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Sample records for cpac optical moisture

  1. CPAC moisture study: Phase 1 report on the study of optical spectra calibration for moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltkamp, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopic methods, combined with multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration modeling, to quantitatively predict the moisture content of the crust material in Hanford's waste tank materials. Experiments were conducted with BY-104 simulant material for the 400--1100 nm (VIS), 1100--2500 (NIR), and 400-4000 cm -1 (IR) optical regions. The test data indicated that the NIR optical region, with a single PLS calibration factor, provided the highest accuracy response (better than 0.5 wt %) over a 0--25 wt % moisture range. Issues relating to the preparation of moisture samples with the BY-104 materials and the potential implementation within hot cell and waste tanks are also discussed. The investigation of potential material interferences, including physical and chemical properties, and the scaled demonstration of fiber optic and camera types of applications with simulated waste tanks are outlined as future work tasks

  2. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content

  3. CPAC optical moisture monitoring: Characterization of composition and physical effects on moisture determination Task 2A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltkamp, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of particle size and chemical composition variations on determination of tank simulant moisture from near infrared (NIR) optical spectra are presented. This work shows particle size and chemical variations will impact moisture predictions from NIR spectra. However, the prediction errors can be minimized if calibration models are built with samples containing these variations as interferents. Prior work showed the NIR spectral region (1100 to 2500 nm) could be used to predict moisture content of BY-104 tank simulant with a standard error less of approximately 0.5 wt%. Particle size will increase moisture prediction error if calibration-models do not include the same particle size ranges as unknown samples. A combined particle size model with 0-420 x10 -6 m, 420-841 x 10 -6 m, and 841 x 10 -6 m-2 mm diameter particles predicted 0.59, 0.34 nd 0.23 wt% errors respectively for samples containing only these size ranges and 0.80 wt% error for a samples with all particle size ranges. Chemical composition would also increase moisture prediction error if calibration model samples chemically differ from unknown samples. For a BY-104 simulant, increases in NaOH, NaAlO 2 , Na 2 SiO 3 , and Na 3 PO 4 produced moisture predictions that were lower than the actual moisture levels while increases in FE(NO 3 ) 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , and Mg (NO 3 ) 2 resulted in a higher than actual moisture prediction. Systematic changes in the NIR spectra could be observed for these families of materials. When all of the composition variations were included in a single model, the model had a moisture prediction error of 1.41 wt% as compared to a 2.96 wt% error without model changes. This work shows a calibration model based on a single set of tightly controlled experimental conditions will tend to have somewhat larger prediction errors when applied to samples collected with variations outside of such conditions

  4. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  5. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  6. Fiber Optic Thermo-Hygrometers for Soil Moisture Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Marco; Principe, Sofia; Consales, Marco; Parente, Roberto; Laudati, Armando; Caliro, Stefano; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2017-06-20

    This work deals with the fabrication, prototyping, and experimental validation of a fiber optic thermo-hygrometer-based soil moisture sensor, useful for rainfall-induced landslide prevention applications. In particular, we recently proposed a new generation of fiber Bragg grating (FBGs)-based soil moisture sensors for irrigation purposes. This device was realized by integrating, inside a customized aluminum protection package, a FBG thermo-hygrometer with a polymer micro-porous membrane. Here, we first verify the limitations, in terms of the volumetric water content (VWC) measuring range, of this first version of the soil moisture sensor for its exploitation in landslide prevention applications. Successively, we present the development, prototyping, and experimental validation of a novel, optimized version of a soil VWC sensor, still based on a FBG thermo-hygrometer, but able to reliably monitor, continuously and in real-time, VWC values up to 37% when buried in the soil.

  7. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  8. Feasibility of soil moisture monitoring with heated fiber optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayde, C.; Gregory, C.; Gil-Rodriguez, M.; Tufillaro, N.; Tyler, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; English, M.; Cuenca, R.; Selker, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate methods are needed to measure changing soil water content from meter to kilometer scales. Laboratory results demonstrate the feasibility of the heat pulse method implemented with fiber optic temperature sensing to obtain accurate distributed measurements of soil water content. A fiber optic

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of CpACS27A gene reveals its involvement in monoecy instability and other associated traits in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit.

  10. Monitoring of Moisture in Transformer Oil Using Optical Fiber as Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    S. Laskar; S. Bordoloi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an optical fiber sensor and temperature sensor-based instrumentation system to measure the moisture content in transformer oil. The sensor system consists of (i) Diode Laser Source, (ii) a bare and bent multimode fiber as sensor probe, (iii) an LDR as detector, (iv) LM35-based temperature sensor, and (v) microcontroller system having a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The bare and bent optical fiber sensor and the temperature sensor LM35 are used to provide the...

  11. Monitoring Ingress of Moisture in Structural Concrete Using a Novel Optical-Based Sensor Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, T L; Cox, M A C; Boswell, L F; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V

    2006-01-01

    The detection of moisture ingress in concrete is important for structural monitoring and in this work is realised by monitoring the shift in the characteristic wavelength of a fibre Bragg grating-based sensor. The sensor relies upon a moisture-sensitive polymer layer deposited on the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and the strain induced on it as a result of polymer swelling is monitored. Moisture ingress experiments were carried out using two such optical fibre sensors, placed at varying distances from the edge of the face of standard concrete cubes to the inner part of the concrete sample and subjected to water at a constant temperature. Information on the properties of different types of concrete and thus potentially on the migration of dissolved salts and their effect on reinforcement bars within concrete can be obtained

  12. The Impacts of Heating Strategy on Soil Moisture Estimation Using Actively Heated Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianzhi; Agliata, Rosa; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hoes, Olivier; Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-09-13

    Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of Actively Heated Fiber Optics (AHFO) for high resolution soil moisture mapping. In AHFO, the soil moisture can be calculated from the cumulative temperature ( T cum ), the maximum temperature ( T max ), or the soil thermal conductivity determined from the cooling phase after heating ( λ ). This study investigates the performance of the T cum , T max and λ methods for different heating strategies, i.e., differences in the duration and input power of the applied heat pulse. The aim is to compare the three approaches and to determine which is best suited to field applications where the power supply is limited. Results show that increasing the input power of the heat pulses makes it easier to differentiate between dry and wet soil conditions, which leads to an improved accuracy. Results suggest that if the power supply is limited, the heating strength is insufficient for the λ method to yield accurate estimates. Generally, the T cum and T max methods have similar accuracy. If the input power is limited, increasing the heat pulse duration can improve the accuracy of the AHFO method for both of these techniques. In particular, extending the heating duration can significantly increase the sensitivity of T cum to soil moisture. Hence, the T cum method is recommended when the input power is limited. Finally, results also show that up to 50% of the cable temperature change during the heat pulse can be attributed to soil background temperature, i.e., soil temperature changed by the net solar radiation. A method is proposed to correct this background temperature change. Without correction, soil moisture information can be completely masked by the background temperature error.

