin Inhibitor (0.37 g/100 g. The Mineral content show a high level of calcium (2200 ppm,Potassium (968 ppm and Sodium (852 ppm. Other mineral analysed were found to range from moderate to negligible. Garcinia Kola could be a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of Anti-Nutrients found that could prevent the absorption of these minerals. The result also show a high level of Saponin (2.471%, Flavonoids (2.041% and Cardiac Glycosides (3.421%. Alkaloids and Tannins were present in Considerable amount 0.647 and 0.34%, respectively. But Phenol is present in negligible amount (0.147%. With the high level of Cardiac glycosides, Garcinia kola can be used as anti-inflammatory and as active components of drugs derived from plants.

  7. The Philosophy of Modern Scientific Knowledge: the Language of Synergy and the Synergy of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kiyashchenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the formation of present-day scientific knowledge is viewed in the paper through the prism of language. Language is seen here not merely as an external form vis-a-vis the content of scientific knowledge, but rather as the mode of emergence and existence of scientific knowledge as a certain reality (Shverev 2001: 509,  the one that evolves as a result of cognitive and communicative practices in transdisciplinary studies. The mutual influence of the language of synergy and the synergy of language leads to a new unity of scientific experience and gives rise to the philosophy of transdisciplinarity (Киященко 2006: 17. 

  8. Pedagogical Synergy: Linking Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro Rolheiser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of attempts to build coherence and capacity in an Ontario school district, focusing on the development of literacy strategies in all of the district’s elementary and secondary schools. In reviewing case studies in four elementary schools, the authors have identified three key elements (instruction, curriculum, and assessment as the key dimensions which have the greatest influence on student achievement. The authors of this paper present a new construct, pedagogical synergy, in which those three elements are combined. Improvements can occur at both the district and school levels when there are horizontal and reciprocal strategies for building capacity and increasing coherence. It is the mutual support between district and schools that provides the power in this new concept.

  9. phytochemical and antibacterial properties of garlic extracts 45

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    residues were used for phytochemical analysis and bioassay. ... was separately dissolved in sterile distilled water and ... the control; the tubes were incubated at 370C for 18 hours. .... Although, gram-negative bacteria .... CAM 3(20): 1-7.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... solutions to the problems of multiple resistances to the existing synthetic .... specific interactions with vital proteins such as enzymes. (Scalbert, 1991) in .... Harborne JB (1998). Phytochemical Methods - A Guide to Modern.

  11. In vitro phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Thymus linearis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiqa Naz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from the whole plant of Thymus linearis were extracted with methanol (crude, chloroform, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol and screened for their phytochemical and antimicrobial potentials. Preliminary phytochemical screening of plant extracts manifests the existence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugars. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies were carried out on various phytochemicals extracted from the extracts of T. linearis which results in the presence of different compounds like amides, aldehydes, carboxylic acid, ethers, alcohol and ketones. All the extracts of T. linearis showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when tested against nine bacterial and four fungal strains. It was concluded from this study that extracts of T. linearis have an array of important phytochemicals and significant activities against some of the multidrug resistant bacterial and medically important fungal strains.

  12. phytochemical properties and antibacterial activities of the leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, NIGERIA ... World Health Organization ..... Table 2: Phytochemical characteristics of the leaf and latex extracts of Calotropis procera. Ingredient. Ethanol.

  13. phytochemical composition and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... the phytochemicals present in the plant. Key words: Securidaca ... based upon single chemicals, many medicinal and aromatic plants exert their ... stored grain preservative (Atawodi et al., 2003;. Belmain et al., 2001). When a ...

  14. Cocoa phytochemicals: recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jaekyoon; Shim, Jaesung; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytochemicals. Cocoa is rich in procyanidins, theobromine, (-)-epicatechin, catechins, and caffeine. Among the phytochemicals present in consumed cocoa, theobromine is most available in human plasma, followed by caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. It has been reported that cocoa phytochemicals specifically modulate or interact with specific molecular targets linked to the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes, and skin aging. This review summarizes comprehensive recent findings on the beneficial actions of cocoa-driven phytochemicals in molecular mechanisms of human health.

  15. Comparative phytochemical analyses of two varieties of Adenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mrs Agoruyo

    Adenia lobata is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases such as cancer in some places ... Keywords: Phytochemicals, Adenia, lobata, Medicinal plant, Antioxidant, Anticancer ..... Planta Medica. 77: 705 ...

  16. Agronomical and phytochemical evaluation of Stevia rebaudiana genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vouillamoz, José F; Wolfram-Schilling, Evelyn; Carron, Claude-Alain; Baroffio, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    The agronomical potential and the phytochemical variability of 18 genotypes of the Paraguayan plant Stevia rebaudiana have been investigated in Switzerland in order identify the best genotype for local cultivation...

  17. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo ... Fresh leaves were shredded and sun dried before milling into vegetable powder and ... Amaranthus and Talinum recorded high mineral contents.

  18. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Phytochemical analysis and ethnobotanical survey of the leaves of Talinum ... nutritional and therapeutic uses in the different localities in South Eastern ... The mature plant measures between 30 cm ... content is low when compared with the.

  19. Analysis preliminary phytochemical raw extract of leaves Nephrolepis pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natally Marreiros Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nephrolepis pectinata popularly known as paulista fern, ladder-heaven, cat tail, belongs to the family Davalliaceae. For the beauty of the arrangements of their leaves ferns are quite commercialized in Brazil, however, have not been described in the literature studies on their pharmacological potential. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the phytochemical properties of the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata. To perform the phytochemical analysis were initially made the collection of the vegetable, preparation of voucher specimen, washing, drying and grinding. Then, extraction by percolation method and end the phytochemical analysis. Preliminary results phytochemicals the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata tested positive for reducing sugars, phenols/tannins (catechins tannins and catechins.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHANASEKARAN.M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alkaloids in leaf tissue. Anatomical and histochemical investigation offered some clues on the localization of certain specific metabolites. This paper revealed preliminary phytochemical constituents of Kigelia pinnta D.C.., by phytochemical and histochemical investigation.

  1. Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from ... of both species was studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests (BST) for the first time. ... Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the two medicinal plants ...

  2. Phytochemical Screening and In-vivo Antipyretic Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Research Article. Phytochemical Screening and In-vivo Antipyretic ... Methods: Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in Wistar rats which were divided into four groups. The animal groups ... Dar et al [6] isolated antioxidant and analgesic ...

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AGAVE SISALANA PERRINE LEAVES (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mwandogo O. Chigodi; David K. Samoei; Mutemi Muthangya

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical properties of the methanolic, Ethyl acetate and Hexane extract of the Agave sisalana Perrine leaves were investigated to evaluate the chemical properties. The phytochemical screening revealed that Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Reducing sugars, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phlobatannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, and Coumarins were present in the three extracts of A. sisalana Perrine leaves while, Alkaloids were present only in the methanolic and Ethyl acetate extracts. Anthraquinones and Em...

  4. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on Ficus Microcarpa L. fil

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaskar, Mohan G.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ficus microcarpa L. fil. (Syn: Ficus retusa) (Moraceae) is well-known traditional medicinal plant. The bark is used for diverse health ailments in traditional and folklore remedies. Aims: The present study was undertaken to lay down pharmacognostical and phytochemical standards. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on fresh, dried and powdered bark was carried out to determine it's morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Furthermore, major phyto...

  5. Role of phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals are plant-derived secondary metabolites, which may exert many biological activities in humans, including anticancer properties. Although recent findings appear to support their role in cancer prevention and treatment, this issue is still controversial. Anti-cancer activity of phytochemicals mainly depends on their multi-target mechanism of action, including antimutagenic, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, they may modulate the host immune response to ca...

  6. Discovery and development of sulforaphane as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuesheng ZHANG; Li TANG

    2007-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a phytochemical that displays both anticarcinogenic and anticancer activity. SF modulates many cancer-related events, including suscep-tibility to carcinogens, cell death, cell cycle, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis.We review its discovery and development as a cancer chemopreventive agent with the intention of encouraging further research on this important compound and facilitating the identification and development of new phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

  7. Phytochemicals as Anticancer and Chemopreventive Topoisomerase II Poisons

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are a rich source of anticancer drugs and chemopreventive agents. Several of these chemicals appear to exert at least some of their effects through interactions with topoisomerase II, an essential enzyme that regulates DNA supercoiling and removes knots and tangles from the genome. Topoisomerase II-active phytochemicals function by stabilizing covalent protein-cleaved DNA complexes that are intermediates in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. As a result, these compounds convert...

  8. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  9. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran, M.; ABRAHAM.G.C; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alka...

  10. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID

  11. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Cranberry Capsules to Prevent Urinary Tract Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: Economic Evaluation with a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Wilbert B; Caljouw, Monique A A; Putter, Hein; Cools, Herman J M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the preventive use of cranberry capsules in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents is cost-effective depending on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk. Design Economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial. Setting Long-term care facilities. Participants LTCF residents (N = 928, 703 female, median age 84), stratified according to UTI risk. Measurements UTI incidence (clinically or strictly defined), survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. Results In the weeks after a clinical UTI, participants showed a significant but moderate deterioration in quality of life, survival, care dependency, and costs. In high-UTI-risk participants, cranberry costs were estimated at €439 per year (1.00 euro = 1.37 U.S. dollar), which is €3,800 per prevented clinically defined UTI (95% confidence interval = €1,300–infinity). Using the strict UTI definition, the use of cranberry increased costs without preventing UTIs. Taking cranberry capsules had a 22% probability of being cost-effective compared with placebo (at a willingness to pay of €40,000 per QALY). In low-UTI-risk participants, use of cranberry capsules was only 3% likely to be cost-effective. Conclusion In high-UTI-risk residents, taking cranberry capsules may be effective in preventing UTIs but is not likely to be cost-effective in the investigated dosage, frequency, and setting. In low-UTI-risk LTCF residents, taking cranberry capsules twice daily is neither effective nor cost-effective. PMID:25180379

  13. Phytochemical diversity in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal is an important commercial medicinal crop, which is considered as an alternate to Ginseng. It is a superior class herb with multiple benefits. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the plant have been used for ages in Ayurveda. The root has been used most frequently for therapeutic uses and is a constituent of over 200 formulations in Ayruvedha, Siddha and Unani medicines. Biologically active chemical constituents are withanolides with adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, memory boosting and stress relieving properties. It is also protective towards arthritis, cartilage degradation, leprosy etc. Owing to its diverse therapeutic uses, there is renewed interest in phytochemistry of this crop. A large number of withanolides have been identified and different therapeutic activities are associated with different constituents viz., withaferine A associated with anti-inflammatory activity and is a safe radiosensitizer/chemotherapeutic agent, withanolide A and withanoside IV known for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and Withanone for anti-cancer and antiaging activities, etc. The success of genetic improvement in this medicinal crop strongly depends on diversity of phytochemical content along with high potential for root yield. Though there are many reports on diversity for root yield and associated traits, systematic studies on chemical diversity are scarce and limited. Therefore efforts were made for systematic collection and evaluation of germplasm from diverse geographical locations in India. One hundred and eight selected accessions were assessed for chemical diversity. The accessions differed both quantitatively and qualitatively for withalonides estimated by HPLC method. The total withalonide content ranged

  14. Ethnic diversity and knowledge synergies: Rethinking the interrelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity, innovation, creativity and knowledge synergies has often been equated directly with competitive advantages. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research and is subsequently based on an intuitive seductive...... desire to see ethnical diversity as productive. Theoretical reviews and empirical research have indicated that the link between diversity and knowledge synergy cannot be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of managerial strategies toward cultural diversity...... and innovation might be appropriate. Based on my empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and knowledge synergies can come in different forms and my empirical findings illustrate situations where both containing and constraining patterns have to be overcome for synergy to thrive....

  15. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502. Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  17. Commiphora leptophloeos Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Jorge J.; Pereira, Aline de P. C.; Jandú, Jannyson J. B.; da Paz, Josinete A.; Crovella, Sergio; dos Santos Correia, Maria T.; de Azevêdo Silva, Jaqueline

    2017-01-01

    Commiphora leptophloeos is a plant specie usually known for its medicinal purposes in local communities in Northeast Brazil. In order to evaluate its therapeutic potential, we aimed to determine the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of C. leptophloeos extracts. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was able to detect the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Three phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC and described as Gallic, Chlorogenic and Protocatechuic acids. On the other hand, H1NMR analysis revealed the presence of hinokinin, a bioactive lignan further characterized in the present work. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for hinokinin ranged from 0.0485 to 3.125 mg/mL in different S. aureus clinical isolates and showed a bactericidal activity against MRSA isolated from blood (MMC 0.40 mg/mL) and postoperative secretion (MMC = 3.125 mg/mL). C. leptophloeos extracts also showed antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium species such as M. smegmatis (MIC = 12.5 mg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 52 mg/mL). Additionally, we determined the toxicity of C. leptophloeos by in vitro HC50 tests with hemolytic activity detected of 313 ± 0.5 μg/mL. Our results showed that C. leptophloeos possesses inhibitory properties against MRSA as well as several other clinically important microorganisms. Furthermore, the present work is the first report of the presence of hinokinin in Commiphora genus. PMID:28174564

  18. Cruciferous plants: phytochemical toxicity versus cancer chemoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayed, Mohamed E; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2009-11-01

    The Cruciferae (also known as the Brassicaceae) are the family of plants that include the various familiar members of the species Brassica oleracea (e.g., broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts) as well as many other plants that are widely consumed in various parts of the world. Forage and root brassicas are widely used as winter feeds for cattle and sheep. A striking and characteristic chemical property of cruciferous plants is their high content of glucosinolates (more than 120 types), which often approaches 1% or more of their dry weight. The interest devoted to this group of natural products is caused by the appreciable biological effects of both the intact glucosinolates (GSLs) and especially the complex group of glucosinolate transformation products produced in non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions. Depending on the concentration and structural types of these compounds, their biological effects can be toxic, anti-nutritional or beneficial to health. Most serious economic problems in livestock seem to result from rapeseed meal; arising from GSLs or their breakdown products. In contrast, GSLs and their isothiocyanate (ITC) hydrolysis products are reportedly well-known protectors against carcinogenesis. GSLs play further protective and evolutionarily important roles in plants. These include allelopathy (suppression of growth of neighboring plants), specific positive and negative feeding cues for some insects and broad antibiotic properties including nematocidal, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and insecticidal activities. The controversy in the referred actions contributed to crucifers' phytochemicals has been exclusively discussed.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF ANTHRAQUINONES FROM CASSIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rizwan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal problem mainly constipation is the major disorder in human beings in almost all regions. The present work aimed to study exclusively on various seeds of Cassia species for exploration and phytochemical estimation of anthraquinones and for its laxative activity. Three species of Cassia namely C. fistula, C. angustifolia,, C. siamea have been taken for the study in which three varieties of Cassia fistula has been taken viz. C. fistula seed marketed, C. fistula seed collected and C. fistula pod. The process was carried out in which initially the samples of different varieties were extracted by four methods namely maceration, percolation, decoction and Soxhlation. The crude extract obtained was subjected for qualitative and quantitative estimation of anthraquinones. The content of total anthraquinone glycoside in the crude extract prepared by each extraction method was determined by U.V. spectrophotometry. The extract prepared by maceration method (Cassia siamea exhibit highest content of anthraquinone glycoside of followed by extract of percolation method, Soxhlation and decoction method. The investigation reviles that seed of C. siamea and C. angustifolia possess maximum amount of anthraquinone glycoside in majority of extraction processes.

  20. Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uberos J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8

  1. Do muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality of behaviour?

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    Naveen eKuppuswamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The muscle synergy hypothesis is an archetype of the notion of Dimensionality Reduction (DR occurring in the central nervous system due to modular organisation. Towards validating this hypothesis, it is however important to understand if muscle synergies can reduce the state-space dimensionality while suitably achieving task control. In this paper we present a scheme for investigating this reduction, utilising the temporal muscle synergy formulation. Our approach is based on the observation that constraining the control input to a weighted combination of temporal muscle synergies instead constrains the dynamic behaviour of a system in trajectory-specific manner. We compute this constrained reformulation of system dynamics and then use the method of system balancing for quantifying the DR; we term this approach as Trajectory Specific Dimensionality Analysis (TSDA. We then use this method to investigate the consequence of minimisation of this dimensionality for a given task. These methods are tested in simulation on a linear (tethered mass and a nonlinear (compliant kinematic chain system; dimensionality of various reaching trajectories is compared when using idealised temporal synergies. We show that as a consequence of this Minimum Dimensional Control (MDC model, smooth straight-line Cartesian trajectories with bell-shaped velocity profiles are obtained as the solution to reaching tasks in both of the test systems. We also investigate the effect on dimensionality due to adding via-points to a trajectory. The results indicate that a synergy basis and trajectory-specific DR of motor behaviours results from usage of muscle synergy control. The implications of these results for the synergy hypothesis, optimal motor control, developmental skill acquisition and robotics are then discussed.

  2. Synergy between X-ray and infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, D M

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review the synergy between X-ray and infrared observations for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) detected in cosmic X-ray surveys, primarily with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and NuSTAR. We focus on two complementary aspects of this X-ray-infrared synergy (1) the identification of the most heavily obscured AGNs and (2) the connection between star formation and AGN activity. We also briefly discuss future prospects for X-ray-infrared studies over the next decade.

  3. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  4. Dissection of protein interactomics highlights microRNA synergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhu

    Full Text Available Despite a large amount of microRNAs (miRNAs have been validated to play crucial roles in human biology and disease, there is little systematic insight into the nature and scale of the potential synergistic interactions executed by miRNAs themselves. Here we established an integrated parameter synergy score to determine miRNA synergy, by combining the two mechanisms for miRNA-miRNA interactions, miRNA-mediated gene co-regulation and functional association between target gene products, into one single parameter. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis indicated that synergy score accurately identified the gene ontology-defined miRNA synergy (AUC = 0.9415, p<0.001. Only a very small portion of the random miRNA-miRNA combinations generated potent synergy, implying poor expectancy of widespread synergy. However, targeting more key genes made two miRNAs more likely to act synergistically. Compared to other miRNAs, miR-21 was a highly exceptional case due to frequent appearance in the top synergistic miRNA pairs. This result highlighted its essential role in coordinating or strengthening physiological and pathological functions of other miRNAs. The synergistic effect of miR-21 and miR-1 were functionally validated for their significant influences on myocardial apoptosis, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The novel approach established in this study enables easy and effective identification of condition-restricted potent miRNA synergy simply by concentrating the available protein interactomics and miRNA-target interaction data into a single parameter synergy score. Our results may be important for understanding synergistic gene regulation by miRNAs and may have significant implications for miRNA combination therapy of cardiovascular disease.

  5. What is synergy? The Saariselkä agreement revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eTang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological or chemical agents when combined interact with each other and produce a synergistic response that cannot be predicted based on the single agent responses alone. However, depending on the postulated null hypothesis of non-interaction, one may end up in different interpretations of synergy. Two popular reference models for null hypothesis include the Bliss independence model and the Loewe additivity model, each of which is formulated from different perspectives. During the last century, there has been an intensive debate on the suitability of these synergy models, both of which are theoretically justified and also in practice supported by different schools of scientists. More than twenty years ago, there was a community effort to make a consensus on the terminology one should use when claiming synergy. The agreement was formulated at a conference held in Saariselkä, Finland in 1992, stating that one should use the terms Bliss synergy or Loewe synergy to avoid ambiguity in the underlying models. We review the theoretical relationships between these models and argue that one should combine the advantages of both models to provide a more consistent definition of synergy and antagonism.

  6. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies; Le nucleaire dans ses synergies avec les renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mermilliod, N. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, 38 (France); Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, S. [CEA Grenoble, European Institute of Technology -KIC InnoEnergy, 38 (France)

    2011-05-15

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  7. The synergy between speech production and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Powen; Chi, Taishih; Shamma, Shihab

    2003-01-01

    Speech intelligibility is known to be relatively unaffected by certain deformations of the acoustic spectrum. These include translations, stretching or contracting dilations, and shearing of the spectrum (represented along the logarithmic frequency axis). It is argued here that such robustness reflects a synergy between vocal production and auditory perception. Thus, on the one hand, it is shown that these spectral distortions are produced by common and unavoidable variations among different speakers pertaining to the length, cross-sectional profile, and losses of their vocal tracts. On the other hand, it is argued that these spectral changes leave the auditory cortical representation of the spectrum largely unchanged except for translations along one of its representational axes. These assertions are supported by analyses of production and perception models. On the production side, a simplified sinusoidal model of the vocal tract is developed which analytically relates a few ``articulatory'' parameters, such as the extent and location of the vocal tract constriction, to the spectral peaks of the acoustic spectra synthesized from it. The model is evaluated by comparing the identification of synthesized sustained vowels to labeled natural vowels extracted from the TIMIT corpus. On the perception side a ``multiscale'' model of sound processing is utilized to elucidate the effects of the deformations on the representation of the acoustic spectrum in the primary auditory cortex. Finally, the implications of these results for the perception of generally identifiable classes of sound sources beyond the specific case of speech and the vocal tract are discussed.

