WorldWideScience

Sample records for cpac optical moisture

  1. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content.

  2. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  3. Feasibility of soil moisture monitoring with heated fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayde, Chadi; Gregory, Christopher; Gil-Rodriguez, Maria; Tufillaro, Nick; Tyler, Scott; van de Giesen, Nick; English, Marshall; Cuenca, Richard; Selker, John S.

    2010-06-01

    Accurate methods are needed to measure changing soil water content from meter to kilometer scales. Laboratory results demonstrate the feasibility of the heat pulse method implemented with fiber optic temperature sensing to obtain accurate distributed measurements of soil water content. A fiber optic cable with an electrically conductive armoring was buried in variably saturated sand and heated via electrical resistance to create thermal pulses monitored by observing the distributed Raman backscatter. A new and simple interpretation of heat data that takes advantage of the characteristics of fiber optic temperature measurements is presented. The accuracy of the soil water content measurements varied approximately linearly with water content. At volumetric moisture content of 0.05 m3/m3 the standard deviation of the readings was 0.001 m3/m3, and at 0.41 m3/m3 volumetric moisture content the standard deviation was 0.046 m3/m3. This uncertainty could be further reduced by averaging several heat pulse interrogations and through use of a higher-performance fiber optic sensing system.

  4. Feasibility of soil moisture monitoring with heated fiber optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayde, C.; Gregory, C.; Gil-Rodriguez, M.; Tufillaro, N.; Tyler, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; English, M.; Cuenca, R.; Selker, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate methods are needed to measure changing soil water content from meter to kilometer scales. Laboratory results demonstrate the feasibility of the heat pulse method implemented with fiber optic temperature sensing to obtain accurate distributed measurements of soil water content. A fiber optic

  5. Fibre-optic sensor technologies for humidity and moisture measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, T. L.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2008-01-01

    A review of the use of fibre-optic sensor technologies for humidity sensing is presented. The paper first provides a brief overview on the basic concept of what is meant by humidity and on conventional detection methods. This is followed by an extensive review on the various fibre-optic techniques reported for humidity sensing, covering both intrinsic and extrinsic sensor configurations.

  6. Monitoring of Moisture in Transformer Oil Using Optical Fiber as Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an optical fiber sensor and temperature sensor-based instrumentation system to measure the moisture content in transformer oil. The sensor system consists of (i Diode Laser Source, (ii a bare and bent multimode fiber as sensor probe, (iii an LDR as detector, (iv LM35-based temperature sensor, and (v microcontroller system having a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The bare and bent optical fiber sensor and the temperature sensor LM35 are used to provide the measures of refractive index (RI and temperature of a transformer oil sample. An ATmega32-microcontroller-based system with trained ANN algorithm has been developed to determine the moisture content of the transformer oil sample by sampling the readings of the bare bent optical fiber sensor and the temperature sensor.

  7. Estimating tallgrass prairie soil moisture using active satellite microwave imagery and optical sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, James Michael Shawn

    2000-10-01

    Recent advances in active microwave remote sensing techniques provide the potential for monitoring soil moisture conditions at the spatial and temporal scales required for detailed local modeling efforts. The goal of this research was to produce accurate and spatially distributed estimates of soil moisture using a time series of ERS-2 images for the Konza Prairie, a tallgrass environment in northeast Kansas. The methods used in this research involve field data collection of soil moisture, digital image interpretation of optical (NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT TM) and radar (ERS-2) imagery, and environmental modeling in a raster GIS environment. To accomplish the research goals, the effect of variable terrain on radar image backscatter values was quantified and reduced. Next, the scattering behavior of the overlying vegetation canopy was simulated using a water cloud model that estimated the contribution of vegetation backscatter (sigma oveg) to the total backscatter coefficient (sigma ototal). Critical to this process were estimates of aboveground primary production made using the normalized difference vegetation index from a combination of AVHRR and LANDSAT TM images. With sigmao veg removed from the amount of backscatter contributed by the soil surface (sigmaosoil) was calculated and the linear relationship between sigmaosoil and volumetric soil moisture was determined. This regression model was then inverted and solved for volumetric soil moisture to quantify near surface soil moisture conditions across the study area. Local incidence angle had the strongest relationship on SAR image backscatter values (r = -0.35) and when used in an empirical correction function reduced image variance by at least 8%. Backscatter modeling to separate the vegetation and soil components of the radar signal performed worse than expected, resulting in a weak correlation between composite sigmao soil and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.21) and different values for burned and unburned

  8. Estimation of Soil Moisture from Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianjun; Zhou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    As an important parameter in recent and numerous environmental studies, soil moisture (SM) influences the exchange of water and energy at the interface between the land surface and atmosphere. Accurate estimate of the spatio-temporal variations of SM is critical for numerous large-scale terrestrial studies. Although microwave remote sensing provides many algorithms to obtain SM at large scale, such as SMOS and SMAP etc., resulting in many data products, they are almost low resolution and not applicable in small catchment or field scale. Estimations of SM from optical and thermal remote sensing have been studied for many years and significant progress has been made. In contrast to previous reviews, this paper presents a new, comprehensive and systematic review of using optical and thermal remote sensing for estimating SM. The physical basis and status of the estimation methods are analyzed and summarized in detail. The most important and latest advances in soil moisture estimation using temporal information have been shown in this paper. SM estimation from optical and thermal remote sensing mainly depends on the relationship between SM and the surface reflectance or vegetation index. The thermal infrared remote sensing methods uses the relationship between SM and the surface temperature or variations of surface temperature/vegetation index. These approaches often have complex derivation processes and many approximations. Therefore, combinations of optical and thermal infrared remotely sensed data can provide more valuable information for SM estimation. Moreover, the advantages and weaknesses of different approaches are compared and applicable conditions as well as key issues in current soil moisture estimation algorithms are discussed. Finally, key problems and suggested solutions are proposed for future research. PMID:27548168

  9. Soil moisture estimation using synergy of optical, SAR, and topographic data with Gaussian Process Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, J.; Notarnicola, C.; Spindler, N.; Cuozzo, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Greifeneder, F.; Tuia, D.; Borgeaud, M.; Thiran, J.-Ph.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we address the synergy of optical, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and topographic data in soil moisture retrieval over an Alpine area. As estimation technique, we consider Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The test area is located in South Tyrol, Italy where the main land types are meadows and pastures. Time series of ASAR Wide Swath - SAR, optical, topographic and ancillary data (meteorological information and snow cover maps) acquired repetitively in 2010 were examined. Regarding optical data, we used both, daily MODIS reflectances, and daily NDVI, interpolated from the 16-day MODIS composite. Slope, elevation and aspect were extracted from a 2.5 m DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and resampled to 10 m. Daily soil moisture measurements were collected in the three fixed stations (two located in meadows and one located in pasture). The snow maps were used to mask the points covered by snow. The best performance was obtained by adding MODIS band 6 at 1640 nm to SAR and DEM features. The corresponding coefficient of determination, R2, was equal to 0.848, and the root mean square error, RMSE, to 5.4 % Vol. Compared to the case when no optical data were considered, there was an increase of ca. 0.05 in R2 and a decrease in RMSE of ca. 0.7 % Vol. This work showed that the joint use of NDVI or water absorption reflectance with SAR and topographic data can improve the estimation of soil moisture in specific Alpine area and that GPR is an effective method for estimation.

  10. Using fiber optics to detect moisture intrusion into a landfill cap consisting of a vegetative soil barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D

    2003-09-01

    The intrusion of moisture into landfills can pose a health hazard because of the possibility that the moisture will carry harmful substances into the groundwater. Early detection of moisture anywhere within these landfills is essential if corrective action is to be taken well before an occurrence of this kind. This paper presents the results of a field-scale simulation test of the use of fiber optics to detect the presence of moisture within landfill covers, using a detection method based on the thermal response of soils as a function of their moisture content. By sending electrical current through an embedded stainless-steel tube, soils of varying moisture content were heated and time-dependent temperature measurements were obtained with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor system. The optical fiber itself lay within the tube, but its temperature was a function of how rapidly heat was conducted into the surrounding medium. The results of this experiment, which are in agreement with those obtained using more traditional "point" sampling and laboratory analysis, are presented along with the strengths and limitations of the thermal-response method of detecting moisture.

  11. The Impacts of Heating Strategy on Soil Moisture Estimation Using Actively Heated Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianzhi; Agliata, Rosa; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hoes, Olivier; Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-09-13

    Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of Actively Heated Fiber Optics (AHFO) for high resolution soil moisture mapping. In AHFO, the soil moisture can be calculated from the cumulative temperature ( T cum ), the maximum temperature ( T max ), or the soil thermal conductivity determined from the cooling phase after heating ( λ ). This study investigates the performance of the T cum , T max and λ methods for different heating strategies, i.e., differences in the duration and input power of the applied heat pulse. The aim is to compare the three approaches and to determine which is best suited to field applications where the power supply is limited. Results show that increasing the input power of the heat pulses makes it easier to differentiate between dry and wet soil conditions, which leads to an improved accuracy. Results suggest that if the power supply is limited, the heating strength is insufficient for the λ method to yield accurate estimates. Generally, the T cum and T max methods have similar accuracy. If the input power is limited, increasing the heat pulse duration can improve the accuracy of the AHFO method for both of these techniques. In particular, extending the heating duration can significantly increase the sensitivity of T cum to soil moisture. Hence, the T cum method is recommended when the input power is limited. Finally, results also show that up to 50% of the cable temperature change during the heat pulse can be attributed to soil background temperature, i.e., soil temperature changed by the net solar radiation. A method is proposed to correct this background temperature change. Without correction, soil moisture information can be completely masked by the background temperature error.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  13. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haynes, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  14. SMOS-IC: An Alternative SMOS Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernandez-Moran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission over land surfaces is the production of global maps of soil moisture (SM and vegetation optical depth (τ based on multi-angular brightness temperature (TB measurements at L-band. The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global retrievals of SM and τ. In this study, we present an alternative SMOS product that was developed by INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and CESBIO (Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère. One of the main goals of this SMOS-INRA-CESBIO (SMOS-IC product is to be as independent as possible from auxiliary data. The SMOS-IC product provides daily SM and τ at the global scale and differs from the operational SMOS Level 3 (SMOSL3 product in the treatment of retrievals over heterogeneous pixels. Specifically, SMOS-IC is much simpler and does not account for corrections associated with the antenna pattern and the complex SMOS viewing angle geometry. It considers pixels as homogeneous to avoid uncertainties and errors linked to inconsistent auxiliary datasets which are used to characterize the pixel heterogeneity in the SMOS L3 algorithm. SMOS-IC also differs from the current SMOSL3 product (Version 300, V300 in the values of the effective vegetation scattering albedo (ω and soil roughness parameters. An inter-comparison is presented in this study based on the use of ECMWF (European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting SM outputs and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. A six-year (2010–2015 inter-comparison of the SMOS products SMOS-IC and SMOSL3 SM (V300 with ECMWF SM yielded higher correlations and lower ubRMSD (unbiased root mean square difference for SMOS-IC over most of the pixels. In terms of τ, SMOS-IC τ was

  15. SMOS-IC: An Alternative SMOS Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Product

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Fernandez-Moran; Amen Al-Yaari; Arnaud Mialon; Ali Mahmoodi; Ahmad Al Bitar; Gabrielle De Lannoy; Nemesio Rodriguez-Fernandez; Ernesto Lopez-Baeza; Yann Kerr; Jean-Pierre Wigneron

    2017-01-01

    .... The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global...

  16. A novel optical technique to characterize fiberization of textured vegetable proteins under high-moisture extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Liu, Keshun; Hsieh, Fu-Hung

    2004-11-01

    There have been great interests in using twin-screw extruders under high moisture conditions to produce textured vegetable proteins. Unlike the low moisture extrusion counterpart, a product extruded under high moisture can have well-defined fiber orientation and bears a strong resemblance to muscle meat. The textural properties of such extruded products are important for consumer acceptance. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence polarization based technique that measures the fiber formation of extruded protein products. The experimental results using our new technique showed good agreements with results obtained from visual inspection and digital imaging of the dissected samples. The new technique provides an in vivo and noninvasive approach to characterize the fiber formation of textured vegetable proteins under high moisture extrusion. It has a potential to be used as a real time monitoring tool in food extrusion studies.

  17. Reconstruction of FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture using an artificial neural network based on reconstructed MODIS optical products over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Long, D.; Hong, Y.; Zeng, C.; Han, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstruction of FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture using an artificial neural network based on reconstructed MODIS optical products over the Tibetan Plateau Yaokui Cui, Di Long, Yang Hong, Chao Zeng, and Zhongying Han State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Abstract: Soil moisture is a key variable in the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere, especially over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) which is climatically and hydrologically sensitive as the world's third pole. Large-scale consistent and continuous soil moisture datasets are of importance to meteorological and hydrological applications, such as weather forecasting and drought monitoring. The Fengyun-3B Microwave Radiation Imager (FY-3B/MWRI) soil moisture product is one of relatively new passive microwave products. The FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture product is reconstructed using the back-propagation neural network (BP-NN) based on reconstructed MODIS products, i.e., LST, NDVI, and albedo using different gap-filling methods. The reconstruction method of generating the soil moisture product not only considers the relationship between the soil moisture and the NDVI, LST, and albedo, but also the relationship between the soil moisture and the four-dimensional variation using the longitude, latitude, DEM and day of year (DOY). Results show that the soil moisture could be well reconstructed with R2 larger than 0.63, and RMSE less than 0.1 cm3 cm-3 and bias less than 0.07 cm3 cm-3 for both frozen and unfrozen periods, compared with in-situ measurements in the central TP. The reconstruction method is subsequently applied to generate spatially consistent and temporally continuous surface soil moisture over the TP. The reconstructed FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture product could be valuable in studying meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture over the TP. Keywords: FY-3B/MWRI; Soil moisture; Reconstruction; Tibetan

  18. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in nodulation in soybean roots inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gesiele Almeida Barros de; Batista, Jesiane Stefânia Silva; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Nascimento, Leandro Costa do; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-03-06

    Biological nitrogen fixation in root nodules is a process of great importance to crops of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], as it may provide the bulk of the plant's needs for nitrogen. Legume nodulation involves several complex steps and, although studied for many decades, much remains to be understood. This research aimed at analyzing the global expression of genes in soybean roots of a Brazilian cultivar (Conquista) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. To achieve this, we used the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique combined with Illumina sequencing. The subtractive library (non-inoculated x inoculated) of soybean roots resulted in 3,210 differentially expressed transcripts at 10 days after inoculation were studied. The data were grouped according to the ontologies of the molecular functions and biological processes. Several classes of genes were confirmed as related to N2 fixation and others were reported for the first time. During nodule formation, a higher percentage of genes were related to primary metabolism, cell-wall modifications and the antioxidant defense system. Putative symbiotic functions were attributed to some of these genes for the first time.

  19. Calibration of soil moisture flow simulation models aided by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sobrino, Fernando Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Most of the studies dealing with the development of water flow simulation models in soils, are calibrated using experimental data measured by soil probe sensors or tensiometers which locate at specific points in the study area. However since the beginning of the XXI century, the use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, its application combined with an active heating pulses technique (AHFO) has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m , with 2 % accuracy , every second. This study presents the calibration of a soil water flow model (developed in Hydrus 2D) with the AHFO technique. The model predicts the distribution of soil water content of a green area irrigated by sprinkler irrigation. Several irrigation events have been evaluated in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistemas in Madrid where an installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth is deployed. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m. Data logged in the DTS unit before, during and after the irrigation event were used to calibrate the estimations in the Hydrus 2D model during the infiltration and redistribution of soil water content within the irrigation interval. References: Karandish, F., & Šimůnek, J. (2016). A field-modeling study for assessing temporal variations of soil-water-crop interactions under water-saving irrigation strategies. Agricultural Water Management, 178, 291-303. Li, Y., Šimůnek, J., Jing, L., Zhang, Z., & Ni, L. (2014). Evaluation of

  20. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation programing determines when and how much water apply to fulfill the plant water requirements depending of its phenology stage and location, and soil water content. Thus, the amount of water, the irrigation time and the irrigation frequency are variables that must be estimated. Likewise, irrigation programing has been based in approaches such as: the determination of plant evapotranspiration and the maintenance of soil water status between a given interval or soil matrix potential. Most of these approaches are based on the measurements of soil water sensors (or tensiometers) located at specific points within the study area which lack of the spatial information of the monitor variable. The information provided in such as few points might not be adequate to characterize the soil water distribution in irrigation systems with poor water application uniformity and thus, it would lead to wrong decisions in irrigation scheduling. Nevertheless, it can be overcome if the active heating pulses distributed fiber optic temperature measurement (AHFO) is used. This estimates the temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic and then, it is correlated with the soil water content. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m (with 2 % accuracy) , every second. This study presents the results obtained in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistesmas in Madrid. The area is irrigated by an sprinkler irrigation system which applies water with low uniformity. Also, it has deployed and installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) with spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 1 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2

  1. Using Actively Heated Fibre Optics (AHFO) to determine soil thermal conductivity and soil moisture content at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Francesco; Abesser, Corinna; Hannah, David; Blaen, Philip; Chalari, Athena; Mondanos, Michael; Krause, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Optical fibre distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is increasingly used in environmental monitoring and for subsurface characterisation, e.g. to obtain precise measurements of soil temperature at high spatio-temporal resolution, over several kilometres of optical fibre cable. When combined with active heating of metal elements embedded in the optical fibre cable (active-DTS), the temperature response of the soil to heating provides valuable information from which other important soil parameters, such as thermal conductivity and soil moisture content, can be inferred. In this presentation, we report the development of an Actively Heated Fibre Optics (AHFO) method for the characterisation of soil thermal conductivity and soil moisture dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolutions at a vegetated hillslope site in central England. The study site is located within a juvenile forest adjacent to the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR) experimental site. It is instrumented with three loops of a 500m hybrid-optical cable installed at 10cm, 25cm and 40cm depths. Active DTS surveys were undertaken in June and October 2016, collecting soil temperature data at 0.25m intervals along the cable, prior to, during and after the 900s heating phase. Soil thermal conductivity and soil moisture were determined according to Ciocca et al. 2012, applied to both the cooling and the heating phase. Independent measurements of soil thermal conductivity and soil moisture content were collected using thermal needle probes, calibrated capacitance-based probes and laboratory methods. Results from both the active DTS survey and independent in-situ and laboratory measurements will be presented, including the observed relationship between thermal conductivity and moisture content at the study site and how it compares against theoretical curves used by the AHFO methods. The spatial variability of soil thermal conductivity and soil moisture content, as observed using the different

  2. Expressão dos genes nodC, nodW e nopP em Bradyrhizobium japonicum estirpe CPAC 15 avaliada por RT-qPCR Expression of nodC, nodW and nopP genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15 strain evaluated by RT-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bortolan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão, por RT-qPCR, dos genes de nodulação nodC e nodW e do gene nopP da estirpe CPAC 15, que provavelmente atuam na infecção das raízes da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, a expressão dos genes foi avaliada nas células após a incubação com genisteína por 15 min, 1, 4 e 8 horas. Os resultados revelaram que os três genes apresentaram maior expressão imediatamente após o contato com o indutor (15 min. No segundo experimento, a bactéria foi cultivada na presença de indutores (genisteína ou exsudatos de sementes de soja por 48 horas. A expressão dos três genes foi maior na presença de genisteína, com valores de expressão para nodC, nodW e nopP superiores ao controle. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a funcionalidade dos três genes na estirpe CPAC 15, com ênfase para o nopP, cuja funcionalidade em Bradyrhizobium japonicum foi descrita pela primeira vez.The objective of this work was to evaluate, by RT-qPCR, the expression of the nodC and nodW nodulation genes and of the nopP gene of the CPAC 15 strain, which probably play a role in the infection of soybean roots. Two experiments were done. In the first, the gene expression was evaluated in cells after incubation with genistein for 15 min, 1, 4 and 8 hours. Results showed that the three genes showed higher expression immediately after contact with the inducer (15 min. In the second experiment, the bacterium was grown in the presence of inducers (genistein or soybean seed exudates for 48 hours. The expression of the three genes was greater when induced by genistein, and the expression of nodC, nodW and nopP had higher values than the control. The results confirm the functionality of the three genes in the CPAC 15 strain, with an emphasis on the nopP, whose functionality in Bradyrhizobium japonicum was described for the first time.

  3. Expressão dos genes nodC, nodW e nopP em Bradyrhizobium japonicum estirpe CPAC 15 avaliada por RT-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    BORTOLAN, S.; Barcellos, F. G; MARCELINO, F. C.; HUNGRIA, M.

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão, por RT-qPCR, dos genes de nodulação nodC e nodW e do gene nopP da estirpe CPAC 15, que provavelmente atuam na infecção das raízes da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, a expressão dos genes foi avaliada nas células após a incubação com genisteína por 15 min, 1, 4 e 8 horas. Os resultados revelaram que os três genes apresentaram maior expressão imediatamente após o contato com o indutor (15 min). No segundo experimento, a b...

  4. Mapping energy balance fluxes and root zone soil moisture in the White Volta Basin using optical imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.; Friesen, J.; Compaore, H.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Rodgers, C.; Vlek, P.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture is critical for evaluation of background characteristics. Since these fluxes are subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine their spatial and temporal

  5. Mapping energy balance fluxes and root zone soil moisture in the White Volta Basin using optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho; Friesen, Jan; Compaore, Halidou; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Rodgers, Charles; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2006-05-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture is critical for evaluation of background characteristics. Since these fluxes are subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine their spatial and temporal distributions over large areas from ground measurements alone. Therefore, prediction from remote sensing images is very attractive as it enables extensive area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land as implemented at New Mexico Tech (SEBAL NM) is used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes in the White Volta Basin of Ghana, West Africa. The objectives are (i) to demonstrate a SEBAL NM application in a part of the world were ground measurements are very scarce and (ii) to compare evapotranspiration (ET) maps obtained from Landsat and MODIS imagery, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL NM can be applied for mapping sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture over areas where few or no ground measurements are available using common satellite products (Landsat and MODIS).

  6. Use of geostationary satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.

    2009-04-01

    For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from geostationary

  7. Validation and reconstruction of FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture using an artificial neural network based on reconstructed MODIS optical products over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yaokui; Long, Di; Hong, Yang; Zeng, Chao; Zhou, Jie; Han, Zhongying; Liu, Ronghua; Wan, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere, especially over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) which is climatically and hydrologically sensitive as the Earth's 'third pole'. Large-scale spatially consistent and temporally continuous soil moisture datasets are of great importance to meteorological and hydrological applications, such as weather forecasting and drought monitoring. The Fengyun-3B Microwave Radiation Imager (FY-3B/MWRI) soil moisture product is a relatively new passive microwave product, with the satellite being launched on November 5, 2010. This study validates and reconstructs FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture across the TP. First, the validation is performed using in situ measurements within two in situ soil moisture measurement networks (1° × 1° and 0.25° × 0.25°), and also compared with the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) soil moisture product from multiple active and passive satellite soil moisture products using new merging procedures. Results show that the ascending FY-3B/MWRI product outperforms the descending product. The ascending FY-3B/MWRI product has almost the same correlation as the ECV product with the in situ measurements. The ascending FY-3B/MWRI product has better performance than the ECV product in the frozen season and under the lower NDVI condition. When the NDVI is higher in the unfrozen season, uncertainty in the ascending FY-3B/MWRI product increases with increasing NDVI, but it could still capture the variability in soil moisture. Second, the FY-3B/MWRI soil moisture product is subsequently reconstructed using the back-propagation neural network (BP-NN) based on reconstructed MODIS products, i.e., LST, NDVI, and albedo. The reconstruction method of generating the soil moisture product not only considers the relationship between the soil moisture and NDVI, LST, and albedo, but also the relationship between the soil moisture and four-dimensional variations using the

  8. Application of neural networks to determine moisture content on humidity-attenuated NIR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Philipp, B.L. [ICF Kaiser, Richland, WA (United States); Thompson-Bachmeier, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Moisture has been identified as one of the critical tank waste parameters that impacts the safety status of the wastes, particularly tanks containing ferro/ferricyanide materials. Since water content is affected by a number of factors, including gravity, one hypothesis, currently being tested by Westinghouse Hanford`s Waste Tank Safety organization, is that the surface of the waste contains a minimum of water compared to the material deeper in the tank. Assuming this hypothesis is correct, a minimum internal waste water content will be obtained by measuring the surface water content. Near infrared analysis is a nondestructive technique that takes advantage of the tendency of water molecules to absorb specific wavelengths of NIR energy. When a sample containing water is exposed to those wavelengths, a certain portion of the energy will be absorbed by the water, and the remainder will be reflected. By measuring the reflected energy, the concentration of water in the sample can be determined. An initial investigation into the feasibility of remote sensing for hot cell and waste tank applications was performed at the University of Washington`s Center for Process Analytical Chemistry (CPAC) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The BY-104 waste tank simulant test data showed that for these samples, ten percent of the incident radiation is scattered. When collected, this signal is available for determining moisture content because the moisture content of the waste affects the scattering. However, atmospheric relative humidity causes a signal attenuation that will impact any in situ measurements being obtained. For simulation, this spectra was used along with software generated atmospheric transmission data from 0-60 meters to produce a modified sample set. These data are analyzed using a backpropagation neural network algorithm to construct a model that would predict surface moisture content.

  9. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  10. Estimation of soil moisture using multispectral and FTIR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Zubair Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is a key capricious in hydrological process, the accessibility of moisture content in soil reins the mechanism amid the land surface and atmospheric progression. Precise soil moisture determination is influential in the weather forecast, drought monitoring, hydrological modeling, agriculture management and policy making. The aims of the study were to estimate soil moisture through remotely sensed data (FTIR & optical and establishment of the results with field measured soil moisture data. The ground measurements were carried out in 0–15 cm depth. Permutation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and land surface temperature (LST were taken to derive temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI for assessment of surface soil moisture. Correlation and regression analysis was conceded to narrate the TVDI with in situ calculated soil moisture. The spatial pattern of TVDI shows that generally low moisture distribution over study area. A significant (p < 0.05 negative correlation of r = 0.79 was found between TVDI and in situ soil moisture. The TVDI was also found adequate in temporal variation of surface soil moisture. The triangle method (TVDI confers consistent appraisal of moisture situation and consequently can be used to evaluate the wet conditions. Furthermore, the appraisal of soil moisture using the triangular method (TVDI was possible at medium spatial resolutions because the relationship of soil moisture with LST and NDVI lends an eloquent number of representative pixels for developing a triangular scatter plot.

  11. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA DOS RIZÓBIOS SEMIA 6156, F 3 (4, F 2 (1, F2 - 2B, CPAC-B10 EM FEIJÃO DE PORCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Santos de Paula Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi validar e recomendar bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio usadas em inoculantes comerciais na leguminosa Canavalia ensiformis. O trabalho foi conduzido durante os meses de novembro de 2013 a fevereiro 2014. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e com unidade experimental de 24 m2, o plantio realizado no espaçamento de 0,5 m entre sulcos, densidade de 10 sementes por metro linear, As estirpes de rizóbio avaliadas foram: SEMIA 6156, F 3 (4, F 2 (1, F2 - 2B, CPAC-B10. A primeira avaliação foi realizada aos 30 dias após a semeadura (DAS, para número e massa de nódulos frescos e secos, massa seca da parte aérea e raízes. A segunda avaliação foi realizada quando 50% das plantas estavam em florescimento, quantificando-se a massa seca das folhas e caules, massa seca total da parte aérea e análise total de macronutrientes em folhas e caule. A estirpe F 2 (1 pode realizar efetiva simbiose com as plantas de feijão de porco, promovendo ganhos no acúmulo de massa seca de parte aérea das plantas, sendo assim considerada agronomicamente eficiente e recomendada para uso em inoculantes comerciais.

  12. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  13. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  15. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  16. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  17. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  19. Moisturizers: The slippery road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisturizers are an important part of a dermatologist's armamentarium although little is written and well, a less is truly known about them. There is a cornucopia of projected skin products in the market whose real scientific role is not proven. These products although at times are regarded as mere cosmetics but have a well-known role in many skin disorders. Adequate knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosage, usage, and adverse effects is must for a dermatologist in this era. This article aims to bring forth the ever hidden facts of the much-hyped moisturizers. It is probably the first of its kind covering all aspects of moisturizers ranging from basic science to clinical usage, a subject that receives a short shrift in the current dermatological text.