  13. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  14. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haynes, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  15. Developing the soil moisture sensor using optical fiber technique (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Mitsuru; Nishigaki, Makoto; Seno, Shoji; Toida, Masaru; Hirata, Yoichi; Takenobu, Kazuyoshi; Tagishi, Hirotaka; Nakano, Katsushi; Kunimaru, Takanori; Maekawa, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    This research focused on methods of estimating the amounts of groundwater recharge, which are normally required as upper boundary conditions in groundwater flow analyses, based on measurements of infiltrating water in the ground, to systematize the methods and establish systems which are stable and measurable on site over a long time. Regarding developing measurement systems, fiber-optic strain measurement methods that enable multiple-point and long-distance measurement were used for measuring three quantities: suction pressure, soil moisture and volumetric water content rate obtained by applying water absorption swelling material, and each measurement was discussed. The results showed that the fiber-optic soil aquameter has two types of practical application: one for measuring suction pressure (Type I), and the other for measuring volumetric water content rate obtained by applying water absorption swelling material (Type III). Furthermore, by using measurement instruments in actual fields, the validity of the two methods for estimating the rainfall infiltration capacities of shallow-layer soils, that is, estimating the capacities either directly by measurements of soil water or from unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, was confirmed. (author)

  16. Expressão dos genes nodC, nodW e nopP em Bradyrhizobium japonicum estirpe CPAC 15 avaliada por RT-qPCR Expression of nodC, nodW and nopP genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15 strain evaluated by RT-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bortolan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão, por RT-qPCR, dos genes de nodulação nodC e nodW e do gene nopP da estirpe CPAC 15, que provavelmente atuam na infecção das raízes da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, a expressão dos genes foi avaliada nas células após a incubação com genisteína por 15 min, 1, 4 e 8 horas. Os resultados revelaram que os três genes apresentaram maior expressão imediatamente após o contato com o indutor (15 min. No segundo experimento, a bactéria foi cultivada na presença de indutores (genisteína ou exsudatos de sementes de soja por 48 horas. A expressão dos três genes foi maior na presença de genisteína, com valores de expressão para nodC, nodW e nopP superiores ao controle. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a funcionalidade dos três genes na estirpe CPAC 15, com ênfase para o nopP, cuja funcionalidade em Bradyrhizobium japonicum foi descrita pela primeira vez.The objective of this work was to evaluate, by RT-qPCR, the expression of the nodC and nodW nodulation genes and of the nopP gene of the CPAC 15 strain, which probably play a role in the infection of soybean roots. Two experiments were done. In the first, the gene expression was evaluated in cells after incubation with genistein for 15 min, 1, 4 and 8 hours. Results showed that the three genes showed higher expression immediately after contact with the inducer (15 min. In the second experiment, the bacterium was grown in the presence of inducers (genistein or soybean seed exudates for 48 hours. The expression of the three genes was greater when induced by genistein, and the expression of nodC, nodW and nopP had higher values than the control. The results confirm the functionality of the three genes in the CPAC 15 strain, with an emphasis on the nopP, whose functionality in Bradyrhizobium japonicum was described for the first time.

  17. Calibration of moisture monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    A method for calibrating an aluminum oxide hygrometer against an optical chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer has been established. A theoretical cross-point line of dew points from both hygrometers and a maximum moisture content of 10 ppM/sub v/ are used to define an area for calibrating the sensor probes of the aluminum oxide hygrometer

  18. Use of geostationary satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.

    2009-04-01

    For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from geostationary

  19. SMAP Multi-Temporal Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrievals in Vegetated Regions Including Higher-Order Soil-Canopy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Akbar, R.; Konings, A. G.; Piles, M.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission utilizes a zeroth order radiative transfer model, known as the tau-omega model, to retrieve soil moisture from microwave brightness temperature observations. This model neglects first order scattering which is significant at L-Band in vegetated regions, or 30% of land cover. Previous higher order algorithms require extensive in-situ measurements and characterization of canopy layer physical properties. We propose a first order retrieval algorithm that approximately characterizes the eight first order emission pathways using rough surface reflectivity, vegetation optical depth (VOD), and scattering albedo terms. The recently developed Multi-Temporal Dual Channel Algorithm (MT-DCA) then retrieves these three parameters in a forward model without ancillary information under the assumption of temporally static albedo and constant vegetation water content between three day SMAP revisits. The approximated scattering terms are determined to be conservative estimates of analytically derived first order scattering terms. In addition, we find the first order algorithm to be more sensitive to surface emission than the tau-omega model. The simultaneously retrieved VOD, previously demonstrated to be proportional to vegetation water content, can provide insight into vegetation dynamics in regions with significant phenology. Specifically, dry tropical forests exhibit an increase in VOD during the dry season in alignment with prior studies that suggest that certain vegetative species green up during the dry season despite limited water availability. VOD retrieved using the first order algorithm and MT-DCA framework can therefore contribute to understanding of tropical forests' role in the carbon, energy, and water cycles, which has yet to be fully explained.

  20. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kadzińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32 of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90. Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (ΔE increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  1. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters ( d 32 ) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness ( L* ≈90). Parameter a * decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆ E ) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R 2 ≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  2. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the re......Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  3. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA DOS RIZÓBIOS SEMIA 6156, F 3 (4, F 2 (1, F2 - 2B, CPAC-B10 EM FEIJÃO DE PORCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Santos de Paula Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi validar e recomendar bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio usadas em inoculantes comerciais na leguminosa Canavalia ensiformis. O trabalho foi conduzido durante os meses de novembro de 2013 a fevereiro 2014. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e com unidade experimental de 24 m2, o plantio realizado no espaçamento de 0,5 m entre sulcos, densidade de 10 sementes por metro linear, As estirpes de rizóbio avaliadas foram: SEMIA 6156, F 3 (4, F 2 (1, F2 - 2B, CPAC-B10. A primeira avaliação foi realizada aos 30 dias após a semeadura (DAS, para número e massa de nódulos frescos e secos, massa seca da parte aérea e raízes. A segunda avaliação foi realizada quando 50% das plantas estavam em florescimento, quantificando-se a massa seca das folhas e caules, massa seca total da parte aérea e análise total de macronutrientes em folhas e caule. A estirpe F 2 (1 pode realizar efetiva simbiose com as plantas de feijão de porco, promovendo ganhos no acúmulo de massa seca de parte aérea das plantas, sendo assim considerada agronomicamente eficiente e recomendada para uso em inoculantes comerciais.