  8. Synergy and group size in microbial cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornforth, Daniel M.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Brown, Sam P.; Brännström, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Microbes produce many molecules that are important for their growth and development, and the consumption of these secretions by nonproducers has recently become an important paradigm in microbial social evolution. Though the production of these public goods molecules has been studied intensely, little is known of how the benefits accrued and costs incurred depend on the quantity of public good molecules produced. We focus here on the relationship between the shape of the benefit curve and cellular density with a model assuming three types of benefit functions: diminishing, accelerating, and sigmoidal (accelerating then diminishing). We classify the latter two as being synergistic and argue that sigmoidal curves are common in microbial systems. Synergistic benefit curves interact with group sizes to give very different expected evolutionary dynamics. In particular, we show that whether or not and to what extent microbes evolve to produce public goods depends strongly on group size. We show that synergy can create an “evolutionary trap” which can stymie the establishment and maintenance of cooperation. By allowing density dependent regulation of production (quorum sensing), we show how this trap may be avoided. We discuss the implications of our results for experimental design. PMID:22854073

  9. An in-silico investigation of anti-Chagas phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, Stephanie F; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million people in tropical and subtropical America are afflicted by American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease. In humans, symptoms of the disease include fever, swelling, and heart and brain damage, usually leading to death. There is currently no effective treatment for this disease. Plant products continue to be rich sources of clinically useful drugs, and the biodiversity of the Neotropics suggests great phytomedicinal potential. Screening programs have revealed numerous plant species and phytochemical agents that have shown in-vitro or in-vivo antitrypanosomal activity, but the biochemical targets of these phytochemicals are not known. In this work, we present a molecular docking analysis of Neotropical phytochemicals, which have already demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, with potential druggable protein targets of the parasite. Several protein targets showed in-silico selectivity for trypanocidal phytochemicals, including trypanothione reductase, pteridine reductase 2, lipoamide dehydrogenase, glucokinase, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, cruzain, dihydrofolate-reductase/thymidylate-synthase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Some of the phytochemical ligands showed notable docking preference for trypanothione reductase, including flavonoids, fatty-acid-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons, geranylgeraniol and the lignans ganschisandrine and eupomatenoid-6.

  10. Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele-Salvatore Scarpa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory that several carcinogenetic processes are initiated and sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs has been validated, and specific methods to identify the CSCs in the entire population of cancer cells have also proven to be effective. This review aims to provide an overview of recently acquired scientific knowledge regarding phytochemicals and herbal extracts, which have been shown to be able to target and kill CSCs. Many genes and proteins that sustain the CSCs’ self-renewal capacity and drug resistance have been described and applications of phytochemicals able to interfere with these signaling systems have been shown to be operatively efficient both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of specific surface antigens, mammosphere formation assays, serial colony-forming unit assays, xenograft transplantation and label-retention assays coupled with Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 activity evaluation are the most frequently used techniques for measuring phytochemical efficiency in killing CSCs. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that EGCG, curcumin, piperine, sulforaphane, β-carotene, genistein and the whole extract of some plants are able to kill CSCs. Most of these phytochemicals act by interfering with the canonical Wnt (β-catenin/T cell factor-lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF-LEF pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers. Therefore, the use of phytochemicals may be a true therapeutic strategy for eradicating cancer through the elimination of CSCs.

  11. Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Emanuele-Salvatore; Ninfali, Paolino

    2015-07-10

    The theory that several carcinogenetic processes are initiated and sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been validated, and specific methods to identify the CSCs in the entire population of cancer cells have also proven to be effective. This review aims to provide an overview of recently acquired scientific knowledge regarding phytochemicals and herbal extracts, which have been shown to be able to target and kill CSCs. Many genes and proteins that sustain the CSCs' self-renewal capacity and drug resistance have been described and applications of phytochemicals able to interfere with these signaling systems have been shown to be operatively efficient both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of specific surface antigens, mammosphere formation assays, serial colony-forming unit assays, xenograft transplantation and label-retention assays coupled with Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity evaluation are the most frequently used techniques for measuring phytochemical efficiency in killing CSCs. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that EGCG, curcumin, piperine, sulforaphane, β-carotene, genistein and the whole extract of some plants are able to kill CSCs. Most of these phytochemicals act by interfering with the canonical Wnt (β-catenin/T cell factor-lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF-LEF)) pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers. Therefore, the use of phytochemicals may be a true therapeutic strategy for eradicating cancer through the elimination of CSCs.

  12. A-Type Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Inhibit the RANKL-Dependent Differentiation and Function of Human Osteoclasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Howell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  13. Measuring farm sustainability using data envelope analysis with principal components: the case of Wisconsin cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengxia; Mitchell, Paul D; Colquhoun, Jed

    2015-01-01

    Measuring farm sustainability performance is a crucial component for improving agricultural sustainability. While extensive assessments and indicators exist that reflect the different facets of agricultural sustainability, because of the relatively large number of measures and interactions among them, a composite indicator that integrates and aggregates over all variables is particularly useful. This paper describes and empirically evaluates a method for constructing a composite sustainability indicator that individually scores and ranks farm sustainability performance. The method first uses non-negative polychoric principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables, to remove correlation among variables and to transform categorical variables to continuous variables. Next the method applies common-weight data envelope analysis to these principal components to individually score each farm. The method solves weights endogenously and allows identifying important practices in sustainability evaluation. An empirical application to Wisconsin cranberry farms finds heterogeneity in sustainability practice adoption, implying that some farms could adopt relevant practices to improve the overall sustainability performance of the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of pesticide resistance on toxicity and tolerance of hostplant phytochemicals in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For some polyphagous insects adaptation to phytochemically novel plants confers enhanced resistance to insecticides, but whether insecticide resistance enhances tolerance to novel phytochemicals has not been assessed. We used Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm), an economically important ...

  15. Phytochemical and antiproliferative activity of proso millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Zhang

    Full Text Available The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20 to 151.14 (Mi2504-6 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20 to 305.81 (Mi2504-6 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6 to 147.32 (Gumi20 µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52 to 136.48 (Gumi 20 µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties.

  16. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries.......Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...

  17. Eine Extraktkombination aus Cranberry, Brunnenkresse und Meerrettich in der Anwendung bei Frauen mit unkompliziertem Harnwegsinfekt // A Complex Preparation of Cranberry, Horseradish and Watercress in the Treatment of Non-Severe Lower Urinary Tract Infect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available iIntroduction:/i Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. Due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistances there is an urgent need for alternative herbal medicinal products for the treatment of non-severe lower UTIs. Vaccinium macrocarpon is effective through various mechanisms of action without inducing resistances in microorganisms. Thus, an observational study (n = 48 was conducted with a preparation of a standardized cranberry extract (67 mg proanthocyanidines combined with glucosinolates containing extracts of Nasturtium officinale and Armoracia rusticana.br iMethods:/i Women (≥ 18 years with an increase in leukocytes in the urine and clinical symptoms typical for UTIs like dysuria, imperative strangury, augmented or new onset of incontinence and suprapubic pain received one of the tablets containing the combined herbal extracts twice daily during the first week and one tablet per day for the following 4 weeks. After 14 days (t1 and after 35 days (t2 taking the tablets a further survey and control check-up with a urine test have been conducted. Patients with persistent clinical symptoms received an antibiotic, for the others the intake of the tablets with the herbal combined extract preparation was continued.briResults:/i 34 patients (70,8 % could abstain from taking antibiotics within the first 14 days (t1 and 32 patients (66,7 % within 35 days (t2. 28 patients (87,5 % were without symptoms at t2. No adverse events were observed.briConclusion:/i This observational study was the first clinical study performed with a combined extract preparation containing Cranberry, Nasturtium and Armoracia, which furthermore supports the concept of using alternative medicine treating non-severe lower UTIs. p bKurzfassung: /biEinleitung:/i Harnwegsinfektionen (HWIs gehören zu den häufigsten bakteriellen Infektionen, die Frauen betreffen. Durch die wachsende Problematik der Antibiotika

  18. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  19. Nanotechnology for the delivery of phytochemicals in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Yang, Zhaogang; Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Jing; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize advances that have been made in the delivery of phytochemicals for cancer therapy by the use of nanotechnology. Over recent decades, much research effort has been invested in developing phytochemicals as cancer therapeutic agents. However, several impediments to their wide spread use as drugs still have to be overcome. Among these are low solubility, poor penetration into cells, high hepatic disposition, and narrow therapeutic index. Rapid clearance or uptake by normal tissues and wide tissue distribution result in low drug accumulation in the target tumor sites can result in undesired drug exposure in normal tissues. Association with or encapsulation in nanoscale drug carriers is a potential strategy to address these problems. This review discussed lessons learned on the use of nanotechnology for delivery of phytochemicals that been tested in clinical trials or are moving towards the clinic.

  20. Phytochemicals and their potential usefulness in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Sahil J; Modi, Ketan P; Majumdar, Anuradha S; Sadarani, Bhakti N

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiology, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Various drug therapies including aminosalicylates and immunomodulators have been approved for use; they have shown to produce diverse side effects. To overcome these limitations of the current therapeutics for IBD, extensive research is underway to identify drugs that are effective and free of undesirable side effects. Recently, various naturally occurring phytochemicals that cover a wide range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, terpeniods, flavonoids, and alkaloids have received attention as alternative candidates for IBD therapy. These phytochemicals act by modulating the immune response, various transcription factors, or reduce cytokine secretion. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on phytochemicals as therapeutic agents in the management of IBD.

  1. RAPD and phytochemical analysis of Thymus moroderi plantlets after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Medina, Ana; Casas, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation is at present the most reliable strategy to preserve plant germplasm. When aromatic plants are the object of conservation it is necessary to assess not only the genetic but also the phytochemical stability to ensure that plant material maintains its qualities after storage. In this work we present molecular and phytochemical stability data related to a previously described vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for Thymus moroderi Pau ex Martínez. RAPD markers have been used to assess the genetic stability of T. moroderi explants and revealed 0.34 percent of variation in the cryopreserved material studied. Phytochemical data collected from GC-MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts from cryopreserved plantlets rendered a profile in which 1,8-cineole (14.5 percent), camphor (5.9 percent) and borneol (5.2 percent) were the major components. Both data confirmed the suitability of the cryopreservation protocol applied.

  2. Agriculture and Bioactives: Achieving Both Crop Yield and Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Torres-Pacheco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are fundamental elements of the human diet, either as direct sources of nutrients or indirectly as feed for animals. During the past few years, the main goal of agriculture has been to increase yield in order to provide the food that is needed by a growing world population. As important as yield, but commonly forgotten in conventional agriculture, is to keep and, if it is possible, to increase the phytochemical content due to their health implications. Nowadays, it is necessary to go beyond this, reconciling yield and phytochemicals that, at first glance, might seem in conflict. This can be accomplished through reviewing food requirements, plant consumption with health implications, and farming methods. The aim of this work is to show how both yield and phytochemicals converge into a new vision of agricultural management in a framework of integrated agricultural practices.

  3. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTINIOPTERIS RADIATA (SWARTZ LINK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manonmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of preliminary phytochemicals in six different solvent extracts of Actiniopteris radiata (Swartz link. by qualitative screening methods. The solvent used for the extraction of leaf and rhizome powder were ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, DMSO and aqueous. The secondary metabolites such as steroids, triterpenoids, reducing sugars, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, catechins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened by using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of both (leaf & rhizome revealed the presence of most active constituents than the other solvents. The ethanolic rhizome extracts of Actiniopteris radiata showed higher amount of phytochemicals when compared with the ethanolic leaf extracts.

  4. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF INORGANICS: REALISM AND SYNERGIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Nicholas M; Baker, Alan J M; Doronila, Augustine; Laidlaw, Scott; Reeves, Roger D

    2009-02-01

    There are very few practical demonstrations of the phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from soils and sediments beyond small-scale and short-term trials. The two approaches used have been based on using 1) hyperaccumulator species, such as Thlaspi caerulescens (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni), Alyssum spp. (Ni, Co), and Pteris vittata (As) or 2) fast-growing plants, such as Salix and Populus spp. that accumulate above-average concentrations of only a smaller number of the more mobile trace elements (Cd, Zn, B). Until we have advanced much more along the pathway of genetic isolation and transfer of hyperaccumulator traits into productive plants, there is a high risk in marketing either approach as a technology or stand-alone solution to clean up contaminated land. There are particular uncertainties over the longer-term effectiveness of phytoextraction and associated environmental issues. Marginally contaminated agricultural soils provide the most likely land use where phytoextraction can be used as a polishing technology. An alternative and more useful practical approach in many situations currently would be to give more attention to crops selected for phytoexclusion: selecting crops that do not translocate high concentrations of metals to edible parts. Soils of brownfield, urban, and industrial areas provide a large-scale opportunity to use phytoremediation, but the focus here should be on the more realistic possibilities of risk-managed phytostabilization and monitored natural attenuation. We argue that the wider practical applications of phytoremediation are too often overlooked. There is huge scope for cross-cutting other environmental agenda, with synergies that involve the recovery and provision of services from degraded landscapes and contaminated soils. An additional focus on biomass energy, improved biodiversity, watershed management, soil protection, carbon sequestration, and improved soil health is required for the justification and advancement of phytotechnologies.

  5. Synergy for a Strong Future FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC is committed to delivering the best combination of scientific research, technology development, business management, and safe, secure operations in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's critical national security mission. LLNS was formed specifically to manage LLNL for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNS consists of a team of five organizations renowned for their expertise and accomplishments throughout the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and beyond - Bechtel National, University of California, Babcock & Wilcox, Washington Division of URS Corporation, and Battelle. Bechtel is the nation's largest engineering and construction firm and a leader in project management. The University of California is the world's largest public research institution. Babcock & Wilcox and the Washington Division of URS Corporation are top nuclear facilities contractors and between them manage four of DOE's five safest sites. Battelle is a global leader in science and technology development and commercialization. The LLNS Board of Governors provides oversight for the management of the Laboratory and holds the Director and LLNS President responsible for the Laboratory's performance. The Board has seven standing committees that assist in assessing Laboratory performance and monitoring risks and internal controls. Through the Board of Governors, the Laboratory can reach back to LLNS partner organizations to help ensure that it fulfills its national security mission with excellence in scientific research, technology development, business management, and safe, secure operations. LLNS assumed management of LLNL on October 1, 2007. This report highlights LLNS accomplishments in FY2008, its first year as the Laboratory's managing contractor. It is clear that LLNS and the Laboratory have exploited numerous synergies inherent in their relationship - for example, science and

  6. THE PHYTOCHEMICAL RICHNESS OF THE IRIDACEAE AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. WILLIAMS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Just as the family Iridaceae is abundant in its morphological and anatomical diversity, so is it rich in its secondary metabolites. Many varied phytochemicals have been described from the family. Isoflavones, first recorded in Iris florentina, have recently been detected in Iris pseudopumila. Almost all common classes of flavonoid are present, while the rarer biflavonoids characterise Isophysis and Patersonia. The anthocyanins in flowers are generally distinctive at the generic level. Quinonoid and xanthone pigments have systematically interesting distribution patterns. Distinctive chemicals in Iris rhizome oils and in Crocus styles are useful economically. Yet other phytochemicals such as nonprotein amino acids and special storage carbohydrates have restricted distribution patterns.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  8. Phytochemical screening of different extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids distribution in n-hexane and aqueous-methanolicextract of kalanchoelaciniata was assessed and compared. The present study was carried out to study the phytochemical constituents of Kalanchoe laciniata. Aqueous-methanol and n-hexane were the solvents used for the extraction of the plant. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on both of these extracts, indicated that n-hexane extract constitutes tannins, terpenoids on the other hand aqueous-methanolic extract contains saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides  and anthraquinones. 

  9. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA LINN.

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    P. N. Dhabale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempt to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemicals parameters of Capparis zeylanica leaves belong to family Caparadaceae is a climbing shrub found in through out India. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat, rheumatism, abdominal ulcers and hernia, swelling, itching, hepatitis, liver tonic, insect poisoning and anti-inflammatory. But there is no standardization work reported on Capparis zeylanica leaves. Physicochemical parameters, preliminary characterization and phytochemical analysis were carried out. There finding will be useful to words establishing quality control parameters for the standardization of the plant material.

  10. Phytochemical study of prickly pear from southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bouzoubaâ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the phytochemical study of the prickly pear pulp’s fruits of two opuntia cultivars; Achefri and Amouslem widely present in two regions of southern Morocco; Arbaa Sahel and Asgherkis that are different in their altitude and annual rainfall. The results of the phytochemical study show that the levels of antioxidants have a non-significant difference between the fruits of the two sites (comparing Amouslem and Achefri in the same site, on the one hand, for the differences due to the variety or cultivar, on the other hand between Amouslem and Achefri from the two sites to show the site effect.

  11. A neuroanatomical framework for upper limb synergies after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus JC McMorland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies describe common patterns of co- or reciprocal activation that occur during movement. After stroke, these synergies change, often in stereotypical ways. The mechanism underlying this change reflects damage to key motor pathways as a result of the stroke lesion, and the subsequent reorganization along the neuroaxis, which may be further detrimental or restorative to motor function. The time course of abnormal synergy formation seems to lag spontaneous recovery that occurs in the initial weeks after stroke. In healthy individuals, motor cortical activity, descending via the corticospinal tract (CST is the predominant driver of voluntary behaviour. When the CST is damaged after stroke, other descending pathways may be up-regulated to compensate. The contribution of these pathways may emerge as new synergies which take shape at the chronic stage after stroke, as a result of plasticity along the neuroaxis. The location of the stroke lesion, and properties of the secondary descending pathways and their regulation are then critical for shaping the synergies in the remaining motor behaviour. A consideration of the integrity of remaining descending motor pathways may aid in the design of new rehabilitation therapies.

  12. A neuroanatomical framework for upper limb synergies after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorland, Angus J C; Runnalls, Keith D; Byblow, Winston D

    2015-01-01

    Muscle synergies describe common patterns of co- or reciprocal activation that occur during movement. After stroke, these synergies change, often in stereotypical ways. The mechanism underlying this change reflects damage to key motor pathways as a result of the stroke lesion, and the subsequent reorganization along the neuroaxis, which may be further detrimental or restorative to motor function. The time course of abnormal synergy formation seems to lag spontaneous recovery that occurs in the initial weeks after stroke. In healthy individuals, motor cortical activity, descending via the corticospinal tract (CST) is the predominant driver of voluntary behavior. When the CST is damaged after stroke, other descending pathways may be up-regulated to compensate. The contribution of these pathways may emerge as new synergies take shape at the chronic stage after stroke, as a result of plasticity along the neuroaxis. The location of the stroke lesion and properties of the secondary descending pathways and their regulation are then critical for shaping the synergies in the remaining motor behavior. A consideration of the integrity of remaining descending motor pathways may aid in the design of new rehabilitation therapies.

  13. Synergy and Anti-Synergy between Palladium and Gold in Nanoparticles Dispersed on a Reducible Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James H; Althahban, Sultan; Nowicka, Ewa; Freakley, Simon J; Morgan, David J; Shah, Parag M; Golunski, Stanislaw; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-10-07

    Highly active and stable bimetallic Au-Pd catalysts have been extensively studied for several liquid-phase oxidation reactions in recent years, but there are far fewer reports on the use of these catalysts for low-temperature gas-phase reactions. Here we initially established the presence of a synergistic effect in a range of bimetallic Au-Pd/CeZrO4 catalysts, by measuring their activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The catalysts were then evaluated for low-temperature WGS, CO oxidation, and formic acid decomposition, all of which are believed to be mechanistically related. A strong anti-synergy between Au and Pd was observed for these reactions, whereby the introduction of Pd to a monometallic Au catalyst resulted in a significant decrease in catalytic activity. Furthermore, monometallic Pd was more active than Pd-rich bimetallic catalysts. The nature of the anti-synergy was probed by several ex situ techniques, which all indicated a growth in metal nanoparticle size with Pd addition. However, the most definitive information was provided by in situ CO-DRIFTS, in which CO adsorption associated with interfacial sites was found to vary with the molar ratio of the metals and could be correlated with the catalytic activity of each reaction. As a similar correlation was observed between activity and the presence of Au(0)* (as detected by XPS), it is proposed that peripheral Au(0)* species form part of the active centers in the most active catalysts for the three gas-phase reactions. In contrast, the active sites for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol are generally thought to be electronically modified gold atoms at the surface of the nanoparticles.

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF COSMETICS FOR HAIR COLORING

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    Pietrzyk D.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Henna-based cosmetic products are becoming increasingly popular. They can be used during pregnancy, lactation as well as for temporary children’s tattoo. The aim of this work is to develop quality control methods, allowing determining the naturalness of the composition of hair coloring cosmetic products, as well as the presence of lawsone and its quantitative content. Material & methods The researched objects were eight hair coloring cosmetic products. The spectrophotometer UV-vis Evolution 60S was used in our phytochemical studies. The quantitative content of chlorophyll a and b was determined in methanolic extracts by spectrophotometric method, using the methodology proposed by K. Miazek. By using well-known methods, methanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the studied objects. The extracts, then, were purified to obtain dry residues containing lawsone. Hair color pastes were obtained according to the instructions on the packages of researched products, and finally chloroform extracts were obtained from these pastes.Quantitative content of lawsone in methanolic and aqueous extracts and dry residues after cleaning of the extracts were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The wavelengths at which the solution of lawsone gives absorption maxima were determined experimentally on the basis of the spectra of the standard sample of lawsone dissolved in methanol (methanolic extracts and in water with the addition of aqueous NaHCO3 (aqueous extracts.The quantitative content of polyphenolic compounds in methanolic and aqueous extracts of the researched objects in terms of gallic acid was performed by the spectrophotometric method at the wavelength of 765 nm using the technique of Folin - Ciocalteau. The gallic acid (by virtue of absorbance dependence on concentration was used as a standard sample to construct the calibration graph. Results & discussion The total content of chlorophyll in the samples was determined by

  15. Explosive spreading on complex networks: the role of synergy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Quan-Hui; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the vast literature on spreading dynamics on complex networks, the role of local synergy, i.e., the interaction of elements that when combined produce a total effect greater than the sum of the individualelements, has been studied but only for irreversible spreading dynamics. Reversible spreading dynamics are ubiquitous but their interplay with synergy has remained unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we articulate a model to incorporate local synergistic effect into the classical susceptible-infected-susceptible process, in which the probability for a susceptible node to become infected through an infected neighbor is enhanced when the neighborhood of the latter contains a number of infected nodes. We derive master equations incorporating the synergistic effect, with predictions that agree well with the numerical results. A striking finding is that, when a parameter characterizing the strength of the synergy reinforcement effect is above a critical value, the steady state density of the infected ...