  20. Assessment of Errors in AMSR-E Derived Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; McNairn, H.; Berg, A.; de Jeu, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    Soil moisture derived from passive microwave satellites provides information at a coarse spatial scale, but with temporally frequent, global coverage that can be used for monitoring applications over agricultural regions. Passive microwave satellites measure surface brightness temperature, which is largely a function of vegetation water content (which is directly related to the vegetation optical depth), surface temperature and surface soil moisture at low frequencies. Retrieval algorithms for global soil moisture data sets by necessity require limited site-specific information to derive these parameters, and as such may show variations in local accuracy. The objective of this study is to examine the errors in passive microwave soil moisture data over agricultural sites in Canada to provide guidelines on data quality assessment for using these data sets in monitoring applications. Global gridded soil moisture was acquired from the AMSR-E satellite using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model, LPRM (Owe et al., 2008). The LPRM model derives surface soil moisture through an iterative optimization procedure using a polarization difference index to estimate vegetation optical depth and surface dielectric constant using frequencies at 6.9 and 10.7 GHz. The LPRM model requires no a-priori information on surface conditions, but retrieval errors are expected to increase as the amount of open water and dense vegetation within each pixel increases (Owe et al., 2008) Satellite-derived LPRM soil moisture values were used to assess changes in soil moisture retrieval accuracy over the 2007 growing season for a largely agricultural site near Guelph (Ontario), Canada. Accuracy was determined by validating LPRM soil moisture against a network of 16 in-situ monitoring sites distributed at the pixel scale for AMSR-E. Changes in squared error, and pairwise correlation coefficient between satellite and in-situ surface soil moisture were assessed against changes in satellite orbit and

  1. The urban moisture climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas L. Sisterson

    1977-01-01

    Data collected on 26 July 1974 as a part of project METROMEX in St. Louis show the three-dimensional structure of the urban moisture field. Mesoscale dry regions at the urban surface, corresponding to large residential and light industrial land-use characterization, were responsible for a reduction in specific humidity in the urban mixing layer. Anthropogenic sources...

  2. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  3. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  4. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  5. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  6. Soil moisture content estimation from passive temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Landon JS; Roshan, Hamid; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Andersen, Martin S.; Acworth, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Natural temperature variations have increasingly been used to study shallow groundwater; however, the vast majority of studies are limited to saturated conditions. Despite the greater complexity of the unsaturated zone due to the non-linear relationships between moisture content and other physical properties (such as effective thermal conductivity and heat capacity), estimating soil moisture from measurements of natural temperature variations is possible. We have developed fundamental relationships between soil moisture and the diel temperature amplitude ratio and phase-shift. Additionally, we have developed fully coupled thermodynamic and hydraulic finite element (FE) models of temperature and soil moisture response to various boundary conditions. The performance of novel inversion techniques based on existing empirical thermal conductivity models has been evaluated with these results. Two significant empirical models of thermal conductivity of unsaturated sediments were integrated into the approach and compared. We performed a sensitivity analysis of our soil moisture model and determined the feasibility of deriving moisture estimates from temperature data by analysing the required measurement precision for the involved parameters. Inversion of the temperature output from the FE models demonstrates the factors, such as homogeneity and rapidly changing boundary conditions, which may limit the performance of unsaturated zone heat tracing, as well as the benefits of the approach. The use of heat to determine soil moisture content offers the advantages of lower cost; applicability to zones of high pore-water salinity, where inductive electromagnetic measurement methods fail; and the option of high spatial resolution or wide coverage when combined with fibre optic temperature sensing.

  7. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  8. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, C.; Poortinga, A.; Roosjen, P.P.J.; Bartholomeus, H.; Ruessink, G.

    2014-01-01

    Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure

  9. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  10. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  11. Moisturizers: Options for Softer Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing glands become less active. To keep your skin soft and well-hydrated, choose an oil-based moisturizer that contains petrolatum as the base, along with antioxidants or alpha hydroxy acids to combat wrinkles. These ...

  12. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  13. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corjan Nolet

    Full Text Available Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1 to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength (λ and surface moisture (θ over the optical domain of 350-2500 nm, and (2 to explore the implications of our laboratory findings for accurately mapping the distribution of surface moisture under natural conditions. A laboratory spectroscopy experiment was conducted to measure spectral reflectance (1 nm interval under different surface moisture conditions using beach sand. A non-linear increase of reflectance upon drying was observed over the full range of wavelengths. Two models were developed and tested. The first model is grounded in optics and describes the proportional contribution of scattering and absorption of light by pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix. The second model is grounded in soil physics and links the hydraulic behaviour of pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix to its optical properties. The optical model performed well for volumetric moisture content θ 0.97, but underestimated reflectance for θ between 24-30% (R2 > 0.92, most notable around the 1940 nm water absorption peak. The soil-physical model performed very well (R2 > 0.99 but is limited to 4% > θ < 24%. Results from a field experiment show that a short-wave infrared terrestrial laser scanner (λ = 1550 nm can accurately relate surface moisture to reflectance (standard error 2.6%, demonstrating its potential to derive spatially extensive surface moisture maps of a natural coastal beach.

  14. Measuring and Modeling the Effect of Surface Moisture on the Spectral Reflectance of Coastal Beach Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Corjan; Poortinga, Ate; Roosjen, Peter; Bartholomeus, Harm; Ruessink, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1) to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength () and surface moisture () over the optical domain of 350–2500 nm, and (2) to explore the implications of our laboratory findings for accurately mapping the distribution of surface moisture under natural conditions. A laboratory spectroscopy experiment was conducted to measure spectral reflectance (1 nm interval) under different surface moisture conditions using beach sand. A non-linear increase of reflectance upon drying was observed over the full range of wavelengths. Two models were developed and tested. The first model is grounded in optics and describes the proportional contribution of scattering and absorption of light by pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix. The second model is grounded in soil physics and links the hydraulic behaviour of pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix to its optical properties. The optical model performed well for volumetric moisture content 24% ( 0.97), but underestimated reflectance for between 24–30% ( 0.92), most notable around the 1940 nm water absorption peak. The soil-physical model performed very well ( 0.99) but is limited to 4% 24%. Results from a field experiment show that a short-wave infrared terrestrial laser scanner ( = 1550 nm) can accurately relate surface moisture to reflectance (standard error 2.6%), demonstrating its potential to derive spatially extensive surface moisture maps of a natural coastal beach. PMID:25383709

  15. Assessment of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval Parameters Using Tau-Omega Algorithms for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; O'Neill, Peggy; Islam, Tanvir; Gupta, Manika

    2014-01-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the latest mission which provides flow of coarse resolution soil moisture data for land applications. However, the efficient retrieval of soil moisture for hydrological applications depends on optimally choosing the soil and vegetation parameters. The first stage of this work involves the evaluation of SMOS Level 2 products and then several approaches for soil moisture retrieval from SMOS brightness temperature are performed to estimate Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD). The most widely applied algorithm i.e. Single channel algorithm (SCA), based on tau-omega is used in this study for the soil moisture retrieval. In tau-omega, the soil moisture is retrieved using the Horizontal (H) polarisation following Hallikainen dielectric model, roughness parameters, Fresnel's equation and estimated Vegetation Optical Depth (tau). The roughness parameters are empirically calibrated using the numerical optimization techniques. Further to explore the improvement in retrieval models, modifications have been incorporated in the algorithms with respect to the sources of the parameters, which include effective temperatures derived from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-NOAH Land Surface Model and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) while the s is derived from MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI). All the evaluations are performed against SMD, which is estimated using the Probability Distributed Model following a careful calibration and validation integrated with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The performance obtained after all those changes indicate that SCA-H using WRF-NOAH LSM downscaled ECMWF LST produces an improved performance for SMD estimation at a catchment scale.

  16. SMEX05 Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Properties Data: Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains observations of atmospheric parameters from aerosol optical property measurements collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2005 (SMEX05)...

  17. SMEX04 Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Properties Data: Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains observations of atmospheric parameters from aerosol optical property measurements collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04)...

  18. Azobenzene-Based Gel Coated Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor for Moisture Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Moniruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fibre Bragg grating sensor is coated with a novel polymer gel in order to investigate its suitability for nondestructive measurement of moisture in materials that can potentially lose their integrity due to moisture ingress. Absorption and desorption of moisture lead to swelling/shrinkage of an azobenzene-based gel, which induces a strain in the Bragg grating resulting in wavelength shifts. The results demonstrated that the amount of wavelength shift is linearly dependent on the amount of water ingress by the gel. The performance of the proposed optical fibre moisture sensor was found to be repeatable with no detectable hysteresis and has the potential to offer a low-cost route for monitoring moisture content.

  19. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  20. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...

  1. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  2. Soil Moisture and Agromet Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    decade of each month also produces monthly summaries. The Soil Moisture program covers two geographical areas. Area 1, the " Europea |," or "Soviet...American Geophysical Union , 25, 683-693. Thornthwaite, C. W. and J. R. Mather, 1955: The Water Balance. Publicatiuns in Climatology, Drexel Inst. of

  3. Moisture transport in coated plaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Bancken, E.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research project: 'Water balance of water-borne paint systems on plaster substrates in relation to fungal growth', a study is carried out to moisture transport mechanisms in coated gypsum plaster. In this contribution, the set-up of the study is described. Besides a

  4. Nondestructive Moisture Measurement in Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    moisture, bias voltage and defects in the glassivation layer. As a response to these problems most manufacturers started to improve the quality of their...package. The first experiment consisted of looking at the response of a sensor exposed to the room dew-point ( contrIled in flow conditions ’yaI

  5. Soil Moisture Retrieval from Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquarius observations over land offer an unprecedented opportunity to provide a value-added product, land surface soil moisture, which will contribute to a better understanding of the Earth’s climate and water cycle. Additionally, Aquarius will provide the first spaceborne data that can be used to a...

  6. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Information on pore geometry is very important in any study of the mechanical and physical behavior of porous materials. Unfortunately pores are not very accessible for direct measurements. Indirect methods have to be used which involve impregnation (sorption) experiments from which...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  7. A microfabricated amperometric moisture sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Li; Xingguo, Xiong; Dallas, Tim; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Temkin, Henryk; Wang, Xuejun; Walulu, Richard; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2002-02-11

    We describe a microfabricated moisture sensor with interdigitated Au or Pt electrodes on a silicon substrate. The sensor active area is covered with a spin-coated, baked-on layer of Nafion(R) perfluorosulfonate ionomer of submicron thickness. The sensor responds to moisture with a 10-90% rise time of 50-100 ms and a 90-10% fall time of 20-30 ms, faster than any other presently available sensor. The logarithm of the sensor current is related to the cube root of the moisture level at a given temperature. At 23 degrees C, the sensor easily measures relative humidities as low as 10%. The sensor response at a given absolute humidity level decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. The film is stable up to a temperature of 150 degrees C, permitting elevated temperature moisture measurement. Since sorbed water is actively decomposed electrolytically, the sensors exhibit negligible hysteresis. Response reproducibility of an individual sensor is <1%, that between identically made sensors is <5%, suggesting mass production techniques without individual calibration will be acceptable for all but the most demanding situation.

  8. Disaggregation of Active/Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Under All-sky Condition Using Machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongkyun; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha

    2017-04-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture products measured from the active/passive microwave sensors on-board satellite platforms have a great impact on many hydro-meteorological analyses at a global scale. However, its coarse spatial resolution interrupts local scale soil moisture applications. Moreover, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are applicable only in cloud-free conditions; thus developed downscaling method under all sky condition is essential for the construction of spatio-temporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression model was utilized to downscale the satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 12.5 km spatial resolution of active microwave soil moisture datasets from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the 40 km resolution of passive microwave soil moisture datasets from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) passive soil moisture were disaggregated to 1 km high resolution products over Northeast Asia in 2016. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy.

  9. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  10. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  11. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  12. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  13. The soil moisture velocity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Allen, Myron B.; Lai, Wencong; Zhu, Jianting; Seo, Mookwon; Douglas, Craig C.; Talbot, Cary A.

    2017-06-01

    Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Richards' equation is the recommended method for coupling groundwater to the atmosphere through the vadose zone in hyperresolution Earth system models, but requires fine spatial discretization, is computationally expensive, and may not converge due to mathematical degeneracy or when sharp wetting fronts occur. We transformed the one-dimensional Richards' equation into a new equation that describes the velocity of moisture content values in an unsaturated soil under the actions of capillarity and gravity. We call this new equation the Soil Moisture Velocity Equation (SMVE). The SMVE consists of two terms: an advection-like term that accounts for gravity and the integrated capillary drive of the wetting front, and a diffusion-like term that describes the flux due to the shape of the wetting front capillarity profile divided by the vertical gradient of the capillary pressure head. The SMVE advection-like term can be converted to a relatively easy to solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of lines and solved using a finite moisture-content discretization. Comparing against analytical solutions of Richards' equation shows that the SMVE advection-like term is >99% accurate for calculating infiltration fluxes neglecting the diffusion-like term. The ODE solution of the SMVE advection-like term is accurate, computationally efficient and reliable for calculating one-dimensional vadose zone fluxes in Earth system and large-scale coupled models of land-atmosphere interaction. It is also well suited for use in inverse problems such as when repeat remote sensing observations are used to infer soil hydraulic properties or soil moisture.Plain Language SummarySince its original publication in 1922, the so-called Richards' equation has been the only rigorous way to couple groundwater to the land surface through the unsaturated zone that lies between the water table and land surface. The soil moisture distribution and

  14. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  15. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  16. Moisture-induced stresses in glulam frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Gislason, Oskar V

    2016-01-01

    Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture-content gradi......Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture...... is presented. A two-dimensional transient, non-linear moisture transport model for wood is also developed and linked with this beam model. The combined models are used to study the long-term deformations and stresses in a curved frame structure exposed to both mechanical loading and cyclic climate conditions...

  17. On the Synergy of Airborne GNSS-R and Landsat 8 for Soil Moisture Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the synergy between thermal, optical, and passive microwave observations is well known for the estimation of soil moisture and vegetation parameters, the use of remote sensing sources based on the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS remains unexplored. During an airborne campaign performed in August 2014, over an agricultural area in the Duero basin (Spain, an innovative sensor developed by the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-Barcelona Tech based on GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R was tested for soil moisture estimation. The objective was to evaluate the combined use of GNSS-R observations with a time-collocated Landsat 8 image for soil moisture retrieval under semi-arid climate conditions. As a ground reference dataset, an intensive field campaign was carried out. The Light Airborne Reflectometer for GNSS-R Observations (LARGO observations, together with optical, infrared, and thermal bands from Landsat 8, were linked through a semi-empirical model to field soil moisture. Different combinations of vegetation and water indices with LARGO subsets were tested and compared to the in situ measurements. Results showed that the joint use of GNSS-R reflectivity, water/vegetation indices and thermal maps from Landsat 8 not only allows capturing soil moisture spatial gradients under very dry soil conditions, but also holds great promise for accurate soil moisture estimation (correlation coefficients greater than 0.5 were obtained from comparison with in situ data.

  18. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of

  19. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  20. Development of a moisture meter for milled layer. Jyrsoeksen kosteusmittarin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, V.J.; Leinonen, A.; Hyvaerinen, T.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present paperis to report the development of a continuously operating moisture meter for milled peat layer. The moisture meter is based on the NIR (Near Infra-red) reflection measuring technique. The meter's detector consists of a Near Infra-red radiation detector, elements for optical measuring, a two-channel Infra-red detector, and an electronic signal processor. This moisture meter system also contains a field operable microcomputer for storing measurement data and a printer for taking print-outs during the measurements. The detector and its accessories are installed onto a carriage which can be pulled along on a bog. The results from various measuring tests, and the differences between these results and the results obtained from measuring samples taken by hand are reported. In addition, the paper describes experiences received from using the homogenization equipment. An lastly, plans for further development of the continuously operating and field operable moisture meter for milled layer are outlined.

  1. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  2. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    - Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions.

  3. Laboratory spectroscopy experiment : Spectral reflectance of beach sand as function of surface moisture content with sample of beach sand collected from the Sand Motor, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, C.; Roosjen, P.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral reflectance of beach sand (350-2500 nm) under different moisture conditions at 1 nm interval, obtained by a laboratory spectroscopy experiment. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet

  4. Effects of soil moisture content on reflectance anisotropy - Laboratory goniometer measurements and RPV model inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, P.P.J.; Bartholomeus, H.M.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Optical methods to study soil moisture content (SMC) are often based on empirically or physically based models that relate changes in reflectance intensity to SMC. The effects of SMC on the reflectance anisotropy, however, have not received much attention. In this paper the effects of SMC on the

  5. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  6. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  7. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  8. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil moisture is an important parameter of the earth's climate system. Regression model for estimation of soil moisture at various depths has been developed using the amount of moisture near the surface layer. The estimated values of soil moisture are tested with the measured moisture values and it is found that the ...

  9. Moisture detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-07-01

    The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by moisture or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and moisture ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on moisture detection. There are numerous sources of moisture such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to moisture during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with moisture contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to moisture contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect moisture hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.

  10. Comparison of moisture management methods for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different moisture management methods were compared for biodegradation efficiency in sandy and organic soils. The conventional method consisted in maintaining the soil moisture at approximately 50 to 75% field capacity accompanied by daily aeration and mixing. In the test method, the soil was allowed to dry out ...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1715 - Moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moisture control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 Moisture control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...

  12. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  13. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  14. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  15. Soil moisture from operational meteorological satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Fernandez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  16. Soil moisture from Operational Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  17. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  18. Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

  19. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  20. Moisture management properties of Cupro knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur, G.; Oner, E.; Gunduz, G.

    2017-10-01

    On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties.

  1. Calibration of Soil Moisture Measurement Using Pr2 Moisture Meter and Gravimetric-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research study strongly focused on creating strong mechanism for measuring and evaluating soil moisture content comparing PR2 capacitance moisture meter and gravimetric approach. PR2 moisture meter shows a better performance accuracy of ± 6%; 0.06 m 3 /m 3 and intercept a0 =1.8; indicating the field is heavy clay. It measures to 1000 mm depth with high precision; while realistic result could not be obtained from gravimetric method at this measuring depth. Therefore, effective soil moisture measuring, monitoring and evaluation can be achieved with PR2 moisture meter.

  2. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  3. Soil Moisture Estimations Based on Airborne CAROLS L-Band Microwave Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Mialon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The SMOS satellite mission, launched in 2009, allows global soil moisture estimations to be made using the L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB model, which simulates the L-band microwave emissions produced by the soil–vegetation layer. This model was calibrated using various sources of in situ and airborne data. In the present study, we propose to evaluate the L-MEB model on the basis of a large set of airborne data, recorded by the CAROLS radiometer during the course of 20 flights made over South West France (the SMOSMANIA site, and supported by simultaneous soil moisture measurements, made in 2009 and 2010. In terms of volumetric soil moisture, the retrieval accuracy achieved with the L-MEB model, with two default roughness parameters, ranges between 8% and 13%. Local calibrations of the roughness parameter, using data from the 2009 flights for different areas of the site, allowed an accuracy of approximately 5.3% to be achieved with the 2010 CAROLS data. Simultaneously we estimated the vegetation optical thickness (t and we showed that, when roughness is locally adjusted, MODIS NDVI values are correlated (R2 = 0.36 to t. Finally, as a consequence of the significant influence of the roughness parameter on the estimated absolute values of soil moisture, we propose to evaluate the relative variability of the soil moisture, using a default soil roughness parameter. The soil moisture variations are estimated with an uncertainty of approximately 6%.

  4. Correlation Between Soil Moisture and Dust Emissions: An Investigation for Global Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Carley; Tan, Qian

    2017-01-01

    This work is using the newly available NASA SMAP soil moisture measurement data to evaluate its impact on the atmospheric dust emissions. Dust is an important component of atmospheric aerosols, which affects both climate and air quality. In this work, we focused on semi-desert regions, where dust emissions show seasonal variations due to soil moisture changes, i.e. in Sahel of Africa. We first identified three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites in the Sahel (IER_Cinzana, Banizoumbou, and Zinder_Airport). We then utilized measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction, size distribution, and single-scattering albedo and its wave-length dependence to select dust plumes from the available measurements We matched the latitude and longitude of the AERONET station to the corresponding SMAP data cell in the years 2015 and 2016, and calculated their correlation coefficient. Additionally, we looked at the correlation coefficient with a three-day and a five-day shift to check the impact of soil moisture on dust plumes with some time delay. Due to the arid nature of Banizoumbou and Zinder_Airport, no correlation was found to exist between local soil moisture and dust aerosol load. While IER_Cinzana had soil moisture levels above the satellite threshold of 0.02cm3/cm3, R-value approaching zero indicated no presence of a correlation. On the other hand, Ilorin demonstrated a significant negative correlation between aerosol optical depth and soil moisture. When isolating the analysis to Ilorin's dry season, a negative correlation of -0.593 was the largest dust-isolated R-value recorded, suggesting that soil moisture is driven the dust emission in this semi-desert region during transitional season.

  5. 76 FR 64038 - Airworthiness Directives; CPAC, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... does not include Models 112A and 115. The Model 112A is a Rockwell ``marketing name'' for the Model 112. The Model 115 is a Rockwell ``marketing name'' for the Model 114. Since they are type-certificated as... visual flight rules (VFR) only, restricted to crew, calm weather, reduced speed not to exceed 111 knots...

  6. 77 FR 6663 - Airworthiness Directives; CPAC, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... is a Rockwell ``marketing name'' for the Model 112. The Model 115 is a Rockwell ``marketing name... permitted for daytime visual flight rules (VFR) only, restricted to crew, calm weather, reduced speed not to...

  7. SMEX03 Little Washita Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains volumetric soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity, soil salinity, and surface temperature data collected during the Soil Moisture...

  8. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  9. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  10. Disaggregation Of Passive Microwave Soil Moisture For Use In Watershed Hydrology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin

    In recent years the passive microwave remote sensing has been providing soil moisture products using instruments on board satellite/airborne platforms. Spatial resolution has been restricted by the diameter of antenna which is inversely proportional to resolution. As a result, typical products have a spatial resolution of tens of kilometers, which is not compatible for some hydrological research applications. For this reason, the dissertation explores three disaggregation algorithms that estimate L-band passive microwave soil moisture at the subpixel level by using high spatial resolution remote sensing products from other optical and radar instruments were proposed and implemented in this investigation. The first technique utilized a thermal inertia theory to establish a relationship between daily temperature change and average soil moisture modulated by the vegetation condition was developed by using NLDAS, AVHRR, SPOT and MODIS data were applied to disaggregate the 25 km AMSR-E soil moisture to 1 km in Oklahoma. The second algorithm was built on semi empirical physical models (NP89 and LP92) derived from numerical experiments between soil evaporation efficiency and soil moisture over the surface skin sensing depth (a few millimeters) by using simulated soil temperature derived from MODIS and NLDAS as well as AMSR-E soil moisture at 25 km to disaggregate the coarse resolution soil moisture to 1 km in Oklahoma. The third algorithm modeled the relationship between the change in co-polarized radar backscatter and the remotely sensed microwave change in soil moisture retrievals and assumed that change in soil moisture was a function of only the canopy opacity. The change detection algorithm was implemented using aircraft based the remote sensing data from PALS and UAVSAR that were collected in SMPAVEX12 in southern Manitoba, Canada. The PALS L-band h-polarization radiometer soil moisture retrievals were disaggregated by combining them with the PALS and UAVSAR L

  11. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Soil Moisture Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of in-situ point measurements of soil moisture within three 25-km by 25-km Meso-cell Study Areas (MSAs) in northern Colorado (Fraser, North...

  13. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  14. Heat and Moisture transport of socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, P.; Glombíková, V.; Havelka, A.

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the liquid moisture transport and thermal properties is essential for understanding physiological comfort of clothes. This study reports on an experimental investigation of moisture management transport and thermal transport on the physiological comfort of commercially available socks. There are subjective evaluation and objective measurements. Subjective evaluation of the physiological comfort of socks is based on individual sensory perception of probands during and after physical exertion. Objective measurements were performed according to standardized methods using Moisture Management tester for measuring the humidity parameters and C-term TCi analyzer for thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity. The obtained values of liquid moisture transport and thermal properties were related to the material composition and structure of the tested socks. In summary, these results show that objective measurement corresponds with probands feelings.

  15. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Kent; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Spencer, Michael; Chen, Gun-Shing; Underwood, Mark; Njoku, Eni; Goodman, Shawn; Jai, Benhan

    2013-01-01

    The SMAP mission will produce high-resolution and accurate global maps of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state using data from a non-imaging synthetic aperture radar and a radiometer, both operating at L-band.

  16. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture Treatment on In vitro Formation and Digestibility of Resistant Starch from African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa). A Sankhon, W-R Yao, I Amadou, H Wang, H Qian, M Sangare ...

  17. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  18. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  19. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  20. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  1. Advanced moisture modeling of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Long term moisture exposure has been shown to affect the mechanical performance of polymeric composite structures. This reduction : in mechanical performance must be considered during product design in order to ensure long term structure survival. In...

  2. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide guidance on the possible methodologies for evaluating specifically moisture related pavement response using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS), this paper describes the objectives, potential effects and available methods...

  3. Soil moisture determinations using capacitance probe methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkins, Ronald T

    1998-01-01

    ...) systems is a relatively new approach to soil moisture measurements. A unique probe assembly and a readout device that measures voltage drop and phase shift were developed and used for direct capacitance measurements...

  4. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  5. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective...... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  6. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...... to the used analysis method and therefore great care has to be taken when comparing results of different experiments. This paper discusses this issue and will come with a recommendation of a simple and consistent way to present the moisture buffer capacity of the materials in contact with the indoor air...

  7. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  8. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  9. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  10. Measurement of heat and moisture exchanger efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M

    2013-09-01

    Deciding between a passive heat and moisture exchanger or active humidification depends upon the level of humidification that either will deliver. Published international standards dictate that active humidifiers should deliver a minimum humidity of 33 mg.l(-1); however, no such requirement exists, for heat and moisture exchangers. Anaesthetists instead have to rely on information provided by manufacturers, which may not allow comparison of different devices and their clinical effectiveness. I suggest that measurement of humidification efficiency, being the percentage moisture returned and determined by measuring the temperature of the respired gases, should be mandated, and report a modification of the standard method that will allow this to be easily measured. In this study, different types of heat and moisture exchangers for adults, children and patients with a tracheostomy were tested. Adult and paediatric models lost between 6.5 mg.l(-1) and 8.5 mg.l(-1) moisture (corresponding to an efficiency of around 80%); however, the models designed for patients with a tracheostomy lost between 16 mg.l(-1) and 18 mg.l(-1) (60% efficiency). I propose that all heat and moisture exchangers should be tested in this manner and percentage efficiency reported to allow an informed choice between different types and models. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Space-time modeling of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijuan; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-11-01

    A physically derived space-time mathematical representation of the soil moisture field is carried out via the soil moisture balance equation driven by stochastic rainfall forcing. The model incorporates spatial diffusion and in its original version, it is shown to be unable to reproduce the relative fast decay in the spatial correlation functions observed in empirical data. This decay resulting from variations in local topography as well as in local soil and vegetation conditions is well reproduced via a jitter process acting multiplicatively over the space-time soil moisture field. The jitter is a multiplicative noise acting on the soil moisture dynamics with the objective to deflate its correlation structure at small spatial scales which are not embedded in the probabilistic structure of the rainfall process that drives the dynamics. These scales of order of several meters to several hundred meters are of great importance in ecohydrologic dynamics. Properties of space-time correlation functions and spectral densities of the model with jitter are explored analytically, and the influence of the jitter parameters, reflecting variabilities of soil moisture at different spatial and temporal scales, is investigated. A case study fitting the derived model to a soil moisture dataset is presented in detail.

  12. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Rune; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Bakke, Jan Vilhelm; Holøs, Sverre Bjørn; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC), where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required), while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order) crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects. PMID:29039816

  13. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  14. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  15. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  16. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digital soil moisture meter developed was compared with gravimetric method for soil moisture determination on fifteen soil samples added different level of water during calibration process. The results revealed a relatively linear relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter.

  17. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    moisture meter developed was compared with gravimetric method for soil moisture determination on fifteen soil samples added different level of water during calibration process. The results revealed a relatively linear relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. The regression ...

  18. ESA's Soil Moisture dnd Ocean Salinity Mission - Contributing to Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The focus of this paper will be on SMOS's contribution to support water resource management: SMOS surface soil moisture provides the input to derive root-zone soil moisture, which in turn provides the input for the drought index, an important monitoring prediction tool for plant available water. In addition to surface soil moisture, SMOS also provides observations on vegetation optical depth. Both parameters aid agricultural applications such as crop growth, yield forecasting and drought monitoring, and provide input for carbon and land surface modelling. SMOS data products are used in data assimilation and forecasting systems. Over land, assimilating SMOS derived information has shown to have a positive impact on applications such as NWP, stream flow forecasting and the analysis of net ecosystem exchange. Over ocean, both sea surface salinity and severe wind speed have the potential to increase the predictive skill on the seasonal and short- to medium-range forecast range. Operational users in particular in Numerical Weather Prediction and operational hydrology have put forward a requirement for soil moisture data to be available in near-real time (NRT). This has been addressed by developing a fast retrieval for a NRT level 2 soil moisture product based on Neural Networks, which will be available by autumn 2015. This paper will focus on presenting the

  19. Advanced MR moisture sensor market feasibility analysis. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This paper briefly documents activities, background information, and results of marketing studies on the Magnetic Resonance Advanced Moisture Sensor (AMS). The main goals of the study are to identify industrial uses to guide development efforts, to become familiar with the industrial and magnetic resonance research capabilities/resources at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and to develop a summary data sheet describing the AMS product for use with a broad mail survey of potential users. The studies are being performed through an alliance of Quantum Magnetics, US DOE, SwRI, The Townsend Agency, and PAI Partners. Efforts are being focused on NIR, Raman, and other optical spectroscopies as process measurement tools for onstream applications. Domestic and world markets for process analytical instrumentation, process moisture instrumentation, and nuclear magnetic resonance instrumentation are summarized. Three applications are identified as the most promising for magnetic resonance instrumentation: (1) polymer production, (2) pharmaceuticals preparation, and (3) prepared food processing. It is estimated that the process magnetic resonance market could reach $5 to $10 million annually by the end of this decade.