  4. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  5. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  6. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  7. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  9. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  10. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  11. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  12. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  13. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  15. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  16. Moisture measurement in the iron and steel industry: experience with nuclear moisture measurements in coke, and studies of infrared moisture measurement of iron ore mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, J.A.; Wouters, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the heavy iron-making industry there are several processes for which it is necessary to measure on-line the moisture content of certain process materials, especially in the field of iron ore preparation and blast furnace practice. Two examples are given. (1) Experience with nuclear moisture-measurements in coke covers a period of ten years in which eight measuring systems have been installed in the weighing hoppers of blast furnaces. The standard deviation is about 0.7% moisture in the range 0 to 15% moisture. The way the method is used, the safety measures and the difficulties encountered, especially the effect on recalibration of neutron-absorbing materials in photomultipliers are described. (2) The application of infrared absorption to the study of moisture measurment or iron ore mixtures is described. With an ore mixture for pellets manufacture, a rather dark ore mixture, problems have arisen concerning the sensitivity. The reference and measuring wavelengths now in use are 2.51 and 2.95 μm. In this case the absorption of the energy is rather high. The results may be improved by using quartz optics instead of the normal Pyrex ones, as the cut-off wavelength of Pyrex is about 3 μm. Variations due to colour and specific surface have been studied. As the accuracy required is +- 0.1% moisture in the range 8 to 12% moisture, these variations need to be eliminated. (author)

  17. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  18. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  19. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  20. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  1. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  2. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  3. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  4. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  5. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  6. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  7. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  8. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  9. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  10. Determining seed moisture in Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    The air-oven method with drying times 7 to 8 hours shorter than those now prescribed in the ISTA rules proved adequate for determining moisture contents in acorns of several North American oaks. Schedules of 8 hours at 105°C for Quercus muehlenbergii and 9 hours at 105°C for Q.shumardii and Q.nigra gave moisture contents within three percentage points of those obtained...

  11. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  12. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval Parameters Using Tau-Omega Algorithms for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; O'Neill, Peggy; Islam, Tanvir; Gupta, Manika

    2014-01-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the latest mission which provides flow of coarse resolution soil moisture data for land applications. However, the efficient retrieval of soil moisture for hydrological applications depends on optimally choosing the soil and vegetation parameters. The first stage of this work involves the evaluation of SMOS Level 2 products and then several approaches for soil moisture retrieval from SMOS brightness temperature are performed to estimate Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD). The most widely applied algorithm i.e. Single channel algorithm (SCA), based on tau-omega is used in this study for the soil moisture retrieval. In tau-omega, the soil moisture is retrieved using the Horizontal (H) polarisation following Hallikainen dielectric model, roughness parameters, Fresnel's equation and estimated Vegetation Optical Depth (tau). The roughness parameters are empirically calibrated using the numerical optimization techniques. Further to explore the improvement in retrieval models, modifications have been incorporated in the algorithms with respect to the sources of the parameters, which include effective temperatures derived from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-NOAH Land Surface Model and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) while the s is derived from MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI). All the evaluations are performed against SMD, which is estimated using the Probability Distributed Model following a careful calibration and validation integrated with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The performance obtained after all those changes indicate that SCA-H using WRF-NOAH LSM downscaled ECMWF LST produces an improved performance for SMD estimation at a catchment scale.

  14. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  15. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Sabbri, A R M; Jafri, M Z Mat; Omar, A F

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab ® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R 2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R 2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field

  16. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  17. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  18. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  19. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  20. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  1. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  2. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  3. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  4. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  5. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  6. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  7. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    soil moisture meter using the NE555 timer and micro controller as a major electronic component ... relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. ..... the moisture contents showing that the infiltration of.

  8. Modeling soil moisture memory in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, S.; Miller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Antecedent soil conditions create an ecosystem's "memory" of past rainfall events. Such soil moisture memory effects may be observed over a range of timescales, from daily to yearly, and lead to feedbacks between hydrological and ecosystem processes. In this study, we modeled the soil moisture memory effect on savanna ecosystems in California, Arizona, and Africa, using a system dynamics model created to simulate the ecohydrological processes at the plot-scale. The model was carefully calibrated using soil moisture and evapotranspiration data collected at three study sites. The model was then used to simulate scenarios with various initial soil moisture conditions and antecedent precipitation regimes, in order to study the soil moisture memory effects on the evapotranspiration of understory and overstory species. Based on the model results, soil texture and antecedent precipitation regime impact the redistribution of water within soil layers, potentially causing deeper soil layers to influence the ecosystem for a longer time. Of all the study areas modeled, soil moisture memory of California savanna ecosystem site is replenished and dries out most rapidly. Thus soil moisture memory could not maintain the high rate evapotranspiration for more than a few days without incoming rainfall event. On the contrary, soil moisture memory of Arizona savanna ecosystem site lasts the longest time. The plants with different root depths respond to different memory effects; shallow-rooted species mainly respond to the soil moisture memory in the shallow soil. The growing season of grass is largely depended on the soil moisture memory of the top 25cm soil layer. Grass transpiration is sensitive to the antecedent precipitation events within daily to weekly timescale. Deep-rooted plants have different responses since these species can access to the deeper soil moisture memory with longer time duration Soil moisture memory does not have obvious impacts on the phenology of woody plants

  9. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  10. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  11. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  12. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  14. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  15. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet; Panda, Rabindra K.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Jana, Raghavendra Belur

    2016-01-01

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected

  16. An application of the perpendicular moisture index for the prediction of fire hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Menenti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Various factors contribute to forest fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. The scientific community has developed a number of spectral indices based on remote sensing measurements in the optical domain for the

  17. Remote sensing estimation of vegetation moisture for the prediction of fire hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Various factors contribute to forest fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. The scientific community has developed a number of spectral indexes based on remote sensing measurements in the optical domain for the

  18. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available outcomes of HVS tests where the moisture condition of the pavement or specific layers in the pavement is under investigation for a specific test. Practical guidance is then provided on the potential systems (how to manage the moisture – hardware) as well...

  19. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  20. 7 CFR 868.307 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.307 Section 868.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.307 Moisture. Water content in milled rice as determined by an FGIS approved...

  1. Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture

  2. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  3. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  4. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  5. Logging effects on soil moisture losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1978-01-01

    Abstract - The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 15 feet by an isolated mature sugar pine and an adjacent uncut forest in the California Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks for 5 consecutive summers. Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 50...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1715 - Moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moisture control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 Moisture control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...

  7. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  8. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  9. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  10. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  11. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  13. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  14. Comparisons of Satellite Soil Moisture, an Energy Balance Model Driven by LST Data and Point Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Puca, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather, and it is important in determining the rainfall-runoff response of catchments; moreover, in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, a correct definition of moisture conditions is a key factor for accurate predictions. Different sources of information for the estimation of the soil moisture state are currently available: satellite data, point measurements and model predictions. All are affected by intrinsic uncertainty. Among different satellite sensors that can be used for soil moisture estimation three major groups can be distinguished: passive microwave sensors (e.g., SSMI), active sensors (e.g. SAR, Scatterometers), and optical sensors (e.g. Spectroradiometers). The last two families, mainly because of their temporal and spatial resolution seem the most suitable for hydrological applications In this work soil moisture point measurements from 10 sensors in the Italian territory are compared of with the satellite products both from the HSAF project SM-OBS-2, derived from the ASCAT scatterometer, and from ACHAB, an operative energy balance model that assimilate LST data derived from MSG and furnishes daily an evaporative fraction index related to soil moisture content for all the Italian region. Distributed comparison of the ACHAB and SM-OBS-2 on the whole Italian territory are performed too.