  16. Identification of muscle synergies associated with gait transition in humans

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    Shota eHagio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest how the central nervous system (CNS controls a variety of muscles associated with gait transition between walking and running. Here, we examined the motor control during a gait transition based on muscle synergies, which modularly organize functionally similar muscles. To this end, the subjects walked or ran on a treadmill and performed a gait transition spontaneously as the treadmill speed increased or decreased (a changing speed condition or voluntarily following an experimenter’s instruction at constant treadmill speed (a constant speed condition. Surface electromyograms (EMGs were recorded from 11 lower limb muscles bilaterally. We then extracted the muscle weightings of synergies and their activation coefficients from the EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. As a result, the gait transition was controlled by approximately 9 muscle synergies, which were common during a walking and running, and their activation profiles were changed before and after a gait transition. Near a gait transition, the peak activation phases of the synergies, which were composed of plantar flexor muscles, were shifted to an earlier phase at the walk-to-run transition, and vice versa. The shifts were gradual in the changing speed condition, but an abrupt change was observed in the constant speed condition. These results suggest that the CNS low-dimensionally regulate the activation profiles of the specific synergies based on afferent information (spontaneous gait transition or by changing only the descending neural input to the muscle synergies (voluntary gait transition to achieve a gait transition.

  17. Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Swapna; Dixit, Madhulika

    2015-01-01

    Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.

  18. Cancer therapy with phytochemicals: evidence from clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the major causes of mortality in both developing and developed countries. At this time, in spite of intensive interventions, a large number of patients have poor prognosis. Therefore, the effort for finding new anticancer agents with better efficacy and lesser side effects has continued. According to the traditional recommendations and experimental studies, numerous medicinal plants have been reported to have anticancer effect. Also antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects of several phytochemicals have been shown with in vitro experiments or animal studies. However, only a small number of them were tested in cancerous patients and limited evidence exists on their clinical effectiveness. Also, regarding some phytochemicals, only beneficial effects on cancer-related symptoms or on quality of life have been reported and no positive results exist on their antitumor actions. In this review we focus on phytochemicals that their beneficial effects on various types of cancer are supported by clinical trials. Based our literature search, curcumin, green tea, resveratrol and Viscum album had satisfactory instances of clinical evidence for supporting their anticancer effects. The main findings on these phytochemicals are summarized and discussed.

  19. The Health Potential of Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals: Notable Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2016-05-18

    Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of five to eight portions (400-600 g) daily of fruits and vegetables to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, poor cognitive performance, and other diet-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies. Much of their potential for disease prevention is thought to be provided by phytochemicals, among which the preventive activity of antioxidants is most well documented. Since numerous meta-studies published indicate variable and often contradictory results about the impact of isolated phytochemicals on health, their consumption as supplements must be carried out with care, because doses may exceed the recommended nutritional intake. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that whole fruit and vegetable intake is more important in providing health benefits than that of only one of their constituent, because of additive and synergistic effects. This review describes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of some selected fruits and vegetables. Importantly, since some phytochemicals regulate the same genes and pathways targeted by drugs, diets rich in fruits and vegetables in combination with medical therapies are being considered as novel approaches to treatment. Therefore, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetable might be a promising tool for the prevention and/or amelioration of a wide range of diseases.

  20. New analytical approaches for faster or greener phytochemical analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chapter 1 provides a short introduction into the constraints of phytochemical analysis. In order to make them faster, less laborious and greener, there is a clear scope for miniaturized and simplified sample preparation, solvent-free extractions and the use

  1. Modern Phytochemical Analysis: Evaluation in Plant Tissues and Processed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in chromatography separation media, solvent delivery mechanisms, microprocessor driven hardware, computer software, and chemical detectors have combined to usher in a new era of phytochemical analysis. Technological advances have given rise to bench-top gas and liquid chromatography system...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE GENUS ZINGIBER FROM FAMILY ZINGIBERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarkar A. R.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of three Zingiber species (Zingiberaceae revealed presence of phenols and phenolic compounds, acicubin, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid and lignins leucoanthocyanis, catechol, tannins, quinone, naptho-quinones and coumarin are absence in all the species. The chemical compounds like syringin glycosides, saponin are doubtful in these species.

  3. New analytical approaches for faster or greener phytochemical analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chapter 1 provides a short introduction into the constraints of phytochemical analysis. In order to make them faster, less laborious and greener, there is a clear scope for miniaturized and simplified sample preparation, solvent-free extractions and the use

  4. Role of Polyphenols and Other Phytochemicals on Molecular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.

  5. Dietary Phytochemicals In Neuroimmunoaging: A New Therapeutic Possibility For Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziamaria Corbi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although several efforts have been made in the search for genetic and epigenetic patterns linked to diseases, a comprehensive explanation of the mechanisms underlying pathological phenotypic plasticity is still far from being clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation are two of the major triggers of the epigenetic alterations occurring in chronic pathologies, such as neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made to realize that chronic, low-grade inflammation is one of the major risk factor underlying brain ageing. Accumulated data strongly suggest that phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices may exert relevant immunomodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory activities in the context of brain aging. Starting by the evidence that a common denominator of aging and chronic degenerative diseases is represented by inflammation, and that several dietary phytochemicals are able to potentially interfere with and regulate the normal function of cells, in particular neuronal components, aim of this review is to summarise recent studies on neuroinflammaging processes and proofs indicating that specific phytochemicals may act as positive modulators of neuroinflammatory events. In addition, critical pathways involved in mediating phytochemicals effects on neuroinflammaging were discussed, exploring the real impact of these compounds in preserving brain health before the onset of symptoms leading to inflammatory neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

  6. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scie

  7. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed

  8. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Root and Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (March, 2012), 20(1): 1-6. ISSN 0794-5698 ... Streptococcus pyrogenes. The phytochemical ... pungent sap latex is used to treat boils, infected wounds and other skin problems in people and to.

  9. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude extracts were obtained by maceration with hexane and methanol. The crude methanol ... Results: Phytochemical screening results showed that A. vepretorum extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids and ... and a weak antioxidant activity [12]. It was .... Sarcoma-180 cells maintained in vivo were added with ...

  10. ON THE NOTION OF SYNERGY OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AS DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available History of developing synergy between monoclonal antibodies, anti-tumor activity of monoclonal antibodies against tyrosine-kinases receptors EGFR/ErbB-1 and HER2/ErbB-2 as well as growth factor VEGF in various combinations are considered in the article. There were proposed hypotheses about potential molecular mechanisms underlay synergy between monoclonal antibodies (for homo- and hetero combinations of antibodies appropriately specific for antigenic determinants on the same or different receptors. Future trends in researches necessary to deeper understanding causes of this phenomenon and perspectives for practical application of monoclonal antibodies acted synergistically as immunotherapeutic drugs for human tumors treatment are reviewed.

  11. Synergy or antagonism—interactions between stressors on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, R. P.

    2010-03-01

    Throughout the coral reef scientific literature, there are many examples where the words ‘synergy’ and ‘synergism’ are being misused, particularly in the area of study involving interactions between physical stressors. This Perspective discusses the concept of synergy and more generally, interactions; summarises the tools available for detecting and interpreting interactions, including the use of ANOVA, generalized linear models, classification and regression trees and isobolographic analysis; and critically examines specific areas of the scientific literature where synergy has been reported. The aim is to promote further discussion of this topic, avoid future misuse of the term, and assist future experimental design and research into this subject.

  12. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  13. Effect Of Fertilization And Mycorrhization On Growth And Nutritional Status Of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon Ait. In The Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michałojć Zenia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer characterized by a controlled release of nutrients (CRF – Osmocote 6M, agent with sustained-releasing components (SRF – Hortiform pH, fertigation and fertilization using Hortiform pH combined with fertigation, were applied. The vaccine contained fungi of Hymenoscyphus sp. genus that are characteristic for Vaccinium genus. Significantly greater weight of plant shoots as well as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were recorded in plants supplied with the mycorrhizal vaccine. A positive effect of slow-releasing fertilizers on plant weight and their chemical composition has been demonstrated, whereas plants fertigated developed lower mass of shoots and contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

  14. Acute toxicity of drainage ditch water from a Washington State cranberry-growing region to Daphnia pulex in laboratory bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Barbara; Stark, John D

    2002-10-01

    High concentrations of organophosphorous insecticides resulting from cranberry bog applications were detected in the Grayland Drainage Ditch (GDD) system in Grayland, Washington State, during the 1994-1996 Washington State Department of Ecology Pesticide Monitoring Program. This drainage ditch system drains cranberry bogs and enters the Pacific Ocean via the North Cove and Supon Inlet. Concerns about the impact of these pesticides on human and environmental health led to this investigation of the potential impact on an indicator species, Daphnia pulex. To determine the toxic effects of multiple pesticides entering the GDD, standardized laboratory toxicity tests with D. pulex were conducted concurrently with the Washington State Department of Ecology pesticide sampling. Concentrations of three insecticides, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl, were the highest ever detected in state waters. The GDD water was found to cause acute toxicity in 33% of the laboratory bioassays conducted. Regression analysis, however, detected a poor correlation between total insecticide detected and percentage mortality of D. pulex at the two drainage ditch sites studied, Grays Harbor County site and the Pacific County site. However, the relationship between mortality of D. pulex and detected concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos were significant. Sampling schedules for chemical analysis and bioassay testing appear to be the primary reason that statistical analysis failed to correlate mortality with detected OP pesticide concentrations. Grab samples used in toxicity testing may over- or underestimate actual concentrations of contaminants present in the system being studied.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  16. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  17. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsin-I; Chen, Kuan-Sheng; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming

    2016-04-01

    To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment). 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells. None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration. Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.

  18. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety of cranberry extract powder as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    products. Considering the composition, manufacturing process, intake, history of consumption of the source and human data, the Panel considers that the data provided do not give reasons for safety concerns. The Panel concludes that the cranberry extract powder is safe as a food ingredient at the proposed...

  20. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  1. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with comparat...

  2. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Van Ness, Peter H.; Bianco, Luann; Rink, Andrea; Rubeck, Sabina; Ginter, Sandra; Argraves, Stephanie; Charpentier, Peter; Acampora, Denise; Trentalange, Mark; Quagliarello, Vincent; Peduzzi, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Importance Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, non-antimicrobial, prevention strategy used in this population. Objective To test the effect of two oral cranberry capsules once per day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes Design, Setting, and Participants This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and surveillance of one year. 21 nursing homes with at least 90 beds and within 50 miles of New Haven, CT participated. 185 English-speaking, female, nursing home residents, age 65 or older, with or without bacteriuria and pyuria at baseline, were randomized. The study was conducted from 8/24/12-10/26/15. Intervention Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (i.e., 72mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice), versus placebo administered once per day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the presence of bacteriuria (i.e., at least 105 cfu/mL of one or two microorganisms on urine culture) plus pyuria (i.e., any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every two months for a total of six assessments over the one year of surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multi-drug antibiotic resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration. Results Among 185 women who were randomized (mean age 86.4 years [± 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence to capsule administration was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI 18

  3. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Van Ness, Peter H; Bianco, Luann; Rink, Andrea; Rubeck, Sabina; Ginter, Sandra; Argraves, Stephanie; Charpentier, Peter; Acampora, Denise; Trentalange, Mark; Quagliarello, Vincent; Peduzzi, Peter

    2016-11-08

    Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, nonantimicrobial prevention strategy used in this population. To test the effect of 2 oral cranberry capsules once a day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and involving 185 English-speaking women aged 65 years or older, with or without bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline, residing in 21 nursing homes located within 50 miles (80 km) of New Haven, Connecticut (August 24, 2012-October 26, 2015). Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (ie, 72 mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice) vs placebo administered once a day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants. Presence of bacteriuria (ie, at least 105 colony-forming units [CFUs] per milliliter of 1 or 2 microorganisms in urine culture) plus pyuria (ie, any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every 2 months over the 1-year study surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multidrug antibiotic-resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration. Of the 185 randomized study participants (mean age, 86.4 years [SD, 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI, 18.6%-33.9%) of the treatment group and in 29.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-37.9%) of the control group. The adjusted generalized estimating equations model that accounted for missing data and covariates showed no significant difference in the presence of bacteriuria

  4. Effectiveness of Cranberry Capsules to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Vulnerable Older Persons: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caljouw, Monique A A; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Putter, Hein; Achterberg, Wilco P; Cools, Herman J M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cranberry capsules prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Design Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Setting Long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Participants LTCF residents (N = 928; 703 women, median age 84). Measurements Cranberry and placebo capsules were taken twice daily for 12 months. Participants were stratified according to UTI risk (risk factors included long-term catheterization, diabetes mellitus, ≥1 UTI in preceding year). Main outcomes were incidence of UTI according to a clinical definition and a strict definition. Results In participants with high UTI risk at baseline (n = 516), the incidence of clinically defined UTI was lower with cranberry capsules than with placebo (62.8 vs 84.8 per 100 person-years at risk, P = .04); the treatment effect was 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.97). For the strict definition, the treatment effect was 1.02 (95% CI = 0.68–1.55). No difference in UTI incidence between cranberry and placebo was found in participants with low UTI risk (n = 412). Conclusion In LTCF residents with high UTI risk at baseline, taking cranberry capsules twice daily reduces the incidence of clinically defined UTI, although it does not reduce the incidence of strictly defined UTI. No difference in incidence of UTI was found in residents with low UTI risk. PMID:25180378

  5. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  6. Muscle synergy patterns as physiological markers of motor cortical damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent C K; Turolla, Andrea; Agostini, Michela; Silvoni, Stefano; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kasi, Patrick; Paganoni, Sabrina; Bonato, Paolo; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-09-04

    The experimental findings herein reported are aimed at gaining a perspective on the complex neural events that follow lesions of the motor cortical areas. Cortical damage, whether by trauma or stroke, interferes with the flow of descending signals to the modular interneuronal structures of the spinal cord. These spinal modules subserve normal motor behaviors by activating groups of muscles as individual units (muscle synergies). Damage to the motor cortical areas disrupts the orchestration of the modules, resulting in abnormal movements. To gain insights into this complex process, we recorded myoelectric signals from multiple upper-limb muscles in subjects with cortical lesions. We used a factorization algorithm to identify the muscle synergies. Our factorization analysis revealed, in a quantitative way, three distinct patterns of muscle coordination-including preservation, merging, and fractionation of muscle synergies-that reflect the multiple neural responses that occur after cortical damage. These patterns varied as a function of both the severity of functional impairment and the temporal distance from stroke onset. We think these muscle-synergy patterns can be used as physiological markers of the status of any patient with stroke or trauma, thereby guiding the development of different rehabilitation approaches, as well as future physiological experiments for a further understanding of postinjury mechanisms of motor control and recovery.

  7. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  8. Control of reaching movements by muscle synergy combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eD'avella

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the movement of the arm to achieve a goal, such as reaching for an object, is challenging because it requires coordinating many muscles acting on many joints. The central nervous system might simplify the control of reaching by directly mapping initial states and goals into muscle activations through the combination of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation profiles. Here we review recent results from the analysis of reaching muscle patterns supporting such a control strategy. Muscle patterns for point-to-point movements can be reconstructed by the combination of a small number of time-varying muscle synergies, modulated in amplitude and timing according to movement directions and speeds. Moreover, the modulation and superposition of the synergies identified from point-to-point movements captures the muscle patterns underlying multi-phasic movements, such as reaching through a via-point or to a target whose location changes after movement initiation. Thus, the sequencing of time-varying muscle synergies might implement an intermittent controller which would allow the construction of complex movements from simple building blocks.

  9. Geothermal and hydrocarbon esploration - The double play synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Kramers, L.; Mijnlieff, H.F.; Jong, S. de; Scheffers, B.

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear synergy possible in geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration if wells are targeted in a double play concept. In the Netherlands, clastic aquifers which have been explored extensively by the hydrocarbon industry and are now targeted for geothermal energy qualify well for a double play.

  10. Ethnic diversity and knowledge synergies: Rethinking the interrelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity, innovation, creativity and knowledge synergies has often been equated directly with competitive advantages. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research and is subsequently based on an intuitive seductive...

  11. A measure of internal synergy of the collective system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors examine the methodology of HRM personnel management based on ratings. Proposed to represent a collective system that uses a matrix of pair relations as a system of linear differential equations. The condition of auto generation of an autonomous system can be determined by the application of the Laplace transformation to the system. This condition mainly depends on the main eigenvalue of dating relationships matrix. Assuming the oscillation frequency is straightly proportional to the system's synergy rating, a special algorithm of comparative evaluation of several collective systems was suggested. Methods: The calculation of the rating of internal synergies is based on the representation of the collective system as a system of linear differential equations, the coefficients of which are obtained by questionnaire survey of all members of the team. Internal representation of the system's synergism as a stimulation of an autonomous system allows using the eigenvector of the system as a measure of internal synergies. Results: The result of this method is the rating of members of interacting collective systems in terms of their contribution to the self-organization sharing behavior.  Conclusions:  Using a matrix of pair relations allows without direct programming and only using MathCad determines the measure of internal synergy of a collective system.  

  12. Academic Entrepreneurship and Traditional Academic Duties: Synergy or Rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of academic entrepreneurship on traditional academic duties carried out in a resource-constrained environment, particularly focusing on whether there is synergy or rivalry between these two activities. Using qualitative evidence, we discover that there are funding, resource, knowledge and skill and networking…

  13. Bibliometrics and Information Retrieval - Creating Knowledge through Research Synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Ilan, Judit; Koopman, Rob; Wang, Shenghui; Scharnhorst, Andrea; John, Marcus; Mayr, Philipp; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This panel brings together experts in bibliometrics and information retrieval to discuss how each of these two important areas of information science can help to inform the research of the other. There is a growing body of literature that capitalizes on the synergies created by combining methodologi

  14. Building Synergy: The Power of High Performance Work Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Martha A.; Van Buren, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that high-performance work systems create the synergy that lets companies gain and keep a competitive advantage. Identifies the components of high-performance work systems and critical action steps for implementation. Describes the results companies such as Xerox, Lever Brothers, and Corning Incorporated have achieved by using them. (JOW)

  15. The synergy of creativity and critical thinking in engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spuzic, Sead; Narayanan, Ramadas; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    framework. It has been widely recognised that engineering design encompasses two ways of thinkingdcreative and critical. A central argument that the synergy of creativity and criticality is significantly enhanced by connecting true interdisciplinary augmentation with the fine arts is discussed along...

  16. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  17. Agronomical and phytochemical evaluation of Stevia rebaudiana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vouillamoz, José F.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The agronomical potential and the phytochemical variability of 18 genotypes of the Paraguayan plant Stevia rebaudiana have been investigated in Switzerland in order identify the best genotype for local cultivation. Over a two years period, yields in dry leaves ranged from 10 to 170 g m-2, with a percentage of leaves ranging from 53 to 75 %. HPLC analyses showed a notable variability in phytochemical composition, with stevioside content ranging from 0.3 to 7.9 % w/w and rebaudioside A from 0.3 to 6.5 % w/w. Cultivation of S. rebaudiana in Switzerland is feasible. With a density of 10 plants per m2, the potential yields of dry matter are approximately 1-2 t ha-1. The most productive genotypes (Pharmasaat, Hem Zaden, Stepa and Mediplant 3 and 11 will be submitted to the industry for organoleptic evaluation.

  18. An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of the Genus Meconopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Bai, Ruifeng; Zhao, Baosheng; Feng, Xiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Tu, Pengfei; Chai, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    The Meconopsis plants (Chinese: ), belonging to the family Papaveraceae, have been used as traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) for thousands of years. Meconopsis has the effects of clearing heat, reducing swelling, and easing pain, and is mainly prescribed for heat syndromes, hepatitis, pneumonia, and pain in joints. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of major isoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological research has demonstrated its antitumor, hepatoprotective, analgestic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antitussive, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, resource availability, in-depth in vivo pharmacological study and qualitative and quantitative analysis are still insufficient and deserve further efforts. This paper provides a comprehensive advance on the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of the genus, in hopes of promoting a better understanding of their medicinal values.

  19. Health Promoting Effects of Phytochemicals from Brassicaceae: A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savinder Kaur Mann and Namita Khanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, natural antioxidants have attracted considerable interest as potential treatment for a wide variety of disease states, including cancer and other causes e.g. chronic inflammatory diseases and aging. Therefore, plant derived antioxidants are now receiving a special attention as they possess good antioxidant properties and hence a worldwide trend towards the use of natural phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables have been reported. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases and reduced incidence of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and other sites. The substances that seem to be responsible for these properties are phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, polyphenols etc. and sulphur-containing organic compound glucosinolates and their derived products. The present review focuses on the health promoting effects of phytochemicals and their beneficial bioactivities in Brassicaceae.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SEEDS OF PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed RafiqKhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralea corylifolia known as “Babchi” is a medicinal plant for the treatment of skin diseases. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicines have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various disorders. In our present investigation preliminary phytochemical analysis of Psoralea corylifolia has been evaluated for the presence of bioactive constituents using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of maximum compounds including carbohydrates, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, amino acid and proteins, cardiac glycosides. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Psoralea corylifolia has promising therapeutic potential and can be used as a base for the development of novel potent drugs in phytomedicine.

  1. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China.

  2. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  3. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE A. GIRARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv. extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano, L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  4. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  5. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii.Methods:and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree.Conclusions:Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii.

  6. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of Indigofera serpentinicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Kahiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and aqueous root extracts of Indigofera serpentinicola were investigated for their phytochemical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tanins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, reducing sugars oils and fats in both extracts. Flavanoids were only detected in the methanolic extract. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The extracts showed low activity against Staphylococus aureus, Cornybacterium diptheriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and no activity against Escherichia coli. The diameters zones of inhibition ranged between 3-10 mm. The aqueous extract had higher activity showing zones of inhibition of 10 mm against S. enterica. Brine shrimp lethality test showed LC50 values which ranged from 0.079-0.158 mg/mL, showing that the extracts were highly toxic.