  20. Field testing a microwave moisture sensor for real-time kernel moisture content monitoring during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present peanut drying process lacks the capability of kernel moisture content determination in real-time. A microwave moisture sensor, developed within USDA ARS, affords the capability of in-shell kernel moisture content determination; thus, providing a means for monitoring kernel moisture conte...

  1. MARKETING OF WHEAT ON A CONSTANT AND NIL MOISTURE BASIS

    OpenAIRE

    William W. WILSON; Dahl, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined moisture specification practices in the United States and for major exporters and assessed impacts of changes to a nil or constant moisture basis on prices and revenue. These were examined under scenarios where information on moisture in current prices is limited and under a scenario where current prices reflect Full Knowledge of moisture advantages. Results indicate that changing to a nil moisture basis (which requires a subsequent adjustment in volumes to reflect the sub...

  2. SMOS/SMAP Synergy for SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann

    2011-01-01

    ancillary data) were used to correct for surface temperature effects and to derive microwave emissivity. ECMWF data were also used for precipitation forecasts, presence of snow, and frozen ground. Vegetation options are described below. One year of soil moisture observations from a set of four watersheds in the U.S. were used to evaluate four different retrieval methodologies: (1) SMOS soil moisture estimates (version 400), (2) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data with SMOS estimated vegetation optical depth, which is part of the SMOS level 2 product, (3) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data and the MODIS-based vegetation climatology data, and (4) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data and actual MODIS observations. The use of SMOS real-world global microwave observations and the analyses described here will help in the development and selection of different land surface parameters and ancillary observations needed for the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. These investigations will greatly improve the quality and reliability of this SMAP product at launch.

  3. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  4. Temporal transferability of soil moisture calibration equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Berg, Aaron A.; Bullock, Paul R.; Hanis-Gervais, Krista; Ojo, E. RoTimi; Cosh, Michael H.; Powers, Jarrett; McNairn, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Several large-scale field campaigns have been conducted over the last 20 years that require accurate measurements of soil moisture conditions. These measurements are manually conducted using soil moisture probes which require calibration. The calibration process involves the collection of hundreds of soil moisture cores, which is extremely labor intensive. In 2012, a field campaign was conducted in southern Manitoba in which 55 fields were sampled and calibration equations were derived for each field. The Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiment 2016 (SMAPVEX16) was conducted in this same region, and 21 of the same fields were resampled. This study examines the temporal transferability of calibration equations between these two field campaigns. It was found that the larger range in soil moisture over which samples were collected in 2012 (average range 0.11-0.41 m3 m-3) generally resulted in lower errors when used in 2016 (average range 0.24-0.44 m3 m-3) than the equations derived in 2016 when used with data collected in 2012. Combining the data collected in 2012 and 2016 did not improve the errors, overall. These results suggest that the transfer of calibration equations from one year to the next is not recommended.

  5. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  6. Collective Impacts of Orography and Soil Moisture on the Soil Moisture-Precipitation Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Ensembles of convection-resolving simulations with a simplified land surface are conducted to dissect the isolated and combined impacts of soil moisture and orography on deep-convective precipitation under weak synoptic forcing. In particular, the deep-convective precipitation response to a uniform and a nonuniform soil moisture perturbation is investigated both in settings with and without orography. In the case of horizontally uniform perturbations, we find a consistently positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback, irrespective of the presence of low orography. On the other hand, a negative feedback emerges with localized perturbations: a dry soil heterogeneity substantially enhances rain amounts that scale linearly with the dryness of the soil, while a moist heterogeneity suppresses rain amounts. If the heterogeneity is located in a mountainous region, the relative importance of soil moisture heterogeneity decreases with increasing mountain height: A mountain 500 m in height is sufficient to neutralize the local soil moisture-precipitation feedback.

  7. Soil moisture needs in earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the development of passive and active microwave techniques for measuring soil moisture with respect to how the data may be used. New science programs such as the EOS, the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and STORM, a mesoscale meteorology and hydrology project, will have to account for soil moisture either as a storage in water balance computations or as a state variable in-process modeling. The author discusses future soil moisture needs such as frequency of measurement, accuracy, depth, and spatial resolution, as well as the concomitant model development that must proceed concurrently if the development in microwave technology is to have a major impact in these areas.

  8. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  9. Remote Satellite Soil Moisture Mapping for the ERDC Countermine Simulation Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    albedo , and NDVI. This objective serves to “proof the concept” of using the METRIC approach for operational army use in Afghanistan. 2. Install an...research results clearly demonstrate the great potential of optical imagery (Landsat, MODIS , GOES, METEOSAT, QUICKBIRD and other platforms) for reliably...14, 15, and 16). This is a consequence of not taking into account sufficiently the effect of albedo on the soil moisture prediction. On the sand

  10. A Sensitivity Analysis of NDWI and SRWI to Different types of Vegetation Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Linna; Chen, Zhizhong

    2017-04-01

    There are many definitions of vegetation moisture, such as fuel moisture content (FMC), gravimetric water content (GWC), relative water content (RWC), leaf water content (LWC), canopy water content (CWC) and vegetation water content (VWC). They were introduced because of different applications. For example, FMC is with superiority in monitoring wildfire potential, and GWC responses well to determine whether the plant is in health. RWC is suitable for estimating vegetation water stress. LWC and CWC are often used in optical remote sensing and are always related to equivalent water thickness (EWT). For VWC, the main application is for improving retrievals of soil moisture content from microwave sensors. For optical remote sensing technique, the absorption features of liquid water in plant leaves are readily detectable by spectroscopy. Spectral reflectance at 970nm, 1200nm, 1450nm, 1930nm and 2500nm are the basis of numerous remote-sensing indices that could be used in estimating vegetation moisture. Foregoing studies have introduced different spectral indices based on these bands to retrieve vegetation moisture. These spectral indices often fall into two categories, one is Normalized Different Water Index (NDWI), and the other is Simple Ratio Water Index (SRWI). NDWIs take the form of normalized difference spectral index, while SRWIs are in the form of ratio type. They were calculated from different combinations of spectral channels. Since the sensitivities to vegetation moisture of reflectance at different spectral channel are distinguished from each other, the capabilities of these NDWIs and SRWIs in estimating different types of vegetation moisture will be distinguished from one to one. In this work, based on in-situ measurements collected in the north China plain from wheat and corn (Fig. 1), a sensitivity analysis of NDWI and SRWI to different types of vegetation moisture, such as VWC, FMC and GWC, was carried out. They were calculated from different

  11. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  12. Gravity changes, soil moisture and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Grayson, R.; Rodell, M.; Ellet, K.

    2003-04-01

    Remote sensing holds promise for near-surface soil moisture and snow mapping, but current techniques do not directly resolve the deeper soil moisture or groundwater. The benefits that would arise from improved monitoring of variations in terrestrial water storage are numerous. The year 2002 saw the launch of NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are mapping the Earth's gravity field at such a high level of precision that we expect to be able to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (soil moisture, groundwater, snow, ice, lake, river and vegetation). The project described here has three distinct yet inter-linked components that all leverage off the same ground-based monitoring and land surface modelling framework. These components are: (i) field validation of a relationship between soil moisture and changes in the Earth's gravity field, from ground- and satellite-based measurements of changes in gravity; (ii) development of a modelling framework for the assimilation of gravity data to constrain land surface model predictions of soil moisture content (such a framework enables the downscaling and disaggregation of low spatial (500 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution measurements of gravity change to finer spatial and temporal resolutions); and (iii) further refining the downscaling and disaggregation of space-borne gravity measurements by making use of other remotely sensed information, such as the higher spatial (25 km) and temporal (daily) resolution remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) instruments on Aqua and ADEOS II. The important field work required by this project will be in the Murrumbidgee Catchment, Australia, where an extensive soil moisture monitoring program by the University of Melbourne is already in place. We will further enhance the current monitoring network by the addition of groundwater wells and additional soil moisture sites. Ground

  13. Calculate the moisture content of steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Water droplets in steam can create serious problems. For example, if the steam is being used to drive turbines, droplets can damage the turbine blades. It is important, therefore, for an engineer to know if steam contains moisture, especially if the steam is generated in low-pressure boilers (under 500 psia). Unlike larger boilers, these units don't have internal separation devices such as cyclones. Calculating the steam's moisture content, or quality, can be complicated procedure. Now, a simple chart can be used to get the data from one temperature reading. The paper explains the procedure.

  14. Moisture sorption in naturally coloured cotton fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ö.; De Clerck, K.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing environmental concerns have stimulated an interest in naturally coloured cottons. As many commercial and technical performance aspects of cotton fibres are influenced by their response towards atmospheric humidity, an in-depth research on moisture sorption behaviour of these fibres using dynamic vapour sorption is carried out. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity and hysteresis behaviour of brown and green cotton fibres. These differences are mainly attributed to the variations in maturity and crystallinity index of the fibres. This study provides valuable insights into the moisture sorption behaviour of naturally coloured cotton fibres.

  15. Evaluation of random cascade hierarchical and statistical arrangement model in disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M.; Magagi, R.; Goita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter in hydrology that can be derived from remote sensing. In different studies, it was shown that optical-thermal, active and passive microwave remote sensing data can be used for soil moisture estimation. However, the most promising approach to estimate soil moisture in large areas is passive microwave radiometry. Global estimation of soil moisture is now operational by using remote sensing techniques. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System Sensor (AMSR-E) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) passive microwave radiometers that were lunched on 2002 and 2009 respectively along with the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) satellite that was planned to be lunched in the time frame of 2014-2015 make remote sensing to be more useful in soil moisture estimation. However, the spatial resolutions of AMSR-E, SMOS and SMAP are 60 km, 40 km and 10 km respectively. These very low spatial resolutions can not show the temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture in field or small scales. So, using disaggregation methods is required to efficiently using the passive microwave derived soil moisture information in different scales. The low spatial resolutions of passive microwave satellites can be improved by using disaggregation methods. Random Cascade (RC) model (Over and Gupta, 1996) is used in this research to downscale the 40 km resolution of SMOS satellite. By using this statistical method, the SMOS soil moisture resolutions are improved to 20 km, 10 km, 5 km and 2.5 km, respectively. The data that were measured during Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) field campaign are used to do the experiments. Totally the ground data and SMOS images that were obtained during 13 different days from 7-June-2012 to 13-July-2012 are used. By comparison with ground soil moisture, it is observed that the SMOS soil moisture is underestimated for all the images and so bias amounts

  16. Are opthalmic hydrophobic coatings useful for astronomical optics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christian; Phillips, Andrew C.

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical optics are often exposed to moisture and dust in observatory environments, which frequently compromises their high-performance coatings. Suitable protective layers to resist dust and moisture accumulation would be extremely advantageous, but have received scant attention thus far. Hydrophobic and scratch-resistant coatings, developed primarily for opthalmic use, exhibit several attractive properties for astronomical optics. We examine the properties of one such coating and its applicability to astronomical mirrors and lenses. This includes efficiency of dust removal, abrasion resistance, moisture resistance, ease of stripping, and transmission across a wide wavelength range.

  17. Multivariate analysis of soil moisture and runoff dynamics for better understanding of catchment moisture state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Bronstert, Axel; Cunha Costa, Alexandre; Zehe, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key state that controls runoff formation, infiltration and portioning of radiation into latent and sensible heat flux. The experimental characterisation of near surface soil moisture patterns and their controls on runoff formation is, however, still largely untapped. Using an intelligent sampling strategy of two TDR clusters installed in the head water of the Wilde Weißeritz catchment (Eastern Ore Mountains, Germany), we investigated how well "the catchment state" may be characterised by means of distributed soil moisture data observed at the field scale. A grassland site and a forested site both located on gentle slopes were instrumented with two Spatial TDR clusters (STDR) that consist of 39 and 32 coated TDR probes of 60 cm length. The interplay of soil moisture and runoff formation was interrogated using discharge data from three nested catchments: the Becherbach with a size of 2 km², the Rehefeld catchment (17 km²) and the superordinate Ammelsdorf catchment (49 km²). Multiple regression analysis and information theory including observations of groundwater levels, soil moisture and rainfall intensity were employed to predict stream flow. On the small scale we found a strong correlation between the average soil moisture and the runoff coefficients of rainfall-runoff events, which almost explains as much variability as the pre-event runoff. There was, furthermore, a strong correlation between surface soil moisture and subsurface wetness. With increasing catchment size, the explanatory power of soil moisture reduced, but it was still in a good accordance to the former results. Combining those results with a recession analysis of soil moisture and discharge we derived a first conceptual model of the dominant runoff mechanisms operating in these catchments, namely subsurface flow, but also by groundwater. The multivariate analysis indicated that the proposed sampling strategy of clustering TDR probes in typical functional units is a promising

  18. The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.; Hahn, S.; Paulik, C.; Xaver, A.; Gruber, A.; Drusch, M.; Mecklenburg, S.; van Oevelen, P.; Robock, A.; Jackson, T.

    2011-05-01

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land cover change. Nevertheless, on a worldwide basis the number of meteorological networks and stations measuring soil moisture, in particular on a continuous basis, is still limited and the data they provide lack standardization of technique and protocol. To overcome many of these limitations, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/insitu) was initiated to serve as a centralized data hosting facility where globally available in situ soil moisture measurements from operational networks and validation campaigns are collected, harmonized, and made available to users. Data collecting networks share their soil moisture datasets with the ISMN on a voluntary and no-cost basis. Incoming soil moisture data are automatically transformed into common volumetric soil moisture units and checked for outliers and implausible values. Apart from soil water measurements from different depths, important metadata and meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation and soil temperature) are stored in the database. These will assist the user in correctly interpreting the soil moisture data. The database is queried through a graphical user interface while output of data selected for download is provided according to common standards for data and metadata. Currently (status May 2011), the ISMN contains data of 19 networks and more than 500 stations located in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The time period spanned by the entire database runs from 1952 until the present, although most datasets have originated during the last decade. The database is rapidly expanding, which means that both the number of stations and the time period covered by the existing

  19. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  20. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  1. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  2. Moisture barrier properties of xylan composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    Moisture barrier properties of films based on xylan reinforced with several cellulosic resources including nanocrystalline cellulose, acacia bleached kraft pulp fibers and softwood kraft fibers have been evaluated. Measurements of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were performed by a modification of the wet cup method described by ASTM E 96-95, indicating that...

  3. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  4. SOME MOISTURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity and bulk density of Prosopis africana seeds were determined as a function of moisture content. Specific heat capacity was measured by the method of mixture while the thermal heat conductivity was measured by the guarded hot plate method.

  5. Seedling quality tests: plant moisture stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Ritchie; Thomas D. Landis

    2005-01-01

    This is the fifth installment in our review of seedling quality tests. Here we focus on what is commonly known as "plant moisture stress" or PMS. Although PMS is not routinely used for seedling quality testing per se, it is nevertheless the most common physiological measurement made on reforestation stock. This is because the measurement itself is simple and...

  6. Model of moisture absorption by adhesive joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Mora, Veronica; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-01-01

    Adhesive joints offer many advantages over traditional mechanical joining systems. Nonetheless, their use is limited since they can be adversely affected by extreme temperatures and humidity conditions. Moisture contamination (even 1-3% of the sample weight) in an adhesive can alter its tensile strength and compromise the structural integrity of the joint. Moisture absorption processes can be monitored using methods based on fibre Bragg grating sensors embedded in the adhesive material. In the present paper, a finite element model of an adhesive joint between composite elements was analysed using the commercial code Abaqus™. The investigation contains two main parts: a thermal analysis and a hygro-mechanical analysis. The achieved results were verified using experimental investigation results for a sample with embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors that were applied to monitor the moisture-induced strains in the adhesive joint. The achieved numerical results show good agreement with the experimental ones for all considered analyses. The presented models can also be used for the determination of moisture content in an adhesive layer especially in a range of 1.5-2.5% of the water content.

  7. Soil Moisture Remote Sensing: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based passive microwave sensors have been available for thirty years and provide the basis for soil moisture monitoring and mapping. The approach has reached a level of maturity that is now limited primarily by technology and funding. This is a result of extensive research and development ...

  8. Moisture Retention Characteristics of Soils of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Least total available water was found in soils over alluvium (4.03). Total available water had a significant relationship with total sand (R2 = 0.56, P=0.01). Soil moisture retention characteristic dependent variable was highly predicted by independent variables of total sand, clay content and organic carbon at various tension ...

  9. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starch prior to modification by pyrodextrinization, cross-linking and heat-moisture treatment. Solubility, swelling power, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal properties of the native and modified starches were ... the chemical and nutritional composition of P. biglobosa seeds revealed that it is rich ...

  10. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Sahelian Sudan is an arid to semiarid region that depends on the seasonal rainfall as the main source of water, but its rainfall has large interannual variability. Such dry regions usually have their main moisture sources elsewhere; thus, the rainfall variability is directly related to the moisture transport. This study seeks to identify source regions of water vapor for Sahelian Sudan during the monsoon period, from July to September. We have used the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1998 to 2008. The results show that most of the air masses that reach this region during the monsoon period have their major origins over the Arabian Peninsula, Central Africa, or are associated with the tropical easterly jet. Flow associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone contributes almost half of the total precipitated water; most of it comes from Central Africa. This suggests that moisture recycling is the major contributor, compared to Oceanic sources. The flows from the northeast (Arabian Peninsula and north Asia) and east (Horn of Africa and north Indian Ocean) contribute about one third of the precipitated water. The rest of precipitated water comes from the Mediterranean, subtropical Atlantic, and western Sahel, all with smaller contribution. Our results also indicate that different subregions of Sahelian Sudan have different moisture sources. Such result needs to be taken into account in seasonal forecasting practices.

  11. AMSR2 Soil Moisture Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.; Koike, T.; Fuiji, X.; de Jeu, R.; Chan, S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A.; Bosch, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is part of the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR2 fills the void left by the loss of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) after almost 10 years. Both missions provide brightness temperature observations that are used to retrieve soil moisture. Merging AMSR-E and AMSR2 will help build a consistent long-term dataset. Before tackling the integration of AMSR-E and AMSR2 it is necessary to conduct a thorough validation and assessment of the AMSR2 soil moisture products. This study focuses on validation of the AMSR2 soil moisture products by comparison with in situ reference data from a set of core validation sites. Three products that rely on different algorithms were evaluated; the JAXA Soil Moisture Algorithm (JAXA), the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), and the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA). Results indicate that overall the SCA has the best performance based upon the metrics considered.

  12. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  13. Mode Decomposition Methods for Soil Moisture Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, R. B.; Efendiev, Y. R.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of reliable, well-distributed, long-term datasets for model validation is a bottle-neck for most exercises in soil moisture analysis and prediction. Understanding what factors drive soil hydrological processes at different scales and their variability is very critical to further our ability to model the various components of the hydrologic cycle more accurately. For this, a comprehensive dataset with measurements across scales is very necessary. Intensive fine-resolution sampling of soil moisture over extended periods of time is financially and logistically prohibitive. Installation of a few long term monitoring stations is also expensive, and needs to be situated at critical locations. The concept of Time Stable Locations has been in use for some time now to find locations that reflect the mean values for the soil moisture across the watershed under all wetness conditions. However, the soil moisture variability across the watershed is lost when measuring at only time stable locations. We present here a study using techniques such as Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) and Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) that extends the concept of time stable locations to arrive at locations that provide not simply the average soil moisture values for the watershed, but also those that can help re-capture the dynamics across all locations in the watershed. As with the time stability, the initial analysis is dependent on an intensive sampling history. The DMD/DEIM method is an application of model reduction techniques for non-linearly related measurements. Using this technique, we are able to determine the number of sampling points that would be required for a given accuracy of prediction across the watershed, and the location of those points. Locations with higher energetics in the basis domain are chosen first. We present case studies across watersheds in the US and India. The technique can be applied to other hydro-climates easily.

  14. Plan of research for integrated soil moisture studies. Recommendations of the Soil Moisture Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture information is a potentially powerful tool for applications in agriculture, water resources, and climate. At present, it is difficult for users of this information to clearly define their needs in terms of accuracy, resolution and frequency because of the current sparsity of data. A plan is described for defining and conducting an integrated and coordinated research effort to develop and refine remote sensing techniques which will determine spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture and to utilize soil moisture information in support of agricultural, water resources, and climate applications. The soil moisture requirements of these three different application areas were reviewed in relation to each other so that one plan covering the three areas could be formulated. Four subgroups were established to write and compile the plan, namely models, ground-based studies, aircraft experiments, and spacecraft missions.

  15. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  16. SMEX02 Iowa Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric and volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and soil temperature. This data set is part of the Soil Moisture...

  17. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Alabama, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises gravimetric soil moisture and soil bulk density data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), which was conducted during...

  18. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises gravimetric soil moisture and soil bulk density data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), which was conducted during...

  19. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Oklahoma study...

  20. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  1. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Soil and Moisture Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Soil and Moisture Plan for Benton Lake NWR explains how the Soil and Moisture Program relates to Refuge objectives, outlines Program policies, and presents...

  2. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  3. SMEX02 Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature data collected for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters measured are soil...

  4. SMEX03 ThetaProbe Soil Moisture Data: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil moisture data measured with Delta-T Devices’ ThetaProbe ML2 sensors for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), conducted during June...

  5. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters’ protective clothing (FPC during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  6. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters' Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongmei; He, Song

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters' protective clothing (FPC) during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH) is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  7. Surface Soil Moisture Estimates Across China Based on Multi-satellite Observations and A Soil Moisture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Yang, Tao; Ye, Jinyin; Li, Zhijia; Yu, Zhongbo

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable that regulates exchanges of water and energy between land surface and atmosphere. Soil moisture retrievals based on microwave satellite remote sensing have made it possible to estimate global surface (up to about 10 cm in depth) soil moisture routinely. Although there are many satellites operating, including NASA's Soil Moisture Acitive Passive mission (SMAP), ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS), JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 mission (AMSR2), and China's Fengyun (FY) missions, key differences exist between different satellite-based soil moisture products. In this study, we applied a single-channel soil moisture retrieval model forced by multiple sources of satellite brightness temperature observations to estimate consistent daily surface soil moisture across China at a spatial resolution of 25 km. By utilizing observations from multiple satellites, we are able to estimate daily soil moisture across the whole domain of China. We further developed a daily soil moisture accounting model and applied it to downscale the 25-km satellite-based soil moisture to 5 km. By comparing our estimated soil moisture with observations from a dense observation network implemented in Anhui Province, China, our estimated soil moisture results show a reasonably good agreement with the observations (RMSE 0.8).

  8. A biomimic thermal fabric with high moisture permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Jie; Cheng Qian; Zhao Lian-Ying; Liu Yong; Ma Chong-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Moisture comfort is an essential factor for functional property of thermal cloth, especially for thick thermal cloth, since thick cloth may hinder effective moisture permeation, and high moisture concentration in the micro-climate between skin and fabric would cause cold feeling. Here, we report a biomimic thermal fabric with excellent warm retention and moisture management properties. In this fabric, the warp yarn system constructs many tree-shaped channel...

  9. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information from SMAP Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Kolassa; Rolf H. Reichle; Qing Liu; Michael Cosh; David D. Bosch; Todd G. Caldwell; Andreas Colliander; Chandra Holifield Collins; Thomas J. Jackson; Stan J. Livingston; Mahta Moghaddam; Patrick J. Starks

    2017-01-01

    This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observations. Neural network (NN) and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture...

  10. Disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture in southeastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Olivier; Rüdiger, Christoph; Al Bitar, Ahmad; Richaume, Philippe; Walker, Jeffrey,; Kerr, Yann

    2012-01-01

    DisPATCh (Disaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale Change) is an algorithm dedicated to the disaggregation of soil moisture observations using high-resolution soil temperature data. DisPATCh converts soil temperature fields into soil moisture fields given a semi-empirical soil evaporative efficiency model, and a first order Taylor series expansion around the field-mean soil moisture. In this study, the disaggregation approach is applied to SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity)...

  11. GLEAM v3: satellite-based land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego G.; Lievens, Hans; van der Schalie, Robin; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Fernández-Prieto, Diego; Beck, Hylke E.; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2017-05-01

    The Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) is a set of algorithms dedicated to the estimation of terrestrial evaporation and root-zone soil moisture from satellite data. Ever since its development in 2011, the model has been regularly revised, aiming at the optimal incorporation of new satellite-observed geophysical variables, and improving the representation of physical processes. In this study, the next version of this model (v3) is presented. Key changes relative to the previous version include (1) a revised formulation of the evaporative stress, (2) an optimized drainage algorithm, and (3) a new soil moisture data assimilation system. GLEAM v3 is used to produce three new data sets of terrestrial evaporation and root-zone soil moisture, including a 36-year data set spanning 1980-2015, referred to as v3a (based on satellite-observed soil moisture, vegetation optical depth and snow-water equivalent, reanalysis air temperature and radiation, and a multi-source precipitation product), and two satellite-based data sets. The latter share most of their forcing, except for the vegetation optical depth and soil moisture, which are based on observations from different passive and active C- and L-band microwave sensors (European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative, ESA CCI) for the v3b data set (spanning 2003-2015) and observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite in the v3c data set (spanning 2011-2015). Here, these three data sets are described in detail, compared against analogous data sets generated using the previous version of GLEAM (v2), and validated against measurements from 91 eddy-covariance towers and 2325 soil moisture sensors across a broad range of ecosystems. Results indicate that the quality of the v3 soil moisture is consistently better than the one from v2: average correlations against in situ surface soil moisture measurements increase from 0.61 to 0.64 in the case of the v3a data set and the representation of soil

  12. Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval Under Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Lang, R.; Kurum, M.; Joseph, A.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture is recognized as an important component of the water, energy, and carbon cycles at the interface between the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Current baseline soil moisture retrieval algorithms for microwave space missions have been developed and validated only over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. Tree areas have commonly been excluded from operational soil moisture retrieval plans due to the large expected impact of trees on masking the microwave response to the underlying soil moisture. Our understanding of the microwave properties of trees of various sizes and their effect on soil moisture retrieval algorithms at L band is presently limited, although research efforts are ongoing in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere to remedy this situation. As part of this research, a coordinated sequence of field measurements involving the ComRAD (for Combined Radar/Radiometer) active/passive microwave truck instrument system has been undertaken. Jointly developed and operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and George Washington University, ComRAD consists of dual-polarized 1.4 GHz total-power radiometers (LH, LV) and a quad-polarized 1.25 GHz L band radar sharing a single parabolic dish antenna with a novel broadband stacked patch dual-polarized feed, a quad-polarized 4.75 GHz C band radar, and a single channel 10 GHz XHH radar. The instruments are deployed on a mobile truck with an 19-m hydraulic boom and share common control software; real-time calibrated signals, and the capability for automated data collection for unattended operation. Most microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms developed for use at L band frequencies are based on the tau-omega model, a simplified zero-order radiative transfer approach where scattering is largely ignored and vegetation canopies are generally treated as a bulk attenuating layer. In this approach, vegetation effects are parameterized by tau and omega, the microwave

  13. Moisture effects on carbon and nitrogen emission from burning of wildland biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N released from biomass burning have multiple effects on the Earth's biogeochemical cycle, climate change, and ecosystem. These effects depend on the relative abundances of C and N species emitted, which vary with fuel type and combustion conditions. This study systematically investigates the emission characteristics of biomass burning under different fuel moisture contents, through controlled burning experiments with biomass and soil samples collected from a typical alpine forest in North America. Fuel moisture in general lowers combustion efficiency, shortens flaming phase, and introduces prolonged smoldering before ignition. It increases emission factors of incompletely oxidized C and N species, such as carbon monoxide (CO and ammonia (NH3. Substantial particulate carbon and nitrogen (up to 4 times C in CO and 75% of N in NH3 were also generated from high-moisture fuels, maily associated with the pre-flame smoldering. This smoldering process emits particles that are larger and contain lower elemental carbon fractions than soot agglomerates commonly observed in flaming smoke. Hydrogen (H/C ratio and optical properties of particulate matter from the high-moisture fuels show their resemblance to plant cellulous and brown carbon, respectively. These findings have implications for modeling biomass burning emissions and impacts.