  15. Soil Moisture Estimations Based on Airborne CAROLS L-Band Microwave Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Mialon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The SMOS satellite mission, launched in 2009, allows global soil moisture estimations to be made using the L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB model, which simulates the L-band microwave emissions produced by the soil–vegetation layer. This model was calibrated using various sources of in situ and airborne data. In the present study, we propose to evaluate the L-MEB model on the basis of a large set of airborne data, recorded by the CAROLS radiometer during the course of 20 flights made over South West France (the SMOSMANIA site, and supported by simultaneous soil moisture measurements, made in 2009 and 2010. In terms of volumetric soil moisture, the retrieval accuracy achieved with the L-MEB model, with two default roughness parameters, ranges between 8% and 13%. Local calibrations of the roughness parameter, using data from the 2009 flights for different areas of the site, allowed an accuracy of approximately 5.3% to be achieved with the 2010 CAROLS data. Simultaneously we estimated the vegetation optical thickness (t and we showed that, when roughness is locally adjusted, MODIS NDVI values are correlated (R2 = 0.36 to t. Finally, as a consequence of the significant influence of the roughness parameter on the estimated absolute values of soil moisture, we propose to evaluate the relative variability of the soil moisture, using a default soil roughness parameter. The soil moisture variations are estimated with an uncertainty of approximately 6%.

  16. Detecting Trends in Wetland Extent from MODIS Derived Soil Moisture Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gumbricht

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A soil wetness index for optical satellite images, the Transformed Wetness Index (TWI is defined and evaluated against ground sampled soil moisture. Conceptually, TWI is formulated as a non-linear normalized difference index from orthogonalized vectors representing soil and water conditions, with the vegetation signal removed. Compared to 745 ground sites with in situ measured soil moisture, TWI has a globally estimated Random Mean Square Error of 14.0 (v/v expressed as percentage, which reduces to 8.5 for unbiased data. The temporal variation in soil moisture is significantly captured at 4 out of 10 stations, but also fails for 2 to 3 out of 10 stations. TWI is biased by different soil mineral compositions, dense vegetation and shadows, with the latter two most likely also causing the failure of TWI to capture soil moisture dynamics. Compared to soil moisture products from microwave brightness temperature data, TWI performs slightly worse, but has the advantages of not requiring ancillary data, higher spatial resolution and a relatively simple application. TWI has been used for wetland and peatland mapping in previously published studies but is presented in detail in this article, and then applied for detecting changes in soil moisture for selected tropical regions between 2001 and 2016. Sites with significant changes are compared to a published map of global tropical wetlands and peatlands.

  17. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  18. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  19. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  20. Moisture monitoring and control system engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.E.; Fadeff, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 50 years, a wide variety of chemical compounds have been placed in the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) on the Hanford Site. A concern relating to chemical stability, chemical control, and safe storage of the waste is the potential for propagating reactions as a result of ferrocyanide-oxidizer and organic-oxidizer concentrations in the SSTS. Propagating reactions in fuel-nitrate mixtures are precluded if the amounts of fuel and moisture present in the waste are within specified limits. Because most credible ignition sources occur near the waste surface, the main emphasis of this study is toward monitoring and controlling moisture in the top 14 cm (5.5 in.) of waste. The purpose of this engineering study is to recommend a moisture monitoring and control system for use in SSTs containing sludge and saltcake. This study includes recommendations for: (1) monitoring and controlling moisture in SSTs; (2) the fundamental design criteria for a moisture monitoring and control system; and (3) criteria for the deployment of a moisture monitoring and control system in hanford Site SSTs. To support system recommendations, technical bases for selecting and using a moisture monitoring and control system are presented. Key functional requirements and a conceptual design are included to enhance system development and establish design criteria

  1. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C)

  2. Design of Moisture Content Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Wang, L.

    In this paper, a method for measuring the moisture content of grain was presented based on single chip microcomputer and capacitive sensor. The working principle of measuring moisture content is introduced and a concentric cylinder type of capacitive sensor is designed, the signal processing circuits of system are described in details. System is tested in practice and discussions are made on the various factors affecting the capacitive measuring of grain moisture based on the practical experiments, experiment results showed that the system has high measuring accuracy and good controlling capacity.

  3. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  4. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  5. Soil moisture content with global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The potential greenhouse-gas-induced changes in soil moisture, particularly the desiccation of the Northern Hemisphere contents in summer, are discussed. To check the conclusions based on climate models the authors have used long-term measurements of contemporary soil moisture in the USSR and reconstructions of soil moisture for the last two epochs that were warmer than the present, namely, the Holocene optimum, 5,000-6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago. The analysis shows that there is a considerable disagreement between the model results and the empirical data

  6. MoisturEC: an R application for geostatistical estimation of moisture content from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Werkema, D. D.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical parameter for agriculture, water supply, and management of landfills. Whereas direct data (as from TDR or soil moisture probes) provide localized point scale information, it is often more desirable to produce 2D and/or 3D estimates of soil moisture from noninvasive measurements. To this end, geophysical methods for indirectly assessing soil moisture have great potential, yet are limited in terms of quantitative interpretation due to uncertainty in petrophysical transformations and inherent limitations in resolution. Simple tools to produce soil moisture estimates from geophysical data are lacking. We present a new standalone program, MoisturEC, for estimating moisture content distributions from electrical conductivity data. The program uses an indicator kriging method within a geostatistical framework to incorporate hard data (as from moisture probes) and soft data (as from electrical resistivity imaging or electromagnetic induction) to produce estimates of moisture content and uncertainty. The program features data visualization and output options as well as a module for calibrating electrical conductivity with moisture content to improve estimates. The user-friendly program is written in R - a widely used, cross-platform, open source programming language that lends itself to further development and customization. We demonstrate use of the program with a numerical experiment as well as a controlled field irrigation experiment. Results produced from the combined geostatistical framework of MoisturEC show improved estimates of moisture content compared to those generated from individual datasets. This application provides a convenient and efficient means for integrating various data types and has broad utility to soil moisture monitoring in landfills, agriculture, and other problems.

  7. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...

  8. Heat and Moisture transport of socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, P.; Glombíková, V.; Havelka, A.

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the liquid moisture transport and thermal properties is essential for understanding physiological comfort of clothes. This study reports on an experimental investigation of moisture management transport and thermal transport on the physiological comfort of commercially available socks. There are subjective evaluation and objective measurements. Subjective evaluation of the physiological comfort of socks is based on individual sensory perception of probands during and after physical exertion. Objective measurements were performed according to standardized methods using Moisture Management tester for measuring the humidity parameters and C-term TCi analyzer for thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity. The obtained values of liquid moisture transport and thermal properties were related to the material composition and structure of the tested socks. In summary, these results show that objective measurement corresponds with probands feelings.

  9. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled

  10. Moisture separator reheaters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Michizo; Yonemura, Katsutoshi

    1974-01-01

    In the light water reactor plants using BWRS or PWRS, the pressure and temperature of steam at the inlet of turbines are low, and the steam is moist, as compared with the case of thermal power plants. Therefore, moisture separator/reheaters are used between high and low pressure turbines. The steam from a high pressure turbine enters a manifold, and goes zigzag through vertical plate separator elements, its moisture is removed from the steam. Then, after being reheated with the steam bled from the high pressure turbine and directly from a reactor, the steam is fed into a low pressure turbine. The development and test made on the components of a moisture separaotr/reheater and the overall model experiment are described together with the mechanism of moisture separation and reheating. (Mori, K.)