  7. Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Sattya Narayan; Hossain, Mohammad Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd). It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica. PMID:25197312

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  9. Phytochemical, antioxidant, antiviral and cytotoxic evaluation of Opuntia dillenii flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Arthanari Saravana Kumar; Mani Ganesh; Mei Mei Peng; Jang Hyun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia dillenii used in Asian traditional medicine especially in China. We here report on the investigation of the phytochemical content, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanolic extract of O. dillenii flowers. The antioxidant activity was measured with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging method. In the antiviral and cytotoxic assay we used different viruses in different cell lines. In antioxidant assay, the DPPH assay exhibited potent antioxid...

  10. Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele-Salvatore Scarpa; Paolino Ninfali

    2015-01-01

    The theory that several carcinogenetic processes are initiated and sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been validated, and specific methods to identify the CSCs in the entire population of cancer cells have also proven to be effective. This review aims to provide an overview of recently acquired scientific knowledge regarding phytochemicals and herbal extracts, which have been shown to be able to target and kill CSCs. Many genes and proteins that sustain the CSCs’ self-renewal capacity ...

  11. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Helleborus niger L root

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    V Kishor Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. Aims: To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Results: Macroscopically, the roots are brownish-black in colour, cylindrical in shape, feeble odour, slightly acrid taste with irregularly branched. Microscopically the root showed the presence of epidermis, air-chambers, fissure periderm, periderm, inner cortex, pith, phloem, xylem, vessels and xylem vessels. Microscopic examination of the powder showed the presence of parenchyma cells, parenchyma mass, periderm, cell inclusion, laticifer, lateral wall pith, perforation, xylem bundle and xylem elements. Ultra-violet and ordinary light analyses with different reagents were conducted to identify the drug in powder form. Physico-chemical evaluation established, Ash values - Total, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash values were 7.3%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Extractive values - Alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble extractive values were 22.8%, 7.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Loss on drying was 3.3%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, flavonoid, phytosterols, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. This will serve as appropriate, standards for discovery of this plant material in future investigations and applications and also contribute towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards.

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EUPHORBIA RESINIFERA L.

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    Houcine Benmehdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at detecting the phytochemicals and evaluating the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia resinifera known for their medicinal properties in folk medicine. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aerial part of Euphorbia resinifera. The assessment of antifungal activity was performed in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum. The antibacterial effect was studied by the agar direct contact method using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains. Then, the antioxidant evaluation of the extracts of alkaloids, flavonoids and methanolic extract was performed by DPPH• free radical scavenging and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC techniques. The phytochemical estimation revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponosides. These phytochemicals were isolated from the plant with yields of 0.7 %, 0.4 % and 0.35 %. HPTLC screening provided qualitatively the antioxidant effect of extracts under study. Furthermore, it was found that the methanolic, flavonoids and alkaloids extracts had a potent DPPH scavenging potency with IC50 values of 0.0086; 0.378 and 1.171 mg/mL, respectively. Finally, the results of antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract showed a pronounced antifungal activity against the tested strains. The percentage inhibition values were found to be in the range of 64.14 to 85.51 % against Aspergillus flavus and 60.33 to 92.28 % against Penicillium expansum. In contrast, the same extract inhibited only the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Further study is recommended to isolate and elucidate the active compounds and to evaluate in vivo their antioxidant and antimicrobial effect.

  13. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Derris scandens

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    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Different fractions of root and stem of Derris scandens demonstrated good antibacterial (Escherichia coli, and Bacillus megaterium, antialgal (Chlorella fusca, and antifungal (Microbotryum violaceum activities. Phytochemical investigation resulted in isolation of scandenin, scandenin A, betulinic acid, lupeol, β-amyran-3-one, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and ß-sitosterol glucopyranoside. Study showed that scandenin has strong antibacterial activity against B. megaterium and good antifungal and antialgal properties. Scandenin A showed good antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties.

  14. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  15. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening 4 of Arbutus unedo L

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Allali, Hocine; Bendiabdellah, Amel; Meliani, Nawel; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of water and methanol extract, and three phenolic fractions of the roots of Arbutus unedo L. were investigated. Poor antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria was shown with water and methanol extract. However moderate antibacterial activity was shown by water extract and phenolic fractions against Escherichia coli and S. aureus, respectively. The phytochemical screening of roots of A. u...

  16. Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Aloe Bar Badensis

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    A.O. Adesuyi and O.A. Awosanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research Study is to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the Aloe barbadensis for Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Phytochemical composition. The Proximate, Anti-Nutrient composition and Phytochemical screening of Aloe barbadensis were determined. The Proximate composition involves the Moisture content, Crude protein, Crude fibre, Crude Fat, Ash content and Carbohydrate. The Anti-Nutrients involved Oxalate, Tannins and Phytate while the Phytochemicals determined were the Saponins, Phenols, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. Aloe barbadensis was found to be rich in Carbohydrate (73.07%, so it can be used as a good source of Carborhydrate. The Protein and Fat content were found to be relatively low, (4.73 and 0.27% respectively. But Aloe barbadensis can still be used as a source of Protein and Fat. Qualitatively, Tannin, Oxalate and Phytate were found in trace amount. Tannin, Phytate and Oxalate contents were 0.155 g/100 g, 0.683 g/100 g, and 0.524 g/100 g respectively. This could affect the availability of Minerals in Aloe barbadensis. It was also discovered that Phytochemicals are present in quantities of 0.232 g/100g, 5.651 g/100 g, 2.471 g/100 g and 3.246 g/100 g for Phenols, Saponins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids respectively. This is an indication of Cosmetic and medicinal Value of Aloe barbadensis. The Sample was also found to be a rich source of minerals. Sodium and Potassium content (5280 and 10670 PPM respectively indicates the tendency of Aloe barbadensis to be able to regulate or control the osmotic balance of the body fluid as well as body pH. Aloe barbadensis is also found to be rich in Phosphorus (6657 PPM, which is essential for bone formation. Lead occur in traces. Magnesium (325.8 PPM is also present, which could help to lower the blood pressure. The overall data suggest that Aloe barbadensis has some Nutritional and Medicinal Properties.

  17. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies of Helleborus niger L Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Kishor; Lalitha, K G

    2017-01-01

    Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae) is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Macroscopically, the roots are brownish-black in colour, cylindrical in shape, feeble odour, slightly acrid taste with irregularly branched. Microscopically the root showed the presence of epidermis, air-chambers, fissure periderm, periderm, inner cortex, pith, phloem, xylem, vessels and xylem vessels. Microscopic examination of the powder showed the presence of parenchyma cells, parenchyma mass, periderm, cell inclusion, laticifer, lateral wall pith, perforation, xylem bundle and xylem elements. Ultra-violet and ordinary light analyses with different reagents were conducted to identify the drug in powder form. Physico-chemical evaluation established, Ash values - Total, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash values were 7.3%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Extractive values - Alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble extractive values were 22.8%, 7.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Loss on drying was 3.3%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, flavonoid, phytosterols, tannins and phenolic compounds. The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. This will serve as appropriate, standards for discovery of this plant material in future investigations and applications and also contribute towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards.

  18. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Javeed Ahmed Wani; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; R. K. NEMA

    2011-01-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphr...

  19. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi D; N. Prasanna; Baskar R.

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth a...

  20. Plant phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators: role in cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay S; Deb, Gauri; Babcook, Melissa A; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, "nutri-epigenetics," which focuses on the influence of dietary agents on epigenetic mechanism(s), has emerged as an exciting novel area in epigenetics research. Targeting of aberrant epigenetic modifications has gained considerable attention in cancer chemoprevention research because, unlike genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are reversible and occur during early carcinogenesis. Aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, such as promoter DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional alterations, can silence critical tumor suppressor genes, such as transcription factors, cell cycle regulators, nuclear receptors, signal transducers, and apoptosis-inducing and DNA repair gene products, and ultimately contribute to carcinogenesis. In an effort to identify and develop anticancer agents which cause minimal harm to normal cells while effectively killing cancer cells, a number of naturally occurring phytochemicals in food and medicinal plants have been investigated. This review highlights the potential role of plant-derived phytochemicals in targeting epigenetic alterations that occur during carcinogenesis, by modulating the activity or expression of DNA methyltransferases, histone modifying enzymes, and miRNAs. We present in detail the epigenetic mode of action of various phytochemicals and discuss their potential as safe and clinically useful chemopreventive strategies.

  1. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  2. Complexation of phytochemicals with cyclodextrin derivatives - An insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Vasanti; Gujar, Parul; Murahari, Manikanta

    2017-04-01

    Natural compounds have been attracting huge attention because of their broad therapeutic properties with specificity in their action in human health care as functional foods, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. However poor bioavailability and reduced bioactivity attributed to poor solubility and instability is the major drawback hindering the incorporation of these therapeutically potential molecules in novel drug delivery systems. Based on the findings of reported research investigations; complexation of poorly water soluble phytochemicals with cyclodextrins has emerged to be a promising approach to improve their aqueous solubility, stability, rate of dissolution and bioavailability. The present article summarizes the encapsulation of natural compounds ranging from various flavonoids, phenolic derivatives, coumestans to triterpenes, with cyclodextrin and their derivatives. Also the article highlights the method of complexation, complexation ability, drug solubility, stability, bioavailability and safety aspects of reported natural compounds. Additionally we present the glimpses of patents published in recent 10-15 years to highlight the significance of inclusion of phytochemicals in cyclodextrins. In patents narrated, improvement in stability and solubility of curcumin by complexation with alkyl ether derivative of gamma-cyclodextrin is claimed. Another patent mentioned, complexation of artemisinins with β-cyclodextrin, improved the stability and integrity of peroxide part of artemisinins for long period. On the other hand the complex of dihydromyricetin with γ-CD has shown improved solubility, stability and bioavailability. Thus it can be concluded that phytochemicals have multiple biological activities with broader safety index and improvement of their solubility will be truly beneficial to aid their effective delivery in healthcare.

  3. Cytoprotective, antihyperglycemic and phytochemical properties of Cocos nucifera (L.) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Renjith; AM Chikku; T Rajamohan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the cytoprotective and antidiabetic activities as well as phytochemical composition of the immature inflorescence ofCocos nucifera belonging to theArecaceaeFamily. Methods:The phytochemical screening of inflorescence was done to determine the major constituents present inCocos nuciferainflorescence.The free radical scavenging potential of inflorescence extracts were evaluated using in vitro radical scavenging assay models.Results:The phytochemical analyses on inflorescence showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, resins and alkaloids.The macronutrient analyses, on the other hand, showed the presence of carbohydrate, proteins and fibers.Administration of the methanol extract of coconut inflorescence to the diabetic rats showed dose dependent reduction in hyperglycemia.The cytoprotective property of coconut inflorescence was evidenced from the acute toxicological evaluation.The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased in the diabetic rats treated with inflorescence when compared with the diabetic control rats.Conclusion:The results obtained from the present study apparently proved the non-toxic nature and the cytoprotective and antihyperglycemic properties of coconut inflorescence.

  4. Miscibility Studies on Polymer Blends Modified with Phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neelakandan; Kyu, Thein

    2009-03-01

    The miscibility studies related to an amorphous poly(amide)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) [PA/PVP] blend with a crystalline phytochemical called ``Mangiferin'' is presented. Phytochemicals are plant derived chemicals which intrinsically possess multiple salubrious properties that are associated with prevention of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Incorporation of phytochemicals into polymers has shown to have very promising applications in wound healing, drug delivery, etc. The morphology of these materials is crucial to applications like hemodialysis, which is governed by thermodynamics and kinetics of the phase separation process. Hence, miscibility studies of PA/PVP blends with and without mangiferin have been carried out using dimethyl sulfoxide as a common solvent. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that the binary PA/PVP blends were completely miscible at all compositions. However, the addition of mangiferin has led to liquid-liquid phase separation and liquid-solid phase transition in a composition dependent manner. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was undertaken to determine specific interaction between the polymer constituents and the role of possible hydrogen bonding among three constituents will be discussed.

  5. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  6. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the human body is responsible for the pathogenesis of some diseases. The scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress of organisms. It has been reported that intake of vegetables and fruits is inversely associated with the risk of many chronic diseases, and antioxidant phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are considered to be responsible for these health benefits. Antioxidant phytochemicals can be found in many foods and medicinal plants, and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. They often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes recent progress on the health benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals, and discusses their potential mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  7. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on Leucas vestita Wall ex Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salem Varadharajan Rajesh; Thiruppathi Senthil Kumar; Mandali Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In search of alternative herbal medicine for pathogenic microorganism variety of plant species have been identified. However, search of new species are still in progress to reduce the pressure on biological diversity and increase availability of organic compound. In the light of this the present work identified phytochemical property and antibacterial activity of Leucas vestita.Methods:The ethanol extract of L. vestita was used for this study. The phytochemicals present in the extract was identified and the antibacterial activity was tested through disc diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of primary and secondary metabolites which ensuring their herbal properties. Antimicrobial activity showed increasing zone of inhibition with increasing concentration of the extract with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis among the other microorganism. Larger zone of inhibition of 14mm was recorded for K. pneumoniae. Conclusions:The study suggests that this extract can be used as a medicine to control some of these pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Phytochemical standardization of Aloe vera extract by HPTLC techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; Kanika Patel; SP Dhanabal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemical parameters of Aloe vera (A. vera) L. which can be used as a tool for its standardization. Methods: The phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis of gallic acid and berberine by HPTLC method were included in present study. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.9% and 13.11%. Concentartion of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium was found to be under the limit. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas Escherichia coli (E. coli) and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Quantitative analysis through HPTLC revealed the presence of 2.74%and 0.543% w/w of berberine and gallic acid. Conclusions: The results indicate that the plant extract are rich in berberine and gallic acid implying their importance to human health. This investigation could be used as source of standard parameters which can play an important role in its standardization.

  9. Significances and importance of phytochemical present in Terminalia chebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ A.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical are naturally present in the plants and shows biologically significance by playing an essential role in the plants to defend themselves against various pathogenic microbes by showing the antimicrobial activity by inhibition or killing mechanisms. The secretion of these compounds is varying from plant to plant some produce more and some produce in minimal quantity. Sometimes they can be harmful and sometimes they can be very helpful. There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration The present study was focused to find out the photochemical analysis of Terminalia chebula plant extracts of leaves, fruits, seed, stem and roots. The formation of yellow colour indicated the presence of flavonoids while the brown colour formation indicated the presence alkaloids and terpenoids. The phenol content was maximum in roots (82.13 mg/gdw followed by seed leave, stem and fruit. The sugar content was highest in leaves (8.27 mg/gdw followed by fruits, stem, root and seed. The protein content was maximum in fruits (55.59 mg/dgw followed by seeds leaves, stem and root.

  10. The flexion synergy, mother of all synergies and father of new models of gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eDuysens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a growing interest in the modular organization of leg movements, in particular those related to locomotion. One of the basic modules involves the flexion of the leg during swing and it was shown that this module is already present in neonates (Dominici, et al. 2011. In this paper, we question how these finding build upon the original work by Sherrington, who proposed that the flexor reflex is the basic building block of the flexion during swing phase. Similarly, the relation between the flexor reflex and the withdrawal reflex modules of Schouenborg et al. (1994 will be discussed. It will be argued that there is large overlap between these notions on modules and the older concepts of reflexes. In addition, it will be shown that there is a great flexibility in the expression of some of these modules during gait, thereby allowing for a phase-dependent modulation of the appropriate responses. In particular, the end of the stance phase is a period when the flexor synergy is facilitated. It is proposed that this is linked to the activation of circuitry that is responsible for the generation of locomotor patterns (CPG, central pattern generator. More specifically, it is suggested that the responses in that period relate to the activation of a flexor burst generator. The latter structure forms the core of a new asymmetric model of the CPG. This activation is controlled by afferent input (facilitation by a broad range of afferents, suppression by load afferent input. Meanwhile, many of these physiologic features have found their way in the control of very flexible walking bipedal robots.

  11. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  12. Cranberry extract supplementation exerts preventive effects through alleviating Aβ toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong; DONG Yu-Qing; YE Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cranberry extract (CBE) rich in polyphenols are potent to delay paralysis induced by alleviating β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in C.elegans model of Alzheimer's disease (AD).In order to better apply CBE as an anti-AD agent efficiently,we sought to deterrmine whether preventive or therapeutic effect contributes more prominently toward CBE's anti-AD activity.As the level of Aβ toxicity and memory health are two major pathological parameters in AD,in the present study,we compared the effects of CBE on Aβ toxicity and memory health in the C.elegans AD model treated with preventive and therapeutic protocols.Our results revealed that CBE prominently showed the preventive efficacy,providing a basis for further investigation of these effects in mammals.

  13. Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Kaspar, Kerrie L; Khoo, Christina; Derrig, Linda H; Schild, Arianne L; Gupta, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and are often treated with antibiotics. Concerns about multidrug-resistant uropathogens have pointed to the need for safe and effective UTI-prevention strategies such as cranberry consumption. We assessed the effects of the consumption of a cranberry beverage on episodes of clinical UTIs. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial, women with a history of a recent UTI were assigned to consume one 240-mL serving of cranberry beverage/d (n = 185) or a placebo (n = 188) beverage for 24 wk. The primary outcome was the clinical UTI incidence density, which was defined as the total number of clinical UTI events (including multiple events per subject when applicable) per unit of observation time. The dates of the random assignment of the first subject and the last subject's final visit were February 2013 and March 2015, respectively. The mean age was 40.9 y, and characteristics were similar in both groups. Compliance with study product consumption was 98%, and 86% of subjects completed the treatment period in both groups. There were 39 investigator-diagnosed episodes of clinical UTI in the cranberry group compared with 67 episodes in the placebo group (antibiotic use-adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.91; P = 0.016). Clinical UTI with pyuria was also significantly reduced (incidence rate ratio: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97; P = 0.037). One clinical UTI event was prevented for every 3.2 woman-years (95% CI: 2.0, 13.1 woman-years) of the cranberry intervention. The time to UTI with culture positivity did not differ significantly between groups (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.67; P = 0.914). The consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical UTI episodes in women with a recent history of UTI. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01776021. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Studies on Mitigating Lipid Oxidation Reactions in a Value-Added Dairy Product Using a Standardized Cranberry Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Tomiuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A standardized whole cranberry extract (WCE was used to stabilize a model sunflower-casein emulsion prototype for future formulation activities with a fresh cream cheese product. The WCE contained total organic acids (20% w/w and polyphenols (5%, the latter consisting of total anthocyanins (10%, w/w and proanthocyanidins (12% w/w. Antioxidant capacity of the WCE was determined by ORAC, (hydrophilic ORAC = 348.31 ± 33.45 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g; lipophilic ORAC = 11.02 ± 0.85 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g. WCE was effective at stabilizing the model emulsion at a level of 0.375% (w/w, yielding a final pH of 5.6. Generation of initial lipid peroxidation products, hexanal and pentanal was inhibited by 92.4% ± 3.9% and 66.6% ± 5.3% (n = 3, respectively, when emulsions containing WCE were incubated at 50 °C for 90 h. This information was useful for formulating a fresh cream cheese product containing WCE to produce value-added potential and good self-life. The standardized WCE gave a final pH of 5.6 for the cheese premix and also significantly (P < 0.05 lowered both the PV and CD after 28 and 21 days at 4 °C storage, respectively, compared to untreated control. We conclude that there are important functional role(s for cranberry constituents when presented as a standardized ingredient for producing value-added, stable fresh dairy products.

  15. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of three Amaranthus plant species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Z C Maiyo; R M Ngure; J C Matasyoh; R Chepkorir

    2010-01-01

      This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol leave extracts of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus spinosus...

  16. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  17. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the pericarp of Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. - a medicinal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemicals present in the pericarp of Crataeva magna (C. magna) (Lour.) DC. which is used as a traditional medicine by the inhabitants of Kanyakumari district. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the pericarp was done to determine the secondary metabolites in various solvents studied. Results: The phytochemical screening on the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. proved the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The findings of the present study recommended that the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. have potential antimicrobial compounds that may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments.

  18. Stride time synergy in relation to walking during dual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    with a positive slope going through the mean of the strides, and bad variance with respect to a similar line with a negative slope. The general variance coefficient (CV%) was also computed. The effect of introducing a concurrent cognitive task (dual task: counting backwards in sequences of 7) was evaluated...... point of view elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. In this study we propose that the gait pattern can be seen as an on-going movement synergy in which each stride is corrected by the next stride (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait...... (performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate stride time synergy and to identify good and bad stride variability in relation to walking during dual task. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young participants walked along a 2x5 meter figure-of-eight track at a self-selected comfortable speed...

  19. Flexible automation and the loss of pooling synergy

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of flexible automation on the performance of a job shop. Flexible automated machines may significantly improve the delivery performance and the flow time of jobs. The insertion of a flexible automated system in a job shop, however, also has a counter effect on the manufacturing performance. This is caused by the reduction of pooling synergy due to the dedication implied by flexible automated machines. This paper investigates by means of a simulation study to ...

  20. From fuel cells to batteries: Synergies, scales and simulation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2011-01-01

    The recent years have shown a dynamic growth of battery research and development activities both in academia and industry, supported by large governmental funding initiatives throughout the world. A particular focus is being put on lithium-based battery technologies. This situation provides a stimulating environment for the fuel cell modeling community, as there are considerable synergies in the modeling and simulation methods for fuel cells and batteries. At the same time, batter...

  1. Interaction, synergy and antagonism in prospective epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana, Juan J.; Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera. Temuco, Chile. Centro de Capacitación Investigación y Gestión en Salud para la Medicina Basada en Evidencias (CIGES), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera. Temuco, Chile. Magister en Salud Pública.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University. Quebec, Canada. PhD en Epidemiología.; Pino, Paulina; Escuela de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile. Santiago de Chile, Chile. doctor en Salud Pública.

    2014-01-01

    In public health there is a growing appreciation for the advantage of the additive scale to better understand the impacts of factors involved in a health event. It is necessary to always remember that the concept of statistical interaction is scale dependent. In the causal relationship between a response and the presence of two or more factors, the concepts interaction, synergy and antagonism are the key ideas. The aim of this note is to show an application of the concepts interaction, sy...