  14. Dry-end surface soil moisture variability during NAFE'06

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Merlin, O.; Panciera, R.; Walker, J.P.; Troch, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the space-time variability of soil moisture is important for land surface and climate studies. Here we develop an analytical model to investigate how, at the dry-end of the soil moisture range, the main characteristics of the soil moisture field (spatial mean and variability,

  15. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  16. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  17. CFD modelling of moisture interactions between air and constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Hohota, Raluca

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modelling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. Thus, in this investigation there is special focus on moisture modelling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool that is enhanced to include both...

  18. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  19. Foundation products have a measureable impact on moisturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Liguori, Jillian; Razuri, Farrah; Hubschmitt, Amber; Litchauer, Jill; Aucar, Betty; De Mul, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Multifunctional products are becoming more prevalent in the color cosmetics market. We evaluated four foundation products for in vivo moisturizing benefits using the mini-regression test method. We found that statistically significant long-lasting moisturization was provided by the foundations tested, but only if hygroscopic moisturizing ingredients were present.

  20. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... p=5%) with other known classical, but laborious and expensive methods of moisture determination. Key words: Sugar ... Darkness. Day light. Moisture content (%). Output signal. (Volt). Figure 1. Response of the IR transphotometer in function of the moisture content (ultrafiltered water) of sugar: influence of.

  1. Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Schaefli, B.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate on the extent to which precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). In the past, most research focused on moisture recycling within a certain region only. This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling to study the complete process

  2. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  3. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  4. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  5. Does Saffron Have Antisolar and Moisturizing Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of saffron as a natural sunscreen and moisturizer. The pollens of the saffron were dried and powdered in a grinder. The experimental formulations included a homosalate (8%) lotion reference, lotions with 2, 4 and 8% of grinded saffron, and the control lotion base without saffron. The lotions containing saffron were prepared like homosalate lotion reference according to FDA. The sun protection factors (SPFs) of the formulations were de...

  6. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  7. Soil moisture sensors based on metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kitić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper novel miniature metamaterial-based soil moisture sensors are presented. The sensors are based on resonant-type metamaterials and employ split-ring resonators (SRR, spiral resonators and fractal SRRs to achieve small dimensions, high sensitivity, and compatibility with standard planar fabrication technologies. All these features make the proposedsensors suitable for deployment in agriculture for precise mapping of soil humidity.

  8. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...

  9. Evaluation of in-shell kernel moisture content monitoring with a microwave moisture meter during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Present peanut drying processes lack the capability of kernel moisture content determination in real-time. Samples of peanut pods have to be taken from the drying trailer, cleaned and shelled in order to test for the kernel moisture content. By using a microwave moisture meter, developed within USDA...

  10. Effect of foreign material in peanuts on in-shell nondestructive moisture sensing with a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of foreign material on peanut kernel moisture content prediction from microwave dielectric measurements on peanut pods was investigated. A low-cost microwave moisture meter operating at 5.8 GHz was calibrated in the laboratory with clean samples of pods and kernels. Resulting moisture calibra...

  11. Moisture-triggered physically transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xu; Sim, Kyoseung; Liu, Jingshen; Chen, Ji; Feng, Xue; Xu, Hangxun; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-09-01

    Physically transient electronics, a form of electronics that can physically disappear in a controllable manner, is very promising for emerging applications. Most of the transient processes reported so far only occur in aqueous solutions or biofluids, offering limited control over the triggering and degradation processes. We report novel moisture-triggered physically transient electronics, which exempt the needs of resorption solutions and can completely disappear within well-controlled time frames. The triggered transient process starts with the hydrolysis of the polyanhydride substrate in the presence of trace amounts of moisture in the air, a process that can generate products of corrosive organic acids to digest various inorganic electronic materials and components. Polyanhydride is the only example of polymer that undergoes surface erosion, a distinct feature that enables stable operation of the functional devices over a predefined time frame. Clear advantages of this novel triggered transience mode include that the lifetime of the devices can be precisely controlled by varying the moisture levels and changing the composition of the polymer substrate. The transience time scale can be tuned from days to weeks. Various transient devices, ranging from passive electronics (such as antenna, resistor, and capacitor) to active electronics (such as transistor, diodes, optoelectronics, and memories), and an integrated system as a platform demonstration have been developed to illustrate the concept and verify the feasibility of this design strategy.

  12. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  13. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter DHT, which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that DHT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for DHT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  14. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  15. DETERMINING SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES FOR VITICULTURAL ZONING PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Poch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the suitability of Soil Taxonomy to characterize the soil moisture regime for viticultural zoning studies, comparing the soil moisture parameters used in the Soil Taxonomy classification with soil moisture parameters relevant to the grapevine phenological stages. The results show that Soil Taxonomy does not adequately reflect the variability of soil moisture dynamics during vineyard growing. Then, a proposal for soil moisture regime classification is realised by means of a cluster analysis. This classification is based on determining dry days, as indicated by Soil Taxonomy, in different vine phenological periods, and grouping the cases according to their variability. The soil moisture regime classes, resulting from cluster analysis, show significant differences in soil moisture status in all phenological periods, and therefore present different implications for viticulture, related to potential for vegetative growth, grape production and the grape ripening process.

  16. [Moisture sorption of gelatin powder and collagen fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boki, K; Kawasaki, N; Minami, K

    1994-09-01

    Moisture sorption properties of gelatin powder and collagen fibers were investigated on the basis of the moisture sorption isotherm, the differential heat of moisture sorption, the decrease in entropy of moisture sorption and the parameter constants of the applicable isotherm equation. The amount of moisture sorbed on collagen fibers was larger than that on gelatin powder. The water molecules were absorbed on gelatin itself rather than on the active sites of gelatin. They were adsorbed on the polar groups of constitutive amino acids at amounts of moisture sorbed up to one or two monolayers and then were absorbed into collagen fibers at higher monolayers. They were kept loosely in gelatin and tightly in collagen. The structural stability of collagen to moisture was higher than that of gelatin.

  17. Fiber-Optic Flexural Disk Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    effective stiffness = optical wave number in glass = 2vn /X L = length of fiber wound into a single sensing coil m = mass m = effective mass M = acceleration...BULLETIN * No moisture sensitivity 0 * Excellent hydrolytic stability (Reversion Resistance) * No TD . no 4.4" -Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) * Fast

  18. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  19. Evaluation of gravimetric ground truth soil moisture data collected for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, 1978 Colby, Kansas, aircraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, L. M.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture data acquired to support the development of algorithms for estimating surface soil moisture from remotely sensed backscattering of microwaves from ground surfaces are presented. Aspects of field uniformity and variability of gravimetric soil moisture measurements are discussed. Moisture distribution patterns are illustrated by frequency distributions and contour plots. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation relative to degree of wetness and agronomic features of the fields are examined. Influence of sampling depth on observed moisture content an variability are indicated. For the various sets of measurements, soil moisture values that appear as outliers are flagged. The distribution and legal descriptions of the test fields are included along with examinations of soil types, agronomic features, and sampling plan. Bulk density data for experimental fields are appended, should analyses involving volumetric moisture content be of interest to the users of data in this report.

  20. Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture and the Validation of Remote Sensing Products in a Unique Beach Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil water conditions are crucial for understanding the exchange of energy and mass at the earth's surface. The need for a better description of the heterogeneity of surface soil moisture in both space and time has garnered interest from areas including agricultural management and drought monitoring, water resources and flood prediction, and more recently climate modeling. Soil moisture has also been identified as a critical parameter in the initiation of particle entrainment by wind due to the alteration of physical properties such as aggregate structure and inter-particle cohesion. Therefore the dynamics of soil moisture are of great interest for regional wind erosion modeling as well as for the development of agricultural productivity and soil loss models. In this study, a unique environment for the study of soil moisture was investigated at Williston Reservoir in Northern British Columbia, Canada. For a period of a month or more before the reservoir is filled by the spring melt, several thousand hectares of fine-grained sediments are exposed to wind causing significant erosion and therefore potential air quality concerns. Here we present a study of the spatial and temporal patterning of surface soil moisture in exposed sediments. Measurements at small scales are used in the validation of remote sensing products at large scales and these estimates have been implemented into blowing dust models. Active microwave (RADARSAT-2) and optical (LandSAT-5) scenes were obtained between May 24th - June 2nd, 2009. On the ground, point measurements using capacitance based probes were performed over 4 test plots coincident with satellite overpass. Areal averages of soil moisture collected on the ground are used in the validation of soil moisture estimates from four backscatter inversion models (microwave) and a thermal band mono-window brightness temperature algorithm (optical). The studied environment represents an important validity test because backscatter inversion models

  1. Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Qing; Bindlish, Rajat; Cosh, Michael H.; Crow, Wade T.; deJeu, Richard; DeLannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Huffman, George J.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates from a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the study investigates soil moisture skill derived from (i) model forcing corrections based on large-scale, gauge- and satellite-based precipitation observations and (ii) assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Soil moisture skill is measured against in situ observations in the continental United States at 44 single-profile sites within the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) for which skillful AMSR-E retrievals are available and at four CalVal watersheds with high-quality distributed sensor networks that measure soil moisture at the scale of land model and satellite estimates. The average skill (in terms of the anomaly time series correlation coefficient R) of AMSR-E retrievals is R=0.39 versus SCAN and R=0.53 versus CalVal measurements. The skill of MERRA surface and root-zone soil moisture is R=0.42 and R=0.46, respectively, versus SCAN measurements, and MERRA surface moisture skill is R=0.56 versus CalVal measurements. Adding information from either precipitation observations or soil moisture retrievals increases surface soil moisture skill levels by IDDeltaR=0.06-0.08, and root zone soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.05-0.07. Adding information from both sources increases surface soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.13, and root zone soil moisture skill by DeltaR=0.11, demonstrating that precipitation corrections and assimilation of satellite soil moisture retrievals contribute similar and largely independent amounts of information.

  2. Moisture Control Handbook: New, low-rise, residential construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corp., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Carmody, J. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Underground Space Center

    1991-10-01

    Moisture problems are prevalent all over North America, almost independent of climate. They are viewed as one of the single largest factors limiting the useful service life of a building. Elevated levels of moisture in buildings also can lead to serious health effects for occupants. Until recently, very little consensus on moisture control existed in the building community. The information available was typically incomplete, contradictory, usually limited to specific regions, and in many cases misleading. A need to develop a document which presented the issues relating to moisture from a building science or ``systems`` approach existed. This handbook attempts to fill that need and illustrates that energy-efficient, tight envelope design is clearly part of the solution to healthy buildings when interior relative humidity, temperature, and pressure are controlled simultaneously. The first three chapters of the handbook present the basic principles of moisture problems and solutions in buildings. Chapter 1 -- Mold, Mildew, and Condensation, examines surface moisture problems. Chapter 2 -- Moisture Movement, examines how building assemblies get wet from both the exterior and interior. Chapter 3 -- Wetting and Drying of Building Assemblies, introduces the concepts of acceptable performance, moisture balance, and the redistribution of moisture within building assemblies. Chapters 4 through 6 apply the concepts outlined in the previous chapters and present specific moisture control practices for three basic US climate zones. The advantages and disadvantages of several wall, foundation, and roof assemblies are discussed for each climate zone.

  3. Moisture Sensitivity of Contrail Forecast Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Special care must be taken to select a representative first guess for all values of the array or MATHCAD will not converge to the proper root. Profile 2A T...air must reach saturation in the wake for a contrail to form. Therefore, the saturation process within the wake is dependent on the amount of heat and...combustion would be added to the wake so contrail factor was a constant. He also believed the heat and moisture liberated by the combustion process was

  4. A Novel Bias Correction Method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Soil Moisture: Retrieval Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bias correction is a very important pre-processing step in satellite data assimilation analysis, as data assimilation itself cannot circumvent satellite biases. We introduce a retrieval algorithm-specific and spatially heterogeneous Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV bias correction method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS soil moisture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to present the probabilistic presentation of SMOS soil moisture using retrieval ensembles. We illustrate that retrieval ensembles effectively mitigated the overestimation problem of SMOS soil moisture arising from brightness temperature errors over West Africa in a computationally efficient way (ensemble size: 12, no time-integration. In contrast, the existing method of Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF matching considerably increased the SMOS biases, due to the limitations of relying on the imperfect reference data. From the validation at two semi-arid sites, Benin (moderately wet and vegetated area and Niger (dry and sandy bare soils, it was shown that the SMOS errors arising from rain and vegetation attenuation were appropriately corrected by ensemble approaches. In Benin, the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs decreased from 0.1248 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.0678 m3/m3 for the proposed ensemble approach. In Niger, the RMSEs decreased from 0.14 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.045 m3/m3 for the ensemble approach.

  5. Integrating Real-time and Manual Monitored Soil Moisture Data to Predict Hillslope Soil Moisture Variations with High Temporal Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Lv, Ligang; Zhou, Zhiwen; Liao, Kaihua

    2016-04-01

    Spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture 15 has been remaining an challenge to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time soil moisture monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of soil moisture dynamics. In this study, we aimed to integrate the manual and real-time monitored soil moisture to depict the hillslope dynamics of soil moisture with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Linear (stepwise multiple linear regression-SMLR) and non-linear models (support vector machines-SVM) were used to predict soil moisture at 38 manual sites (collected 1-2 times per month) with soil moisture automatically collected at three real-time monitoring sites (collected every 5 mins). By comparing the accuracies of SMLR and SVM for each manual site, optimal soil moisture prediction model of this site was then determined. Results show that soil moisture at these 38 manual sites can be reliably predicted (root mean square errorsindex, profile curvature, and relative difference of soil moisture and its standard deviation influenced the selection of prediction model since they related to the dynamics of soil water distribution and movement. By using this approach, hillslope soil moisture spatial distributions at un-sampled times and dates were predicted after a typical rainfall event. Missing information of hillslope soil moisture dynamics was then acquired successfully. This can be benefit for determining the hot spots and moments of soil water movement, as well as designing the proper soil moisture monitoring plan at the field scale.

  6. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  7. Effects of moisture on ultrasound propagation in cement mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Taeho; Li, Shuaili; Achenbach, Jan; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-03-01

    In concrete structures, moisture is often a major cause of chemically related degradations such as alkaline-silica reaction. To develop ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques for monitoring such chemical degradations, it is necessary to understand how moisture affects the propagation of ultrasound in concrete. To this end, the objective of this paper is to experimentally determine the correlation between the moisture content in cement mortar and ultrasonic wave propagation. Specifically, effects of moisture on the ultrasonic phase velocity and attenuation are examined. It is found that, for the cement mortar samples considered in this study, moisture has negligible effect on the ultrasonic phase velocity. However, moisture can significantly increase the attenuation of ultrasound in cement mortar even in the sub-MHz frequency range.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.

  9. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...... the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...... estimator is verified on a couple of sets of measurement data, from which it is concluded that the designed estimator estimates the real coal moisture content....

  10. A soil moisture network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, N.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    pixel (44 × 44 km), which is representative of the land surface conditions of the catchment and with minimal impact from open water (2) arrangement of three network clusters along the precipitation gradient, and (3) distribution of the stations according to respective fractions of classes representing......The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data of global coverage every three days. Product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and soil temperature sensor...... the prevailing environmental conditions. Overall, measured moisture and temperature patterns could be related to the respective land cover and soil conditions. Texture-dependency of the 0–5 cm soil moisture measurements was demonstrated. Regional differences in 0–5 cm soil moisture, temperature and precipitation...

  11. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  12. Summer moisture availability across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schrier, G.; Briffa, K. R.; Osborn, T. J.; Cook, E. R.

    2006-06-01

    Maps of the monthly self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (SCPDSI) have been calculated for the period 1901-2002 for the contiguous United States (20°-50°N and 130°-60°W) with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The recently introduced SCPDSI improves upon the more common Palmer drought severity index by maintaining a more consistent behavior of the index and hence comparability over diverse climatological regions. Although the self-calibrating PDSI and the "traditional" PDSI averaged over the contiguous United States correlate well, large differences were found for extensive areas. Over the area as whole the 1930s and 1950s stand out as times of persistent and exceptionally dry conditions, whereas the 1970s and the 1990s were generally wet. Over 55% of the Untied States saw moderate to extreme drought in 1934 and over 40% of the area was affected during the 1954-1956 drought. The wettest year, 1983, saw over 45% of the contiguous United States affected by moderate to extreme wet conditions. Three leading modes of coherent summer moisture variability are identified, and they have their largest loading over the northwestern United States, the southern plains, and the southwestern United States, respectively. No evidence is found for a statistically significant trend in the percentage area of the contiguous United States experiencing either moderate or extreme moisture availability conditions for the 1901-2002 period.

  13. Sources of glacial moisture in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records from Mesoamerica document the interplay between Atlantic and Pacific sources of precipitation during the last glacial stage and Holocene. Today, and throughout much of the Holocene, the entire region receives its principal moisture in the summer from an interaction of easterly trade winds with the equatorial calms. Glacial records from sites east of 95?? W in Guatemala, Florida, northern Venezuela and Colombia record dry conditions before 12 ka, however. West of 95?? W, glacial conditions were moister than in the Holocene. For example, pollen and diatom data show that Lake Pa??tzcuaro in the central Mexican highlands was cool, deep and fresh during this time and fossil pinyon needles in packrat middens in Chihuahua, Sonora, Arizona, and Texas indicate cooler glacial climates with increased winter precipitation. Cold Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperatures and reduced strength of the equatorial calms can explain arid full and late glacial environments east of 95?? W whereas an intensified pattern of winter, westerly air flow dominated hydrologic balances as far south as 20?? N. Overall cooler temperatures may have increased effective moisture levels during dry summer months in both areas. ?? 1997 INQUA/ Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Moisture sorption characteristics of microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the microalgae Spirulina platensis has been used as a functional ingredient in several food applications; its process involving drying and storage steps. Moisture equilibrium data for adsorption isotherms of microalgae Spirulina were investigated at 10, 20 and 30ºC and for desorption, at 40, 50 and 60ºC, using the gravimetric static method. The experimental data were analyzed by GAB and BET models. The GAB equation showed the best fitting to the experimental data with R² ≈ 99% and MRE < 10%. The water surface area values calculated by GAB and BET models were very similar. The isosteric heats were determined by application of Clausius-Clapeyron equation to sorption isotherms obtained from the best-fitting equation. The isosteric heat and the entropy of desorption isotherm presented similar behavior, with a sharp change in an equilibrium moisture content of 10%. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the isotherms, indicating that they are enthalpy-controlled.

  15. Synergic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Images for Operational Soil Moisture Mapping at High Spatial Resolution over Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad El Hajj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture mapping at a high spatial resolution is very important for several applications in hydrology, agriculture and risk assessment. With the arrival of the free Sentinel data at high spatial and temporal resolutions, the development of soil moisture products that can better meet the needs of users is now possible. In this context, the main objective of the present paper is to develop an operational approach for soil moisture mapping in agricultural areas at a high spatial resolution over bare soils, as well as soils with vegetation cover. The developed approach is based on the synergic use of radar and optical data. A neural network technique was used to develop an operational method for soil moisture estimates. Three inversion SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar configurations were tested: (1 VV polarization; (2 VH polarization; and (3 both VV and VH polarization, all in addition to the NDVI information extracted from optical images. Neural networks were developed and validated using synthetic and real databases. The results showed that the use of a priori information on the soil moisture condition increases the precision of the soil moisture estimates. The results showed that VV alone provides better accuracy on the soil moisture estimates than VH alone. In addition, the use of both VV and VH provides similar results, compared to VV alone. In conclusion, the soil moisture could be estimated in agricultural areas with an accuracy of approximately 5 vol % (volumetric unit expressed in percent. Better results were obtained for soil with a moderate surface roughness (for root mean surface height between 1 and 3 cm. The developed approach could be applied for agricultural plots with an NDVI lower than 0.75.

  16. Insulation Materials of Transformer Using Chemical Mechanism of Moisture Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Hussian Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    The composite insulation system of power transformers consisting of two insulation materials (cellulose and mineral oil) are the main insulation material of power transformer, the increase of moisture will reduce their insulation strength. Moisture equilibrium curves are the basis of power transformer moisture detection, however, the service data and theory analysis both indicate the present curves are not fit for old transformer. Therefore this research work is focused the law and mechanism ...

  17. The Development of Moisture Sensitivity Test for Compacted Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Shamshuddin; M.E. Abdullah; Rhasbudin Shah, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major issues in asphalt distress. It is due to the adhesive and cohesive failure of asphalt mixture and it will shorten pavement life. Moisture-sensitive mixtures need to be identified during the course of the mixture design process which fulfills the specified minimum standard. The laboratory testing procedures currently available for compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) to test the moisture sensitivity were primarily developed to determine the degree ...

  18. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of red pepper seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 4.46, 3.66 and 0.79 mm, respectively, at 7.27% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed showed that the ...

  19. Moisture origin and transport processes in Colombia, northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, I.; Dominguez, F.; Cañón-Barriga, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    We assess the spatial structure of moisture flux divergence, regional moisture sources and transport processes over Colombia, in northern South America. Using three independent methods the dynamic recycling model (DRM), FLEXPART and the Quasi-isentropic back-trajectory (QIBT) models we quantify the moisture sources that contribute to precipitation over the region. We find that moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and terrestrial recycling are the most important sources of moisture for Colombia, highlighting the importance of the Orinoco and Amazon basins as regional providers of atmospheric moisture. The results show the influence of long-range cross-equatorial flow from the Atlantic Ocean into the target region and the role of the study area as a passage of moisture into South America. We also describe the seasonal moisture transport mechanisms of the well-known low-level westerly and Caribbean jets that originate in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, respectively. We find that these dynamical systems play an important role in the convergence of moisture over western Colombia.

  20. [Moisture and mold damages of buildings in relation to health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damages of buildings increase respiratory symptoms and the risk of development of new cases of asthma. Scientific evidence of possible other health effects of moisture damages is scanty but they cause plenty of concern. The management of indoor air problems is further hampered by the lack of health-based limit values. Patients having symptoms from indoor air present a challenge to the doctor, because our ability to apply scientific data to an individual building or patient is very limited Although the factors increasing asthma and respiratory symptoms in buildings with moisture damage are not known in detail, every attempt should be made to prevent and correct the moisture damages.

  1. A biomimic thermal fabric with high moisture permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture comfort is an essential factor for functional property of thermal cloth, especially for thick thermal cloth, since thick cloth may hinder effective moisture permeation, and high moisture concentration in the micro-climate between skin and fabric would cause cold feeling. Here, we report a biomimic thermal fabric with excellent warm retention and moisture management properties. In this fabric, the warp yarn system constructs many tree-shaped channel nets in the thickness direction of the fabric. Experimental result indicates that the special hierarchic configuration of warp yarns endows the biomimic thermal fabric with a better warm retention and water vapor management properties compared with the traditional fabrics.

  2. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiřičková

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the median pore radii by volume are well within the interval given by the beginning and the end of the characteristic steep parts of the moisture retention curves.

  3. Numerical Investigation of a Moisture Evaporation Model in Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Amirkhanov, I V; Pavlish, M; Puzynina, T P; Puzynin, I V; Sarhadov, I

    2005-01-01

    The properties of a model of moisture evaporation in a porous building material of a rectangular form proposed in [1] are investigated. Algorithms of solving a nonlinear diffusion equation with initial and boundary conditions simulating the dynamic distribution of moisture concentration, calculation of coefficients of a polynomial describing transport of moisture with usage of experimental measurement of moisture concentration in a sample are developed and investigated. Research on the properties of the model is carried out depending on the degree of the polynomial, a set of its coefficients, and the quantity of the used experimental data.

  4. SMEX03 Little River Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parameters for this data set include precipitation, soil temperature, volumetric soil moisture, soil conductivity, and soil salinity measured in the Little River...

  5. Preservative activity of lavender hydrosols in moisturizing body gels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunicka‐Styczyńska, A; Śmigielski, K; Prusinowska, R; Rajkowska, K; Kuśmider, B; Sikora, M

    2015-01-01

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The presented research proved antimicrobial activity of hydrosols obtained from fresh or dried Lavandula angustifolia herbs or flowers in moisturizing body gel...

  6. Moisture adsorption and desorption behavior of sludge powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, F B; Bentes Freire, F; Pires, E C; Freire, J T

    2007-11-01

    In this work, the moisture adsorption and desorption isotherms were determined with the aim of defining the range of moisture content for storage of sludge powder. Equilibrium moisture content provides the basis for information not only on how much water has been taken out of a system but also on how fast drying is taking place (drying rate). Once the drying process is accomplished, the main concern rests on the storage of the dried final product. Still, the equilibrium moisture content is valuable information in that it has a major effect on the product physical and chemical properties. The present work also addresses the problem of selecting the best fit for equilibrium moisture content of sludge powder out of six well-known correlations for moisture sorption isotherms of solids: Henderson, Henderson-Thompson, Chung-Pfost, Chen-Clayton, Modified Halsey and Oswin. The equilibrium moisture content was determined by the static method (saturated salt solutions), in which the atmosphere surrounding the product is in equilibrium with the product without mechanical movement of the air or the product. Experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions at 20 and 40 degrees C. By calculating the regression coefficient, the residuals and the bias measure of Box for the equilibrium moisture content, the study showed that the Oswin Model was the most suitable. The range enclosed within the adsorption isotherm at 40 degrees C and the desorption isotherm at 20 degrees C defines the moisture extremes for storage in most tropical areas of the world.

  7. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  8. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tal computers are still some years away, however a number of devices that can ultimately lead to real optical computers have already been manufactured, including optical logic gates, optical switches, optical interconnections, and opti- cal memory. The most likely near-term optical computer will really be a hybrid composed ...

  9. Validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite soil moisture retrieval in an Arctic tundra environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Elizabeth; Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Nambiar, Manoj; Berg, Aaron A.; Colliander, Andreas; Marsh, Philip

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the Soil Moisture Active Passive soil moisture product on the Equal Area Scalable Earth-2 (EASE-2) 36 km Global cylindrical and North Polar azimuthal grids relative to two in situ soil moisture monitoring networks that were installed in 2015 and 2016. Results indicate that there is no relationship between the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level-2 passive soil moisture product and the upscaled in situ measurements. Additionally, there is very low correlation between modeled brightness temperature using the Community Microwave Emission Model and the Level-1 C SMAP brightness temperature interpolated to the EASE-2 Global grid; however, there is a much stronger relationship to the brightness temperature measurements interpolated to the North Polar grid, suggesting that the soil moisture product could be improved with interpolation on the North Polar grid.

  10. A study on moisture isotherms of formulations: the Use of polynomial equations to predict the moisture isotherms of tablet products

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanxia; Sanzgiri, Yeshwant D.; Chen, Yisheng

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of manufacturing parameters on the moisture sorption isotherms of some tablet formulations and to predict the moisture isotherms of the final formulations using polynomial equations. Three tablet formulations including a placebo and 2 drug products were prepared through wet granulation, drying, compression, and coating processes. Equilibrium moisture content of excipients and granules at 25°C with different relative humidities were ...

  11. Validation of SMOS Satellite Soil Moisture Products over Tropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, Kasturi; Siang, Kang Chuen

    2016-07-01

    Calibration and validation (cal/val) activities on Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite derived soil moisture products has been conducted worldwide since the data has become available but not over the tropical region . This study focuses on the installation of a soil moisture data collection network over an agricultural site in a tropical region in Peninsular Malaysia, and the validation of SMOS soil moisture products. The in-situ data over one year period was analysed and validation of SMOS Soil Moisture products with these in-situ data was conducted.Bias and root mean square errors (RMSE) were computed between SMOS soil moisture products and the in-situ surface soil moisture collected at the satellite passing time (6 am and 6 pm local time). Due to the known limitations of SMOS soil moisture retrieval over vegetated areas with vegetation water content higher than 5 kgm-2, overestimation of SMOS soil moisture products to in-situ data was noticed in this study. The bias is ranging from 0.064 to 0.119 m3m-3 and the RMSE is from 0.090 to 0.158 m3m-3, when both ascending and descending data were validated. This RMSE was found to be similar to a number of studies conducted previously at different regions. However a wet bias was found during the validation, while previous validation activities at other regions showed dry biases. The result of this study is useful to support the continuous development and improvement of SMOS soil moisture retrieval model, aims to produce soil moisture products with higher accuracy, especially in the tropical region.