  11. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  12. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  13. Moisture transport and equilibrium in organic coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, van der G.K.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Improving coating performance in regard of protection of substrates and structures against moisturerelated degradation requires detailed knowledge of underlying transport mechanisms. In this paper a review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic

  14. Moisture Transfer in Ventilated Facade Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olshevskyi Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the phenomenon of moisture transfer in the designs of ventilated facades (VF. The main ways of moisture transfer are defined. The negative factors connected with moisture accumulation and excessive moistening of insulation are given. The physical processes occurring in the gap of the building envelope due to saturation of air with water vapor are described. The dependence of the intensity of the mass transfer on the air velocity in the layer is considered. Much attention is paid to the selection of the optimum design of the facade, namely a system with or without grooved lines. The dependence of velocity and temperature on the width of the ventilated gap is established empirically for the constructions with open and closed grooves. Expediency of a design without grooves to effectively remove moisture is determined.

  15. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  16. Advanced moisture modeling of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Long term moisture exposure has been shown to affect the mechanical performance of polymeric composite structures. This reduction : in mechanical performance must be considered during product design in order to ensure long term structure survival. In...

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  18. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  19. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Schmugge, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10–20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1–5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations

  20. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  1. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  2. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  3. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  4. Space-time modeling of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijuan; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-11-01

    A physically derived space-time mathematical representation of the soil moisture field is carried out via the soil moisture balance equation driven by stochastic rainfall forcing. The model incorporates spatial diffusion and in its original version, it is shown to be unable to reproduce the relative fast decay in the spatial correlation functions observed in empirical data. This decay resulting from variations in local topography as well as in local soil and vegetation conditions is well reproduced via a jitter process acting multiplicatively over the space-time soil moisture field. The jitter is a multiplicative noise acting on the soil moisture dynamics with the objective to deflate its correlation structure at small spatial scales which are not embedded in the probabilistic structure of the rainfall process that drives the dynamics. These scales of order of several meters to several hundred meters are of great importance in ecohydrologic dynamics. Properties of space-time correlation functions and spectral densities of the model with jitter are explored analytically, and the influence of the jitter parameters, reflecting variabilities of soil moisture at different spatial and temporal scales, is investigated. A case study fitting the derived model to a soil moisture dataset is presented in detail.

  5. 40 CFR 75.37 - Missing data procedures for moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missing data procedures for moisture... data procedures for moisture. (a) The owner or operator of a unit with a continuous moisture monitoring system shall substitute for missing moisture data using the procedures of this section. (b) Where no...

  6. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  7. Quality Assurance of Rice and Paddy Moisture Measurements in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhaneti, T.; Keawprasert, T.; Puuntharo, P.; Triarun, W.

    2017-10-01

    A bilateral comparison in moisture measurement between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures (CBWM) was organized for quality assuring of rice and paddy moisture measurement in Thailand. The bilateral comparison was conducted by using the same batch of sample and moisture meter as transfer device. It consisted of two parts: moisture measurement in rice and in paddy. A rice moisture meter belonging to CBWM and rice standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 10 %, 12 %, 14 % and 16 % at NIMT, were used for rice moisture comparison, while a paddy moisture meter belonging to NIMT and paddy standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 12 %, 14 %, 16 % and 18 % at CBWM, were used for paddy moisture comparison. Both laboratories measured the moisture content of a sample by using the standard method in ISO 712 and used that sample to calibrate a moisture meter by means of the method based on ISO 7700-1. Since the moisture content of the sample can change during the comparison, correction values in moisture content between the standard value and the reading value from the moisture meter are used as calibration results for the comparison evaluation. For the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value measured by the two laboratories vary from 0.18 % to 0.46 %, with their combined comparison uncertainty of 0.37 % (k= 2). The main contribution to the difference comes from the standard values from both laboratories differing from 0.27 % to 0.53 %, as the rice standard was found to drift in moisture content less than 0.05 %. Similarly to the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value for the paddy moisture measurement range from 0.08 % to 0.56 % with the combined comparison uncertainty of 0.38 % (k = 2), whereas the stability in moisture content of the paddy sample at NIMT was found to be within 0.12 %.

  8. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  9. Effectiveness of modified 1-hour air-oven moisture methods for determining popcorn moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the most commonly used approved grain moisture air-oven reference methods are the air oven method ASAE S352.2, which requires long heating time (72-h) for unground samples, and the AACC 44-15.02 air-oven method, which dries a ground sample for 1 hr, but there is specific moisture measurement ...

  10. Structure of the urban moisture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Dirks, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the 26 July 1974 case study in St. Louis as a part of Project METROMEX, aircraft and surface network stations were used to determine specific humidity and potential temperature patterns near the surface and at two levels within the mixing layer. From the data acquired at these three levels, three-dimensional analyses of the moisture fields in the mixing layer were constructed. The mesoscale dry regions observed throughout the mixing layer correspond to the more impervious surfaces of the urban area. From energy budget considerations, latent heat fluxes are small over these impervious surfaces owing to the large runoff of precipitation and the lack of moisture retention capabilities. Hence, urbanization obviously alters the local energy budget. Surface boundary layer conditions are determined by heat and moisture fluxes. A new internal boundary layer within the city is formed after the breakdown of the radiation inversion in order to compensate for the alteration of sensible heat and latent heat energies. Hence, isolated semistagnant urban air is replenished by moisture only as quickly as evapotranspiration from impervious surfaces will allow. The city surface, therefore, is not a sink of moisture, but rather a reduced source relative to rural areas

  11. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  12. SMOS/SMAP Synergy for SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann

    2011-01-01

    ancillary data) were used to correct for surface temperature effects and to derive microwave emissivity. ECMWF data were also used for precipitation forecasts, presence of snow, and frozen ground. Vegetation options are described below. One year of soil moisture observations from a set of four watersheds in the U.S. were used to evaluate four different retrieval methodologies: (1) SMOS soil moisture estimates (version 400), (2) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data with SMOS estimated vegetation optical depth, which is part of the SMOS level 2 product, (3) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data and the MODIS-based vegetation climatology data, and (4) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data and actual MODIS observations. The use of SMOS real-world global microwave observations and the analyses described here will help in the development and selection of different land surface parameters and ancillary observations needed for the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. These investigations will greatly improve the quality and reliability of this SMAP product at launch.

  13. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    . In the isothermal tests the material samples were exposed to the same change in the relative humidity of the ambient air on both sides, while the samples were exposed to variations in relative humidity only on the cold side in the non-isothermal tests. The results of these rather different measurement principles...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...