  2. Defining Quality and Sustainability – Looking for Synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Raine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Both quality and sustainability are frequently used and positively loaded words. On the overall level most people agree that we should both have quality and sustainability in the processes we are working with. Logically there should be synergies in improving quality and sustainability but there could also be conflicts. When assessing how well our processes are performing, it becomes more complicated to find a consensus since there are many and partly conflicting views and definit...

  3. Study on Synergy Effect in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志良; 刁杰; 王金福; 金涌

    2001-01-01

    Influence of reaction temperature, pressure and space velocity on the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas is studied in an isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The catalyst is a physical mixture of C30 copper-based methanol (MeOH) synthesis catalyst and ZSM-5 dehydration catalyst. The experimental results show that the chemical synergy between methanol synthesis reaction and methanol dehydration reaction is evident. The conversion of carbon monoxide is over 90%.

  4. Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R&D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

  5. Characterization of Cardiac Patients Based on the Synergy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiac patients need comprehensive support due to the adverse effects of this disease on different aspects of their lives. Synergy intervention is a model that focuses on patients' requirements. Objectives This study aimed to determine the eightfold characteristic of cardiac patients based on the synergy model that represent their clinical requirements. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 cardiac patients hospitalized at the cardiac care unit (CCU of Yazd Afshar Hospital were randomly selected. The data were collected by using a two-part check-list including demographic characteristics and also by studying eight characteristics of patients through interviewing and reviewing their records. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency (percentage and analytical statistics such as Spearman and Mann-Whitney test with the SPSS software, version 18. Results The results showed that among patients' internal characteristics, reversibility (70.6%, vulnerability (68.6%, and predictability (80.4% at level 1 (the minimum score had the highest frequency and stability (49% and complexity (54.9% were at level 3 (average score. Among external characteristics participation in decision-making (80.4% at level 1 had the highest frequency while care (62.7% and recourses (98% were at level 3. Conclusions Ignoring any of the eightfold characteristics based on the synergy model interferes with comprehensive support of cardiac patients. Therefore, it is necessary for professional health practitioners, especially nurses, to consider patients' eightfold characteristics in order to provide quality care.

  6. The quest for synergy when developing the urban fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    How can planning policies related to urban fringe development and disadvantaged neighbourhoods create synergy? This question is approached and answered by various research fields and explored on various urban-planning levels, displaying case-studies related to urban regeneration, post-industrial ......). Finally, the paper concludes, assessing whether the synergies of urban-fringe development have another character than more explicit ‘trickle-down’ strategies located in existing research of urban regeneration.......How can planning policies related to urban fringe development and disadvantaged neighbourhoods create synergy? This question is approached and answered by various research fields and explored on various urban-planning levels, displaying case-studies related to urban regeneration, post......-industrial and suburban development and urban fringe literature. The present paper adds to these discussions by analysing two case-studies in Denmark in which local government pursue traditional urban-growth strategies in urban-fringe development - a post-industrial harbour and a large suburb, located just outside...

  7. A synergy-driven approach to a myoelectric hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S B; Ajoudani, A; Catalano, M; Grioli, G; Bicchi, A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Pisa/IIT SoftHand with myoelectric control as a synergy-driven approach for a prosthetic hand. Commercially available myoelectric hands are more expensive, heavier, and less robust than their body-powered counterparts; however, they can offer greater freedom of motion and a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. The Pisa/IIT SoftHand is built on the motor control principle of synergies through which the immense complexity of the hand is simplified into distinct motor patterns. As the SoftHand grasps, it follows a synergistic path with built-in flexibility to allow grasping of a wide variety of objects with a single motor. Here we test, as a proof-of-concept, 4 myoelectric controllers: a standard controller in which the EMG signal is used only as a position reference, an impedance controller that determines both position and stiffness references from the EMG input, a standard controller with vibrotactile force feedback, and finally a combined vibrotactile-impedance (VI) controller. Four healthy subjects tested the control algorithms by grasping various objects. All controllers were sufficient for basic grasping, however the impedance and vibrotactile controllers reduced the physical and cognitive load on the user, while the combined VI mode was the easiest to use of the four. While these results need to be validated with amputees, they suggest a low-cost, robust hand employing hardware-based synergies is a viable alternative to traditional myoelectric prostheses.

  8. Cooperation Formats of China and Europe: Synergies and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šteinbuka Inna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution articulates the synergies and divergences of the various formats of cooperation between China and the European countries. The EU and China have a strong interest in each other’s flagship initiatives, namely the Investment Plan for Europe, and the One Belt, One Road Initiative (Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. The authors argue that there are certain synergies between these initiatives. Furthermore, the new initiative EU-China Connectivity Platform is aimed to explore these synergies. The authors explore the recent developments in the EU-China investments, trade cooperation and the challenges of the ever-growing CEEC-China partnership in different formats, including the new platform of 16+1. The authors examine these implications in relation to the need to expand and adapt the content and approach of the EU-China Bilateral Investment agreement. The article concludes that the CEEC-China relation does not go against the EU; moreover, neither the CEE countries nor China have any motivation to try to weaken the EU.

  9. Muscle synergies are consistent when pedaling under different biomechanical demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, C; Castronovo, A M; Bibbo, D; Schmid, M; Conforto, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the muscle coordination underlying the execution of a pedaling exercise across different biomechanical demands, by using the muscle synergies paradigm. 9 non professional subjects performed a cycling exercise using their preferred pedaling strategy (Preferred Strategy, PS) and then, through the use of a feedback based on the presentation of a real-time index of mechanical efficiency determined by means of instrumented pedals, they were helped to optimize their pedaling technique (Effective Strategy, ES). EMG activity was recorded from 8 muscles of the dominant leg. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. 4 modules were sufficient to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activations for all the subjects during PS condition, and these modules were found consistent across all the subjects (correlation > 83%). 5 muscle synergies were necessary for the characterization in ES condition; 4 out of these modules were shared with PS condition, and the resulting additional module appeared subject-specific. These preliminary results support the existence of a modular motor control in humans.

  10. Novel methods to enhance precision and reliability in muscle synergy identification during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushin Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g. gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult. Here, we utilize k-means clustering and intra-class and between-level correlation coefficients to precisely discriminate reliable from unreliable synergies. EMG was recorded bilaterally from eight leg muscles during treadmill walking at self-selected speed. Muscle synergies were extracted from 20 consecutive gait cycles using non-negative matrix factorization. We demonstrate that the number of synergies is highly dependent on the threshold when using the variance accounted for by reconstructed EMG. In contrast, our method utilized a quantitative metric to reliably identify four or five synergies underpinning walking in unimpaired adults and revealed synergies having poor reproducibility that should not be considered as true synergies. We show that robust and unreliable synergies emerge similarly, emphasizing the need for careful analysis in those with pathology.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies, i.e. invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the variance accounted for (VAF. Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics, our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task

  12. Synergy: A language and framework for robot design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Lalitesh Kumar

    Due to escalation in complexity, capability and application, robot design is increasingly difficult. A design environment can automate many design tasks, relieving the designer's burden. Prior to robot development, designers compose a robot from existing or custom developed components, simulate performance, optimize configuration and parameters, and write software for the robot. Robot designers customize these facets to the robot using a variety of software ranging from spreadsheets to C code to CAD tools. Valuable resources are expended, and very little of this expertise and development is reusable. This research begins with the premise that a language to comprehensively represent robots is lacking and that the aforementioned design tasks can be automated once such a language exists. This research proposes and demonstrates the following thesis: "A language to represent robots, along with a framework to generate simulations, optimize designs and generate control software, increases the effectiveness of design." Synergy is the software developed in this research to reflect this philosophy. Synergy was prototyped and demonstrated in the context of lunar rover design, a challenging real-world problem with multiple requirements and a broad design space. Synergy was used to automatically optimize robot parameters and select parts to generate effective designs, while meeting constraints of the embedded components and sub-systems. The generated designs are superior in performance and consistency when compared to designs by teams of designers using the same knowledge. Using a single representation, multiple designs are generated for four distinct lunar exploration objectives. Synergy uses the same representation to auto-generate landing simulations and simultaneously generate control software for the landing. Synergy consists of four software agents. A database and spreadsheet agent compiles the design and component information, generating component interconnections and

  13. Looking beyond fertilizer: Assessing the contribution of nitrogen from hydrologic inputs and organic matter to plant growth in the cranberry agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, S.M.; Kosola, K.R.; Workmaster, B.A.A.; Guldan, N.M.; Browne, B.A.; Jackson, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Even though nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient for successful cranberry production, N cycling in cranberry agroecosystems is not completely understood. Prior research has focused mainly on timing and uptake of ammonium fertilizer, but the objective of our study was to evaluate the potential for additional N contributions from hydrologic inputs (flooding, irrigation, groundwater, and precipitation) and organic matter (OM). Plant biomass, soil, surface and groundwater samples were collected from five cranberry beds (cranberry production fields) on four different farms, representing both upland and lowland systems. Estimated average annual plant uptake (63.3 ?? 22.5 kg N ha-1 year-1) exceeded total average annual fertilizer inputs (39.5 ?? 11.6 kg N ha-1 year-1). Irrigation, precipitation, and floodwater N summed to an average 23 ?? 0.7 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was about 60% of fertilizer N. Leaf and stem litterfall added 5.2 ?? 1.2 and 24.1 ?? 3.0 kg N ha-1 year-1 respectively. The estimated net N mineralization rate from the buried bag technique was 5 ?? 0.2 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was nearly 15% of fertilizer N. Dissolved organic nitrogen represented a significant portion of the total N pool in both surface water and soil samples. Mixed-ion exchange resin core incubations indicated that 80% of total inorganic N from fertilizer, irrigation, precipitation, and mineralization was nitrate, and approximately 70% of recovered inorganic N from groundwater was nitrate. There was a weak but significant negative relationship between extractable soil ammonium concentrations and ericoid mycorrhizal colonization (ERM) rates (r = -0.22, P Media B.V.

  14. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M

    2014-04-03

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

  15. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nicolosi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75% on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75% compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  18. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  19. Phytochemical characterisation of an important medicinal plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hameed; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2017-03-14

    The project was intended to the phytochemical characterisation from the rudimentary methanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn., which escorts to the isolation of stigmasterol (1), β-sitosterol (2), octadecanoic acid (3), scopoletin (4) and 1-piperoylpiperidine (5). Literature validates the medicinal authentication of these compounds extorted from other sources, while our previous findings regarding microbial activities of different solvent systems fractions are favouring the presence of medicinally important compounds in this species. Herein, however, we report these natural products for the first time from this species.

  20. ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BACTERIOSTATIC ACTIVITY OF TAGETES SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya, R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn and Tagetes patula Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antimicrobial efficacy of the extracts was evaluated through agar well diffusion method using the bacterial species, viz Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study has demonstrated highest anti-bacterial activity of the flower extract of T. erecta among all the four extracts tested.

  1. Organoselenium Compounds as Phytochemicals from the Natural Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achibat, Hanane; AlOmari, Nohad A; Messina, Federica; Sancineto, Luca; Khouili, Mostafa; Santi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Selenium is naturally present in soils but it is also produced by pollution from human activities into the environment. Its incorporation into plants affords organoselenium metabolites that, depending on the nature of the molecules and the plant species, can be incorporated into proteins, stored or eliminated by volatilization. The possibility to use the selenium metabolism of some plants as a method for bioremediation and, at the main time, as a source of selenated phytochemicals is here discussed taking into consideration the growing interest in organic selenium derivatives as new potential therapeutic agents.

  2. Phytochemical analysis of Ferulogo Bernardii Tomk & M.Pimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalighi-Sigaroodi F.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the hexane extract of the aerial parts of Ferulago Bernardii (Apiaceae four coumarins, namely prantschimgin 1, oxypeucedanin 2, psoralen 3 and umbelliferone 4; β-sitosterol 5; and nonacosane 6 were isolated by Column Chromatography (CC, Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC and crystallization. The structures were elucidated by melting point, UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectra. The presence of compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5 in some others Ferulago species could be used as chemotaxonomic marker in genus Ferulago. This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of Ferulago Bernardii Tomk. & M. Pimen.

  3. Docking study of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Abhik; Aykkal, Riju; Babu, Rosana O; Ghosh, Mriganka

    2011-02-15

    Natural products are important sources of drug discovery. In this context groups of different set of phytochemicals were taken and docked into the different cavities of the Reverse transcriptase (PDB ID: 1REV) of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results were discussed. Natural compounds such as Curcumin, Geranin, Gallotannin, Tiliroside, Kaempferol-3-o-glucoside and Trachelogenin were found to very effective according to its binding energy and ligand efficiency score. Those compounds also were found to have no adverse effect as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity and favorable drug likeness score. Hence, considering the facts those compounds could use effectively for HIV-1 drug discovery.

  4. Standardization and phytochemical investigation of antilithiatic polyphyto dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhishek Bharadwaj; Kumud Upadhayaya; NV Stheesh Madhav

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To deals with the characterization, phytochemical determination of antilithiatic polyphyto dispersible tablet.Methods: an attempt has been made to standardize polyphyto dispersible tablet by using macroscopy and microscopic characters, powder microscopy, fluorescence analysis, quantitative and physicochemical values.Results:The polyphyto combinations were subjected to macroscopical examination and observations were recorded.The proper examination of the polyphyto combinations was carried out under sun light and artificial source similar to day light.Conclusions:Data reveals that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either an alternative or a complementary therapy in the management of urolithiasis.

  5. Phytochemical examination of Prosopis cineraria L.(druce leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Archana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical studies on the leaves of Prosopis cineraria resulted in isolation of methyl docosanoate, diisopropyl-9,10-dihydroxyicosane-1,20-dioate, tricosan-1-ol and 7,24-tirucalladien-3-one. While diisopropyl-10,11-dihydroxyicosane-1,20-dioate is a hitherto unreported compound, methyl docosanoate, tricosan-1-ol and 7,24-tirucalladien-3-one are being reported for the first time from P. cineraria . These compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral and other data.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SILK COCOONS OF BOMBYX MORI L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskoos Raad A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk cocoons, produced by Bombyx mori L. (Bombicidae are useful as hypotensive, expectorant, bronchodilator and attenuant drug in traditional medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the cocoons led to the isolation of new phenolic constituents identified as n-butyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (1, 3′,8′,9′-trigeranilanyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (2, 3′,7′-dimethyl-3′-hydroxy-octanyl gallate (3, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-n-pentanyl ether (4 and 2,3,4-trihydoxypenyl-n-pentanyl ether (5 on the basis of spectral data analysis.

  7. Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Scrophularia, which comprises ca. 200 medicinally important herbaceous flowering plants . Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species afforded two iridoid glycosides, scropolioside D (1 and scrophuloside B 4 (2, and two phenylalkanoid glycosides, salidroside (3 and verbascoside (4. S tructures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Free-radical-scavenging activity, potential antimalarial property, and contact toxicity as well as general toxicity of the extract and fractions were assessed.

  8. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion of epithelial cells by phytochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, M.H.G.; Jongerius-Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Vervelde, L.; Vernooij, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to coccidiostats and possible future restrictions on their use raise the need for alternative methods of reducing coccidiosis in poultry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected phytochemicals on Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion in vitro. Four phytochemicals were

  9. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion of epithelial cells by phytochemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, M.H.G.; Jongerius-Gortemaker, B.G.M.; Vervelde, L.; Vernooij, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to coccidiostats and possible future restrictions on their use raise the need for alternative methods of reducing coccidiosis in poultry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected phytochemicals on Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion in vitro. Four phytochemicals were s

  10. The number and choice of muscles impact the results of muscle synergy analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Muterspaugh Steele

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One theory for how humans control movement is that muscles are activated in weighted groups or synergies. Studies have shown that electromyography (EMG from a variety of tasks can be described by a low-dimensional space thought to reflect synergies. These studies use algorithms, such as nonnegative matrix factorization, to identify synergies from EMG. Due to experimental constraints, EMG can rarely be taken from all muscles involved in a task. However, it is unclear if the choice of muscles included in the analysis impacts estimated synergies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the number and choice of muscles on synergy analyses. We used a musculoskeletal model to calculate muscle activations required to perform an isometric upper-extremity task. Synergies calculated from the activations from the musculoskeletal model were similar to a prior experimental study. To evaluate the impact of the number of muscles included in the analysis, we randomly selected subsets of between 5 and 29 muscles and compared the similarity of the synergies calculated from each subset to a master set of synergies calculated from all muscles. We determined that the structure of synergies is dependent upon the number and choice of muscles included in the analysis. When five muscles were included in the analysis, the similarity of the synergies to the master set was only 0.57 ± 0.54; however, the similarity improved to over 0.8 with more than ten muscles. We identified two methods, selecting dominant muscles from the master set or selecting muscles with the largest maximum isometric force, which significantly improved similarity to the master set and can help guide future experimental design. Analyses that included a small subset of muscles also over-estimated the variance accounted for (VAF by the synergies compared to an analysis with all muscles. Thus, researchers should use caution using VAF to evaluate synergies when EMG is measured from a small

  11. Between-subject variability of muscle synergies during a complex motor skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eFrère

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine whether subjects who have learned a complex motor skill exhibit similar neuromuscular control strategies. We studied a population of experienced gymnasts during backward giant swings on the high bar. This cyclic movement is interesting because it requires learning, as untrained subjects are unable to perform this task. 9 gymnasts were tested. Both kinematics and electromyographic (EMG patterns of 12 upper-limb and trunk muscles were recorded. Muscle synergies were extracted by non-negative matrix factorization, providing two components: muscle synergy vectors and synergy activation coefficients. First, the coefficient of correlation (r and circular cross-correlation (rmax were calculated to assess similarities in the mechanical patterns, EMG patterns and muscle synergies between gymnasts. We performed a further analysis to verify that the muscle synergies (in terms of muscle synergy vectors or synergy activation coefficients extracted for one gymnast accounted for the EMG patterns of the other gymnasts. 3 muscle synergies explained 89.9±2.0% of the variance accounted for (VAF. The coefficients of correlation of the muscle synergy vectors among the participants were 0.83±0.08, 0.86±0.09, and 0.66±0.28 for synergy #1, #2, and #3, respectively. By keeping the muscle synergy vectors constant, we obtained an averaged VAF across all pairwise comparisons of 79±4%. For the synergy activation coefficients, rmax-values were 0.96±0.03, 0.92±0.03, and 0.95±0.03, for synergy #1, #2, and #3, respectively. By keeping the synergy activation coefficients constant, we obtained an averaged VAF across all pairwise comparisons of 72±5%. Although variability was found (especially for synergy #3, the gymnasts exhibited gross similar neuromuscular strategies when performing backward giant swings. This confirms that the muscle synergies are consistent across participants, even during a skilled motor task that

  12. A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    2003-11-14

    This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.

  13. Classification of hand and wrist tasks of unknown force levels using muscle synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoufi, B; Kamavuako, E N; Hudgins, B; Englehart, K

    2015-08-01

    Muscle synergies have been proposed as a way for the central nervous system (CNS) to simplify the generation of motor commands and they have been shown to explain a large portion of the variation in the muscle patterns across a variety of conditions. However, whether human subjects are able to control prostheses proportionally with a small set of synergies has not been tested directly. Here we investigated if muscle synergies can be used to identify different wrist and hand motions. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from eight arm muscles while the subjects exerted seven different intensity levels during the motions when performing seven classes of hand and wrist motion. From these data we extracted the muscle synergies and classified the tasks associated to each contraction intensity profile by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). We compared the performance obtained using muscle synergies with the performance of using the mean absolute values (MAV) as a feature. Also, the consistency of extracted muscle synergies was studied across intensity variations. While the synergies showed relative consistency particularly across closer intensity levels, average classification results generated with the synergies were less accurate than MAVs. These results indicate that although the performance of muscle synergies was very close to MAVs, they do not provide additional information for task identification across different exerted intensity levels.

  14. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas S; Sørensen, Søren J; Burmølle, Mette

    2015-01-01

    .... One four-species consortium, composed of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, exhibited strong synergy in biofilm formation...

  15. [Analysis on the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiatai; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yongming; Guo, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Based on traditional acupuncture theory and modern researches, the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect are summarized and analyzed. It is found that the factors include the specificity of acupoint, the interaction of acupoints, the pathway of acupuncture signal, the body condition level, acupuncture manipulation, etc. It is believed that the specificity of acupoint is the key factor to determine the difference of acupoints synergy effect. Interaction of acupoints may be related to the pathway of selected acupuncture signal, which is an important factor in difference of acupoints synergy effect. The body condition level and acupuncture manipulation are internal and external factor to influence acupoints synergy effect, respectively.