  12. Assimilating soil moisture into an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Several modelling studies reported potential impacts of soil moisture anomalies on regional climate. In particular for short prediction periods, perturbations of the soil moisture state may result in significant alteration of surface temperature in the following season. However, it is not clear yet whether or not soil moisture anomalies affect climate also on larger temporal and spatial scales. In an earlier study, we showed that soil moisture anomalies can persist for several seasons in the deeper soil layers of a land surface model. Additionally, those anomalies can influence root zone moisture, in particular during explicitly dry or wet periods. Thus, one prerequisite for predictability, namely the existence of long term memory, is evident for simulated soil moisture and might be exploited to improve climate predictions. The second prerequisite is the sensitivity of the climate system to soil moisture. In order to investigate this sensitivity for decadal simulations, we implemented a soil moisture assimilation scheme into the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The assimilation scheme is based on a simple nudging algorithm and updates the surface soil moisture state once per day. In our experiments, the MPI-ESM is used which includes model components for the interactive simulation of atmosphere, land and ocean. Artificial assimilation data is created from a control simulation to nudge the MPI-ESM towards predominantly dry and wet states. First analyses are focused on the impact of the assimilation on land surface variables and reveal distinct differences in the long-term mean values between wet and dry state simulations. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff are larger in the wet state compared to the dry state, resulting in an increased moisture transport from the land to atmosphere and ocean. Consequently, surface temperatures are lower in the wet state simulations by more than one Kelvin. In terms of spatial pattern

  13. Soil Moisture Monitoring at Watershed Scale in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the spatio-temporal variation of soil moisture on time scales that range from minute to decades on the watershed scale is important for the hydrological, meteorological and agricultural communities. Lack of reliable, longterm soil moisture datasets in developing countries like India, is a bottleneck for soil moisture analysis and prediction. Recognizing the need of continuous, automated in-situ soil moisture observations, three in-situ soil moisture test-beds have been established in an agricultural watershed of the Eastern India. Test-beds have been specifically designed to capture the root zone soil moisture dynamic at different crop fields under both surplus and water deficit conditions in low, medium and up-lands of the study region. Both volumetric and tensiometric method based sensors, Campbell Scientific soil water content reflectometer (CS650) and matric potential sensor (CS229) are installed at depths of 5, 15, 30, 60 and 100 cm below the surface. GPRS communication modems were installed at each station for remote communication from the data loggers (Campbell Scientific, CR1000) for automatic data collection. To achieve a better understanding of the spatial variation of the soil moisture on watershed scale, the strategic ground-based surface measurements were made in diverse landscape using portable impedance probe. The primary aim of spatial and temporal scale soil moisture measurement is to validate current remote sensing products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). In order to improve validation procedure, the soil texture and soil hydraulic parameters are also estimated across the spatial scales to develop dynamic relationship between these parameters. Herein, the strategies for the site selection, calibration of the soil moisture sensors, ground-based soil moisture monitoring, hydraulic properties estimation at spatial scale and the quality assurance techniques applied to the observations are provided.

  14. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  15. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...... through the render and into the brick. The test specimen is placed between the source and the detector. The test specimens are all scanned before they are exposed to water. In that way the loss of counts from the dry scan to the wet scan qualitatively shows the presence of water. The results show nearly...... no penetration of water through the render and into the brick, and the results are independent of the start condition of the test specimens. Also drying experiments are performed. The results show a small difference in the rate of drying, in favour of the bricks without render....

  16. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. On the use of L-band microwave and multi-mission EO data for high resolution soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Ahmad Al; Merlin, Olivier; Malbeteau, Yoann; Molero-Rodenas, Beatriz; Zribi, Mehrez; Sekhar, Muddu; Tomer, Sat Kumar; José Escorihuela, Maria; Stefan, Vivien; Suere, Christophe; Mialon, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Sub-kilometric soil moisture maps have been increasingly mentioned as a need in the scientific community for many applications ranging from agronomical and hydrological (Wood et al. 2011). For example, this type of dataset will become essential to support the current evolution of the land surface and hydrologic modelling communities towards high resolution global modelling. But the ability of the different sensors to monitor soil moisture is different. The L-Band microwave EO provides, at a coarse resolution, the most sensitive information to surface soil moisture when compared to C-Band microwave, optical or C-band SAR. On the other hand the optical and radar sensors provide the spatial distribution of associated variables like surface soil moisture,surface temperature or vegetation leaf area index. This paper describes two complementary fusion approaches to obtain such data from optical or SAR in combination to microwave EO, and more precisely L-Band microwave from the SMOS mission. The first approach, called MAPSM, is based on the use of high resolution soil moisture from SAR and microwave. The two types of sensors have all weather capabilities. The approach uses the new concept of water change capacity (Tomer et al. 2015, 2016). It has been applied to the Berambadi watershed in South-India which is characterised by high cloud coverage. The second approach, called Dispatch, is based on the use of optical sensors in a physical disaggregation approach. It is a well-established approach (Merlin et al. 2012, Malbeteau et al. 2015) that has been implemented operationally in the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) processing centre (Molero et al. 2016). An analysis on the complementarity of the approaches is discussed. The results show the performances of the methods when compared to existing soil moisture monitoring networks in arid, sub-tropical and humid environments. They emphasis on the need for large inter-comparison studied for the qualification

  18. Use of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) in Passive Microwave Algorithms for Soil Moisture Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will provide a unique opportunity for the estimation of soil moisture by having simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements available. As with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the soil moisture algorithms will need to account for the contribution of vegetation to the brightness temperature. Global maps of vegetation volumetric water content (VWC) are difficult to obtain, and the SMOS mission has opted to estimate the optical depth of standing vegetation by using a relationship between the VWC and the leaf area index (LAI). LAI is estimated from optical remote sensing or through soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. During the growing season, the VWC of agricultural crops can increase rapidly, and if cloud cover exists during an optical acquisition, the estimation of LAI may be delayed, resulting in an underestimation of the VWC and overestimation of the soil moisture. Alternatively, the radar vegetation index (RVI) has shown strong correlation and linear relationship with VWC for rice and soybeans. Using the SMAP radar to produce RVI values that are coincident to brightness temperature measurements may eliminate the need for LAI estimates. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was a cal/val campaign for the SMAP mission held in Manitoba, Canada, during a 6-week period in June and July, 2012. During this campaign, soil moisture measurements were obtained for 55 fields with varying soil texture and vegetation cover. Vegetation was sampled from each field weekly to determine the VWC. Soil moisture measurements were taken coincident to overpasses by an aircraft carrying the Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrumentation. The aircraft flew flight lines at both high and low altitudes. The low altitude flight lines provided a footprint size approximately equivalent to the size of the SMAPVEX12 field sites. Of the 55 field sites, the low altitude flight lines provided

  19. Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxiong Lu; Jiali Jiang; Yiqiang Wu; Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vibrational properties and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption. Samples of maple (Acer spp.) and red oak (Quercus rubra Michx.f.) were moisture conditioned by the adsorption process from an ovendried state and by the desorption process...

  20. Radiation effects on moisture variation in ponderosa pine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive M. Countryman

    1977-01-01

    This exploratory study indicated that considerable variation in the moisture content of litter can occur within short horizontal distances. The variations ere found to be caused primarily by differences in the amount of solar radiation received by the litter and in the degree of cooling by radiation at night. Because actual fuel moisture lags behind equilibrium...

  1. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  2. Determination of moisture and low temperature volatiles in solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, D.R.; Hannifan, M.R.

    1983-09-01

    The reaction of calcium carbide with moisture in a closed reactor to form acetylene, when combined with gas chromatographic analysis of the products and measurement of pressure change during reaction, provides an accurate and rapid determination method for moisture and volatile content of solid fuels.

  3. response of three forage legumes to soil moisture stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    The mean P content of the plants decreased with decreasing soil moisture content while, that of K increased as moisture stress increased. The overall plant performance pointed to Centrosema as a more favoured for- age plant for dry environments . Keywords: Crop productivity, legumes, food security, water use efficiency.

  4. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  5. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The ... cracked nuts yielding whole kernels after impact cracking was used to determine the optimum moisture content the average ... At this moisture content the proportion of evaporable water retained in.

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  8. Soil moisture and groundwater recharge under a mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1978-01-01

    The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 7 m by a mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks during 5 consecutive summers. Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 17 m were continuously recorded during the same period.

  9. Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Continuous observation data collected over the year 2008 at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram in south Kerala (76° 59′E longitude and 8° 30′N latitude) are used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal soil moisture variations. The effect of rainfall on diurnal and seasonal soil moisture is discussed.

  10. ALOS PALSAR and UAVSAR Soil Moisture in Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our ongoing analysis of L-band radar mapping of soil moisture we are evaluating the role that ALOS PALSAR data can play in the development of radar retrieval algorithms for the future NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Differences in configurations must be assessed to det...

  11. Effect of Variety and Initial Moisture Content on Physical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The static coefficients of friction (an important parameter in predicting the lateral pressure on a retaining wall in storage bins or design of bins and hoppers for gravity flow) were found to increase as the moisture content increased. The study showed that variety and initial moisture content had significant effect (P<0.05) on the ...

  12. Impact of nitrogen nutrition and moisture deficits on growth, yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop production in arid and semi arid areas is restricted by soil deficiencies in moisture and plant nutrients, especially nitrogen. In order to evaluate the impact of nitrogen nutrition and moisture deficits on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a field experiment was conducted at Agronomic ...

  13. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  14. Influence of moisture absorption on the flexural properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was found that during the processof moisture absorption there exists a variation of the flexural properties closely related to the degradation of the mechanicalbehaviour of the composite, as well as the percentage amount of moisture absorbed. Experiments were carried out withcomposite made of epoxy resin reinforced ...

  15. Moisture Diffusivity of Fiber Reinforced Silica Fume Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Denarié, E.; Houst, Y.F.

    1995-01-01

    The moisture diffusivity is of considerable importance for quantitative assessments of creep and shrinkage as well as durability of cementitious material. For this reason, the influence of the composition of repair mortars on their effective moisture diffusivity as a function of the relative humidity of the surrounding air has been investigated. Silica fume,

  16. Soil moisture retrival from Sentinel-1 and Modis synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Zribi, Mehrez; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Baghdadi, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    This study presents two methodologies retrieving soil moisture from SAR remote sensing data. The study is based on Sentinel-1 data in the VV polarization, over a site in Urgell, Catalunya (Spain). In the two methodologies using change detection techniques, preprocessed radar data are combined with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) auxiliary data to estimate the mean soil moisture with a resolution of 1km. By modeling the relationship between the backscatter difference and NDVI, the soil moisture at a specific NDVI value is retrieved. The first algorithm is already developed on West Africa(Zribi et al., 2014) from ERS scatterometer data to estimate soil water status. In this study, it is adapted to Sentinel-1 data and take into account the high repetitiveness of data in optimizing the inversion approach. Another new method is developed based on the backscatter difference between two adjacent days of Sentinel-1 data w.r.t. NDVI, with smaller vegetation change, the backscatter difference is more sensitive to soil moisture. The proposed methodologies have been validated with the ground measurement in two demonstrative fields with RMS error about 0.05 (in volumetric moisture), and the coherence between soil moisture variations and rainfall events is observed. Soil moisture maps at 1km resolution are generated for the study area. The results demonstrate the potential of Sentinel-1 data for the retrieval of soil moisture at 1km or even better resolution.

  17. The global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Konings, Alexandra G.; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Surface soil moisture has a direct impact on food security, human health and ecosystem function. It also plays a key role in the climate system, and the development and persistence of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods and heatwaves. However, sparse and uneven observations have made it difficult to quantify the global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture. Here we introduce a metric of soil moisture memory and use a full year of global observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to show that surface soil moisture--a storage believed to make up less than 0.001% of the global freshwater budget by volume, and equivalent to an, on average, 8-mm thin layer of water covering all land surfaces--plays a significant role in the water cycle. Specifically, we find that surface soil moisture retains a median 14% of precipitation falling on land after three days. Furthermore, the retained fraction of the surface soil moisture storage after three days is highest over arid regions, and in regions where drainage to groundwater storage is lowest. We conclude that lower groundwater storage in these regions is due not only to lower precipitation, but also to the complex partitioning of the water cycle by the surface soil moisture storage layer at the land surface.

  18. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  19. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining almond kernel moisture content while still in the shell is important for both almond growers and processors. A dielectric method was developed for almond kernel moisture determination from dielectric measurements on in-shell almonds at a single microwave frequency. A sample holder was fi...

  20. Estimating runoff and soil moisture deficit in guinea savannah region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating runoff and soil moisture deficit in guinea savannah region of Nigeria using water balance method. ... The estimation ofrunoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA) was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall ...

  1. Moisture preferences, growth and reproduction of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-10-13

    Oct 13, 1989 ... vermicomposting species, especially since they more closely resemble aquatic than truly terrestrial animals. (Lee 1985). extensive survey of the literature on this subject. They did not, however, cover the moisture preferences of E. eugeniae. The present study was undertaken to deter- mine the moisture ...

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  3. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  4. Effect of processing methods and storage environment on moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of processing methods and storage parameters on moisture adsorption characteristics of dry matured yellow ginger (Zingiber officianale) to provide information for the prediction of shelf life and selection of packaging materials. Moisture adsorption was determined ...

  5. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...

  6. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    For coal-fired power plants information of the moisture content in the coal is important to determine and control the dynamical behavior of the power plants. E.g. a high moisture content in the coal can result in a decreased maximum load gradient of the plant. In this paper a method for estimating...

  7. Moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR as structural material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Melai, J.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    This paper treats the moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR, two photoresists considered as structural material in microsystems. Our experiments focus on the moisture resistance of newly developed radiation imaging detectors containing these resists. Since these microsystems will be used unpackaged,

  8. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The physical properties of red pepper seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and ... In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed showed that the ... dressing, sauces, pizza and confectionary products, among others ...

  9. Influence of moisture stress on growth, dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture stress significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the total leaf area of I. amorphoides at moderate levels and that of I. vicioides at the most severe moisture stress level. The relative growth rate was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in I. amorphoides but not in I. arrecta, I. coerulea or I. vicioides plants subjected to moisturedeficit ...

  10. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using the Aquarius/SAC-D Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquarius/SAC-D will share common elements with several current and future satellite missions that provide soil moisture. Passive microwave soil moisture retrieval using low frequencies is currently performed using Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E (AMSR-E) (C/X-band). This will extended ...

  11. Feasibility of soil moisture estimation using passive distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Rutten, M.M.; Krzeminska, D.M.; Hausner, M.; Tyler, S.W.; Selker, J.; Bogaard, T.A.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Through its role in the energy and water balances at the land surface, soil moisture is a key state variable in surface hydrology and land?atmosphere interactions. Point observations of soil moisture are easy to make using established methods such as time domain reflectometry and gravimetric

  12. Soil moisture remote sensing: State of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellites (e.g., SMAP, SMOS) using passive microwave techniques, in particular at L band frequency, have shown good promise for global mapping of near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture at a spatial resolution of 25-40 km and temporal resolution of 2-3 days. C- and X-band soil moisture records date bac...

  13. Moisture index for Iran: Spatial and temporal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.

    2013-01-01

    Moisture indices, which account the balance between inputs and outputs of water, are typically used to determine the moisture conditions and the magnitude of water deficiency in a given area. This work studies the moisture conditions of Iran using the revised Thornthwaite moisture index, a ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation, over the period of 1966-2005. Long-term trends in the moisture index were assessed by the Mann-Kendall test, the Sen's slope estimator and the Mann-Kendall rank statistic. According to the moisture index, arid and semiarid environmental conditions where the demand for water exceeds the water supply are dominant over the country. The results conclusively show that the significant trends in the moisture index are infrequent and found only at 8 out of the 41 study stations. The significant downward trends of the moisture index at Gorgan, Kermanshah, Khorram-Abad, Khoy, Sanandaj, Tabriz and Zanjan stations located in the north, northwest and west regions of Iran began in 1995, 1996, 1996, 1989, 1997, 1988 and 1986, respectively. Contrary to that, the significant upward trend at Dezful station started in 1973.

  14. What does moisture-related durability of wood bonds mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Daniel J. Yelle; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated test methods that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable wood adhesives generally involve subjecting the bonded assembly to abnormally rapid and extreme moisture exposure or cycling. In the United States and Canada, these tests for moisture durability have been established, but selection of the appropriate test methods for the different service...

  15. Moisture Adsorption Isotherms and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Tannic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červenka, L.; Cacková, L.

    2016-09-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms of tannic acid were determined at 5, 15, and 35°C with the use of the static gravimetric method in the range 0.113-0.980 aw (aw is the water activity). It was shown that tannic acid adsorbed more water at 5°C. The experimental data fitted well to the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer and Yanniotis-Blahovec equations, giving the corresponding parameters by nonlinear regression. The monolayer moisture content, number of monolayers, and the surface area of sorption were demonstrated to decrease with increasing temperature. Mesopores dominated below the monolayer moisture content followed by the formation of macropores. The variation of the differential enthalpy and entropy with the moisture content showed that water was strongly bound to the surface of tannic acid below the moisture content 5.0 g water/100 g dry basis. The adsorption process was found to be enthalpy-driven; however, it was not spontaneous at a low moisture content, as follows from the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The variation of the net integral enthalpy and entropy (at a constant spreading pressure) with the moisture content exhibited maximum and minimum values, respectively. This behavior indicated that water molecules were strongly bound to the tannic acid surface at the moisture content up to its monolayer values.

  16. Effect of moisture sorption on the performance of crospovidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Tze Ning; Johan, Nur Atiqah Binte; Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Chua, Siang Meng; Loh, Zhi Hui; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-11-30

    Crospovidone is a commonly used tablet disintegrant. However, the synthetic disintegrant has been known to be hygroscopic and high moisture content in crospovidone used could exert deleterious effects on tablets formulated with it. The objective of this study was to elicit a better understanding between crospovidone-water interaction and its effect on disintegrant performance. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms were obtained together with the enthalpy of immersion. Crospovidone samples stored at four relative humidities were used to formulate tablets and the resultant tablets were evaluated for their mechanical, dimensional and disintegratability attributes. Analyses of the moisture sorption isotherms indicated that externally adsorbed moisture accounted for the bulk of the total moisture content in crospovidone, with minimal amount of moisture absorbed intramolecularly. Enthalpy of immersion became less exothermic with crospovidone samples stored at increasing storage humidity. Correspondingly, improvement in disintegration time became less pronounced. This was postulated to be a consequence of premature wetting of the particle surfaces by externally adsorbed moisture. High humidity was also detrimental to tablet hardness and thickness. In conclusion, the impact of moisture sorption during storage by excipients such as crospovidone could be better understood by the appreciation of crospovidone-water interaction and its consequence on tablet quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  18. Response Of Three Forage Legumes To Soil Moisture Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean P content of the plants decreased with decreasing soil moisture content while, that of K increased as moisture stress increased. The overall plant performance pointed to Centrosema as a more favoured for-age plant for dry environments . Keywords: Crop productivity, legumes, food security, water use efficiency ...

  19. Moisture preferences, growth and reproduction of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a comprehensive study of the biology of the economically important earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae, the water relations of this species were studied. Moisture preferences were studied with the aid of cylindrical moisture towers filled with cattle manure. The cattle manure was dried, ground to a particle size of ...

  20. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpeas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpeas was investigated The nonirradiated and irradiated cowpeas exhibited the typical three stage sigmoidal curve found in most foods. There was also a concomitant increase in the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) as relative humidity increased for ...

  2. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J.

    1996-10-07

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the hardware and software that was developed to operate the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture measurement system to be used for in-tank moisture measurements. This document satisfies EP 4.1, ``Design Verification Requirements``.

  3. Moisture distribution in the stone portal of a church: how it influences the salt accumulation in porous limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Galambos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    Mathias Church of Budapest (Hungary) is an emblematic stone monument that represents various phases of constructions from Medieval period to the early 20th century. The church is found at the elevated Castle Hill and forms a landmark at the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Budapest. Its main construction material is porous Miocene limestone. Besides porous limestone travertine was also extensively used. The current study focuses on the Medieval Gate of the church which encompasses richly decorated porous limestone ornaments. The gate is now sheltered and form an interior portal of the church. It shows various forms of stone decay. The most striking one is efflorescence of salts. This feature has become more intense in the past years leading to flaking and granular disintegration of the limestone, causing damage to the monument. This study focuses on the detection of moisture content within the stone structure and its role in the salt accumulation. To obtain this goal in situ moisture measurements were made along vertical profiles by a portable moisture detector (Gann-Hydromette). It allowed outlining the moisture distribution within the studied structure. The moisture measurement was combined with sampling of salt efflorescence and porous limestone of the gate, itself. The samples were tested by optical microscopy. Conductivity, salt content and main elements were also detected from solutions. Mineralogical composition was recorded by XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. Magnesium-sulphates were found to be the main salts responsible for damages. Besides sulphates chlorides were also detected. Gypsum was also found in the weathering crusts of the previously exposed limestone surfaces. It accumulated in black crusts but was also detected in white efflorescence and below the stone surface. The salt distribution clearly correlates with the moisture content. The financial support of NKFI Fund (ref. no. K 116532) is appreciated.

  4. Divergent surface and total soil moisture projections under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis; Sheffield, Justin; Milly, Paul C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Land aridity has been projected to increase with global warming. Such projections are mostly based on off-line aridity and drought metrics applied to climate model outputs but also are supported by climate-model projections of decreased surface soil moisture. Here we comprehensively analyze soil moisture projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, including surface, total, and layer-by-layer soil moisture. We identify a robust vertical gradient of projected mean soil moisture changes, with more negative changes near the surface. Some regions of the northern middle to high latitudes exhibit negative annual surface changes but positive total changes. We interpret this behavior in the context of seasonal changes in the surface water budget. This vertical pattern implies that the extensive drying predicted by off-line drought metrics, while consistent with the projected decline in surface soil moisture, will tend to overestimate (negatively) changes in total soil water availability.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... suggested protocols for the simple and fast measurement of the moisture buffer potential of interior elements allow qualitative assessment, none of these are currently dependable for a wide range of moisture production regimes. In response to these flaws, this paper introduces the production...

  6. Evaluation of Crops Moisture Provision by Space Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilienko, Tetiana

    2016-08-01

    The article is focused on theoretical and experimental rationale for the use of space data to determine the moisture provision of agricultural landscapes and agricultural plants. The improvement of space remote sensing methods to evaluate plant moisture availability is the aim of this research.It was proved the possibility of replacement of satellite imagery of high spatial resolution on medium spatial resolution which are freely available to determine crop moisture content at the local level. The mathematical models to determine the moisture content of winter wheat plants by spectral indices were developed based on the results of experimental field research and satellite (Landsat, MODIS/Terra, RapidEye, SICH-2) data. The maps of the moisture content in winter wheat plants in test sites by obtained models were constructed using modern GIS technology.

  7. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical engineering, Technical university of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-06-08

    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick’s second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  8. Moisture Absorption Model of Composites Considering Water Temperature Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of water temperature on composite moisture absorption parameters was investigated in temperature-controlled water bath. Experiments of carbon fiber/bismaleimide resin composites immersed in water of 60℃, 70℃and 80℃ were developed respectively. According to the moisture content-time curves obtained from the experimental results, the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content of the composites immersed in different water temperature could be calculated. What's more, the effect of water temperature on the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content were discussed too. According to the Arrhenius equation and the law of Fick, a moisture absorption model was proposed to simulate the hygroscopic behaviour of the composite laminates immersed in different water temperature which can predict the absorption rate of water of the composites immersed in distilled water of 95℃ at any time precisely and can calculate how long it will take to reach the specific absorption rate.

  9. Impact strength of Luehea divaricata wood on different moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the impact strength of Luehea divaricata wood tested under conditions of equilibrium at 12% and saturated moisture content. Trees from two different physiographic regions of Rio Grande do Sul state were used. The specimens were submitted to the impact using a pendulum of Charpy and evaluated with relationship to the resistance offered to the application of the load in the radial and tangential plans and with the positions in the log (pith - bark for the two physiographic regions at each moisture condition. Also the specific gravity at 12% moisture content and in saturated conditions, the moisture content, the work absorbed, the impact strength, coefficient of resilience and dynamic quota were determined. The results showed that the Luehea divaricata in saturated wood, presented greater strength, indicating that the specie is more resistant to the impact when it is green than when it is at 12% moisture content.

  10. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  11. Moisture Buffer Performance of a Fully Furnished Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennberg, Kaisa; Hedegaard, Lone Grønbæk; Rode, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    The moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate the relative humidity of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. Since moisture plays a significant role in the development of many processes that affect the quality...... of the indoor air, such as growth of house dust mites, emissions from materials and mould growth it is anticipated that the moisture buffer effect can help to ensure healthier indoor environments. The building materials as well as furniture and other furnishing materials exposed to the indoor air...... will contribute to the moisture buffer capacity of the room. There is few studies made on the impact of furnishing materials in comparison with traditional building materials this paper will present such a study conducted in a full scale climate test cell. A series of experiments have been carried out...

  12. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidities, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation with a good approximation. At higher relative...... represent this behavior. The multi-Fickian model describes the combined transport of bound water and vapor and their interaction through sorption. The bound-water concentration is also influenced by sorption hysteresis. In the worst case, sorption hysteresis may result in deviations of up to 30......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  13. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidity, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation to a good approximation. At higher relative humidity...... this behavior. The multi-Fickian model describes the combined transport of bound water and vapor and their interaction through sorption. The bound-water concentration is also influenced by sorption hysteresis. In the worst case, sorption hysteresis may result in deviations of up to 30-35% in moisture content....... Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate the effects, a finite...

  14. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  15. Free-Tropospheric Moisture Convergence and Tropical Convective Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is known that quiescent periods with only shallow cumuli prevalent are frequently observed even in the deep Tropics, which is considered from the climatological perspectives as an area harboring vigorous deep convection. It is argued in this work that the free-tropospheric (FT) moisture convergence is a crucial factor for separating the stable maintenance of isolated shallow cumuli in the quiescent periods from the self-sustaining growth of organized convective systems in the dynamic periods over tropical oceans. The analysis is based on a variety of satellite measurements including Aqua AIRS T and q soundings and QuikSCAT surface wind, composited with reference to the time before or after the occurrence of precipitating clouds detected by TRMM PR. The FT moisture convergence and updraft moisture flux at cloud base are then derived from this dataset under large-scale moisture budget constraint (see Figure). Free-tropospheric precipitation efficiency (FTPE), or the ratio of precipitation to updraft moisture flux at cloud base, is introduced as a measure of convective intensity (rather than the population) over the large-scale domain. The following hypothesis is discussed in light of the analysis results. Isolated shallow cumuli would stay shallow when large-scale FT moisture is diverging (although moisture is weakly converging when integrated over the whole troposphere) since an increase in cumulus population would be counteracted by an additional moisture divergence in the FT. When large-scale FT convergence is positive, in contrast, developing clouds would induce a more moisture input and allow an unstable growth to a highly organized convective system. Zero FT moisture convergence may serve as the neutrality separating the negative feedback acting in the quiescent regime from the positive feedback instrumental for the dynamic regime.

  16. Assessment of real-time, in-shell kernel moisture content monitoring with a microwave moisture meter during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present-day peanut drying process lacks the capability of kernel moisture content determination in real-time. Samples of peanut pods have to be taken from the drying trailer, cleaned and shelled by an operator to test for the kernel moisture content. The frequency with which the operator samples...

  17. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  18. Soil moisture responses to vapour pressure deficit in polytunnel-grown tomato under soil moisture triggered irrigation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Dick

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work has been to investigate soil-to-atmosphere water transport in potted tomato plants by measuring and processing high-resolution soil moisture data against the environmental driver of vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Whilst many researchers have successfully employed sap flow sensors to determine water uptake by roots and transport through the canopy, the installation of sap flow sensors is non-trivial. This work presents an alternative method that can be integrated with irrigation controllers and data loggers that employ soil moisture feedback which can allow water uptake to be evaluated against environmental drivers such as VPD between irrigation events. In order to investigate water uptake against VPD, soil moisture measurements were taken with a resolution of 2 decimal places - and soil moisture, air temperature and relative humidity measurements were logged every 2 minutes. Data processing of the soil moisture was performed in an Excel spread sheet where changes in water transport were derived from the rate of change of soil moisture using the Slope function over 5 soil moisture readings. Results are presented from a small scale experiment using a GP2-based irrigation controller and data logger. Soil moisture feedback is provided from a single SM300 soil moisture sensor in order to regulate the soil moisture level and to assess the water flow from potted tomato plants between irrigation events. Soil moisture levels were set to avoid drainage water losses. By determining the rate of change in soil moisture between irrigation events, over a 16 day period whilst the tomato plant was in flower, it has been possible to observe very good correlation between soil water uptake and VPD - illustrating the link between plant physiology and environmental conditions. Further data is presented for a second potted tomato plant where the soil moisture level is switched between the level that avoids drainage losses and a significantly lower level. This data

  19. How ecosystems organize their moisture storage requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    The moisture storage capacity in the root zone of ecosystems acts as a buffer against climatic variability and is a critical factor controlling many physical, biogeochemical and biological processes including land-atmosphere exchanges, rainfall-runoff generation, carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics. Notwithstanding its importance this storage capacity cannot be directly observed at catchment scale. Approaching this problem from a different angle, we can try to understand how adaptive systems cope with the variability of essential inputs through the creation of buffers. Surprisingly, there appears to be a strong correspondence between how societies and ecosystems try to safeguard their water supply. People build reservoirs to buffer against periods of water shortage; ecosystems essentially do the same by creating sufficient moisture storage in their root zone. Both try to do this at minimum expense: people by optimizing the amount of storage at minimum costs; and ecosystems by creating an optimum root zone buffer at minimum biomass investment. A classical engineering way for designing the size of a reservoir is the Rippl (1883) diagram, where tangents to the accumulated inflow determine the required storage. It is a logical method for people to size the storage required to satisfy the long-term water demand. Using this principle, over time, many societies have tried to regulate their rivers, leveling out the natural dynamics of the system. But are people unique in trying to even out unwanted fluctuations or to bridge periods of water shortage? Like societies, ecosystems adjust their storage buffer to climatic variability. Similar to the way in which engineers design reservoirs, we can estimate the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale on the basis of observed climate and hydrological data. This approach was proven to be remarkably accurate not only in 11 catchments of the Ping river in Thailand but also in 413 catchments across the USA, with diverse climate

  20. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  1. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  2. Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...