  14. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  15. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  16. Development of nuclear density and moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huaian; Zhu Dichen; Jiang Yulan; Yin Xiling; Li Jianwen; Cheng Jianbing; Yan Haiqing

    1993-01-01

    The model MT5012 nuclear density and moisture gauge is an advanced portable meter to inspect the compactness of a highway roadbed and pavement foundation. It has perfect functions and the advantage of quickness, accuracy and non-destruction. It is also applicable to civil engineering, such as railway, airport and embankment. The model MT5022 nuclear density and moisture gauge is a mobile meter for continuous inspection and control of the compactness of a highway and pavement foundation. It can be installed on road roller, wheelbarrow and other traffic machines while working, and is more efficient than the portable ones

  17. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  18. A practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture content using combined satellite and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Pei; Li, Zhao-Liang; Duan, Si-Bo; Gao, Mao-Fang; Huo, Hong-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Soil moisture has long been recognized as one of the essential variables in the water cycle and energy budget between Earth's surface and atmosphere. The present study develops a practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture using combined satellite images and gridded meteorological products. In this approach, soil moisture over the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) clear-sky pixels are estimated from the Vegetation Index/Temperature (VIT) trapezoid scheme in which theoretical dry and wet edges were determined pixel to pixel by China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) meteorological products, including air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and specific humidity. For cloudy pixels, soil moisture values are derived by the calculation of surface and aerodynamic resistances from wind speed. The approach is capable of filling the soil moisture gaps over remaining cloudy pixels by traditional optical/thermal infrared methods, allowing for a spatially complete soil moisture map over large areas. Evaluation over agricultural fields indicates that the proposed approach can produce an overall generally reasonable distribution of all-weather soil moisture. An acceptable accuracy between the estimated all-weather soil moisture and in-situ measurements at different depths could be found with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) varying from 0.067 m3/m3 to 0.079 m3/m3 and a slight bias ranging from 0.004 m3/m3 to -0.011 m3/m3. The proposed approach reveals significant potential to derive all-weather soil moisture using currently available satellite images and meteorological products at a regional or global scale in future developments.

  19. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  20. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  1. Water table and the neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvalingam, M [Hull Univ. (UK). Geography Dept.

    1975-12-01

    Measurements with a neutron moisture meter at Westlands, near Hull, showed count rates at capillary saturation to be within the error limits of count rates at full saturation. However, the saturation profiles in themselves were interesting as they indicated not only the zonation of the soil but also differences in drainable porosity when compared to count-rate profiles at the end of November.

  2. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  3. Field experiments on airborne moisture transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldengarm, J.; Gids, W.F. de

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch participation in the IEA Annex XIV “Condensation” field experiments have been carried out to study airbome moisture transport in realistic circumstances. The experiments were done in an unoccupied 3-story dwelling in Leidschendam in the Netherlands. Some of the

  4. Mechanically controlled moisture removal from greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to design and test a system capable of dehumidifying air in a greenhouse when a thermal screen is in use. Dehumidification is required to reduce the risk of fungal diseases and prevent physiological disorders. The most common procedure used to remove moisture from a

  5. Localized leak detection utilizing moisture sensitive tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, P.

    1984-01-01

    Moisture sensitive tape (MST) has been used in various nuclear power plants to detect leaks in reactor piping systems. The sensor assembly consists of MST, transponder, and sensor carrier, and is installed on the exterior of thermal insulation. The components, applications, installation, and purchasing information are discussed in the paper

  6. SOME MOISTURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity and bulk density of Prosopis africana seeds were determined as a function of moisture content. Specific heat capacity was measured by the method of mixture while the thermal heat conductivity was measured by the guarded hot plate method.

  7. Effect of moisture on tuff stone degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Tuff stone elements with a large length/width ratio often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if differential dilation between parts with

  8. Effect of moisture on tuffstone weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.; Tolboom, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Tuffstone elements with a large length/width ratio, as e.g. mullions, often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if a differential dilation

  9. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described. Each standard has physical characteristics and dimensions effective for representing to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration, an infinite mass of homogeneous hydrogen content. Calibration standards are discussed which are suitable for use with surface gauges and with depth gauges. (C.F.)

  10. Moisture Content Monitoring of a Timber Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Björngrim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction of modern timber bridges has greatly increased during the last 20 years in Sweden. Wood as a construction material has several advantageous properties, e.g., it is renewable, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing, but it is also susceptible to deterioration. To protect wood from deterioration and ensure the service life, the wood is either treated or somehow covered. This work evaluates a technology to monitor the moisture content in wood constructions. Monitoring the moisture content is important both to verify the constructive protection and for finding areas with elevated levels of moisture which might lead to a microbiological attack of the wood. In this work, a timber bridge was studied. The structure was equipped with six wireless sensors that measured the moisture content of the wood and the relative humidity every hour. Data for 744 days of the bridge are presented in this paper. Results show that the technology used to monitor the bridge generally works; however, there were issues due to communication problems and malfunction of sensors. This technology is promising for monitoring the state of wood constructions, but a more reliable sensor technology is warranted continuous remote monitoring of wood bridges over long periods of time.

  11. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...

  12. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating radiation moisture gauges is described. This standard has little or no affinity for water and accordingly will not take up or give off water under ambient conditions of fluctuating humidity in such a manner as to change the hydrogen content presented to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration. (O.T.)

  13. Soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  14. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  15. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  16. Analysis and optimal design of moisture sensor for rice grain moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sweety; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thakare, Vandana Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The analysis and design of a microstrip sensor for accurate determination of moisture content (MC) in rice grains based on oven drying technique, this technique is easy, fast and less time-consuming to other techniques. The sensor is designed with low insertion loss, reflection coefficient and maximum gain is -35dB and 5.88dB at 2.68GHz as well as discussed all the parameters such as axial ratio, maximum gain, smith chart etc, which is helpful for analysis the moisture measurement. The variation in percentage of moisture measurement with magnitude and phase of transmission coefficient is investigated at selected frequencies. The microstrip moisture sensor consists of one layer: substrate FR4, thickness 1.638 is simulated by computer simulated technology microwave studio (CST MWS). It is concluded that the proposed sensor is suitable for development as a complete sensor and to estimate the optimum moisture content of rice grains with accurately, sensitivity, compact, versatile and suitable for determining the moisture content of other crops and agriculture products.

  17. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  18. The study of high precision neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Bao Guanxiong; Sang Hai; Zhu Yuzhen

    1993-01-01

    The principle, structure and calibration experiment of the high precision neutron moisture gauge (insertion type) are described. The gauge has been appraised. The precision of the measuring moisture of coke is lower than 0.5%, and the range of the measuring moisture is 2%-12%. The economic benefit of the gauge application is good

  19. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when...

  20. Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Schaefli, B.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate on the extent to which precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). In the past, most research focused on moisture recycling within a certain region only. This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling to study the complete process

  1. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  2. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  3. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  4. A Smart Irrigation Approach Aided by Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, K. J.; Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical component in the optimization of irrigation scheduling in water resources management. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) equipped with multispectral sensors represent an emerging technology capable of detecting and estimating soil moisture for irrigation and crop management. This study demonstrates a method of using a UAV as an optical and thermal remote sensing platform combined with genetic programming to derive high-resolution, surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates. The objective is to evaluate the feasibility of spatially-variable irrigation management for a golf course (about 50 acres) in North Central Texas. Multispectral data is collected over the course of one month in the visible, near infrared and longwave infrared spectrums using a UAV capable of rapid and safe deployment for daily estimates. The accuracy of the model predictions is quantified using a time domain reflectometry (TDR) soil moisture sensor and a holdout validation test set. The model produces reasonable estimates for SSM with an average coefficient of correlation (r) = 0.87 and coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.76. The study suggests that the derived SSM estimates be used to better inform irrigation scheduling decisions for lightly vegetated areas such as the turf or native roughs found on golf courses.