  16. Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Cano, A; Eklund, P; Fico, G; Goswami, N; Guldemond, N A; Henderson, D; Hinkema, M J; Liotta, G; Mair, A; Molloy, W; Monaco, A; Monsonis-Paya, I; Nizinska, A; Papadopoulos, H; Pavlickova, A; Pecorelli, S; Prados-Torres, A; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E; Somekh, D; Vera-Muñoz, C; Visser, F; Farrell, J; Malva, J; Andersen Ranberg, K; Camuzat, T; Carriazo, A M; Crooks, G; Gutter, Z; Iaccarino, G; Manuel de Keenoy, E; Moda, G; Rodriguez-Mañas, L; Vontetsianos, T; Abreu, C; Alonso, J; Alonso-Bouzon, C; Ankri, J; Arredondo, M T; Avolio, F; Bedbrook, A; Białoszewski, A Z; Blain, H; Bourret, R; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F; Catala, A; O'Caoimh, R; Cesari, M; Chavannes, N H; Correia-da-Sousa, J; Dedeu, T; Ferrando, M; Ferri, M; Fokkens, W J; Garcia-Lizana, F; Guérin, O; Hellings, P W; Haahtela, T; Illario, M; Inzerilli, M C; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Kardas, P; Keil, T; Maggio, M; Mendez-Zorrilla, A; Menditto, E; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Murray, R; Nogues, M; O'Byrne-Maguire, I; Pappa, D; Parent, A S; Pastorino, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Siciliano, P; Teixeira, A M; Tsartara, S I; Valiulis, A; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Wickman, M; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Barbagallo, M; Canonica, G W; Klimek, L; Maggi, S; Aberer, W; Akdis, C; Adcock, I M; Agache, I; Albera, C; Alonso-Trujillo, F; Angel Guarcia, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Apostolo, J; Arshad, S H; Attalin, V; Avignon, A; Bachert, C; Baroni, I; Bel, E; Benson, M; Bescos, C; Blasi, F; Barbara, C; Bergmann, K C; Bernard, P L; Bonini, S; Bousquet, P J; Branchini, B; Brightling, C E; Bruguière, V; Bunu, C; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Calderon, M A; Canovas, G; Cardona, V; Carlsen, K H; Cesario, A; Chkhartishvili, E; Chiron, R; Chivato, T; Chung, K F; d'Angelantonio, M; De Carlo, G; Cholley, D; Chorin, F; Combe, B; Compas, B; Costa, D J; Costa, E; Coste, O; Coupet, A-L; Crepaldi, G; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Du Toit, G; Dubakiene, R; Dupeyron, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fonseca, J; Fougère, B; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, G; Garcia-Aymeric, J; Garcia-Zapirain, B; Gemicioğlu, B; Gouder, C; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I; Héve, D; Holland, C; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Johnston, S L; Just, J; Jutel, M; Kaidashev, I P; Khaitov, M; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keijser, W; Kerstjens, H; Knezović, J; Kowalski, M; Koppelman, G H; Kotska, T; Kovac, M; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lepore, V; MacNee, W; Maggio, M; Magnan, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; Marcucci, M; Marti, T; Masoli, M; Melen, E; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Millot-Keurinck, J; Mlinarić, H; Momas, I; Montefort, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Moreno-Casbas, T; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nadif, R; Nalin, M; Navarro-Pardo, E; Nekam, K; Ninot, G; Paccard, D; Pais, S; Palummeri, E; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N K; Papanikolaou, C; Passalacqua, G; Pastor, E; Perrot, M; Plavec, D; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Price, D; Raffort, N; Reuzeau, J C; Robine, J M; Rodenas, F; Robusto, F; Roche, N; Romano, A; Romano, V; Rosado-Pinto, J; Roubille, F; Ruiz, F; Ryan, D; Salcedo, T; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Scichilone, N; Siciliano, P; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Sourdet, S; Sousa-Costa, E; Spranger, O; Sooronbaev, T; Sruk, V; Sterk, P J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Tramontano, D; Triggiani, M; Tsartara, S I; Valero, A L; Valovirta, E; van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; van den Berge, M; Vandenplas, O; Ventura, M T; Vergara, I; Vezzani, G; Vidal, D; Viegi, G; Wagemann, M; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Wilson, N; Yiallouros, P K; Žagar, M; Zaidi, A; Zidarn, M; Hoogerwerf, E J; Usero, J; Zuffada, R; Senn, A; de Oliveira-Alves, B

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  17. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. Dissemination By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health

  18. Force-stabilizing synergies in motor tasks involving two actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Reschechtko, Sasha; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ability of two persons to produce force-stabilizing synergies in accurate multi-finger force production tasks under visual feedback on the total force only. The subjects produced a time profile of total force (the sum of two hand forces in one-person tasks and the sum of two subject forces in two-person tasks) consisting of a ramp-up, steady-state, and ramp-down segments; the steady-state segment was interrupted in the middle by a quick force pulse. Analyses of the structure of inter-trial finger force variance, motor equivalence, anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs), and the unintentional drift of the sharing pattern were performed. The two-person performance was characterized by a dramatically higher amount of inter-trial variance that did not affect total force, higher finger force deviations that did not affect total force (motor equivalent deviations), shorter ASAs, and larger drift of the sharing pattern. The rate of sharing pattern drift correlated with the initial disparity between the forces produced by the two persons (or two hands). The drift accelerated following the quick force pulse. Our observations show that sensory information on the task-specific performance variable is sufficient for the organization of performance-stabilizing synergies. They suggest, however, that two actors are less likely to follow a single optimization criterion as compared to a single performer. The presence of ASAs in the two-person condition might reflect fidgeting by one or both of the subjects. We discuss the characteristics of the drift in the sharing pattern as reflections of different characteristic times of motion within the sub-spaces that affect and do not affect salient performance variables. PMID:26105756

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Oroxylum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Al-Amin, M M; Russel, S M; Kabir, S; Bhattacherjee, R; Hannan, J M A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The dried powder of the barks of the plant was extracted with 95% ethanol and was subjected to various phytochemical tests to ascertain the principle constituents contained in the extract. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides in the ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum. The extract was screened for analgesic activity by using hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin test. The ethanol extract of the plant at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) analgesic effect in all test methods (hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin). The analgesic activity was compared with a standard drug (ketorolac at 10 mg/kg). Based on the present findings and previous literature review it can be concluded that flavonoids and tannins might be responsible for the analgesic activity. We suggest that ethanol extract of Oroxylum indicum might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel analgesic agent.

  20. Phytochemical studies on Allamanda cathartica L. using GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhadevi V; Sahaya Sathish S; Johnson M; Venkatramani B; Janakiraman N

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phytochemical constituents present in Allamanda cathartica (A. cathartica) L. using GC-MS. Methods: 20 g of the powdered leaf and stem sample of A. cathartica was equilibrated with 200 d/m of A. cathartica ethanol for 24 h, separately. The volume of the supernatant was later reduced by heating to 2 d/m. The concentrated ethanolic extracts were further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: The GC-MS analyses determined the presence of 28 different phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic leaf extract of A. cathartica. The major phytoconstituents were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z)- (16.39%), n-hexadecanoic acid (14.08%), 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (11.03%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z)-(10.58%). The ethanolic stem extract of A. cathartica showed the presence of 26 different bioactive compounds. The major ones are 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (29.86%), 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (14.87%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.13%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z)- (7.34%). Conclusions: This study helps to predict the formula and structure of biomolecules which can be used as drugs and further investigation may lead to the development of drug formulation.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STACHYTARPHETA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.N. Krishna Kumar*, S.D.Preethi, E. Chandana and Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Stachytarpheta indica Vahl. was assessed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoides, tannins and reducing sugars. The antibacterial properties of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts were studied against clinically important bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogens by disc diffusion method. The aqueous extract showed significant activity against all the presently investigated species of bacteria which is comparable with standard antibiotic streptomycin. At the concentrations of 50-100µg /disc, aqueous extract showed significant zone of inhibition against E. coli, (14 mm, B. cereus (13 mm, P. aeruginosa, (17 mm, and E. aerogens (7 mm. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC have been determined. The MIC values observed was 20, 30, 5 and 25µg/ml (for aqueous extract and 40, 35, 20 and 30µg/ml (for methanolic extract against E. coli, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and E. aerogens respectively. Further isolation of active compound responsible for the activity could be the potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  2. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  3. Targeting apoptotic pathways in myocardial infarction: attenuated by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidarali, Shaikh; Patil, Chandragouda R; Ojha, Shreesh; Mohanraj, Rajesh; Arya, Dharamvir S; Goyal, Sameer N

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an insidious disease, gently spreading in developed and developing countries. MI is the consequence of hypoxia in myocardial tissue, which may lead to apoptosis, narcosis and followed by cardiac cell death. Activation of apoptotic pathways during MI is frequently reported in clinical, preclinical and post-mortem studies. Several mediators of apoptosis signalling cascades culminate into MI leading to cardiomyocytes death. Such involvements of ischemia-induced apoptosis in MI are widely accepted. Apoptosis is a natural phenomenon for regulating the homeostasis in cellular organelles. Unlike the necrosis, it is a synchronized energy dependent process which is carried out by shrinkage of the cell. This contraction of cells leads to squeezing of nuclei and nuclear chromatin into brusquely demarcated masses. However, such programmed cell death in several tissues, including the myocardium becomes pathogenic under certain conditions. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated oxidative stress also plays a key role in production of apoptosis and several associated signalling alterations which ultimately lead to MI. Recently, certain natural products, especially from the plant kingdom have been evaluated for their anti-apoptotic potential. There is an uprise in the investigations delineating the exact mechanisms through which natural phytochemicals target apoptosis associated MI. This review explores novel signalling pathways and target sites for anti-apoptotic phytochemicals having potential to check the cellular apoptosis consequent to MI. A new vista may explore the prospective treatment of MI by using apoptosis-modulating natural products.

  4. Anti-inflammatory phytochemicals for chemoprevention of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-06-01

    Every year more than a million new cancer cases and 600,000 deaths are reported world-wide. Colorectal cancer is the fourth most commonly occurring and second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Significant progress has been made in understanding colorectal cancer through epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies. Development of metastatic adenocarcinomas is a multistage process occurring over several years during which multiple genetic alterations and pathophysiological changes are associated. Colorectal cancer can be prevented if the transformation of normal colonic crypt cells to malignant can be halted or reversed. Some of the key molecules that are altered significantly and play important roles in colorectal tumor progression are associated with inflammation. Since chronic inflammation is now recognized as a potential risk factor for tumor development, targeting inflammatory pathways has proven effective in preventing formation of colonic tumors and their malignant progression in both preclinical and clinical studies. Synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have been identified as potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents; however, most of these synthetic agents are associated with unwanted and sometimes fatal side effects. There is mounting evidence in support of the efficacy of naturally-occurring phytochemicals possessing anti-inflammatory activity. In this review we discuss key inflammatory pathways associated with colorectal cancer and promising naturally-occurring phytochemicals as anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer.

  5. Jatropha curcas L:Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sillma Rampadarath; Daneshwar Puchooa; Rajesh Jeewon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities as well as the phytochemical and lav-icidal properties of different parts of Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) growing in Mauritius. Methods: Determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants extracts by test tube reactions. Disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used to detect the antimicrobial sensitivity and activity (minimal inhibitory concentration). The crude solvent extracts were also tested on the larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae). Results: The antimicrobial activities were significantly dependent for the different crude plant extracts on the thirteen microorganisms tested. For the Gram-positive bacteria, the crude ethyl acetate extract was more efficient compared to the Gram-negative bacteria with both solvents being effective. The crude ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark and mature seed oil showed the highest efficacy. The highest mortality percentage was observed after 24 h for both Diptera flies with (66.67 ± 2.89)%of Bactrocera cucurbitae larvae killed by ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark. Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The lar-vicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.

  6. Phytochemicals from nine plants beneficial for pregnant women

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    Lakshmi. D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemicals found in nine plants which are easily accessible to the women living in developing countries in particular is studied as the prevalence of diseases caused by lack of prenatal nutrients is  high in these countries. Knowledge about these plants would help the expectant women to get the maximum prenatal nutrients like Folic acid, Iron, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Calcium, Choline and Alpha linoleic acid precursors needed to synthesize Omega 3 fats which are vital for the foetal growth and development. These plants are easily available and are affordable to the majority of poor women living in slums of the city dwellers and those who live in villages. Due to lack of knowledge, money, palatability issues, improper storage and consumption irregularities the expectant mothers in this category do not consume prescribed prenatal nutrients, affecting the mother and the foetus. Though prescribed prenatal nutrients are still very essential, same from the food sources have many benefits like they are from the complex mixture of many phytochemicals which act synergistically and provide known and unknown benefits to them. Apart from this, most of the plants listed here can be easily grown in pots or plots near their homes, manuring with kitchen wastes and without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides. Plants that provide all the prenatal nutrients and easily accessible for daily consumption by the pregnant women at an affordable cost in developing countries are Cowpea, Tomatoes, Turnip greens, Garlic, Wheat, Drumstick leaves, Cauliflower, purslane and Guava fruits.

  7. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

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    Greetha Arumugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  8. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-03-30

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  9. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  10. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

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    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (L. SM. RHIZOME

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    Rout Om Prakash

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet (L. Sm. is a well known medicinal plant employed to cure various diseases. The Current study provides a detailed summary of pharmacognostical and phytochemical characters of rhizome to give clear standards for identification of the drug. The study revealed the presence of the oil cells in cortex and central cylinder region containing yellow to orange coloured oleo-resin is the main characteristic feature. The presence of globose, ovoid and irregularly rounded starch grains are the distinguishing features and can be used as anatomical markers. Rhizome powder showed some of the characteristic features such as starch grains with a distinct hilum situated at narrow end and parenchymatous cells with characteristically wrinkled wall and prismatic crystals. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the rhizomes revealed the presence of glycosides, sterols, triterpenes, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and volatile oils. The present study signifies the use of TLC, HPTLC fingerprint profiles for determining the identity, purity of the drug and also for developing standards.

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

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    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  13. Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica

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    Sattya Narayan Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd. It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica.

  14. Pleiotropic Protective Effects of Phytochemicals in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Sergio Davinelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a severe chronic neurodegenerative disorder of the brain characterised by progressive impairment in memory and cognition. In the past years an intense research has aimed at dissecting the molecular events of AD. However, there is not an exhaustive knowledge about AD pathogenesis and a limited number of therapeutic options are available to treat this neurodegenerative disease. Consequently, considering the heterogeneity of AD, therapeutic agents acting on multiple levels of the pathology are needed. Recent findings suggest that phytochemicals compounds with neuroprotective features may be an important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against AD. In this paper we will describe some polyphenols and we will discuss their potential role as neuroprotective agents. Specifically, curcumin, catechins, and resveratrol beyond their antioxidant activity are also involved in antiamyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We will focus on specific molecular targets of these selected phytochemical compounds highlighting the correlations between their neuroprotective functions and their potential therapeutic value in AD.

  15. Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from Mammea suriga

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    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from the root bark of a well-known Indian traditional medicinal plant, viz. Mammea suriga, with various solvents and evaluation of their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of some interesting secondary metabolites like flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. Also, the solvent extracts displayed promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cryptococcus neoformans with inhibition zone in a range of 20–33 mm. Further, results of their antioxidant screening revealed that aqueous extract (with IC50 values of 111.51±1.03 and 31.05±0.92 μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively and ethanolic extract (with IC50 values of 128.00±1.01 and 33.25±0.89 μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively were better antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid. Interestingly, FT-IR analysis of each extract established the presence of various biologically active functional groups in it.

  16. Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from Mammea suriga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahesha M. Poojary; Kanivebagilu A.Vishnumurthy; Airody Vasudeva Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from the root bark of a well-known Indian traditional medicinal plant, viz. Mammea suriga, with various solvents and evaluation of their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of some interesting secondary metabolites like flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. Also, the solvent extracts displayed promising anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cryptococcus neoformans with inhibition zone in a range of 20–33 mm. Further, results of their antioxidant screening revealed that aqueous extract (with IC50 values of 111.51±1.03 and 31.05±0.92μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively) and ethanolic extract (with IC50 values of 128.00±1.01 and 33.25±0.89μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively) were better antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid. Interestingly, FT-IR analysis of each extract established the presence of various biologically active functional groups in it.

  17. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health.

  18. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

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    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  19. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

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    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  20. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r = 0.9248; p = 0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0 µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2 )= 0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5 µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7 µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain.

  1. DASHAMULARISHTA: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING AGAINST EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

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    Ekta Menghani et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollution have a serious impact on human health and environment. The incidences of various diseases are becoming prominent with the increase in rate of population. The diseases mainly include respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, throat inflammation, skin infections etc. In the present study, widely claimed crude drug Dashamularishta, have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and ethanol and distilled water extracts of Dashamularishta have been screened. Phytochemical screening recorded positive results for reducing sugar in all six extracts, terpinoids present in pet. ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extract, Flavonoids present in ethyl acetate and distilled water, Tannin present in chloroform and methanol, saponins present in pet. ether, benzene, ethyl acetate and distilled water extract. The results were expressed in terms of the diameter of the inhibition zone: The maximum efficacy of ethyl acetate extract was showed against Aspergillus niger(18mm and Shigella flexneri (25mm.

  2. Phytochemical Investigation and Antimicrobial Screening of Cardiospermun grandiflorum (Sweet [Sapindaceae

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    Olaoluwa O. Olaoluwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Cardiospermum grandiflorum was investigated for the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities. The extract was screened for the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars, glucosides and flavonoids using standard methods. Antimicrobial assay was carried out on the extract against two gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; three gram negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiellac pneumonas and fungi: Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Pencilillum notatum by the agar diffusion method between concentrations 6.25 – 200 mg/ml. Preliminary screening of methanol extract of C. grandiflorum revealed the presence tannins, steroids and reducing sugars. The extract showed average activity against the organisms used and was most active on C. albicans between concentrations 50-200 mg/ml with zones of inhibition between 12-16 mm. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract yielded L-pinitol. The structure and relative configuration of the compound was elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data, especially MS and NMR techniques.

  3. Interdisciplinary evidence-based practice: moving from silos to synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Robin P; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the assumption that health care providers work synergistically in practice, professions have tended to be more exclusive than inclusive when it comes to educating students in a collaborative approach to interdisciplinary evidence-based practice (EBP). This article explores the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP, describes efforts to foster interdisciplinary EBP, and suggests strategies to accelerate the translation of EBP across disciplines. Moving from silos to synergy in interdisciplinary EBP will require a paradigm shift. Changes can be leveraged professionally and politically using national initiatives currently in place on improving quality and health care reform.

  4. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  5. Is interindividual variability of EMG patterns in trained cyclists related to different muscle synergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Dorel, Sylvain

    2010-06-01

    Our aim was to determine whether muscle synergies are similar across trained cyclists (and thus whether the same locomotor strategies for pedaling are used), despite interindividual variability of individual EMG patterns. Nine trained cyclists were tested during a constant-load pedaling exercise performed at 80% of maximal power. Surface EMG signals were measured in 10 lower limb muscles. A decomposition algorithm (nonnegative matrix factorization) was applied to a set of 40 consecutive pedaling cycles to differentiate muscle synergies. We selected the least number of synergies that provided 90% of the variance accounted for VAF. Using this criterion, three synergies were identified for all of the subjects, accounting for 93.5+/-2.0% of total VAF, with VAF for individual muscles ranging from 89.9+/-8.2% to 96.6+/-1.3%. Each of these synergies was quite similar across all subjects, with a high mean correlation coefficient for synergy activation coefficients (0.927+/-0.070, 0.930+/-0.052, and 0.877+/-0.110 for synergies 1-3, respectively) and muscle synergy vectors (0.873+/-0.120, 0.948+/-0.274, and 0.885+/-0.129 for synergies 1-3, respectively). Despite a large consistency across subjects in the weighting of several monoarticular muscles into muscle synergy vectors, we found larger interindividual variability for another monoarticular muscle (soleus) and for biarticular muscles (rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus). This study demonstrated that pedaling is accomplished by the combination of the similar three muscle synergies among trained cyclists. The interindividual variability of EMG patterns observed during pedaling does not represent differences in the locomotor strategy for pedaling.

  6. Are movement disorders and sensorimotor injuries pathologic synergies? When normal multi-joint movement synergies become pathologic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Lang, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    The intact nervous system has an exquisite ability to modulate the activity of multiple muscles acting at one or more joints to produce an enormous range of actions. Seemingly simple tasks, such as reaching for an object or walking, in fact rely on very complex spatial and temporal patterns of muscle activations. Neurological disorders such as stroke and focal dystonia affect the ability to coordinate multi-joint movements. This article reviews the state of the art of research of muscle synergies in the intact and damaged nervous system, their implications for recovery and rehabilitation, and proposes avenues for research aimed at restoring the nervous system's ability to control movement.

  7. Potent Synergy between Spirocyclic Pyrrolidinoindolinones and Fluconazole against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Scott, Kevin A; Shen, Chengtian; Wang, Fuqiang; Lane, Shelley; Liu, Haoping; Van Vranken, David L

    2015-10-01

    A spiroindolinone, (1S,3R,3aR,6aS)-1-benzyl-6'-chloro-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-7'-methylspiro[1,2,3a,6a-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-3,3'-1H-indole]-2',4,6-trione, was previously reported to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against Candida albicans. A diastereomer of this compound was synthesized, along with various analogues. Many of the compounds were shown to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against C. albicans, some with exquisite potency. One spirocyclic piperazine derivative, which we have named synazo-1, was found to enhance the effect of fluconazole with an EC50 value of 300 pM against a susceptible strain of C. albicans and going as low as 2 nM against some resistant strains. Synazo-1 exhibits true synergy with fluconazole, with an FIC index below 0.5 in the strains tested. Synazo-1 exhibited low toxicity in mammalian cells relative to the concentrations required for antifungal synergy.

  8. Force feedback reinforces muscle synergies in insect legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2015-11-01

    The nervous system solves complex biomechanical problems by activating muscles in modular, synergist groups. We have studied how force feedback in substrate grip is integrated with effects of sense organs that monitor support and propulsion in insects. Campaniform sensilla are mechanoreceptors that encode forces as cuticular strains. We tested the hypothesis that integration of force feedback from receptors of different leg segments during grip occurs through activation of specific muscle synergies. We characterized the effects of campaniform sensilla of the feet (tarsi) and proximal segments (trochanter and femur) on activities of leg muscles in stick insects and cockroaches. In both species, mechanical stimulation of tarsal sensilla activated the leg muscle that generates substrate grip (retractor unguis), as well as proximal leg muscles that produce inward pull (tibial flexor) and support/propulsion (trochanteral depressor). Stimulation of campaniform sensilla on proximal leg segments activated the same synergistic group of muscles. In stick insects, the effects of proximal receptors on distal leg muscles changed and were greatly enhanced when animals made active searching movements. In insects, the task-specific reinforcement of muscle synergies can ensure that substrate adhesion is rapidly established after substrate contact to provide a stable point for force generation.