  3. Role of Moisture in the Failure of Coatings on Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Rowell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most wood coating tests are done either in a short term artificial weathering chamber or long term on an outdoor rack/fence. In both cases, the coatings are exposed to both ultraviolet radiation and water. This study is focused on the influence of moisture alone on wood opaque film forming coating failures. As moisture is sorbed into the wood structure, the wood swells in proportion to the volume of water sorbed. As moisture is lost, the wood shrinks in proportion to the volume of the water lost. Moisture in the wood end grain is responsible for coating failure in, for example, window corners and end to end siding. The wood cell wall moisture can be greatly reduced by a process known as acetylation which not only reduces the moisture sorbed in the cell wall but results in high levels of dimensional stability. The reduced moisture uptake along with the stability results in less stress created between the coating wood surface interface improving the performance of the coating and increasing its useful lifetime.

  4. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Nijoku, Eni G.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Crow, Wade T.; Edelstein, Wendy N.; Entin, Jared K.; Goodman, Shawn D.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Joel; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. Direct observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing observations will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance by helping to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink on land over the boreal latitudes. The SMAP mission concept would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer. These instruments will share a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. The SMAP instruments provide direct measurements of surface conditions. In addition, the SMAP project will use these observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root-zone soil moisture and estimates of land surface-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon. SMAP is scheduled for a 2014 launch date

  5. Soil moisture dynamics modeling considering multi-layer root zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Shankar, V; Jat, M K

    2013-01-01

    The moisture uptake by plant from soil is a key process for plant growth and movement of water in the soil-plant system. A non-linear root water uptake (RWU) model was developed for a multi-layer crop root zone. The model comprised two parts: (1) model formulation and (2) moisture flow prediction. The developed model was tested for its efficiency in predicting moisture depletion in a non-uniform root zone. A field experiment on wheat (Triticum aestivum) was conducted in the sub-temperate sub-humid agro-climate of Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Model-predicted soil moisture parameters, i.e., moisture status at various depths, moisture depletion and soil moisture profile in the root zone, are in good agreement with experiment results. The results of simulation emphasize the utility of the RWU model across different agro-climatic regions. The model can be used for sound irrigation management especially in water-scarce humid, temperate, arid and semi-arid regions and can also be integrated with a water transport equation to predict the solute uptake by plant biomass.

  6. Crunchiness Loss and Moisture Toughening in Puffed Cereals and Snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Upon moisture uptake, dry cellular cereals and snacks loose their brittleness and become soggy. This familiar phenomenon is manifested in smoothing their compressive force-displacement curves. These curves' degree of jaggedness, expressed by their apparent fractal dimension, can serve as an instrumental measure of the particles' crunchiness. The relationship between the apparent fractal dimension and moisture content or water activity has a characteristic sigmoid shape. The relationship between the sensorily perceived crunchiness and moisture also has a sigmoid shape whose inflection point lies at about the same location. The transition between the brittle and soggy states, however, appears sharper in the apparent fractal dimension compared with moisture plot. Less familiar is the observation that at moderate levels of moisture content, while the particles' crunchiness is being lost, their stiffness actually rises, a phenomenon that can be dubbed "moisture toughening." We show this phenomenon in commercial Peanut Butter Crunch® (sweet starch-based cereal), Cheese Balls (salty starch-based snack), and Pork Rind also known as "Chicharon" (salty deep-fried pork skin), 3 crunchy foods that have very different chemical composition. We also show that in the first 2 foods, moisture toughening was perceived sensorily as increased "hardness." We have concluded that the partial plasticization, which caused the brittleness loss, also inhibited failure propagation, which allowed the solid matrix to sustain higher stresses. This can explain other published reports of the phenomenon in different foods and model systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Moisture-Mediated Interactions Between Amorphous Maltodextrins and Crystalline Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Alpana; Marrs, Krystin N; Ghorab, Mohamed K; Meunier, Vincent; Forny, Laurent; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of coformulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline fructose, a deliquescent solid, on the moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0 ), and glass transition temperature (Tg ) behaviors were determined. Moisture sorption profiles of binary fructose:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators and by dynamic vapor sorption techniques. Blends exhibited synergistic moisture uptake at RHs below the RH0 of fructose, attributed to partial dissolution of fructose in plasticized MD matrices without a significant reduction in the RH0 of the undissolved fructose. Increasing storage temperature decreased the onset RH for moisture sorption synergy. At all storage RHs, the measured Tg (2nd scan) was significantly reduced in fructose:MD mixtures compared to individual MDs, and was related to both the synergistic moisture uptake in the blends and heat-induced ternary fructose-MD-water interactions in the differential scanning calorimeter. Differences were found between the behavior of fructose:MD blends and previous reports of sucrose:MD and NaCl:MD blends, caused in part by the lower RH0 of fructose. The enhanced moisture sorption in blends of deliquescent and amorphous ingredients could lead to problematic moisture-induced changes if storage conditions are not controlled. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  9. Detection of moisture in porous materials by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Haralampopoulos, Georgios; Anagnostopoulou, Sophie

    2002-03-01

    Frequently, damages in porous materials arise as a direct or indirect consequence of moisture concentration and transport. Usually, detection of the existing moisture in porous materials is fundamentally necessary, in order to identify the actual damage, as well as their deterioration rate. There have been numerous reports about moisture detection in porous media, employing various direct techniques. In this research work, infrared thermography was employed with the intention of assessing moisture concentration in reference porous materials in the laboratory. Untreated and consolidated porous stones were subjected to capillary rise moisture tests, whilst infrared thermography was used for the monitoring of these laboratory tests. The performance of the investigated porous materials, in order to interpret the moisture phenomena studied and the obtained thermographs, was also examined in terms of their microstructure (mercury intrusion porosimetric results) and isothermic behavior (water sorption curves). The results of this work indicate that thermography ought to be considered as a nondestructive assessment tool for the detection of moisture in porous materials.

  10. Calculation of the moisture concentration field in a multilayered plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniskevich, A. N.; Ivanov, Yu. V.

    1995-07-01

    Thus, we have developed an algorithm and program to calculate fields of moisture concentration in a laminated plate for steady external temperatures and moisture contents. A test calculation and comparison of some of the findings with previous results demonstrated the accuracy of the program for solving a number of diffusion problems. For example, the program can be used to evaluate the life of the moisture-protective properties of polymer products, as well as to model moisture absorption in fiber composites. Curves of moisture concentration were calculated for a unidirectionally reinforced (with organic fibers) plastic at different relative humidities. We also calculated sorption curves and isotherms, which were shown to agree satisfactorily with previous empirical curves. It was shown that it is possible to approximately evaluate the sorption behavior of a unidirectionally reinforced fiber composite by means of a three-layer model and to analyze the stability of the result against an increase in the number of layers. For the two-component composite examined here, sorption behavior deviates from the classical behavior described by Fick's law — although the components of the composite obey this law. The algorithm and program that were developed make it possible to evaluate the kinetics of moisture absorption in complex composite systems and determine the distribution of moisture among and within the components. The study described here was conducted under grant 93.176 from the Latvian Science Council.

  11. Sweat as an Efficient Natural Moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Sato, Yohei; Komatsu, Yurie; Ushigome, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research on the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis has focused on defects in skin genes important for maintaining skin barrier function, the fact that excreted sweat has an overwhelmingly great capacity to increase skin surface hydration and contains moisturizing factors has long been ignored: the increase in water loss induced by these gene defects could theoretically be compensated fully by a significant increase in sweating. In this review, the dogma postulating the detrimental role of sweat in these diseases has been challenged on the basis of recent findings on the physiological functions of sweat, newly recognized sweat gland-/duct-related skin diseases, and therapeutic approaches to the management of these diseases. We are now beginning to appreciate that sweat glands/ducts are a sophisticated regulatory system. Furthermore, depending on their anatomical location and the degree of the impairment, this system might have a different function: sweating responses in sweat glands/ducts located at the folds in hairy skin such as on the trunk and extremities could function as natural regulators that maintain skin hydration under quiescent basal conditions, in addition to the better-studied thermoregulatory functions, which can be mainly mediated by those at the ridges. The normal functioning of sweat could be disturbed in various inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, we should recognize sweating disturbance as an etiologic factor in the development of these diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Soil moisture calibration of TDR multilevel probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrarens Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR probes are increasingly used for field estimation of soil water content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multilevel TDR probe under field conditions. For this purpose, eight such TDR probes were installed in small plots that were seeded with beans and sorghum. Data collection from the probes was such that soil moisture readings were automated and logged using a standalone field unit. Neutron probe measurements were used to calibrate the TDR probes. Soil-probe contact and soil compaction were critical to the accuracy of the TDR, especially when a number of TDR probes are combined for a single calibration curve. If each probe is calibrated individually, approximate measurement errors were between 0.005 and 0.015 m³ m-3. However, measurement errors doubled to approximately 0.025 to 0.03 m³ m-3, when TDR probes were combined to yield a single calibration curve.

  14. Moisture-induced aggregation of lyophilized insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, H R; Langer, R; Klibanov, A M

    1994-01-01

    A critical problem in the storage and delivery of pharmaceutical proteins is aggregation in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and moisture. These conditions are particularly relevant for studies of protein stability during accelerated storage or for proteins loaded in polymeric delivery devices in vivo. In the present investigation, we have found that, when exposed to an environment simulating these conditions, lyophilized insulin undergoes both covalent and noncovalent aggregation. The covalent process has been elucidated to be intermolecular thiol-catalyzed disulfide interchange following beta-elimination of an intact disulfide bridge in the insulin molecule. This process is accelerated by increasing the temperature and water content of the insulin powder or by performing lyophilization and/or dissolution of insulin in alkaline media. The aggregation can be ameliorated by the presence of Cu2+, which presumably catalyzes the oxidization of free thiols. The water sorption isotherm for insulin reveals that the extent of aggregation directly correlates with the water uptake by the lyophilized insulin powder, thus pointing to the critical role of protein conformational mobility in the aggregation process.

  15. Soil Moisture Mapping from ASAR Imagery of the Mulargia basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, L.; Montaldo, N.

    2016-12-01

    The state of the soil moisture is a key variable controlling surface water and energy balances. High resolution data of the ASAR (advanced synthetic aperture radar) sensor aboard European Space Agency's Envisat satellite offers the opportunity for monitoring surface soil moisture at high resolution (up to 30 m), which is suitable for distributed mapping within the small scales of typical Mediterranean basins. These basins are characterized by strong topography and high spatial variability of physiographic properties, and only high spatial resolution satellite images allow to estimate adequately soil moisture spatial variability. ASAR-based soil moisture mapping of the Mulargia basin (area of about 65 sq.km) are collected for 2003-2006 years. In Mediterranean basins, such as the Mulargia basin, characterized by water-limited conditions, even though there is no universal relationship between vegetation and soil patterns in water-limited conditions some relationship between soil water storage capacity and vegetation type and density can be found: for instance, typically an increase of woody vegetation dimension and canopy density when moving from uplands of a hillslope (with thin coarse textured soils) to alluvial fans (with deep soils of finer texture). We investigated the relationships between soil moisture spatial variability, soil depth and vegetation distribution, which impact strongly soil, vegetation and atmosphere interactions. For the case study ASAR products at single and double polarization are tested and validated. For validating radar soil moisture estimates, spatially distributed soil moisture ground-truth data have also been collected over the whole basin through the TDR technique and the gravimetric method, in days with available radar images. Results shows: 1) the high resolution ASAR imagery accuracy for producing maps of surface soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale and their reliability for different seasons (wet vs dry), and 2) a

  16. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  17. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  18. SMEX02 Watershed Vitel Network Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include soil moisture, temperature, conductivity,...

  19. Soil Moisture Profile Effect on Radar Signal Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    André Chanzy; Nicolas Baghdadi; Mehrez Zribi; Aurélie Le Morvan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of a backscattered signal according to soil moisture depth over bare soils. Analysis based on experimental vertical moisture profiles and ASAR/ENVISAT measurements has been carried out. A modified IEM model with three permittivity layers (0-1cm, 1-2cm, 2-5cm) has been developed and used in this study. Results show a small effect of moisture profile on the backscattered signal (less than 0.5dB). However, measurements and simulations have ...

  20. Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Prophylactic Moisturization for Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Immaneni, Supriya; Hazen, Gordon B; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Paller, Amy S; Lio, Peter A

    2017-02-06

    Emerging evidence suggests that the use of moisturizers on newborns and infants (ie, from birth to 6 months of age) is potentially helpful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of using a daily moisturizer as prevention against atopic dermatitis among high-risk newborns. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, the average cost of total-body moisturization using 7 common moisturizers from birth to 6 months of age was determined for male and female infants. We assumed the same unit of weight per moisturizer used for a given body surface area. Based on previously reported data (relative risk reduction of 50%), the incremental gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was determined using a 6-month time window. The cost-effectiveness of each moisturizer was determined by assuming equal efficacy. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by varying the relative risk from 0.28 to 0.90. Use of prophylactic moisturizing compounds. The primary outcomes were the incremental cost-effectiveness values ($/QALY) for each moisturizer in preventing atopic dermatitis during a 6-month time window. The calculated amount of daily all-body moisturizer needed at birth was 3.6 g (0.12 oz) per application, which increased to 6.6 g (0.22 oz) at 6 months of age. Of the 7 products evaluated, the average price was $1.07/oz (range, $0.13/oz-$2.96/oz). For a 6-month time window, the average incremental QALY benefit was 0.021. The sensitivity analysis showed that the incremental gain of QALY ranged from 0.0041 to 0.030. Petrolatum was the most cost-effective ($353/QALY [95% CI, $244-$1769/QALY) moisturizer in the cohort. Even assuming the lowest incremental QALYs for the most expensive moisturizer, the intervention was still less than $45 000/QALY. Overall, atopic dermatitis represents a major health expenditure and has been associated with multiple comorbidities. Daily moisturization may represent a cost-effective, preventative strategy to reduce the

  2. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  3. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

  4. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  5. The Murrumbidgee soil moisture monitoring network data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. B.; Walker, J. P.; Western, A. W.; Young, R. I.; Ellett, K. M.; Pipunic, R. C.; Grayson, R. B.; Siriwardena, L.; Chiew, F. H. S.; Richter, H.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a soil moisture data set from the 82,000 km2 Murrumbidgee River Catchment in southern New South Wales, Australia. Data have been archived from the Murrumbidgee Soil Moisture Monitoring Network (MSMMN) since its inception in September 2001. The Murrumbidgee Catchment represents a range of conditions typical of much of temperate Australia, with climate ranging from semiarid to humid and land use including dry land and irrigated agriculture, remnant native vegetation, and urban areas. There are a total of 38 soil moisture-monitoring sites across the Murrumbidgee Catchment, with a concentration of sites in three subareas. The data set is composed of 0-5 (or 0-8), 0-30, 30-60, and 60-90 cm average soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and other land surface model forcing at all sites, together with other ancillary data. These data are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.oznet.org.au.

  6. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  7. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shaffer, M. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  8. Soil and Moisture Conservation Program Report Fiscal Year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the progress of the soil and moisture conservation program for Pungo National Wildlife Refuge for fiscal year 1969. Surveys and maps are...

  9. Embankment quality and assessment of moisture control implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    A specification for contractor moisture quality control (QC) in roadway embankment construction has been in use for approximately 10 : years in Iowa on about 190 projects. The use of this QC specification and the development of the soils certificatio...

  10. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  11. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peggy; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; Kellogg, Kent

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council?s Decadal Survey [1]. Its mission design consists of L-band radiometer and radar instruments sharing a rotating 6-m mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. The combined active/passive microwave soil moisture product will have a spatial resolution of 10 km and a mean latency of 24 hours. In addition, the SMAP surface observations will be combined with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP is expected to launch in the late 2014 - early 2015 time frame.

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Soil Moisture Measurements, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of in-situ point measurements of soil moisture within three 25-km by 25-km Meso-cell Study Areas (MSAs) in northern Colorado (Fraser, North...

  13. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987-1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  14. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987-1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  15. SMEX03 Watershed Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03). The parameters include bulk density, gravimetric and...

  16. SMEX02 Watershed Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include bulk density, gravimetric and...

  17. Effects of Aging Temperature on Moisture Absorption of Perforated GFRP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eslami, Shiva; Taheri-Behrooz, Fathollah; Taheri, Farid

    2012-01-01

      This paper examines the effects of aging on the flexural stiffness and bending loading capacity of a perforated glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite subjected to combined moisture and elevated temperature...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  19. SMAPVEX12 PALS Soil Moisture Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil moisture data obtained by the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) aircraft instrument. The data were collected as part of SMAPVEX12, the...

  20. SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, R.; De Lannoy, G.; Liu, Q.; Ardizzone, J.; Kimball, J.; Koster, R.

    2017-01-01

    The SMAP Level 4 soil moisture (L4_SM) product provides global estimates of surface and root zone soil moisture, along with other land surface variables and their error estimates. These estimates are obtained through assimilation of SMAP brightness temperature observations into the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) land surface model. The L4_SM product is provided at 9 km spatial and 3-hourly temporal resolution and with about 2.5 day latency. The soil moisture and temperature estimates in the L4_SM product are validated against in situ observations. The L4_SM product meets the required target uncertainty of 0.04 m(exp. 3)m(exp. -3), measured in terms of unbiased root-mean-square-error, for both surface and root zone soil moisture.

  1. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil moisture measurements for the Oklahoma study region. Summary files containing field averages are also provided. This data set is part of...

  2. SMEX03 Watershed Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03). This study was conducted between 2 July 2003 and 17 July...

  3. Aquarius L2 Swath Single Orbit Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-2 global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas...

  4. New calibration algorithms for dielectric-based microwave moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    New calibration algorithms for determining moisture content in granular and particulate materials from measurement of the dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency are proposed. The algorithms are based on identifying empirically correlations between the dielectric properties and the par...

  5. A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and clearfelled plots with burnt and unburnt harvest residue treatments of a clonal eucalypt plantation on the Zululand Coastal Plain, South Africa.

  6. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Sahraoui and M. Hachicha

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... produced by the water influence moisture content and corrected ... Previous studies indicated that PXRF analysis was capable of detecting soil trace elements ..... determination of some heavy metals in soil using an x-ray ...

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought and Crop Moisture Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought Severity and Crop Moisture Indices are computed for the 344 U.S. Climate Divisions on a weekly basis based on a...

  8. Special soil & moisture report : Quivira National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of 18 months of soil and moisture work accomplished on the 7,000 acres of land purchased for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge to date...

  9. Composite advanced polymers for low moisture and oxygen permeability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I program addresses NASA?s need for long duration shelf stable food by developing a high oxygen/moisture barrier...

  10. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  11. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  12. Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture Using Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the relationship between reflec- tance and soil moisture where there is ground cover and ascertain the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ( NDVI ...in those areas. This could establish a minimum NDVI for ground cover that would allow for estimation of soil moisture. Alternatively, they could...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 14-02-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED /From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing of Soil

  13. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  14. Moisture Barrier Composites Made of Non-Oxidized Graphene Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmo; Song, Sung Ho; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Yoon, Gabin; Lee, Dongju; Choi, Chanyong; Kim, Jin; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Kang, Kisuk; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2015-07-01

    Graphene flakes (GFs) with minimized defects and oxidation ratios are incorporated into polyethylene (PE) to enhance the moisture barrier. GFs produced involving solvothermal intercalation show extremely low oxidation rates (3.17%), and are noncovalently functionalized in situ, inducing strong hydrophobicity. The fabricated composite possesses the best moisture barrier performance reported for a polymer-graphene composite. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of moisture content on energy of comminution of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result by experimental method shows that the effective energy of comminution was found to increase from 12.7-35.7x10-3 k w.h as the moisture content increased from 4-9% w.b. A significant linear relationship (P<0.05) does exist between the moisture levels and effective energy of comminution. The estimated energy ...

  16. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on.

  17. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  18. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  19. Soil Moisture Memory in Karst and Non-Karst Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocinski-Norton, H. E.; Dirmeyer, P.

    2016-12-01

    Underlying geology plays an important role in soil column hydrology that is largely overlooked within the land surface model (LSM) parameterizations used in weather and climate models. LSMs typically treat the soil column as a set of horizontally homogeneous layers through which liquid water diffuses. These models parameterize the flow of water out of the bottom of the active soil column as "baseflow" that is typically a function of mean surface slope and the soil moisture in the lowest model layer. However, roughly 25% of the United States is underlain by karst systems that are characterized by heavily fractured bedrock or unconsolidated materials. These heavily fractured systems allow for more rapid drainage, increasing "baseflow" and reducing the amount of soil moisture available for surface fluxes. This increased drainage can also affect soil moisture memory, which is key to determining the strength of land-atmosphere coupling. We examine lagged autocorrelations of in-situ soil moisture data from climatologically similar stations over different substrates, to determine the extent to which karst affects soil moisture memory. These results are compared to simulations with the NCEP Noah LSM with both default parameters and setting all soil types to sand to enhance drainage in a crude approximation of karst macropores. Given the importance of soil moisture in surface fluxes and in turn land-atmospheric coupling, we will demonstrate the importance of representing shallow geology as realistically as possible, and develop better parameterizations of these processes for LSMs.

  20. GNSSProbe, penetrating GNSS signals for measuring soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francisco; Navarro, Victor; Reppucci, Antonio; Mollfulleda, Antonio; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia; Kissick, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is an essential parameter from both a scientific and economical point of view. On one hand, it is key for the understanding of hydrological. Secondly, it is a most relevant parameter for agricultural activities and water management. Wide research has been done in this field using different sensors, spanning different parts of the measured electromagnetic spectrum, leading thus several methodologies to estimate soil moisture content. However complying with requirements in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution is still a major challenge. A novel approach based on the measurement of GNSS signals penetrating a soil volume is proposed here. This model relates soil moisture content to the measured soil transmissivity, and attenuation coefficient, which are a function of the soil characteristics (i.e soil moisture content, soit type, soil temperature, etc). A preliminary experiment has been performed to demonstrate the validity of this technique, where the signal received by a GNSS-R L1/E1 RHCP antenna buried at 5, 10, and 15 cm below the surface, was compared to the one received by a GNSS-R L1/E1 RHCP antenna with clear sky visibility. Preliminary results show agreement with theoretical results based on transmissivity and with previous campaigns performed where the soil moisture were collected at two different depths (5 and 15 cm). Details related to the GNSS soil moisture modeling, instrument preparation, measurement campaign, data processing and main results will be presented at the conference.

  1. Estimating Soil Moisture Using Polsar Data: a Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedri, E.; Hasanlou, M.; Tabatabaeenejad, A.

    2017-09-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter that affects several environmental processes. This parameter has many important functions in numerous sciences including agriculture, hydrology, aerology, flood prediction, and drought occurrence. However, field procedures for moisture calculations are not feasible in a vast agricultural region territory. This is due to the difficulty in calculating soil moisture in vast territories and high-cost nature as well as spatial and local variability of soil moisture. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) imaging is a powerful tool for estimating soil moisture. These images provide a wide field of view and high spatial resolution. For estimating soil moisture, in this study, a model of support vector regression (SVR) is proposed based on obtained data from AIRSAR in 2003 in C, L, and P channels. In this endeavor, sequential forward selection (SFS) and sequential backward selection (SBS) are evaluated to select suitable features of polarized image dataset for high efficient modeling. We compare the obtained data with in-situ data. Output results show that the SBS-SVR method results in higher modeling accuracy compared to SFS-SVR model. Statistical parameters obtained from this method show an R2 of 97% and an RMSE of lower than 0.00041 (m3/m3) for P, L, and C channels, which has provided better accuracy compared to other feature selection algorithms.

  2. Synoptic Conditions and Moisture Sources Actuating Extreme Precipitation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlinger, Patrik; Sorteberg, Asgeir; Sodemann, Harald

    2017-12-01

    Despite the vast literature on heavy-precipitation events in South Asia, synoptic conditions and moisture sources related to extreme precipitation in Nepal have not been addressed systematically. We investigate two types of synoptic conditions—low-pressure systems and midlevel troughs—and moisture sources related to extreme precipitation events. To account for the high spatial variability in rainfall, we cluster station-based daily precipitation measurements resulting in three well-separated geographic regions: west, central, and east Nepal. For each region, composite analysis of extreme events shows that atmospheric circulation is directed against the Himalayas during an extreme event. The direction of the flow is regulated by midtropospheric troughs and low-pressure systems traveling toward the respective region. Extreme precipitation events feature anomalous high abundance of total column moisture. Quantitative Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic reveals that the largest direct contribution stems from land (approximately 75%), where, in particular, over the Indo-Gangetic Plain moisture uptake was increased. Precipitation events occurring in this region before the extreme event likely provided additional moisture.

  3. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  4. Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayar-Pardo, Samiro; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo

    Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products (1) S. Khodayar, (2) A. Coll, (2) E. Lopez-Baeza (1) Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe Germany (2) University of Valencia. Earth Physics and Thermodynamics Department. Climatology from Satellites Group Soil moisture is an important variable in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and related disciplines. Despite its importance, it is complicated to obtain an appropriate representation of this variable, mainly because of its high temporal and spatial variability. SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) models can be used to simulate the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of soil moisture in a given area and/or state of the art products such as the soil moisture measurements from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) space mission may be also convenient. The potential role of soil moisture initialization and associated uncertainty in numerical weather prediction is illustrated in this study through sensitivity numerical experiments using the SVAT SURFEX model and the non-hydrostatic COSMO model. The aim of this investigation is twofold, (a) to demonstrate the sensitivity of model simulations of convective precipitation to soil moisture initial uncertainty, as well as the impact on the representation of extreme precipitation events, and (b) to assess the usefulness of SMOS soil moisture products to improve the simulation of water cycle components and heavy precipitation events. Simulated soil moisture and precipitation fields are compared with observations and with level-1(~1km), level-2(~15 km) and level-3(~35 km) soil moisture maps generated from SMOS over the Iberian Peninsula, the SMOS validation area (50 km x 50 km, eastern Spain) and selected stations, where in situ measurements are available covering different vegetation cover

  5. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Keshev

    In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop

  6. Mapping soil moisture and surface heat fluxes by assimilating GOES land surface temperature and SMAP soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on estimating soil moisture and sensible/latent heat fluxes by assimilating remotely-sensed land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture data. Surface heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere, and play a crucial role in the water and energy cycles. However, they cannot be directly measured using remote sensing. It has been demonstrated that LST time series contain information about the surface energy balance, and that assimilating soil moisture further improves the estimation by putting more constraints on the energy partitioning. In previous studies, two controlling factors were estimated: (1) a monthly constant bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) that scales the sum of surface heat fluxes, and (2) an evaporative fraction (EF) which governs the energy partitioning and stays quasi-constant during the near-peak hours. Considering the fact that CHN is not constant especially in the growing season, here CHN is assumed a function of leaf area index (LAI). LST data from GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) and soil moisture data from SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) are both assimilated into a simply heat and water transfer model to update LST, soil moisture, CHN and EF , and to map surface heat fluxes over a study area in central US. A hybrid data assimilation strategy is necessary because SMAP data are available every 2-3 days, while GOES LST data are provided every hour. In this study, LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) and soil moisture is periodically updated using a particle filter (PF). Results show that soil moisture is greatly improved, and that EF estimates are restored very well after assimilation. As forcing data are provided by remote sensing or reanalysis products to minimize the dependence on ground measurements, this methodology can be easily applied in other regions with limited data.