  5. Moisture effects on carbon and nitrogen emission from burning of wildland biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N released from biomass burning have multiple effects on the Earth's biogeochemical cycle, climate change, and ecosystem. These effects depend on the relative abundances of C and N species emitted, which vary with fuel type and combustion conditions. This study systematically investigates the emission characteristics of biomass burning under different fuel moisture contents, through controlled burning experiments with biomass and soil samples collected from a typical alpine forest in North America. Fuel moisture in general lowers combustion efficiency, shortens flaming phase, and introduces prolonged smoldering before ignition. It increases emission factors of incompletely oxidized C and N species, such as carbon monoxide (CO and ammonia (NH3. Substantial particulate carbon and nitrogen (up to 4 times C in CO and 75% of N in NH3 were also generated from high-moisture fuels, maily associated with the pre-flame smoldering. This smoldering process emits particles that are larger and contain lower elemental carbon fractions than soot agglomerates commonly observed in flaming smoke. Hydrogen (H/C ratio and optical properties of particulate matter from the high-moisture fuels show their resemblance to plant cellulous and brown carbon, respectively. These findings have implications for modeling biomass burning emissions and impacts.

  6. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  7. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  8. Radiation safety of soil moisture neutron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron probe measures sub-surface moisture in soil and other materials by means of high energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. Exposure to radiation, including neutrons, especially at high doses, can cause detrimental health effects. In order to achieve operational radiation safety, there must be compliance with protection and safety standards. The design and manufacture of commercially available neutron moisture gauges are such that risks to the health of the user have been greatly reduced. The major concern is radiation escape from the soil during measurement, especially under dry conditions and when the radius of influence is large. With appropriate work practices as well as good design and manufacture of gauges, recorded occupational doses have been well below recommended annual limits. It can be concluded that the use of neutron gauges poses not only acceptable health and safety risks but, in fact, the risks are negligible. Neutron gauges should not be classified as posing high potential health hazards. (author)

  9. Neutron moisture gaging of agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, S.; Janout, Z.; Kovacik, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design is described of a neutron moisture gage which consists of a measuring probe, neutron detector, small electronic recording device and a 241 Am-Be radionuclide source. The neutron detector consists of a surface barrier semiconductor silicon detector and a conversion layer of lithium fluoride. The detection of triton which is the reaction product of lithium with neutrons by the silicon detector is manifested as a voltage pulse. The detector has low sensitivity for fast neutrons and for gamma radiation and is suitable for determining moisture values in large volume samples. Verification and calibration measurements were carried out of chernozem, brown soil and podzolic soils in four series. The results are tabulated. Errors of measurement range between 0.8 to 1.0%. The precision of measurement could be improved by the calibration of the device for any type of soil. (E.S.). 4 tabs., 6 refs., 5 figs

  10. Effects of atmospheric moisture on rock resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the changes in resistivity of rock samples as induced by atmospheric moisture. Experiments were performed on samples of hematitic sandstone, pyrite, and galena. The sandstone underwent a change in resistivity of four orders of magnitude when it was measured in a vacuum of 500 ntorr and in air of 37% relative humidity. Pyrite and galena showed no variations in resistivity when they were measured under the same conditions. These results, plus others obtained elsewhere, indicate that rocks of the resistive type are affected in their electrical properties by atmospheric moisture, whereas rocks of the conductive type are not. The experimental evidence obtained is difficult to reconcile with a model of aqueous electrolytic conduction on the sample surface. It is instead suggested that adsorbed water molecules alter the surface resistivity in a manner similar to that observed in semiconductors and insulators.

  11. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  12. Seven methods to measure ground moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The correct irrigation methods are of great importance to the deciduous fruit grower. The article discusses seven methods for the measuring of ground humidity. These methods are based on gravimetry, electric resistance, gamma attenuation, neutron humidity measurement, tensiometers and a study of the correlation between ground humidity and water evaporation. At this stage, the last technique is regarded as the most practicle method. Neutron moisture gages might be used if adhered to the regulations of NUCOR

  13. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  14. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  15. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  16. SMOS validation of soil moisture and ocen salinity (SMOS) soil moisture over watershed networks in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of soil moisture at large scale has been performed using several satellite-based passive microwave sensors and a variety of retrieval methods. The most recent source of soil moisture is the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. A thorough validation must b...

  17. Anthropogenic warming exacerbates European soil moisture droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wanders, N.; Rakovec, O.; Pan, M.; Zink, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Marx, A.

    2018-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is anticipated to increase soil moisture drought in the future. However, projections are accompanied by large uncertainty due to varying estimates of future warming. Here, using an ensemble of hydrological and land-surface models, forced with bias-corrected downscaled general circulation model output, we estimate the impacts of 1-3 K global mean temperature increases on soil moisture droughts in Europe. Compared to the 1.5 K Paris target, an increase of 3 K—which represents current projected temperature change—is found to increase drought area by 40% (±24%), affecting up to 42% (±22%) more of the population. Furthermore, an event similar to the 2003 drought is shown to become twice as frequent; thus, due to their increased occurrence, events of this magnitude will no longer be classified as extreme. In the absence of effective mitigation, Europe will therefore face unprecedented increases in soil moisture drought, presenting new challenges for adaptation across the continent.

  18. Moisture Buffer Effect and its Impact on Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Chen, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    The moisture buffer effect of building materials may have great influence on indoor hygrothermal environment. In order to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials, the basic concept of moisture buffer value (MBV) is adopted. Firstly, a theoretical correction factor is introduced...... in this paper. The moisture uptake/release by hygroscopic materials can be calculated with the factor and the basic MBV. Furthermore, the validation of the correction factor is carried out. The impact of moisture buffering on indoor environment is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show...

  19. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidities, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation with a good approximation. At higher relative......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  20. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  1. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  2. CFD modelling of moisture interactions between air and constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Hohota, Raluca

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modelling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. Thus, in this investigation there is special focus on moisture modelling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool that is enhanced to include both...... detailed modelling of airflows in rooms and heat and moisture transfer in walls by applying them as fluid walls. In a 3D configuration the impact of different boundary conditions are investigated and the results are discussed. The changes of boundary conditions that are studied are velocity, moisture...

  3. New method measures moisture and true dry mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    The moisture content of wood can be determined by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance of free water hydrogen atoms in wood. Nanassy studied NMR curves for six types of wood and obtained the calibration curve by reducing the moisture content in steps by 4% moisture down to ca. 1% moisture and then by gradually wetting the wood. The initial material was fresh wood. For each step he measured the intensity of the free water hydrogen signal. If the sample weight is known the dry matter content (dry weight) and moisture content of the sample can be derived from the measured NMR signal. (J.P.)