  9. Stability of Hand Force Production: I. Hand Level Control Variables and Multi-Finger Synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschechtko, Sasha; Latash, Mark L

    2017-09-13

    We combined the theory of neural control of movement with referent coordinates and the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore synergies stabilizing the hand action in accurate four-finger pressing tasks. In particular, we tested a hypothesis on two classes of synergies - those among the four fingers and those within a pair of control variables - stabilizing hand action under visual feedback and disappearing without visual feedback. Subjects performed four-finger total force and moment production tasks under visual feedback; the feedback was later partially or completely removed. The "inverse piano" device was used to lift and lower the fingers smoothly at the beginning and at the end of each trial. These data were used to compute pairs of hypothetical control variables. Inter-trial analysis of variance within the finger force space was used to quantify multi-finger synergies stabilizing both force and moment. A data permutation method was used to quantify synergies among control variables. Under visual feedback, synergies in the spaces of finger forces and hypothetical control variables were found to stabilize total force. Without visual feedback, the subjects showed a force drift to lower magnitudes and a moment drift toward pronation. This was accompanied by disappearance of the four-finger synergies and strong attenuation of the control-variable synergies. The indices of the two types of synergies correlated with each other. The findings are interpreted within the scheme with multiple levels of abundant variables. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  10. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  11. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1-7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  12. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries. PMID:27092527

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hyptis suaveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zeshan Hashib Shaikat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Hyptis suaveolens leaf has been used in conventional therapies for various disease conditions, including diarrhea. However, some of the therapeutic potentials of the plant have not been scientifically evaluated. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanol extract of Hyptis suaveolens leaf against an experimental model of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also performed following standard procedures. Oral administration of the said ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant (P<0.01 and dose-dependent inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea. The onset of diarrhoea induced by castor oil was significantly delayed by administration of the plant extract. The results were comparable to those of standard antimotility drug, loperamide (50 mg/kg. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, saponin, tannin and flavonoid as major constituents. The results indicate the presence of some active principles in the plant extract possessing anti-diarrhoeal effect and justify its traditional use in the treatment for diarrhoea. Industrial relevance. Diarrheal diseases pose a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.  Moreover, in developing countries, the cost of modern synthetic medicines is out of reach of the common man, especially those in rural areas. A large population of the Indian subcontinent depend on traditional system of medicine for their physical and psychological health needs. Hence there is an intensive search for natural products which are biologically active against diarrhea. In this study, the antidiarrhoeal activity of H S. was studied and the results revealed that the ethanol leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens extracts significantly reduced induction time of diarrhoea and  number of diarrhoeal episodes in the orally treated mice. The results

  14. Characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and American cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and V. macrocarpon Aiton) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Ertan; Hertel, Christian; Schneider, Christin; Carle, Reinhold; Stintzing, Florian; Schmidt, Herbert

    2015-07-02

    In this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-Aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. Selected strains of the species Absidia glauca, Penicillium brevicompactum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera Penicillium and Eurotium were used for challenge testing. Initially, varying concentrations of synthetic antifungal agents, such as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate were tested against these fungi on wort agar containing 31% fructose at different pH values. Subsequently, the experiments were conducted in fruit spreads containing different concentrations of cranberry and lingonberry concentrates. The results of this study demonstrate that these concentrates were able to inhibit growth of visible colonies of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. Cranberry and lingonberry concentrates are interesting candidates for natural preservation against fungal growth in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

  15. Historical aspects and causes of the synergy beginning as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimtsov V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the historical aspects of the beginning and development of a new popular science – synergy, as a means of interdisciplinary communication among scholars. Using methodological apparatus of synergy here were considered the basics of studies. Historical aspects of the origin, beginning and formation of synergy as a science and its application in all aspects of human life were analyzed. Current research areas within synergy and nonlinear dynamics were presented. Was presented a question of order and organization of global issues (energetic, environmental, social and economic and systems, that were developed by human using synergy. The conclusion was made on the need for a synergistic approach to all aspects of human life and especially to the economy – it is undeniable in the science of human development in society and especially within the manufacturing process.

  16. CULTURAL EFFECT ON SYNERGY REALIZATION IN CROSSBORDER ACQUISITIONS: A CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Hain, Daniel; Dao, Li Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two levels of cultural differences - national and organizational on synergy realization simultaneously by considering two critical implementation factors as the moderators: pre-acquisition due diligence and post-acquisition coordination efforts. Meanwhile, we argue cultural...... impact and their moderating effect may differ in different synergy realization contexts (e.g., Type-1 vs Type-2 synergies as posed in this study). Four groups of hypotheses are derived from the literature and tested using regression analysis based on a sample of 103 international acquisitions performed...... by Nordic companies. Results show that both national and organizational cultural differences only exert negative impact on realization of Type-2 synergy which is more implicit/intangible, less predictable, usually tacit-knowledge intensive and/or complementary, but no impact on realization of Type-1 synergy...

  17. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  18. The Role of Phytochemicals in the Inflammatory Phase of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ahmed; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Historically, plant-based products have been the basis of medicine since before the advent of modern Western medicine. Wound dressings made of honey, curcumin and other phytochemical-rich compounds have been traditionally used. Recently, the mechanisms behind many of these traditional therapies have come to light. In this review, we show that in the context of wound healing, there is a global theme of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals in traditional medicine. Although promising, we discuss the limitations of using some of these phytochemicals in order to warrant more research, ideally in randomized clinical trial settings. PMID:28509885

  19. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiyan Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies on leaves of Cassia obtusifolia Linn. Some distinct and different characters were observed with section of young thin leaves. The anatomy of the leaves was studied by taking transverse section of midrib. The chloroplasts are much more concentrated in the palisade layer of the mesophyll. There is only one large vascular bundle in the midrib. The midrib was stained with toluidine blue. This helps to resolve the vascular tissues with greater certainty. The xylem and phloem were also observed. Powder microscopical examination showed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and starch grain. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical study of the leaves powder were also carried out.

  20. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  1. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-03-01

    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans.

  2. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesa Shafi Bhat; Sooad Al-Daihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and photochemicals of five green leafy vegetables against a panel of five bacteria strains. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity, while kanamycin was used as a reference antibiotic. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results:All methanol extracts were found active against all the test bacterial strains. Overall maximum extracts shows antibacterial activity which range from 6 to 15 mm. Proteins and carbohydrates was found in all the green leaves, whereas alkaloid, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins were found in most of the test samples. Conclusions:The obtain result suggests that green leafy vegetables have moderate antibacterial activity and contain various pharmacologically active compounds and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of the studied vegetables in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  3. Phytochemicals: a multitargeted approach to gynecologic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Lee; Oh, Se-Woong; Song, Yong Sang; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    Gynecologic cancers constitute the fourth most common cancer type in women. Treatment outcomes are dictated by a multitude of factors, including stage at diagnosis, tissue type, and overall health of the patient. Current therapeutic options include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, although significant unmet medical needs remain in regard to side effects and long-term survival. The efficacy of chemotherapy is influenced by cellular events such as the overexpression of oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressors, which together determine apoptotic responses. Phytochemicals are a broad class of natural compounds derived from plants, a number of which exhibit useful bioactive effects toward these pathways. High-throughput screening methods, rational modification, and developments in regulatory policies will accelerate the development of novel therapeutics based on these compounds, which will likely improve overall survival and quality of life for patients.

  4. Phytochemical investigation and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Richardia scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathirvel Poonkodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether and methanol extracts from the mature leaves of Richardia scabra from India. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the zone inhibition of the tested samples for antibacterial and agar plug method was used to determine the antifungal activity, while the microtube-dilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Both extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when tested against 10 bacterial and four fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the methanol extract of R. scabra ranged between 12.5–100 μg/mL for bacterial strains. Alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenoids and simple sugar were detected as phytoconstituents of extracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report against antimicrobial activity of common weed species R. scabra found in India.

  5. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Leaves of Alchonea Cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemistry of Achornea cordifolia leaf extract using different solvents was studied using standard methods. The effects of the leaf extract on some pathogenic bacteria and fungi were also examined. The Phytochemical screening of the leaves shows the presence of useful ethno-botanical bioactive substances such as tannin, saponin, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone, while alkaloid, phlobatanin and terpene also tested for were absent. The butanol fraction of the extract gives the highest zone of inhibition (13.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are in parity. The control, gentamycin injection gives 12.5 mm, 11.0 mm and 12.0 mm respective zones of inhibition against the Staphylococcus aureus, Eschariclia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the butanol fraction of the extract shows highest zone of inhibition of 17.0 mm against Candida albican, while ethanolic extract gives 13.0 mm zone of inhibition against Trichophyton violaceum.

  6. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Lebanese Eryngium creticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein Farhan; Fatima Malli; Hassan Rammal; Akram Hijazi; Ali Bassal; Nawal Ajouz; Bassam Badran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemical screening and quantification of total phenolics contents in fresh Eryngium creticum (E. creticum) leaves and stems extract and to evaluate its total antioxidant activity. Methods: Quantification of total phenolics contents in fresh E. creticum leaves and stems extract and evaluation of its total antioxidant activity, were done using the spectrophotometric analyses. Results: The consumption of 100 g of fresh E. creticum leaves and stems could provide antioxidants equivalent to (78.50±0.80) mg of vitamin C and (50.42±0.50) mg of vitamin C, respectively. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that E. creticum can be interesting to prevent diseases directly linked to oxidative stress.

  7. Morphological and Phytochemical Investigations on Crataegus curvisepala and Crataegus oxyacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghassemi Dehkordi

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Crataegus have been used for treatment of hypertension and certain cardiac disorders. Over than 20 species of this plant is extensively grew in Iran. One of these species is C. curvisepala."nin this study, C.curvisepala was examined botanically and phytochemically in comparison to C, oxyacantha."nMorphological as well as microscopical characteristics of C. curvisepala was examined and some differences distinguished from C. oxyacantha. By means of TLC in comparison to authentic samples,rutin, hyperoside and chlorogenic acid were identified in these plants. By preparative TLC method, rutin is isolated and then purified from these plants. The structure of rutin was determined by the UV-Vis. Techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of flavonoids in these plants were also performed by using an UV-Vis. spectroscopy method.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF STEM OF C OUROUPITA GUIANENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manimegalai* and G. Rakkimuthu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Couroupita guianensis (Lecythidaceae , is a medicinal plant which is endowed with curative properties including anti- fungal, anti - biotic, anti - septic, analgesic, anti-malaria, stomach – ache, tooth - ache, scabies, gastritis, bleeding piles, dysentry and scorpion poison. The study deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem of Couroupita guianensis with various extracts such as petroleum ether, benzene, ethanol and water. This includes the powder characteristics studies, fluorescence studies and thin layer chromotgraphic studies of the stem powder. The qualitative analysis of some secondary metabolites, to ascertain medicinal claims of this widely used medicinal plant. The results showed that the moderate presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, amino acids, phenols and triterpenoids.

  9. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  10. Plant phytochemicals: potential anticancer agents against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Anders; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2014-12-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are plant phytochemicals derived from vegetables consumed by human. ITCs comprise potent anti-carcinogenic agents of which the consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of cancer at several locations in the body. However, the studies on coping with gastric cancer remain unsatisfied. In the present review, ITCs are discussed in this context as ITCs may target gastric tumorigenesis at multiple levels. ITCs are taken up in the stomach, exposing mucosal and muscle layer cells as well as affecting Helicobacter pylori residing in the stomach. The natural and potent anti-cancer ITCs from vegetables have a great potential against gastric cancer, a disease in need of new treatment or preventive modalities.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive phytochemicals against gastroenterological cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Lim, Tae Gyu; Lee, Ki Won

    2013-02-21

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Commonly used cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, often have side effects and a complete cure is sometimes impossible. Therefore, prevention, suppression, and/or delaying the onset of the disease are important. The onset of gastroenterological cancers is closely associated with an individual's lifestyle. Thus, changing lifestyle, specifically the consumption of fruits and vegetables, can help to protect against the development of gastroenterological cancers. In particular, naturally occurring bioactive compounds, including curcumin, resveratrol, isothiocyanates, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and sulforaphane, are regarded as promising chemopreventive agents. Hence, regular consumption of these natural bioactive compounds found in foods can contribute to prevention, suppression, and/or delay of gastroenterological cancer development. In this review, we will summarize natural phytochemicals possessing potential antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities, which are exerted by regulating or targeting specific molecules against gastroenterological cancers, including esophageal, gastric and colon cancers.

  12. The Genus Carissa: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunda, Joseph Sakah; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2017-02-27

    Carissa L. is a genus of the family Apocynaceae, with about 36 species as evergreen shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Most of Carissa plants have been employed and utilized in traditional medicine for various ailments, such as headache, chest complains, rheumatism, oedema, gonorrhoea, syphilis, rabies. So far, only nine Carissa species have been phytochemically studied, which led to the identification of 123 compounds including terpenes, flavonoids, lignans, sterols, simple phenolic compounds, fatty acids and esters, and so on. Pharmacological studies on Carissa species have also indicated various bioactive potentials. This review covers the peer-reviewed articles between 1954 and 2016, retrieved from Pubmed, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Wikipedia and Baidu, using "Carissa" as search term ("all fields") and with no specific time frame set for search. Fifteen important medicinal or ornamental Carissa species were selected and summarized on their botanical characteristics, geographical distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities.

  13. Preliminary phytochemical screening of four common plants of family caesalpiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, N; Saleem, B; Nawaz, R

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening of Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Tamarindus indica did not reveal alkaloids and unbound anthraquinones while glycosides as well as flavonoids were present in all the four species of the family caesalpiniaceae. Cardiac glycosides were absent only in C. tora and saponins were present only in T. indica, B. variegata and T. indica were devoid of bound anthraquinones while bound anthraquinones were present in C. fistula and C. tora. Paper chromatography revealed 6 spots in solvent system I, and 5 spots in solvent system 2, showing different Rf values. The per cent yield of crude glycosides was 3.18 in B. variegata, 4.03 in C. fistula, 4.45 in C. tora and 4.14 in T. indica.

  14. Phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Helen PA; Susheela Gomathy K; Jayasree S; Nizzy AM; Rajagopal B; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.Methods:Fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and six fungi by the disc diffusion method. Results: GC – MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza contained the derivatives of xanthorihizol, camphene and curcumene, monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbons and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs.

  15. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  16. Phytochemical Screening and Pharmacological Activities of Entada Scandens seeds

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    S K Dey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Entada scandens (E. scandens (family: Mimosaceae is a widely used medicinal plant has been traditionally used by the folklore medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh to treat pain, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders where antinociceptive, cytotoxic and anti-diarrheal medications are implicated. Therefore, phytochemical groups and antinociceptive, cytotoxic, and anti-diarrheal activities of ethanol extract of seed of E. scandens were investigated by using acetic acid induced writhing model in mice, brine shrimp lethality bioassay and castor oil induced diarrheal model in mice. Phytochemical study of the extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed a significant antinociceptive activity showing 60.61 and 72.73% inhibition respectively (P<0.001 comparable to that produced by Diclofenac Na (80.30% used as standard drug.  The extract showed significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay (LC50: 20µg/ml & LC90: 80µg/ml. While evaluating anti-diarrheal activity, the extract inhibited the mean number of defecation which were 13.21% (P<0.01 and 22.64 % (P<0.001 at the doses of 250 and 500mg/kg respectively. The latent period for the extract treated group was (p<0.01 increased as compared to control group. In addition, antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion assay, but no significant inhibition was found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei, Proteus vulgaris,  Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The study tends to suggest the antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antidiarrheal activities of the crude ethanol extract of the seed of E. scandens and justify its use in folkloric remedies. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants

  17. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

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    Delgado-Vargas Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER COLOCASIA ESCULENTA

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    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the nutritional profile, successive value, thin layer chromatography and phytochemical screening of Colocasia esculenta. It is an important medicinal plant in India which is used in traditional medicine. Colocasia esculenta tubers contain nutrients such as ash value (total ash 4.80%, moisture 56.52%, crude fat 0.80% and crude fiber 7.5%, including minerals and vitamins such as calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Its edible corns and leaves are traditionally used for hepatic ailments. Leaf juice of this plant is applied over scorpion sting or in snake bite as well as it is used in food poisoning of plant origin. Ayurveda identified ailments viz. vata and pitta are supposed to be pacified by the leaf juice and so also the constipation, stomatitis, alopecia, hemorrhoids as well as general weakness.

  19. Rhodiola rosea in vitro culture - phytochemical analysis and antioxidant action

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    Mirosława Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various Rhodiola rosea organs and tissues from in vitro culture were studied in two areas: searching for the biological active four phenolic compounds and measurement of antioxidant activity of dry residues of EtOH-extracts soluble in PBS using chemiluminescence method. For phytochemical investigation HPLC method was used. Salidroside was typical for organs of intact plant, rosavin for roots of different origin and shoots of intact plants, triandrin was more typical for tissue cultured in vitro, but it was found in all studied samples. Caffeic acid was detected mainly in green and yellow lines of callus, less in other Rhodiola rosea plant material. The highest antioxidant activity showed the extract from 1,5-years-old callus of green and yellow line, which contained caffeic acid and triandrin. Further observations are in progress.

  20. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington′s disease

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    Sunayna Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington′s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  1. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

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    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  2. Phytochemicals in cancer prevention and therapy: truth or dare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maria; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Tedesco, Idolo; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2010-04-01

    A voluminous literature suggests that an increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables is a relatively easy and practical strategy to reduce significantly the incidence of cancer. The beneficial effect is mostly associated with the presence of phytochemicals in the diet. This review focuses on a group of them, namely isothiocyanate, curcumin, genistein, epigallocatechin gallate, lycopene and resveratrol, largely studied as chemopreventive agents and with potential clinical applications. Cellular and animal studies suggest that these molecules induce apoptosis and arrest cell growth by pleiotropic mechanisms. The anticancer efficacy of these compounds may result from their use in monotherapy or in association with chemotherapeutic drugs. This latter approach may represent a new pharmacological strategy against several types of cancers. However, despite the promising results from experimental studies, only a limited number of clinical trials are ongoing to assess the therapeutic efficacy of these molecules. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are promising and raise solid foundations for future investigations.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CASIA OCCIDENTALIS (L

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    Venkanna Lunavath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study deals with the screening of Casia occidentalis leaves for their antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. Plant Cassia occidentalis belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae, is a diffuse offensively odorous under shrub. Casia occidentalis were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents Methanol. The antimicrobial activity test performed by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of HXF, CTF, CFF and AQF showed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, phytosterols, fixed oils and phenolic compounds. The AQF fraction of C. occidentalis showed high activity across pseudomonas aeuruginosa and staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Casia occidentalis leaves in the treatment of various diseases caused by micro-organisms.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: phytochemicals and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Never before has the focus on the health benefits of commonly available foods been so strong. The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance within the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Dietitians are uniquely qualified and positioned to translate the available sound scientific evidence into practical dietary applications for the consumer and to provide the food industry and the government with valuable insight and expertise for future research, product development, and regulation of phytochemicals and functional foods. Increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population. As the nutrition experts, dietetics professionals must be the leaders in this new, exciting, and meaningful field as it evolves.

  5. Phytochemical, Ethnobotanical and Pharmacological Profile of Lagenaria siceraria: - A Review

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    Amit Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of lagenaria siceraria (known as lauki in Hindi, has been used in the ointment for ailment of various diseases throughout India. The fruit of cultivated lagenaria siceraria is the good source of different nutrients components like protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium. The plant has also been suggested to possess antioxidant activity, laxative, cardioprotective, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, central nervous system stimulant, anthelmentic, antihypertensive, immunosuppressive analgesic, adaptogenic and free radical scavenging activity. This work reviews the pharmacological evidence of extracts of plants from the lagenaria siceraria, giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochemical composition. Although more studies are necessary, lagenaria siceraria exhibits proven potential to become of important pharmacological interest.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

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    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  7. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA

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    Nainwal Pankaj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. Even though several differences exist between herbal and conventional pharmacological treatments, herbal medicine can be tested for efficacy using conventional trial methodology. Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though the public is often misled to believe that all natural treatments are inherently safe, herbal medicines do carry risks. Ultimately, we need to know which herbal remedies do more harm than good for which condition. Because of the current popularity of herbal medicine, research in this area should be intensified Caesalpinia pulcherrima, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. This review highlights some of the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant which has been searched during their detailed study.

  8. Cranberry extract inhibits in vitro adhesion of F4 and F18(+)Escherichia coli to pig intestinal epithelium and reduces in vivo excretion of pigs orally challenged with F18(+) verotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Loos, Michaela; Vanrompay, Daisy; Remon, Jean Paul; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20μg or 100μg/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4(+)E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18(+)E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10mg or 100mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18(+)E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1g/kg or 10g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10g/kg) and drinking water (1g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18(+)E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

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    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  10. Phytochemical and biological activities of Bituminaria bituminosa L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, Salima; Zaabat, Nabila; Medjroubi, Kamel; Akkal, Salah; Benlabed, Kadour; Smati, Farida; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the phytochemical composition, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Bituminaria bituminosa L. (Fabaceae) (B. bituminosa). The aerial parts of B. bituminosa yielded two compounds. The structures of these compounds were determinated using UV, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR experiments and comparison of their spectroscopic properties with literature data. The antibacterial activity of the extracts (CH2Cl2, ethyl acetate and n-BuOH) was determinated using disk diffusion method against standard and clinical strains. Antioxidant potential of n-BuOH extract was evaluated through two methods: DPPH and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay. The n-BuOH extract from B. bituminosa yielded the isolation of isoflavone and flavone. The extracts CH2Cl2, ethyl acetate and n-BuOH demonstrated significant antibacterial activities. CH2Cl2 extract showed the maximum antibacterial activity with high concentration of 2 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (20.45 mm, 16.41 mm and 15.74 mm inhibition zone, respectively). The value IC50 was 0.26 μg/mL for n-BuOH extract using DPPH method. Whereas the E% value was 0.10 L/mg every centimeter for cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay. The phytochemical study of B. bituminosa revealed the presence of isoflavone (daidzin) and flavone (isoorientin) and identified for the first time in this specie. The antibacterial activity of the plant B. bituminosa is certainly related to its chemical content. The n-BuOH extract showed a significant antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

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    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  12. The Phytochemical Contents and Antimicrobial Activities of Malaysian Calophyllum Rubiginosum

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    Suhaib I. ALkhamaiseh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many species of plants in Malaysia are widely used in folk medicine. However, Calophyllum species have been used in traditional medicine for their therapeutic values for many years. Several studies reported that antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-HIV and anti-cancer compounds were isolated from numerous Calophyllum species. Approach: The stem bark was extracted by EtOH, after with it was fractionated with n-Hexane, Dichloromethane (DCM and MeOH by using vacuum liquid chromatography apparatus. Phytochemical contents were examined to evaluate the phinolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents. Also the antimicrobial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion and dilution method to evaluate antimicrobial activity of the crude and the fractions respectively. Six references microbial strains of human pathogens were used for examined the anti microbial activity. The two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli were used for antibacterial test. Also two fungal strains (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were used for antifungal test. Results: Although the C. rubiginosum has phytochemicals as all plants, but it was showed a high content of flavonol in the range of 11.9- 15.2 µg mL−1. The C. rubiginosum fractions were showed no activity against gram negative and fungus. However, the non polar and semi polar fractions were showed a result MIC 12.5 µg mL−1 against B.cereus bacteria. While the MeOH fraction indicated for low or no activity against bacteria and fungus. Conclusion: At last, the optimistic result of this study encourage us to go forward for further studies in the future to isolate the active compound of the stem bark of C. rubiginosum, where it could lead to a new antibiotic, whereas this species never investigated before.