  7. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  8. A Proposed Extension to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Level 2 Algorithm for Mixed Forest and Moderate Vegetation Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, Rocco; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Kalma, Jetse; Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)mission, launched in November 2009, provides global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity by measuring the L-band (1.4 GHz) emission of the Earth's surface with a spatial resolution of 40-50 km.Uncertainty in the retrieval of soilmoisture over large heterogeneous areas such as SMOS pixels is expected, due to the non-linearity of the relationship between soil moisture and the microwave emission. The current baseline soilmoisture retrieval algorithm adopted by SMOS and implemented in the SMOS Level 2 (SMOS L2) processor partially accounts for the sub-pixel heterogeneity of the land surface, by modelling the individual contributions of different pixel fractions to the overall pixel emission. This retrieval approach is tested in this study using airborne L-band data over an area the size of a SMOS pixel characterised by a mix Eucalypt forest and moderate vegetation types (grassland and crops),with the objective of assessing its ability to correct for the soil moisture retrieval error induced by the land surface heterogeneity. A preliminary analysis using a traditional uniform pixel retrieval approach shows that the sub-pixel heterogeneity of land cover type causes significant errors in soil moisture retrieval (7.7%v/v RMSE, 2%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a significant amount of forest (40-60%). Although the retrieval approach adopted by SMOS partially reduces this error, it is affected by errors beyond the SMOS target accuracy, presenting in particular a strong dry bias when a fraction of the pixel is occupied by forest (4.1%v/v RMSE,-3.1%v/v bias). An extension to the SMOS approach is proposed that accounts for the heterogeneity of vegetation optical depth within the SMOS pixel. The proposed approach is shown to significantly reduce the error in retrieved soil moisture (2.8%v/v RMSE, -0.3%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a critical amount of forest (40-60%), at the limited cost of only a crude estimate of the

  9. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W Keys

    Full Text Available An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results

  10. Predicting root zone soil moisture using surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, S.; Brocca, L.; Moramarco, T.; Melone, F.; Sheffield, J.; Fiorentino, M.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, much effort has been given to monitoring of soil moisture from satellite remote sensing. These tools represent an extraordinary source of information for hydrological applications, but they only provide information on near-surface soil moisture. In the present work, we developed a new formulation for the estimation of the soil moisture in the root zone based on the measured value of soil moisture at the surface. The method derives from a simplified form of the soil water balance equation and for this reason all parameters adopted are physically consistent. The formulation provides a closed form of the relationship between the root zone soil moisture and the surface soil moisture with a limited number of parameters, such as: the ratio between the depth of the surface layer and the deeper layer, the water loss coefficient, and the field capacity. The method has been tested using modeled soil moisture obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). The NLDAS is a multi-institution partnership aimed at developing a retrospective data set, using available atmospheric and land surface meteorological observations to compute the land surface hydrological budget. The NLDAS database was extremely useful for the scope of the present research since it provides simulated data over an extended area with different climatic and physical condition and moreover it provides soil moisture data averaged over different depths. In particular, we used values in the top 10 cm and 100 cm layers. One year of simulation was used to test the ability of the developed method to describe soil moisture fluctuation in the 100cm layer over the entire NLDAS domain. The method was adopted by calibrating one of its three parameters and defining the remaining two based on physical characteristics of the site (using the potential evapotranspiration and ratio between the first and the second soil layer depth). In general, the method performed better than

  11. Error Characterization of Multiple Sensor Soil Moisture Data for Improved Long-Term Global Soil Moisture Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Scipal, Klaus; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang; Naeimi, Vahid

    2009-11-01

    In the framework of the Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project of ESA, a first multi-decadal (30+ years) global soil moisture record is generated by merging data sets from various active and passive microwave sensors. Combining multiple data sets brings many advantages in terms of enhanced temporal and spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Nevertheless, to benefit from this strategy, error budgets of the individual data sets have to be well characterized, and apt strategies for reducing the errors in the final product need to be developed.This study exploits the triple collocation error estimation technique to assess the error and systematic biases between three different independent soil moisture data sets: soil moisture data derived from the AMSR-E radiometer, scatterometer based estimates from MetOp- ASCAT, and modelled soil moisture from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis program. The results suggest that the method provides realistic error estimates and allow us to identify systematic differences between the active and passive microwave derived soil moisture products, e.g. with respect to varying land cover or climatological zones. This in turn will help us in developing adequate strategies for merging active and passive observations for the generation of an accurate long-term soil moisture data set.

  12. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  13. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  14. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  15. Assessing topographic patterns in moisture use and stress using a water balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Dyer

    2009-01-01

    Through its control on soil moisture patterns, topography's role in influencing forest composition is widely recognized. This study addresses shortcomings in traditional moisture indices by employing a water balance approach, incorporating topographic and edaphic variability to assess fine-scale moisture demand and moisture availability. Using GIS and readily...

  16. Toward the Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture Content Using Geostationary Satellite Data over Sparsely Vegetated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Leng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a novel bare surface soil moisture (SSM retrieval model developed from the synergistic use of the diurnal cycles of land surface temperature (LST and net surface shortwave radiation (NSSR (Leng et al. 2014. “Bare Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval from the Synergistic Use of Optical and Thermal Infrared Data”. International Journal of Remote Sensing 35: 988–1003., this paper mainly investigated the model’s capability to estimate SSM using geostationary satellite observations over vegetated area. Results from the simulated data primarily indicated that the previous bare SSM retrieval model is capable of estimating SSM in the low vegetation cover condition with fractional vegetation cover (FVC ranging from 0 to 0.3. In total, the simulated data from the Common Land Model (CoLM on 151 cloud-free days at three FLUXNET sites that with different climate patterns were used to describe SSM estimates with different underlying surfaces. The results showed a strong correlation between the estimated SSM and the simulated values, with a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 0.028 m3·m−3 and a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.869. Moreover, diurnal cycles of LST and NSSR derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellite data on 59 cloud-free days were utilized to estimate SSM in the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain. In particular, determination of the model coefficients synchronously using satellite observations and SSM measurements was explored in detail in the cases where meteorological data were not available. A preliminary validation was implemented to verify the MSG pixel average SSM in the REMEDHUS area with the average SSM calculated from the site measurements. The results revealed a significant R2 of 0.595 and an RMSE of 0.021 m3·m−3.

  17. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  18. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.

  19. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    , and the single scattering albedo. After this climatological calibration, the modeling system can provide L-band brightness temperatures with a global mean absolute bias of less than 10K against SMOS observations, across multiple incidence angles and for horizontal and vertical polarization. Third, seasonal and regional variations in the residual biases are addressed by estimating the vegetation optical depth through state augmentation during the assimilation of the L-band brightness temperatures. This strategy, tested here with SMOS data, is part of the baseline approach for the Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture data product from the planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission.

  20. Validation of remotely-sensed soil moisture in the absence of in situ soil moisture: the case of the Yankin Basin, a tributary of the Niger River basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is known to be important in hydrology, agronomy, floods and drought forecasting. Acquisition of in situ soil moisture data is time consuming, costly, and does not cover the scale required for basin analysis. The consideration...

  1. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  2. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E

    2011-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  3. Distribusi Moisture Content Pada Zona Perakaran Tanaman (Zona Tidak Jenuh) Perkebunan Teh Gambung, Bandung Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Candra, Adi

    2012-01-01

    Research on moisture content distribution in the root zone is intended to determine the moisture content in accordance with tea plant and its distribution pattern. Measurement of moisture content by using gypsum block as media liaison between the soil and water in the soil moisture is conducted by means Bouyoucos Soil Meter. Moisture content is obtained by performing measurements on a laboratory and field scale. Laboratory scale test is emphasized on calibration of the gypsum block to be appl...

  4. An examination of the moisture sorption characteristics of commercial magnesium stearate

    OpenAIRE

    Swaminathan, Vidya; Kildsig, Dane O.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the moisture sorption of magnesium stearate and the morphological changes, if any, resulting from moisture sorption. Six samples of commercial magnesium stearate USP were examined. Moisture sorption isotherms were obtained at 25°C and 5% to 98% relative humidity (RH) using a moisture balance. Changes in crystal form resulting from moisture sorption were determined by x-ray diffraction. There were differences in the shape of the isotherm, reversi...

  5. Moisture Transport Model for Porous Media and Application to Food Drying(A Characteristics of Moisture Distributions in Food During Microwave Vacuum Drying)

    OpenAIRE

    鶴田, 隆治; 谷川, 洋文

    2013-01-01

    Moisture transport is an important phenomenon in many technological fields. We summarize a fundamental description method with use of the relative permeability and the moisture diffusion coefficient. The theoretical approach for the two-phase flow in the porous media is based on the extended Darcy model. The relative permeability and the moisture diffusion coefficient are functions of the moisture content and they express the effects of the friction loss and the capillary pressure, respective...

  6. Uncertain soil moisture feedbacks in model projections of Sahel precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis; Lintner, Benjamin R.; Findell, Kirsten; Giannini, Alessandra

    2017-06-01

    Given the uncertainties in climate model projections of Sahel precipitation, at the northern edge of the West African Monsoon, understanding the factors governing projected precipitation changes in this semiarid region is crucial. This study investigates how long-term soil moisture changes projected under climate change may feedback on projected changes of Sahel rainfall, using simulations with and without soil moisture change from five climate models participating in the Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment-Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 experiment. In four out of five models analyzed, soil moisture feedbacks significantly influence the projected West African precipitation response to warming; however, the sign of these feedbacks differs across the models. These results demonstrate that reducing uncertainties across model projections of the West African Monsoon requires, among other factors, improved mechanistic understanding and constraint of simulated land-atmosphere feedbacks, even at the large spatial scales considered here.Plain Language SummaryClimate model projections of Sahel rainfall remain notoriously uncertain; understanding the physical processes responsible for this uncertainty is thus crucial. Our study focuses on analyzing the feedbacks of soil moisture changes on model projections of the West African Monsoon under global warming. Soil moisture-atmosphere interactions have been shown in prior studies to play an important role in this region, but the potential feedbacks of long-term soil moisture changes on projected precipitation changes have not been investigated specifically. To isolate these feedbacks, we use targeted simulations from five climate models, with and without soil moisture change. Importantly, we find that climate models exhibit soil moisture-precipitation feedbacks of different sign in this region: in some models soil moisture changes amplify precipitation changes (positive feedback), in others they dampen them

  7. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Macelloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz. The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz, is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths. Keywords: microwave radiometry, soil moisture

  8. SoilNet - A Zigbee based soil moisture sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogena, H. R.; Weuthen, A.; Rosenbaum, U.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2007-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in partitioning water and energy fluxes, in providing moisture to the atmosphere for precipitation, and controlling the pattern of groundwater recharge. Large-scale soil moisture variability is driven by variation of precipitation and radiation in space and time. At local scales, land cover, soil conditions, and topography act to redistribute soil moisture. Despite the importance of soil moisture, it is not yet measured in an operational way, e.g. for a better prediction of hydrological and surface energy fluxes (e.g. runoff, latent heat) at larger scales and in the framework of the development of early warning systems (e.g. flood forecasting) and the management of irrigation systems. The SoilNet project aims to develop a sensor network for the near real-time monitoring of soil moisture changes at high spatial and temporal resolution on the basis of the new low-cost ZigBee radio network that operates on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The sensor network consists of soil moisture sensors attached to end devices by cables, router devices and a coordinator device. The end devices are buried in the soil and linked wirelessly with nearby aboveground router devices. This ZigBee wireless sensor network design considers channel errors, delays, packet losses, and power and topology constraints. In order to conserve battery power, a reactive routing protocol is used that determines a new route only when it is required. The sensor network is also able to react to external influences, e.g. such as rainfall occurrences. The SoilNet communicator, routing and end devices have been developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and will be marketed through external companies. We will present first results of experiments to verify network stability and the accuracy of the soil moisture sensors. Simultaneously, we have developed a data management and visualisation system. We tested the wireless network on a 100 by 100 meter forest plot equipped with 25

  9. Evaluation of abbreviated enzyme immunoassay method for detection of Salmonella in low-moisture foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R S; Klatt, M J; Robison, B J; Mattingly, J A

    1988-01-01

    A modified enzyme immunoassay method (EIA) utilizing an 18 h pre-enrichment, a 6-8 h selective enrichment, and a 14 h M-broth post-enrichment is compared to the standard culture method (AOAC/BAM) on selected low-moisture foods. Tested samples included 238 inoculated, 30 naturally contaminated, and 30 uninoculated foods. By EIA, 235 samples were positive (optical densities greater than 0.2 at 405 nm), 233 of which were confirmed culturally. By the culture methods, 221 samples were positive. The EIA method was more productive in detecting salmonellae in inoculated samples of dry cheese powder, chocolate, and nonfat dry milk, whereas the culture method gave better recovery from naturally contaminated meat and bone meal. The modified EIA could be completed in 40 h and required no centrifugation.

  10. Potential of ASCAT Soil Moisture Product to Improve Runoff Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Bartalis, Z.; Hasenauer, S.

    2009-11-01

    The role and the importance of soil moisture for meteorological, agricultural and hydrological applications is widely known. Remote sensing offers the unique capability to monitor soil moisture over large areas (catchment scale) with, nowadays, a temporal resolution suitable for hydrological purposes. However, the accuracy of the remotely sensed soil moisture estimates have to be carefully checked. Therefore, the assessment of the effects of assimilating satellite- derived soil moisture estimates into rainfall-runoff models at different scales and over different regions represents an important scientific and operational issue. In this context, the soil wetness index (SWI) product derived from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor was tested in this study. The SWI was firstly compared with the soil moisture temporal pattern derived from a continuous rainfall-runoff model (MISDc). Then, by using a simple data assimilation technique, the SWI was assimilated into MISDc and the model performance on flood estimation was analyzed. Moreover, three synthetic experiments considering errors on rainfall, model parameters and initial soil wetness conditions were carried out. These experiments allowed to further investigate the SWI potential when uncertain conditions take place.The most significant flood events, which occurred in the period 2000-2009 for five subcatchments of the Upper Tiber River in central Italy, ranging in extension between 100 and 650 km2, were used as case studies. Results reveal that the SWI derived from the ASCAT sensor can be conveniently used to improve runoff prediction in the study area, mainly if the initial soil wetness conditions are unknown.

  11. Experience of Implementing Moisture Sorption Control in Historical Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel approach to inhibiting the harmful impact of moisture sorption in old art works and historical exhibits preserved in remote historic buildings that are in use as depositories or exhibition rooms for cultural heritage collections. It is a sequel to the previous work presented in [2], where the principle of moisture sorption stabilization was explained. Sorption isotherm investigations and EMC control implementation in historical buildings not provided with heating are the main concern in this paper. The proposed microclimate adjustment consists in leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, while the air humidity is maintained in a specific relationship to the current interior temperature. The interior air humidity is modestly adjusted to protect historical exhibits and art works from harmful variations in the content of absorbed moisture, which would otherwise arise owing to the interior temperature drifts. Since direct measurements of moisture content are not feasible, the air humidity is controlled via a model-based principle. Two long-term implementations of the proposed microclimate control have already proved that it can permanently maintain a constant moisture content in the preserved exhibits. 

  12. Use of digital images to estimate soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. C. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between the moisture and the spectral response of the soil to generate prediction models. Samples with different moisture contents were prepared and photographed. The photographs were taken under homogeneous light condition and with previous correction for the white balance of the digital photograph camera. The images were processed for extraction of the median values in the Red, Green and Blue bands of the RGB color space; Hue, Saturation and Value of the HSV color space; and values of the digital numbers of a panchromatic image obtained from the RGB bands. The moisture of the samples was determined with the thermogravimetric method. Regression models were evaluated for each image type: RGB, HSV and panchromatic. It was observed the darkening of the soil with the increase of moisture. For each type of soil, a model with best fit was observed and to use these models for prediction purposes, it is necessary to choose the model with best fit in advance, according to the soil characteristics. Soil moisture estimation as a function of its spectral response by digital image processing proves promising.

  13. Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lv, Aifeng; Jia, Shaofeng; Sun, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Several parameterization schemes have been developed to retrieve the soil moisture information involved in the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts - VI) space. However, most of them are performed with the constraint of the dry edge of the Ts - VI space to define the maximum water stressed conditions. In view of the subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the determination of the dry edge, a new index termed as the Modified Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) was developed in this paper to reduce the reliance of the parameterization scheme on the dry edge. In the parameterization scheme of MTVDI, isopleth lines of soil moisture involved in the feature space were retrieved by the temperature-vegetation index method, and only the maximum surface temperature of bare soil (Tsmax) was indispensable in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions. For evaluation purpose, the MTVDI was demonstrated in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. and was compared with two other traditional soil moisture indexes developed under the constraint of dry edge. The comparison confirmed the effectivity of the MTVDI in monitoring the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of soil moisture. Our analyses also suggest that Tsmax, the only parameter needed in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions, can be retrieved directly from the parameterization scheme itself. Therefore, the retrieval of MTVDI can be performed independent of the dry edge, which is a significant improvement to the traditional parameterization schemes of soil moisture from the Ts - VI feature space.

  14. Mechanisms of deterioration of intermediate moisture food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A study of shelf stability in intermediate moisture foods was made. Major efforts were made to control lipid oxidation and nonenzymatic browning. In order to determine means of preventing these reactions, model systems were developed having the same water activity content relationship of intermediate moisture foods. Models were based on a cellulose-lipid and protein-lipid system with glycerol added as the humectant. Experiments with both systems indicate that lipid oxidation is promoted significantly in the intermediate moisture range. The effect appeared to be related to increased mobility of either reactants or catalysts, since when the amount of water in the system reached a level where capillary condensation occurred and thus free water was present, the rates of oxidation increased. With added glycerol, which is water soluble and thus increases the amount of mobile phase, the increase in oxidation rate occurs at a lower relative humidity. The rates of oxidation were maximized at 61% RH and decreased again at 75% RH probably due to dilution. No significant non-enzymatic browning occurred in the protein-lipid systems. Prevention of oxidation by the use of metal chelating agents was enhanced in the cellulose system, whereas, with protein present, the lipid soluble chain terminating antioxidants (such as BHA) worked equally as well. Preliminary studies of foods adjusted to the intermediate moisture range bear out the results of oxidation in model systems. It can be concluded that for most fat containing intermediate moisture foods, rancidity will be the reaction most limiting stability.

  15. Observer Based Fault Detection and Moisture Estimating in Coal Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2008-01-01

     requirements to the general performance of power plants. Detection  of faults and moisture content estimation are consequently of high interest in the handling of the problems caused by faults and moisture content. The coal flow out of the mill is the obvious variable to monitor, when detecting non-intended drops in the coal......In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing...... flow out of the coal mill. However, this variable is not measurable. Another estimated variable is the moisture content, which is only "measurable" during steady-state operations of the coal mill. Instead, this paper suggests a method where these unknown variables are estimated based on a simple energy...

  16. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364253940; Karssenberg, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241557119; Bierkens, M. F. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture

  17. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al Bitar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO surface soil moisture (SM and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an

  18. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mialon, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Mahmoodi, Ali; Tarot, Stéphane; Parrens, Marie; Al-Yaari, Amen; Pellarin, Thierry; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO) surface soil moisture (SM) and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB) products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD) compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD) using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO) retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM) are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an open licence and

  19. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  20. Influence of Moisture on Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Insulation Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Tian, M.; Xu, H. X.; Fan, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the impact of moisture on mechanical properties of insulation paper. According to the molecular modeling approach proposed by Theodorou, the amorphous cellulose models of insulation paper with different moisture contents were built up to calculate mechanical parameters and hydrogen bond networks. And relevant conclusions could be drawn through further analysis on these calculation results: water molecules can destroy hydrogen bond network between the neighboring cellulose molecules, which might be responsible for the significant decrease of Young's modulus and other mechanical parameters, while no appreciable effect of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on mechanical properties was detected. Thus tensile tests were also carried out to study the moisture influence on the Young's modulus, by which the result of the simulation was approved.

  1. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  2. Optimizing coating performance for diffusion under cyclic moisture exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feickert, Aaron J.; Wagner, Alexander J.

    2017-08-01

    Fickian diffusion is often used to model moisture transport through barrier coatings, where the goal is to protect an underlying substrate from the onset of corrosion caused by buildup of water or other aggressive species. Such coatings are often exposed to cyclic moisture, either in laboratory testing or in service due to natural environmental fluctuations. In this paper, we use lattice Boltzmann numerical techniques to investigate the effects of reservoir cycling on moisture propagation and concentration at the substrate where corrosion onset occurs. We examine both the simple case of constant diffusivity, representing idealized Fickian diffusion, and diffusivity that depends on concentration via either a step or linear function, representing polymer network swelling. The use of a coating subject to swelling is shown to lead to highly variable equilibrium behavior. We show that the nature of the functional diffusivity has large effects on water concentration at the substrate, and has implications for material design and analysis to avoid corrosion.

  3. Synergies and complementarities between ASCAT and SMOS soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Quintana, Pere; Merlin, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a critical variable in many kinds of applications including agriculture, water management, meteorology or climatology. This is especially true in the Mediterranean context, where soil moisture plays an important role in water resources management and hydrometeorological risks such as floods and droughts. Unfortunately, this variable is not widely observed in situ, so we lack data on its time evolution and spatial structure. Remote sensing has been used to estimate surface soil moisture because it provides comprehensive data over large surfaces. In this study we compared two different surface soil moisture remote sensing products; one derived from active microwave data of the ASCAT scatterometer instrument onboard METOP and the other from passive microwave data of the SMOS mission the first dedicated to estimate soil moisture. SMOS measuring frequency (1.4 GHz) is theoretically more suited to measure soil moisture than ASCAT measuring frequency (5.255 GHz) because of its lower vegetation effects. On the other hand, ASCAT- like instruments have been providing measurements for more than 2 decades and have been a key input in building the CCI Soil Moisture Variable. In order to get the best global soil moisture products it is thus essential to understand their respective performances and restrictions. The comparison has been carried out in Catalonia where we have implemented the SURFEX/ISBA land-surface model, which we forced with the SAFRAN meteorological analysis system. A downscaling algorithm has been also implemented and validated over the area to provide SMOS derived soil moisture fields at 1 km spatial resolution. Catalonia is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and its climate is typically Mediterranean, mild in winter and warm in summer. The Pyrenees and the neighbouring areas have a high-altitude climate, with minimum temperatures below 0º C, annual rainfall above 1000 mm and abundant snow during the winter. Along the coast

  4. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However,uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and theprocedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  5. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  6. Estimating soil moisture using the Danish polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiankang, Ji; Thomsen, A.; Skriver, Henning

    1995-01-01

    The results of applying data from the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) to estimate soil moisture for bare fields are presented. Fully calibrated C-band SAR images for hh, vv and cross polarizations have been used in this study. The measured surface roughness data showed that classical roughness...... autocorrelation functions (Gaussian and Exponential) were not able to fit natural surfaces well. A Gauss-Exp hybrid model which agreed better with the measured data has been proposed. Theoretical surface scattering models (POM, IEM), as well as an empirical model for retrieval of soil moisture and surface rms...... of surface parameters with the bilinear model, the correlation coefficient between the estimated and measured soil moisture, as well as rms height, is about 0.77. To improve the result, the local incidence angles need to be taken into account...

  7. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Sesame Flour at Several Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena G. Durakova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data (adsorption and desorption of sesame flour were determined using the static gravimetric method of saturated salt solutions at three temperatures, 10, 25 and 40 °C. The range of water activities for each temperature was between 0.11 and 0.85. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with the increase in storage temperature at any given water activity. The experimental data were fitted by five mathematical models (modified Oswin, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Henderson and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption data. The monolayer moisture content was estimated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation.

  8. Effect of temperature on moisture sorption phenomena in agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates importance of temperature influence on dehydration processes using drying model equations in introductory part and further presents results of water sorption tests of parsley leaves. Measurements were carried out under laboratory conditions in the temperature range of 10–40 °C and relative air humidity from 30 to 100%. Moisture sorption isotherms were tested using a gravimetric dynamic method with continuous recording of changes in sample weight. Five mathematical models available in the literature (Chung-Pfost, GAB, Halsey, Henderson, and Oswin were statistical evaluated. The Henderson equation was found to be a good model both for moisture adsorption and desorption. Part of the sorption isotherms measured in parsley leaves show the type II BET classification shape. An increase in temperature causes an increase in water activity for the same moisture content and, if water activity is kept constant, an increase in temperature causes a decrease in the amount of absorbed water.

  9. Moisture sorption studies on vacuum dried coconut presscake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sujata; Das, H

    2012-10-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of vacuum dried coconut presscake were determined at 25 °C, 30 °C, and 38 °C using a gravimetric technique. Sorption isotherms exhibited Type II behaviour. The effect of temperature on equilibrium moisture content was not significant (p > 0.05). Three models available in the literature viz., GAB, BET, and Halsey models were fitted to the sorption data. Out of the three tested models, Halsey model best fitted the experimental data with a relative deviation percent below 10%. The net isosteric heat of sorption was determined from the equilibrium adsorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content.

  10. NORDTEST Project on Moisture Buffer Value of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    possibly be used as a passive means of establishing indoor climatic conditions, which are comfortable for human occupancy. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized figure to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials. It has been the objective of a Nordic project, which is currently...... being completed, to develop a definition, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. Apart from the definition of the term Moisture Buffer Value, the project also declares a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested. Finally as a part of the project, some Round Robin Tests...... have been carried out on various typical building materials. The paper gives an account on the definition of the Moisture Buffer Value, it outlines the content of the test protocol, and it gives some examples of results from the Round Robin Tests....

  11. Irrigation Signals Detected From SMAP Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawston, Patricia M.; Santanello, Joseph A.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigation can influence weather and climate, but the magnitude, timing, and spatial extent of irrigation are poorly represented in models, as are the resulting impacts of irrigation on the coupled land-atmosphere system. One way to improve irrigation representation in models is to assimilate soil moisture observations that reflect an irrigation signal to improve model states. Satellite remote sensing is a promising avenue for obtaining these needed observations on a routine basis, but to date, irrigation detection in passive microwave satellites has proven difficult. In this study, results show that the new enhanced soil moisture product from the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite is able to capture irrigation signals over three semiarid regions in the western United States. This marks an advancement in Earth-observing satellite skill and the ability to monitor human impacts on the water cycle.

  12. The moisture and MSE budget of developing tropical convection: Vertical modes and free-tropospheric moisture convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H.; Sumi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that vigorous tropical convection is fed largely by moisture convergence, producing heavy rainfall overwhelming the local moisture supply through surface evaporation. During such convective events, a substantial portion of moisture convergence often occurs above the lifting condensation level (LCL) and hence the condensation from any cumulus clouds rooted in the sub-cloud layer would seemingly account only for a minor fraction of the total precipitation even at the intensifying stage of convective organization. In this paper, DYNAMO/CINDY2011/AMIE sounding array data are analyzed to study the moisture and thermal budget to address this question. To quantify the behavior of large-scale dynamics, vertical mode decomposition is applied to the soundings. As expected, the variation of vertical motion is primarily governed by the first baroclinic mode. The second and higher modes, although minor in amplitude, also exhibit familiar features from time to time: a buildup of the "congestus mode" as convective intensifies, which gives way to the "stratiform mode" as convection dissipates. The MSE import by the congestus mode, while frequently observed prior to convection, does not always lead to a subsequent burst of convection. A key element leading to the development of vigorous convection appears to be the presence of a layer of moisture convergence thickening to far beyond LCL, which is assisted by a buildup of the deep (first) mode. The environmental factors facilitating the condensation of free-tropospheric vapor will be also discussed.

  13. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; ONeill, Peggy; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being formulated by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council s Earth Science Decadal Survey [1]. SMAP s measurement objectives are high-resolution global measurements of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. These measurements would allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The soil moisture control of these fluxes is a key factor in the performance of atmospheric models used for weather forecasts and climate projections. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. Knowledge gained from SMAP s planned observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and societal benefits. SMAP measurements would also yield high resolution spatial and temporal mapping of the frozen or thawed condition of the surface soil and vegetation. Observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes will contribute to reducing a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance and help resolve an apparent missing carbon sink over land. The SMAP mission would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna (see Figure 1) [2]. The radar and radiometer instruments would be carried onboard a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in a 680 km polar orbit with an 8-day repeating ground track. The instruments are planned to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture at 10 km resolution and freeze/thaw at 3 km resolution, every two to three days (see Table 1 for a list of science data products). The mission is adopting a number of approaches to identify and mitigate potential terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI). These approaches are being incorporated into the radiometer and radar flight hardware and

  14. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 and 2005 Results and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Soil Moisture Experiments (SMEX) series of field campaigns was designed to address research priorities of several programs involving satellite remote sensing of surface soil moisture. These include the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR) on Aqua, the Windsat on Coriolis, and future missions that include NASAs Hydros, the European Space Agency Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NPOESS. Algorithms, scaling, technology and land-atmosphere studies have all been addressed in each experiment. Scaling is a key aspect of experiment design because of the spatial differences between ground point observations and satellite footprints. In all of the campaigns aircraft sensors have provided the critical link between these. Different geographic domains have been used to provide diverse conditions for algorithm development and validation and a variety of aircraft instruments have been used to support specific objectives. SMEX04 was conducted in August 2004 in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. It was designed to address satellite footprint heterogeneity. The region has the diverse topography, vegetation and rainfall patterns necessary to address this issue. In addition, SMEX04 was timed to coincide with North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME). A working hypothesis of NAME is that among the land surface antecedent boundary conditions that control the onset and intensity of the precipitation is soil moisture. Surface soil moisture can change dramatically after rain events. A review of SMEX04 and preliminary results will be presented. SMEX05 is being planned to understand what contributions to soil moisture retrieval and mapping may be achieved by using fully polarimetric passive microwave observations. This has not been a focus of land parameter investigations in the past. The Windsat instrument provides these measurements at several frequencies. For SMEX05 an aircraft simulator of Windsat will also be employed. The field campaign will be

  15. Version 3 of the SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joe; Crow, Wade; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Kolassa, Jana; Kimball, John; Koster, Randy

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product provides 3-hourly, 9-km resolution, global estimates of surface (0-5 cm) and root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture as well as related land surface states and fluxes from 31 March 2015 to present with a latency of 2.5 days. The ensemble-based L4_SM algorithm is a variant of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system and ingests SMAP L-band (1.4 GHz) Level 1 brightness temperature observations into the Catchment land surface model. The soil moisture analysis is non-local (spatially distributed), performs downscaling from the 36-km resolution of the observations to that of the model, and respects the relative uncertainties of the modeled and observed brightness temperatures. Prior to assimilation, a climatological rescaling is applied to the assimilated brightness temperatures using a 6 year record of SMOS observations. A new feature in Version 3 of the L4_SM data product is the use of 2 years of SMAP observations for rescaling where SMOS observations are not available because of radio frequency interference, which expands the impact of SMAP observations on the L4_SM estimates into large regions of northern Africa and Asia. This presentation investigates the performance and data assimilation diagnostics of the Version 3 L4_SM data product. The L4_SM soil moisture estimates meet the 0.04 m3m3 (unbiased) RMSE requirement. We further demonstrate that there is little bias in the soil moisture analysis. Finally, we illustrate where the assimilation system overestimates or underestimates the actual errors in the system.

  16. Considering combined or separated roughness and vegetation effects in soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrens, Marie; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Richaume, Philippe; Al Bitar, Ahmad; Mialon, Arnaud; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Al-Yaari, Amen; O'Neill, Peggy; Kerr, Yann

    2017-03-01

    For more than six years, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has provided multi angular and full-polarization brightness temperature (TB) measurements at L-band. Geophysical products such as soil moisture (SM) and vegetation optical depth at nadir (τnad) are retrieved by an operational algorithm using TB observations at different angles of incidence and polarizations. However, the quality of the retrievals depends on several surface effects, such as vegetation, soil roughness and texture, etc. In the microwave forward emission model used in the retrievals (L-band Microwave Emission Model, L-MEB), soil roughness is modelled with a semi-empirical equation using four main parameters (Qr, Hr, Nrp, with p = H or V polarizations). At present, these parameters are calibrated with data provided by airborne studies and in situ measurements made at a local scale that is not necessarily representative of the large SMOS footprints (43 km on average) at global scale. In this study, we evaluate the impact of the calibrated values of Nrp and Hr on the SM and τnad retrievals based on SMOS TB measurements (SMOS Level 3 product) over the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) network located in North America over five years (2011-2015). In this study, Qr was set equal to zero and we assumed that NrH = NrV. The retrievals were performed by varying Nrp from -1 to 2 by steps of 1 and Hr from 0 to 0.6 by steps of 0.1. At satellite scale, the results show that combining vegetation and roughness effects in a single parameter provides the best results in terms of soil moisture retrievals, as evaluated against the in situ SM data. Even though our retrieval approach was very simplified, as we did not account for pixel heterogeneity, the accuracy we obtained in the SM retrievals was almost systematically better than those of the Level 3 product. Improved results were also obtained in terms of optical depth retrievals. These new results may have key consequences in terms of

  17. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  18. Moisture diffusivity in structure of random fractal fiber bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fanglong, E-mail: zhufanglong_168@163.com [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); The Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfan City (China); Zhou, Yu; Feng, Qianqian [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); Xia, Dehong [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-08

    A theoretical expression related to effective moisture diffusivity to random fiber bed is derived by using fractal theory and considering both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. In this Letter, macroporous structure of hydrophobic nonwoven material is investigated, and Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion are neglected. The effective moisture diffusivity predicted by the present fractal model are compared with water vapor transfer rate (WVTR) experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models. This verifies the validity of the present fractal diffusivity of fibrous structural beds.

  19. Use of temperature and humidity sensors to determine moisture content of oolong tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Chiachung

    2014-08-22

    The measurement of tea moisture content is important for processing and storing tea. The moisture content of tea affects the quality and durability of the product. Some electrical devices have been proposed to measure the moisture content of tea leaves but are not practical. Their performance is influenced by material density and packing. The official oven method is time-consuming. In this study, the moisture content of Oolong tea was measured by the equilibrium relative humidity technique. The equilibrium relative humidity, and temperature, of tea materials were measured by using temperature and relative humidity sensors. Sensors were calibrated, and calibration equations were established to improve accuracy. The moisture content was calculated by using an equilibrium moisture content model. The error of the moisture content determined with this method was within 0.5% w.b. at moisture moisture determination.

  20. Distribusi Moisture Content Pada Zona Perakaran Tanaman (Zona Tidak Jenuh Perkebunan Teh Gambung, Bandung Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Candra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on moisture content distribution in the root zone is intended to determine the moisture content in accordance with tea plant and its distribution pattern. Measurement of moisture content by using gypsum block as media liaison between the soil and water in the soil moisture is conducted by means Bouyoucos Soil Meter. Moisture content is obtained by performing measurements on a laboratory and field scale. Laboratory scale test is emphasized on calibration of the gypsum block to be applied in the measurement field. Site measurement was made in three drill holes, each 150 cm in depth, which are at peak, slopes and valleys in the study area that had been predetermined. The result of research shown that high moisture content about 50% –95% which tends to increase downward modeling on moisture content has similar result to the \\ field measurement. Tea plants needed of relative large moisture content, since it requires a moisture content continuosly and yields of tea leave.

  1. Intrinsic fiber optic sensor for distributed water detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Robert A.; Mendoza, Edgar A.; Ferrell, Douglas J.; Schmidlin, Edward M.; Syracuse, Steven J.; Khalil, Albert N.; Dergevorkian, Ara; Sun, Zongjian; Gunther, Michael F.

    1994-03-01

    A distributed fiber optic moisture sensor based on intrinsic changes in the optical properties of the cladding is reported. A 10-meter-long fiber sensor was fabricated that demonstrated a response to humidity in less than 5 minutes. The humidity-sensitive cladding was fabricated on-line during fiber draw by continuously coating a multimode glass core fiber with a polyvinyl acetate cladding, in which a water-sensitive indicator had been dissolved. The indicator was a solvatochromic dye that showed a pronounced hypsochromic shift in its absorption spectrum in the presence of water. The moisture response of the sensor was monitored by measuring changes in the optical attenuation of the fiber in the region between 580 nm and 650 nm. This spectral region facilitates the use of commercially available solid state optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, laser diodes, and PIN photodiode detectors, in order to produce a low-cost, compact, lightweight humidity sensor.

  2. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  3. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and can be used to signifi- cantly improve the bandwidth efficiency. Typical DWDM is a fiber-optic transmission technique that employs light wavelengths to transmit data parallel-by-bit or serial-by-character. This technology puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each ...

  4. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  6. Crop yield monitoring in the Sahel using root zone soil moisture anomalies derived from SMOS soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, François; Pellarin, Thierry; Alhassane, Agali; Traoré, Seydou; Baron, Christian

    2017-04-01

    West Africa is greatly vulnerable, especially in terms of food sustainability. Mainly based on rainfed agriculture, the high variability of the rainy season strongly impacts the crop production driven by the soil water availability in the soil. To monitor this water availability, classical methods are based on daily precipitation measurements. However, the raingauge network suffers from the poor network density in Africa (1/10000km2). Alternatively, real-time satellite-derived precipitations can be used, but they are known to suffer from large uncertainties which produce significant error on crop yield estimations. The present study proposes to use root soil moisture rather than precipitation to evaluate crop yield variations. First, a local analysis of the spatiotemporal impact of water deficit on millet crop production in Niger was done, from in-situ soil moisture measurements (AMMA-CATCH/OZCAR (French Critical Zone exploration network)) and in-situ millet yield survey. Crop yield measurements were obtained for 10 villages located in the Niamey region from 2005 to 2012. The mean production (over 8 years) is 690 kg/ha, and ranges from 381 to 872 kg/ha during this period. Various statistical relationships based on soil moisture estimates were tested, and the most promising one (R>0.9) linked the 30-cm soil moisture anomalies from mid-August to mid-September (grain filling period) to the crop yield anomalies. Based on this local study, it was proposed to derive regional statistical relationships using 30-cm soil moisture maps over West Africa. The selected approach was to use a simple hydrological model, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), forced by real-time satellite-based precipitation (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TRMM3B42). To reduce uncertainties related to the quality of real-time rainfall satellite products, SMOS soil moisture measurements were assimilated into the API model through a Particular Filter algorithm. Then, obtained soil moisture anomalies were

  7. GREAT optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Gentner, Armin; Graf, Urs U.; Philipp, Martin; Rabanus, David; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2004-10-01

    The German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) is a first generation PI instrument for the SOFIA telescope, developed by a collaboration between the MPIfR, KOSMA, DLR, and the MPAe. The first three institutes each contribute one heterodyne receiver channel to operate at 1.9, 2.7 and 4.7 THz, respectively. A later addition of a e.g. 1.4 THz channel is planned. The GREAT instrument is developed to carry two cryostats at once. That means that any two of the three frequencies can be observed simultaneously. Therefore, we need to be able to quickly exchange the optics benches, the local oscillator (LO) subsystems, and the cryostats containing the mixer devices. This demands a high modularity and flexibility of our receiver concept. Our aim is to avoid the need for realignment when swapping receiver channels. After an overview of the common GREAT optics, a detailed description of several parts (optics benches, calibration units, diplexer, focal plane imager) is given. Special emphasis is given to the LO optics of the KOSMA 1.9 THz channel, because its backward wave oscillator has an astigmatic output beam profile, which has to be corrected for. We developed astigmatic off-axis mirrors to compensate this astigmatism. The mirrors are manufactured in-house on a 5 axis CNC milling machine. We use this milling machine to obtain optical components with highest surface accuracy (about 5 microns) appropriate for these wavelengths. Based on the CNC machining capabilities we present our concept of integrated optics, which means to manufacture optical subsystems monolithically. The optics benches are located on three point mounts, which in conjunction with the integrated optics concept ensure the required adjustment free optics setup.

  8. Investigation of Microclimate by CFD Modeling of Moisture Interactions between Air and Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modeling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. This investigation has special focus on moisture modeling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool enhanced to include both detailed modeling of airfl......There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modeling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. This investigation has special focus on moisture modeling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool enhanced to include both detailed modeling...

  9. Tissue Papers in Turkey and Some Physical and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TUTUŞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to determine some properties of tissue papers and identify the position in Turkey. Napkins, toilet papers and paper towels used in this study were supplied from 5 different companies. Physical and optical properties of these papers were investigated and compared them to each other. Grammage, moisture content, crepe, bulk, density, tensile strength, thickness, water retention value and water absorption time were determined as physical properties and brightness and whiteness values were measured as optical properties. According to obtained results, the best results in physical and optical properties of napkins, toilet papers and paper towels belong to C, E and A Company, respectively.

  10. Influence of moisture absorption on the flexural properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... adhesion ability of the epoxy resins. Yet, the particulates, the majority of which have higher density than that of the resin, increase the density of the composites. Thus, their existence considerably diminishes the overall cost of the composite. Finally, as to the resistance to moisture, the particulates gen-.

  11. biodegradation and moisture uptake modified starch-filled linear low

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMISTRY

    BIODEGRADATION AND MOISTURE UPTAKE MODIFIED. STARCH-FILLED LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. (LLDPE) COMPOSITES. 1Gumel, S. M., 2M. K. Yakubu and 3Mohammed, A.D.. 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano. 2Department of Textile Science and Technology, ...

  12. Variation in nutrient composition and structure of high-moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological structure of maize observed under a scanning electron microscope showed some shrinkage of starch granules as a consequence of artificial drying temperature. In vitro digestibility of DM was improved as a result of artificial drying of high moisture maize but starch digestibility was reduced. It may be ...

  13. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  14. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  15. Unfired clay bricks – moisture properties and compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E.J. de Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus, methods and test results from an experimental investigation of (1) the properties for moisture performance of the materials, including water vapour sorption and water vapour transmission, (2) humidity buffering of the indoor climate by an absorbent material, and (3) the compressive str...

  16. Core vs. Bulk Samples in Soil-Moisture Tension Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter M. Broadfoot

    1954-01-01

    The usual laboratory procedure in determining soil-moisture tension values is to use "undisturbed" soil cores for tensions up to 60 cm. of water and bulk soil samples for higher tensions. Low tensions are usually obtained with a tension table and the higher tensions by use of pressure plate apparatus. In tension analysis at the Vicksburg Infiltration Project...

  17. Moisture Retrievals from the Windsat spaceborne polarimetric microwave radiometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    An existing methodology to derive surface soil moisture from passive microwave satellite observations is applied to the WindSat multifrequency polarimetric microwave radiometer. The methodology is a radiative-transfer-based model that has successfully been applied to a series of (historical)

  18. Effect of ambient gases and soil moisture regimes on carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... of O3 from the upper atmosphere. The most impact of O3 was shown to be affected by level of moisture stress but not by SO2. Chronic exposure of "Essex" .... Mean values of meteorological parameters at Riyadh city, KSA. Month. Air temperature (oC). Humidity (%). Wind velocity(km/hr). Rain-fall (mm).

  19. Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    α. Surface albedo. Su. Reflected solar radiation (W/m. 2. ) Sd. Total downward solar radiation. (W/m. 2. ) T. Soil temperature (. ◦. C) k. Soil thermal diffusivity (m. 2 s. −1. ) ... Soil moisture; rainfall; surface albedo; solar elevation angle; thermal diffusivity; atmospheric sciences; ... the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations of.

  20. Moisture source for summer monsoon rainfall over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.

    Southwest monsoon plays a vital role in India's economy as the major income comes from agriculture. What could be the moisture source for this copious amount of rainfall over the Indian sub-continent?. This has been studied in detail and noticed...

  1. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  2. Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques. Volume 2. Atmospheric Sounding Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    RADIATION THROUGH THE LOW ATMOSPHERE Tomasi, C; Vittori ,0. Sezione Microfisica Atmosfera , Ifa Cnr, Bologna, Italy Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. (Italy...IMPROVED VOIGT ALGORITHM Van Derwook, Peter Clark (Masters Thesis) Texas University (May 1977) 37. A TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATING ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE...AN IMPROVED VOIGT ALGORITHM Van Derwook, Peter Clark (Masters Thesis) Texas University (May 1977) 43 REMOTE SENSING ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING OF THE

  3. Responses of macropropagated Musa plantlets to transient moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two uniform sets of 10-week-old plants were used in the study. Watering was withdrawn on one set for 2 weeks, while the other set (watered daily throughout the study period) served as the control. The 2-week moisture stress was followed by a 4-week rehydration period, and thereafter, a second cycle water stress was ...

  4. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  5. Moisture damage with magnesium oxide boards in Danish facade structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium oxide boards have been widely used on facades in Denmark during 2010-2015. However, the magnesium salts absorb humidity from the ambient, and they begin to leak salty water, which is highly corrosive, and leads to moisture and mould problems in wooden members of the structures. Mg...

  6. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick's second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared...

  7. Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value and oxidative stability of un-refined sesame oil. ... Its seed contains about 42-54 % quality oil, 22-25 % protein, 20-25 % carbohydrates and 4-6% ash. This composition varies with genetic ... and temperature. Key words: Sesame, Oil, Crude, Oxidation, Storage ...

  8. Moisture sorption, compressibility and caking of lactose polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listiohadi, Y; Hourigan, J A; Sleigh, R W; Steele, R J

    2008-07-09

    The aim of this study was to conduct storage studies on the moisture sorption and caking properties of lactose powder containing different polymorphs (i.e. alpha-monohydrate, alpha-anhydrous unstable, alpha-anhydrous stable, beta-anhydrous) and spray-dried lactose. The dry sample was compacted using a texture analyzer in paper cylinders and stored at relative humidity (RH) of 33%, 43%, 57% and 75% (25 degrees C, for 3 months). The samples were monitored for weight gain, moisture content, alpha/beta balance and hardness. A simple new method of powder compression for measuring the degree of hardness of caked lactose was developed using a texture analyzer. Clear distinctions were found in the storage behavior of the five different samples. Storage at various RHs caused severe caking to beta-lactose anhydrous and spray-dried lactose. The beta-lactose anhydrous was hygroscopic at 75% RH. The spray-dried lactose, which contained some amorphous lactose, was hygroscopic at all RHs studied. Its moisture sorption behavior differed from that of its major component, alpha-lactose monohydrate, by initially absorbing moisture then desorbing. alpha-Lactose monohydrate was less hygroscopic at 75% RH and it formed friable cakes. The alpha-lactose anhydrous stable was hygroscopic at 75% RH and initially formed hard cakes which became friable during storage. The unstable form of anhydrous alpha-lactose was hygroscopic at all levels of RH studied but did not cake.

  9. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... heat output at an instant, given only heat input at that instant. For this reason, it is difficult to realistically predict soil temperature if not take into consideration, the hysteresis of soil temperature under the different soil moisture and fertilizer, especially in the solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to ...

  10. Determination of natural moisturizing factors in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, S A; Kemperman, P; van Tilburg, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) is used as genotypic and phenotypic biomarker in diagnostics. This study is a side-to-side comparison of two different methods to determine NMF in atopic dermatitis patients: Raman microspectroscopy and stratum corneum tape stripping followed by HPLC...

  11. Relation between moisture content of fine fuels and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold K. Steen

    1963-01-01

    Measurements indicate a relation between diurnal curves of relative humidity and moisture content of some important fuels of Oregon and Washington. Some of these measurements were made in early years of forest fire research in this region. The data in this note were collected at intervals throughout 4 days (in September 1938) at the Wind River Experimental Forest near...

  12. Preliminary analysis of distributed in situ soil moisture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brocca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture content is highly variable in both space and time. Remote sensing can provide an effective methodology for mapping surface moisture content over large areas but ground based measurements are required to test its reliability and to calibrate retrieval algorithms. Recently, we had the opportunity to design and perform an experiment aimed at jointly acquiring measurements of surface soil water content at various locations and remotely sensed hyperspectral data. The area selected for the experiment is located in central Umbria and it extends for 90km2. For the area, detailed lithological and multi-temporal landslide inventory maps were available. We identified eight plots where measurements of soil water content were made using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR. The plots range in size from 100m2 to 600m2, and cover a variety of topographic and morphological settings. The TDR measurements were conducted during four days, on 5 April, 15 April, 2 May and 3 May 2004. On 3 May the NERC airborne CASI 2 acquired the hyperspectral data. Preliminary analysis concerning the matching between the landslides and the soil moisture were reported. Statistical and geostatistical analysis investigating the spatial-temporal soil moisture distribution were performed. These results will be compared with the data of surface temperature obtained from the remotely sensed hyperspectral sensor.

  13. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope...

  14. Vertically integrated moisture flux convergence as a predictor of thunderstorms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, J.; van Delden, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Vertically Integrated Moisture Flux Convergence (VIMFC) alone and in combination with the lifted stability index of the most unstable layer (SMUL) is evaluated as a thunderstorm predictor. By using six-hourly standard pressure weather analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather

  15. Height growth and moisture distribution in Sorghum intercropped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and moisture distribution assessments of sorghum intercropped with Parkia, Leucaena and Gmelina on plinthustalf in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria were carried out over four growing seasons. Compared to sole crop, reduced sorghum height (15 and 30 %) due to Gmelina was observed in the ...

  16. Volume 10 No. 10 October 2010 4268 EFFECTS OF MOISTURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... investigated effects of initial moisture content, roasting duration and temperature on initial Peroxide Value (PV) and Oxidative Stability (OS) of un-refined sesame oil using response surface methodology. Goza-25, a variety of sesame seed that is commercially cultivated in Nigeria was used for the study.

  17. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  18. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  19. Soil moisture sampling and decision frameworks for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling of soil moisture involves temporal and spatial components. The spatial component can be further expanded into a vertical and horizontal array of observations that are required to understand the dynamics of processes occurring with the soil profile. The decision frameworks for agriculture re...

  20. Effects of Moisture and Mycorrhiza on Stomatal Conductance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complete randomized block design with five replications and factorical combination of three watering regimes (daily for unstressed plant, twice weekly for partially stressed plants and once a week for moisture stressed plants) and three mycorrhizal treatments namely; endomycorrhizal plants, ectomycorrhizal plants and ...

  1. Atmospheric Moisture Transport to the Ob, Yenisei and Lena Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Ambroise; Zolina, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The catchments of the Ob, Yenisei and Lena rivers stretch from 46°N to 71°N and cover 7.95 million square kilometers. The water cycle over these basins is sensitive to rising temperatures due to the melting of permafrost, a reduction in snow cover, increased atmospheric moisture and possible circulation changes. Downstream, the river discharge is a major contributor to the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget. Changes in the regional water cycle are constrained upstream by the quantity of water vapour transported by the winds into the domain, which can be monitored with atmospheric reanalyses. Our study builds upon the work of Zhang et al. [Nature Climate Change 3.1 (2013): 47-51.] using NCEP NCAR R1. We evaluate the robustness of their conclusions with state of the art reanalyses including JRA 55 and MERRA 2 and prolonging the period of study from 2008 to 2015. The increasing trend in NCEP NCAR R1 is found to be sensitive to the start and end points and is weaker or absent in the other datasets. However, we do confirm that the variability of the moisture convergence is a consequence of changing winds rather than increasing moisture. Finally, we contrast this behaviour with moisture fluxes into the High Arctic (north of 70°N) where winds and humidity show opposite trends.

  2. Inference of soil hydrologic parameters from electronic soil moisture records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture is an important control on hydrologic function, as it governs vertical fluxes from and to the atmosphere, groundwater recharge, and lateral fluxes through the soil. Historically, the traditional model parameters of saturation, field capacity, and permanent wilting point have been deter...

  3. Effect of moisture cycling on truss-plate joint behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie H. Groom

    1994-01-01

    The structural performance of wood trusses, which are now commonplace in light-frame construction, is dictated in part by the mechanical properties of the truss-plate joints. However, little information exists quantifying the effect of environmental conditions on truss-plate joint properties. The main objective of this paper was to quantify the effect of moisture...

  4. Effect of ambient gases and soil moisture regimes on carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Batha site samples have lower values of these fractions. Batha site reduced the flux of carbohydrates from source to the sinks of both soil moisture regimes. This study concluded that there was a good relation between the effect of highly polluted localities and kidneybean leaves carbohydrate content and its translocation.

  5. Wheat moisture measurement with a fringing field capacitive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain storage managers could improve the quality of stored grain if they could directly monitor stored grain moisture content, which is a key indicator of stored grain quality and an early indicator of deterioration. However, currently available sensors are too expensive and lack the necessary relia...

  6. Finite element analysis of moisture migration, creep, shrinkage and cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Borst, R. de; Rots, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of moisture migra-tion, creep, shrinkage and cracking in cementitious materials. A one-way coupled approach is followed, where the pore humidity, the driving force for shrinkage, is solved for from a diffusion equation. The evolution of the

  7. Response of maize and cucumber intercrop to soil moisture control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-05

    Mar 5, 2007 ... Response of maize and cucumber intercrop to soil moisture control through irrigation and mulching during the dry season in Nigeria. Josiah M. Ayotamuno1*, K. Zuofa2, Sunday A. Ofori2 and Reginald B. Kogbara1. 1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University of ...

  8. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  9. Subcellular Electrical Measurements as a Function of Wood Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The percolation model developed by Zelinka et al. was based upon macroscale measurements of the electrical conductivity and implicitly treats the wood material as homogenous. The transport mechanism proposed by Jakes et al. depends upon a moisture induced glass transition occurring in the hemicelluloses. This theory suggests that there are likely differences in the...

  10. Biodegradation and moisture uptake modified starch-filled Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium chloride, D-glucose, chloroform and alumina were differently used as modifying agents. The Moisture uptake and biodegradation of each of the composites were investigated. Both of these properties were found to increase with increase in the starch content, with remarkable change observed at 30% starch content.

  11. Development of a aquarius/sac-d soil moisture product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to land applications through the retrieval of soil moisture. This research will increase the value and impact of the Aquarius mission by including a broader sci...

  12. A Model For Non-Fickian Moisture Transfer In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2004-01-01

    A model for non-Fickian moisture transfer in wood is presented. The model considers the transfer of water vapour separate from the transfer of bound water. These two components are linked by an equation describing the sorption on the cell wall level. Hereby, a formulation capable of describing kn...

  13. Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heatmoisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with ...

  14. Development of resistance type moisture measuring device for grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study aimed at developing an indigenous moisture measuring device from locally available materials for grains based on the principle of resistance change of the material with corresponding change in moisture during drying. The developed device has four copper electrode cups positions in which both gauging and dummy copper electrode cups were placed to form Wheatstone bridge circuits of full, half and quarter for four, two and one gauging copper electrode cups respectively, while the remaining positions were used as dummies. These circuits were used to measure the resistances and hence obtaining the moisture content of the grains used. Grains of paddy rice, guinea corn and millet were used to test the device and it was observed that for full bridge circuits of each of the grains, paddy rice have a negative coefficient of correlation of -0.95, -0.99 for guinea corn and -0.99 for millet. The results obtained from predictive empirical equations when compared with the direct oven method, showed that the device can be used to predict or measure moisture content once calibrated.

  15. Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Corn Stover and Big Bluestem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Karunanithy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important feedstock quality in converting it into energy through biochemical or thermochemical platforms. Knowledge of moisture sorption relationship is useful in drying and storage to preserve the quality of feedstocks. Moisture sorption isotherms for potential feedstocks such as corn stover and big bluestem are missing. EMC values of corn stover and big bluestem were determined using static gravimetric technique with saturated salt solutions (ERH 0.12–0.89 at different temperatures (20, 30, and 40°C. Depending upon the ERH values, EMC values were ranged from 8.0 to 19.6 and 8.8 to 19.2% db for corn stover and big bluestem, respectively, and they followed typical type II isotherm found in food materials. Nonlinear regression was used to fit five commonly used three-parameter isotherm models (i.e., modified Oswin model, modified Halsey model, modified Chung-Pfost model, modified Henderson model, and the modified Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB model to the experimental data. Modified Halsey emerged as the best model with high F-statistic and R2 values with low Em and Es and fairly random scattered residual plot for corn stover and big bluestem. These models can be used to predict the equilibrium moisture content of these feedstocks starting from harvesting, drying, preprocessing, transportation, storage, and conversion.

  16. Moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-jie; Chen, Guang-ming; Fan, Ju-li; Liu, Jin-hui; Xu, Xian-guo; Zhang, Shao-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a promising method for a long-term storage of human platelets. The moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets (FDHPs) were studied in this paper. The moisture sorption isotherms of FDHPs and freeze-dried lyophilization buffer (FDLB) were measured at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equations. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between the sorption characteristics of FDHPs and FDLB at 4 and 25 °C, while FDHPs absorbed more water at 37 °C. The net isosteric heat of sorption was derived. The heat for FDHPs showed an abnormal negative value at low moisture contents when 25 and 37 °C data were used. Dynamic sorption experiments were carried out at 25 °C with environmental water activity controlled at 0.75, 0.85, and 0.90. The moisture diffusion coefficient was fitted to be 8.24×10−12 m2/s when experimental data at initial time were used. These results would be helpful in choosing prehydration and storage condition for FDHPs. PMID:21370506

  17. A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil moisture was recharged within a few months after clearfelling, but became rapidly depleted as the canopy of new crop developed and approached canopy closure. A decreased wetting-front velocity and a marginally higher field capacity were proposed as evidence of pore clogging that appeared to occur during the ...

  18. Uncertainty Assessment of Space-Borne Passive Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Jan; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Reichle, Rolf; Cosh, Michael; van der Schalie, Robin; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with passive soil moisture retrieval is hard to quantify, and known to be underlain by various, diverse, and complex causes. Factors affecting space-borne retrieved soil moisture estimation include: (i) the optimization or inversion method applied to the radiative transfer model (RTM), such as e.g. the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), or the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), (ii) the selection of the observed brightness temperatures (Tbs), e.g. polarization and incidence angle, (iii) the definition of the cost function and the impact of prior information in it, and (iv) the RTM parameterization (e.g. parameterizations officially used by the SMOS L2 and SMAP L2 retrieval products, ECMWF-based SMOS assimilation product, SMAP L4 assimilation product, and perturbations from those configurations). This study aims at disentangling the relative importance of the above-mentioned sources of uncertainty, by carrying out soil moisture retrieval experiments, using SMOS Tb observations in different settings, of which some are mentioned above. The ensemble uncertainties are evaluated at 11 reference CalVal sites, over a time period of more than 5 years. These experimental retrievals were inter-compared, and further confronted with in situ soil moisture measurements and operational SMOS L2 retrievals, using commonly used skill metrics to quantify the temporal uncertainty in the retrievals.

  19. Effect of moisture on natural fibre reinforced plastics | Ogakwu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the rate of moisture absorption of the composites reinforced with natural fibres – Ukam plant fibres (chochlostermum placoni) were studied and determined.Composite cubes and plates of different sizes were prepared, then immersed in water for 24 hours at room temperature in order to determine the extent ...

  20. Response of maize and cucumber intercrop to soil moisture control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replicate field plots were used in experiments aimed at evaluating the yield potentials of maize and cucumber intercrop resulting from the control of soil moisture through irrigation and mulching, for a period of eleven weeks. Three irrigation depths, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mm; and two mulch levels, zero mulch and 10 ton/ha of oil ...