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of Indigofera trita Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raju Senthil; Moorthy, Kannaiyan; Vinodhini, Raja; Punitha, Thambidurai

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of various extracts of Indigofera trita L. viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were carried out. A total of 21 microorganisms (19 bacteria and 2 fungal strains) were used for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and a standard procedure was used to identify the phytochemical constituents. Petroleum ether extract showed moderate inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (14.40 mm), S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), Salmonella paratyphi A (12.80 mm), Streptococcus mutans (12.20 mm), Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, S. typhi and Burkholderia cepacia (12.00 mm). The chloroform extract also showed antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), S. typhimurium (12.60 mm), S. paratyphi A, S. brunei and Yersinia enterocolitica (12.00 mm). The acetone extract of I. trita showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (18.20 mm), S. typhimurium (14.60 mm), S. infantis (13.80 mm), S. aureus (13.40 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.00 mm) and Enterobacter aerogenes (12.00 mm) were documented. Ethanol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (18.60 mm), S. paratyphi A (14.60 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.40 mm), S. typhi (12.40 mm), S. aureus, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium and S. infantis (12.00 mm). Aqueous extract of I. trita considerably inhibited S. epidermidis (13.80 mm), S. paratyphi A and Y. enterocolitica (12.20 mm), E. aerogenes and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus (12.00 mm). All the five extracts showed a minimal antifungal activity when compared to antibacterial activity. The result revealed that the antimicrobial properties of I. trita might be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols and alkaloids.

  14. Dendrobium protoplast co-culture promotes phytochemical assemblage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abitha; Pujari, Ipsita; Shetty, Vasudeep; Joshi, Manjunath B; Rai, Padmalatha S; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Babu, Vidhu Sankar

    2017-07-01

    The present study is intended to analyze the occurrence of potent, low produce, naturally occurring stilbenes in protoplasts of wild species and hybrids of Dendrobium. The wild species selected for the study was Dendrobium ovatum, endemic to Western Ghats of India. Protoplasts were isolated from leaves and tepal tissues of all the species and were cultured purely to generate homofusants and cross-cultured to raise heterofusants. Phytochemical composition of protoplast culture with atypical and pure microcolonies was performed using mass spectrometry. Enzyme cocktail of 4% pectinase together with 2% cellulase displayed the highest competence for protoplast isolations. Maximum protoplast density of 30.11 × 10(4)/ml was obtained from D. ovatum leaves in 2 h. Subcellular features such as the presence of partially formed cell wall, the position of the nucleus, chloroplast density, colony existence, and integrity of the plasma membrane were analyzed. Among the pure and cross-cultured protoplasts, the number of heterofusants and homofusants formed were enumerated. The spectral feature extraction of the mass spectrometry indicated the presence of five phenolic marker compounds, viz., tristin, confusarin, gigantol, moscatilin, and resveratrol, some of them in pure and others in assorted protoplast cultures raised from Dendrobium leaves and tepals. The study demonstrated that protoplast fusion technique enabled phytochemical assemblage in vitro as stilbenes tend to get restricted either in a tissue or species specific manner. This is the first report showing the presence of resveratrol, moscatilin, tristin, gigantol, and confusarin in wild and hybrid species from cultured Dendrobium protoplasts in vitro.

  15. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review

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    Lucky Lebgosi Nwidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA or Carpolobia lutea (CL is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  16. Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Samanta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cissampelos Linn (family -Manispermaceae is perennial climbing herbs with small greenish-yellow flower. It belongs to the genus Cissampelos, of which thirty to forty species are distributed in the tropical and subtropical world. One species occur in India. In the market three plants Cissampelos pareira, Cyclea peltata and Stephania japonica (Fam. Menispermaceae are being used as source of Patha. Aim: Therefore, an establishment of pharmacognostical standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the herbal plant is required. Materials and Methods: Microscopic characteristics were observed under a light microscope. Physicochemical properties - including loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water alcohol and ether extractive values - were determined. Phytochemical screening for major groups of compounds was performed, and a thin-layer chromatography of methanolic extract of the air dried powdered stem of this plant was performed. Results: The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, biseriate radial medullary rays had also been found. Phytochemical screening revealed that Cissampelos pareira stem extract contains flavonoids, terpenoid, alkaloid, tannins, amino acid protein and carbohydrate. Alkaloids were detected in TLC of Cissampelos pareira stem extract developed using blends of methanol: concentrated ammonia (200:3 and n-Butanol:Acetone:Water (3:1:1. Flavonoids and essential oil were detected in TLC of Cissampelos pareira flower extract developed using blends of n-Butanol:Acetone:Water (4:1:5 and Benzene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (9:7:4 as solvent systems for flavonid where as chloroform(100%, Benzene(100%, Chloroform:Benzene (1:1 and Ether:Benzene (1:1 as solvent systems for essential oil. Conclusion: These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification

  17. Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwidu, Lucky Lebgosi; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA) or Carpolobia lutea (CL) is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  19. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah

    2016-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  20. Muscle synergies underlying sit-to-stand tasks in elderly people and their relationship with kinetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanawa, Hiroki; Kubota, Keisuke; Kokubun, Takanori; Marumo, Tatsuya; Hoshi, Fumihiko; Kobayashi, Akira; Kanemura, Naohiko

    2017-08-24

    Physiological evidence suggests that the nervous system controls motion by using a low-dimensional synergy organization for muscle activation. Because the muscle activation produces joint torques, kinetic changes accompanying aging can be related to changes in muscle synergies. We explored the effects of aging on muscle synergies underlying sit-to-stand tasks, and examined their relationships with kinetic characteristics. Four younger and three older adults performed the sit-to-stand task at two speeds. Subsequently, we extracted the muscle synergies used to perform these tasks. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify these synergies. We also calculated kinetic variables to compare the groups. Three independent muscle synergies generally appeared in each subject. The spatial structure of these synergies was similar across age groups. The change in motion speed affected only the temporal structure of these synergies. However, subject-specific muscle synergies and kinetic variables existed. Our results suggest common muscle synergies underlying the sit-to-stand task in both young and elderly adults. People may actively change only the temporal structure of each muscle synergy. The precise subject-specific structuring of each muscle synergy may incorporate knowledge of the musculoskeletal kinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Thamara C; Moura, Egberto G; de Oliveira, Elaine; Soares, Patrícia N; Guarda, Deysla S; Bernardino, Dayse N; Ai, Xu Xue; Rodrigues, Vanessa da S T; de Souza, Gabriela Rodrigues; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Manhães, Alex C; Lisboa, Patrícia C

    2017-05-13

    Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

  2. ZAKAT AND TAX; FROM THE SYNERGY TO OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dualism dilemma between zakat and tax in Indonesia can be relatively mitigated by ratification of Act No. No. 38/1999 on Management of Zakat. In the regulation, zakat has been synergized with tax by placing zakat as a deduction from taxable income element (PKP. But so far it has not been given the significant impact on the acceptance of zakat and awareness of Muslims to pay zakat. There are also some problems in practical level that contribute to that fact. This article explores the zakat and tax synergy that have been achieved through Act No. 38 of 1999, the problems found in its execution, and of course an offer for a solution to optimize the role of zakat and tax for the people welfare. By examining same practice in some countries, this paper recommends zakat as a direct tax deduction (tax credit as a strategic step in the effort to optimize the role of zakat.

  3. On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Slabý, Jiří; Trtík, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

  4. Synergies for a Wave-Wind Energy Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Collazo, Carlos; Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    installation costs relative to separate installations. Therefore, new hybrid or multiplatform solutions are being developed. Approach This work is focused on the integration of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) into offshore wind farms. Furthermore, the sustainable development of both offshore wind and wave...... into the positive synergies when offshore wind and wave energy technologies share the same marine space. Among that ones are: shared cost; a smoothing power output; and shielding effects of WECs over the offshore wind farm, which contribute to increase the weather windows for operation and maintenance. Secondly......, this work outlines the risks and challenges that arise when combining these energies. To some extent WECs increase the uncertainty of the project, leading to a higher project cost and an increase the associated financial risk. In third place three case studies are proposed to illustrate different...

  5. Synergy between cellulases and pectinases in the hydrolysis of hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Pakarinen, Annukka; Viikari, Liisa

    2013-02-01

    The impact of pectinases in the hydrolysis of fresh, steam-exploded and ensiled hemp was investigated and the synergy between cellulases, pectinases and xylanase in the hydrolysis was evaluated. About half; 59.3% and 46.1% of pectin in the steam-exploded and ensiled hemp, respectively, could be removed by a low dosage of pectinases used. Pectinases were more efficient than xylanase in the hydrolysis of fresh and ensiled hemp whereas xylanase showed higher hydrolytic efficiency than the pectinase preparation used in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Clear synergistic action between cellulases and xylanase could be observed in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Supplementation of pectinase resulted in clear synergism with cellulases in the hydrolysis of all hemp substrates. Highest hydrolysis yield of steam-exploded hemp was obtained in the hydrolysis with cellulases and xylanase. In the hydrolysis of ensiled hemp, the synergistic action between cellulases and pectinases was more obvious for efficient hydrolysis.

  6. Hierarchical nanostructure and synergy of multimolecular signalling complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Eilon; Barr, Valarie A.; Merrill, Robert K.; Regan, Carole K.; Sommers, Connie L.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Signalling complexes are dynamic, multimolecular structures and sites for intracellular signal transduction. Although they play a crucial role in cellular activation, current research techniques fail to resolve their structure in intact cells. Here we present a multicolour, photoactivated localization microscopy approach for imaging multiple types of single molecules in fixed and live cells and statistical tools to determine the nanoscale organization, topology and synergy of molecular interactions in signalling complexes downstream of the T-cell antigen receptor. We observe that signalling complexes nucleated at the key adapter LAT show a hierarchical topology. The critical enzymes PLCγ1 and VAV1 localize to the centre of LAT-based complexes, and the adapter SLP-76 and actin molecules localize to the periphery. Conditional second-order statistics reveal a hierarchical network of synergic interactions between these molecules. Our results extend our understanding of the nanostructure of signalling complexes and are relevant to studying a wide range of multimolecular complexes. PMID:27396911

  7. The IACOB project: synergies for the Gaia era

    CERN Document Server

    Simón-Díaz, S; Herrero, A; Apellániz, J Maíz; Negueruela, I

    2011-01-01

    The IACOB spectroscopic survey of Galactic OB stars is an ambitious observational project aimed at compiling a large, homogeneous, high-resolution database of optical spectra of massive stars observable from the Northern hemisphere. The quantitative spectroscopic analysis of this database, complemented by the invaluable information provided by Gaia (mainly regarding photometry and distances), will represent a major step forward in our knowledge of the fundamental physical characteristics of Galactic massive stars. In addition, results from this analysis will be of interest for other scientific questions to be investigated using Gaia observations. In this contribution we outline the present status of the IACOB spectroscopic database and indicate briefly some of the synergy links between the IACOB and Gaia scientific projects.

  8. Hierarchical nanostructure and synergy of multimolecular signalling complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Eilon; Barr, Valarie A.; Merrill, Robert K.; Regan, Carole K.; Sommers, Connie L.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-07-01

    Signalling complexes are dynamic, multimolecular structures and sites for intracellular signal transduction. Although they play a crucial role in cellular activation, current research techniques fail to resolve their structure in intact cells. Here we present a multicolour, photoactivated localization microscopy approach for imaging multiple types of single molecules in fixed and live cells and statistical tools to determine the nanoscale organization, topology and synergy of molecular interactions in signalling complexes downstream of the T-cell antigen receptor. We observe that signalling complexes nucleated at the key adapter LAT show a hierarchical topology. The critical enzymes PLCγ1 and VAV1 localize to the centre of LAT-based complexes, and the adapter SLP-76 and actin molecules localize to the periphery. Conditional second-order statistics reveal a hierarchical network of synergic interactions between these molecules. Our results extend our understanding of the nanostructure of signalling complexes and are relevant to studying a wide range of multimolecular complexes.

  9. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    .... The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit...

  10. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Gracilaria species from Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Considerable phytochemicals, high antioxidant potential, and moderate cytotoxic activity of G. salicornia and G. corticata make them appropriate candidates for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles.

  11. Effect of Intestinal Cytochrome P450 3A on Phytochemical Presystemic Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemicals, orally administered substances, are found to undergo presystemic metabolism mainly in the intestine. Although early researches confirmed the role of intestinal bacteria in phytochemical presystemic metabolism, along with the development of molecular biology in investigating intestinal metabolism, a breakthrough has been won in research into metabolizing enzymes and transporters in intestine,which demands more attention and further studies. Recently, Cytochrome P450 3A has been found to be the most effective enzyme in mediating both oxidative (Phase Ⅰ) and conjugative (Phase Ⅱ ) metabolism in the intestine. The present review summarizes the current findings correlated with the effect of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A on phytochemical presystemic metabolism, which provides a good basis for further research on phytochemical pharmacokinetics.

  12. Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, van S.G.; Wilms, L.C.; Gaj, S.; Briedé, J.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kok, de T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries contain relatively large amounts of different phytochemicals which are suggested to have chemopreventive properties, but little information is available on the underlying molecular modes of action. This study investigates whole genome gene expression changes in lymphocytes of 143 humans

  13. Introduction to the 1st International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yafeng; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-03-30

    The 1st International Symposium on Phytochemicals in Medicine and Food (ISPMF 2015) was held in Shanghai, China, from June 26th to 29th, 2015. The 1st ISPMF was organized by the Phytochemical Society of Europe (PSE) and the Phytochemical Society of Asia (PSA). More than 270 scientists from 48 countries attended this meeting. The program of ISPMF 2015 consisted of 12 plenary lectures, 20 invited talks, and 55 short oral presentations in 16 sessions, including phytochemistry, phytomedicine, pharmacology, and application of phytochemicals in medicine and food. The 1st ISPMF has obtained support from Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Food Chemistry, Phytochemistry Reviews, and Nutrients. As supported by Prof. Thomas F. Hofmann, a special issue on Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS) for the 1st ISPMF was initiated in January 2015.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STEM OF NICOTIANA TABACUM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y Sharma; D Dua; A Nagar; N S Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this present study is to investigate the antibacterial activity, phytochemical screening and the antioxidant activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the stem of Nicotiana tabacum...

  15. Can transcriptomics provide insight into the underlying chemopreventive mechanisms of complex mixtures of phytochemicals in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, van S.G.; Wilms, L.C.; Gaj, S.; Briedé, J.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Kleinjans, J.C.; Kok, de T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries contain relatively large amounts of different phytochemicals which are suggested to have chemopreventive properties, but little information is available on the underlying molecular modes of action. This study investigates whole genome gene expression changes in lymphocytes of 143 humans

  16. Changes in phytochemical contents in different parts of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f. lindau due to storage duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaren Bunga Raya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans is a well recognized medicinal herb for its high phytochemical contents. Several aspects may contribute to the phytochemical contents, and thus determine the quality and efficacy of an herb. An experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD with five replications, in a factorial arrangement of treatments. including two plant parts harvested at two different stages such as young leaves, young stems, matured leaves and matured stems, and four different storage durations such as 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The study was aimed at determining how storage duration affects selected phytochemical contents of different plant parts of C. nutans at different harvesting stages. Total phytochemical content, total flavonoids content and DPPH radical scavenging activities are higher in young plants than in old plants, moreover, all those compounds are higher in leaves than in stems, and decrease gradually due to storage. Phytochemical, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content of C. nutans differ among different plant parts and change due to storage. In general, young plant parts contain higher amount of phytochemicals, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll compared with matured parts confirming that phytochemicals content of C. nutans decreases when plants tend to maturity. Prolonged storage reduces phytochemical, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content of C. nutans,which demands fresh use of this medicinal herb to avoid phytochemical losses. Further research focusing on the proper storage is necessary to minimize phytochemicals losses of C. nutans.

  17. Marine parameters from synergy of optical and radar satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, S.; Hoja, D.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.

    In 2001 the European Space Agency ESA will launch the earth observation satellite ENVISAT. It will carry several instruments that provide new opportunities to measure oceanographic variables. Together, they represent the main measurement techniques of satellite oceanography, and complement each other in an ideal manner. These instruments are to be used in synergy to: Improve the analysis of measured wind and ocean wave fields, and thereby improve weather forecasting at weather centers; Determine the extent and variables of sea ice and develop a five-day sea ice prediction model, to support maritime shipping and offshore activities; Monitor and map sediment and suspended matter transport in coastal regions, especially in areas with large river estuaries, which greatly affects shipping lanes, harbors, and dredging activities; Monitor hydrobiological and bio-geochemical variables related to water quality in coastal regions and large inland waters, which affects ecology, coastal development, aquaculture, drinking water supplies, and tourism. To prepare the oceanographic community to make best use of the ENVISAT sensors in the pre-launch phase, existing algorithms to derive marine parameters are used and validated using data from the ERS SAR, the ERS RA, SeaWiFS and IRS MOS sensors now in operation. Derived products are used to address problems that can best be tackled using the synergy of radar and optical data, such as the effect of surface slicks on radar wind measurements, of sea state on ocean color, of wind and waves on the resuspension of suspended matter, and of wind and waves on sea ice variables.

  18. GlobCurrent- Multisensor Synergy for Surface Current Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.; Rio, M.-H.; Piolle, J.-F.; Gaultier, L.; Quartly, G.; Shutler, J.; Escola, R.; Raj, R. P.; Donlon, C.; Danielson, R.; Korosov, A.; Nencioli, F.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Roca, M.; Tournadre, J.; Larnicol, G.; Guitton, G.; Miller, P.; Warren, M.; Hansen, M.

    2016-08-01

    The GlobCurrent project (http://www.globcurrent.org) aims to: (i) advance the quantitative estimation of ocean surface currents from satellite sensor synergy; and (ii) demonstrate impact in user-led scientific, operational and commercial applications that, in turn, will improve and strengthen the uptake of satellite measurements. It is often demonstrated that sharp gradients in the sea surface temperature (SST) and current fields and the ocean surface chlorophyll-a distribution are spatially correlated with the sea surface roughness anomaly fields at small spatial scales, in the sub-mesocale (1-10 km) to the mesoscale (30-80 km). At the larger mesoscale range (>50 km), information derived from radar altimeters often depict the presence of coherent structures and eddies. The variability often appears largest in regions where the intense surface current regimes (>100 - 200 km) are found. These 2- dimensional structures manifested in the satellite observations represent evidence of the upper ocean ( 100-200 m) dynamics. Whereas the quasi geostrophic assumption is valid for the upper ocean dynamics at the larger scale (>100 km), possible triggering mechanisms for the expressions at the mesoscale-to-submesoscale may include spiraling tracers of inertial motion and the interaction of the wind-driven Ekman layer with the quasi-geostrophic current field. This latter, in turn, produces bands of downwelling (convergence) and upwelling (divergence) near fronts. A regular utilization of the sensor synergy approach with the combination of Sentinel-3, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1 together with other satellite missions will provide a highly valuable data set for further research and development to better relate the 2-dimensional surface expressions and the upper ocean dynamics.

  19. Catalyst and electrolyte synergy in Li-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Sekol, Ryan C; Doubek, Gustavo; Linardi, Marcelo; Taylor, André D

    2014-02-21

    Understanding the interactions between catalyst and electrolyte in Li-O2 systems is crucial to improving capacities, efficiencies, and cycle life. In this study, supported noble metal catalysts Pt/C, Pd/C, and Au/C were paired with popular Li-O2 electrolyte solvents dimethoxyethane (DME), tetraglyme (TEGDME), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The effects of these combinations on stability, kinetics, and activity were assessed. We show evidence of a synergistic effect between Pt and Pd catalysts and a DMSO-based electrolyte which enhances the kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. DME and TEGDME are more prone to decomposition and less kinetically favorable for oxygen reduction and evolution than DMSO. While the order of oxygen reduction onset potentials with each catalyst was found to be consistent across electrolyte (Pd > Pt > Au), larger overpotentials with DME and TEGDME, and negative shifts in onset after only five cycles favor the stability of a DMSO electrolyte. Full cell cycling experiments confirm that catalyst-DMSO combinations produce up to 9 times higher discharge capacities than the same with TEGDME after 20 cycles (∼707.4 vs. 78.8 mA h g(-1) with Pd/C). Ex situ EDS and in situ EIS analyses of resistive species in the cathode suggest that improvements in capacity with DMSO are due to a combination of greater electrolyte conductivity and catalyst synergies. Our findings demonstrate that co-selection of catalyst and electrolyte is necessary to exploit chemical synergies and improve the performance of Li-O2 cells.

  20. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native