  4. Use of Soil Moisture Variability in Artificial Neural Network Retrieval of Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Veenendaal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave remote sensing is one of the most promising techniques for soil moisture retrieval. However, the inversion of soil moisture from brightness temperature observations is not straightforward, as it is influenced by numerous factors such as surface roughness, vegetation cover, and soil texture. Moreover, the relationship between brightness temperature, soil moisture and the factors mentioned above is highly non-linear and ill-posed. Consequently, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used to retrieve soil moisture from microwave data, but with limited success when dealing with data different to that from the training period. In this study, an ANN is tested for its ability to predict soil moisture at 1 km resolution on different dates following training at the same site for a specific date. A novel approach that utilizes information on the variability of soil moisture, in terms of its mean and standard deviation for a (sub region of spatial dimension up to 40 km, is used to improve the current retrieval accuracy of the ANN method. A comparison between the ANN with and without the use of the variability information showed that this enhancement enables the ANN to achieve an average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of around 5.1% v/v when using the variability information, as compared to around 7.5% v/v without it. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrieval was further improved by the division of the target site into smaller regions down to 4 km in size, with the spatial variability of soil moisture calculated from within the smaller region used in the ANN. With the combination of an ANN architecture of a single hidden layer of 20 neurons and the dual-polarized brightness temperatures as input, the proposed use of variability and sub-region methodology achieves an average retrieval accuracy of 3.7% v/v. Although this accuracy is not the lowest as comparing to the research in this field, the main contribution is the ability of ANN in

  5. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter D HT , which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that D HT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for D HT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  6. Analysis of soil moisture memory from observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-08-01

    Soil moisture is known to show distinctive persistence characteristics compared to other quantities in the climate system. As soil moisture is governing land-atmosphere feedbacks to a large extent, its persistence can provide potential to improve seasonal climate predictions. So far, many modeling studies have investigated the nature of soil moisture memory, with consistent, but model-dependent results. This study investigates soil moisture memory in long-term observational records based on data from five stations across Europe. We investigate spatial and seasonal variations in soil moisture memory and identify their main climatic drivers. Also, we test an existing framework and introduce an extension thereof to approximate soil moisture memory and evaluate the contributions of its driving processes. At the analyzed five sites, we identify the variability of initial soil moisture divided by that of the accumulated forcing over the considered time frame as a main driver of soil moisture memory that reflects the impact of the precipitation regime and of soil and vegetation characteristics. Another important driver is found to be the correlation of initial soil moisture with subsequent forcing that captures forcing memory as it propagates to the soil and also land-atmosphere interactions. Thereby, the role of precipitation is found to be dominant for the forcing. In contrast to results from previous modeling studies, the runoff and evapotranspiration sensitivities to soil moisture are found to have only a minor influence on soil moisture persistence at the analyzed sites. For the central European sites, the seasonal cycles of soil moisture memory display a maximum in late summer and a minimum in spring. An opposite seasonal cycle is found at the analyzed site in Italy. High soil moisture memory is shown to last up to 40 days in some seasons at most sites. Extremely dry or wet states of the soil tend to increase soil moisture memory, suggesting enhanced prediction

  7. Moisture barrier properties of single-layer graphene deposited on Cu films for Cu metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomasang, Ploybussara; Abe, Takumi; Kawahara, Kenji; Wasai, Yoko; Nabatova-Gabain, Nataliya; Thanh Cuong, Nguyen; Ago, Hiroki; Okada, Susumu; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2018-04-01

    The moisture barrier properties of large-grain single-layer graphene (SLG) deposited on a Cu(111)/sapphire substrate are demonstrated by comparing with the bare Cu(111) surface under an accelerated degradation test (ADT) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations. The change in surface color and the formation of Cu oxide are investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. First-principle simulation is performed to understand the mechanisms underlying the barrier properties of SLG against O diffusion. The correlation between Cu oxide thickness and SLG quality are also analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measured on a non-uniform SLG film. SLG with large grains shows high performance in preventing the Cu oxidation due to moisture during ADT.

  8. Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Qing; Bindlish, Rajat; Cosh, Michael H.; Crow, Wade T.; deJeu, Richard; DeLannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Huffman, George J.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates from a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the study investigates soil moisture skill derived from (i) model forcing corrections based on large-scale, gauge- and satellite-based precipitation observations and (ii) assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Soil moisture skill is measured against in situ observations in the continental United States at 44 single-profile sites within the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) for which skillful AMSR-E retrievals are available and at four CalVal watersheds with high-quality distributed sensor networks that measure soil moisture at the scale of land model and satellite estimates. The average skill (in terms of the anomaly time series correlation coefficient R) of AMSR-E retrievals is R=0.39 versus SCAN and R=0.53 versus CalVal measurements. The skill of MERRA surface and root-zone soil moisture is R=0.42 and R=0.46, respectively, versus SCAN measurements, and MERRA surface moisture skill is R=0.56 versus CalVal measurements. Adding information from either precipitation observations or soil moisture retrievals increases surface soil moisture skill levels by IDDeltaR=0.06-0.08, and root zone soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.05-0.07. Adding information from both sources increases surface soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.13, and root zone soil moisture skill by DeltaR=0.11, demonstrating that precipitation corrections and assimilation of satellite soil moisture retrievals contribute similar and largely independent amounts of information.

  9. Soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoll, K. A.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    For soil moisture-climate feedbacks to occur, the soil moisture storage must have `memory' of past atmospheric anomalies. Quantifying soil moisture memory is, therefore, essential for mapping and characterizing land-atmosphere interactions globally. Most previous studies estimate soil moisture memory using metrics based on the autocorrelation function of the soil moisture time series (e.g., the e-folding autocorrelation time scale). This approach was first justified by Delworth and Manabe (1988) on the assumption that monthly soil moisture time series can be modelled as red noise. While this is a reasonable model for monthly soil moisture averages, at sub-monthly scales, the model is insufficient due to the highly non-Gaussian behavior of the precipitation forcing. Recent studies have shown that significant soil moisture-climate feedbacks appear to occur at sub-monthly time scales. Therefore, alternative metrics are required for defining and estimating soil moisture memory at these shorter time scales. In this study, we introduce metrics, based on the positive and negative increments of the soil moisture time series, that can be used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales. The positive increments metric corresponds to a rapid drainage time scale. The negative increments metric represents a slower drying time scale that is most relevant to the study of land-atmosphere interactions. We show that autocorrelation-based metrics mix the two time scales, confounding physical interpretation. The new metrics are used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly scales from in-situ and satellite observations of soil moisture. Reference: Delworth, Thomas L., and Syukuro Manabe. "The Influence of Potential Evaporation on the Variabilities of Simulated Soil Wetness and Climate." Journal of Climate 1, no. 5 (May 1, 1988): 523-47. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1988)0012.0.CO;2.

  10. Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. On moisture migration in a heated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    1985-10-01

    Transient moisture migration in a slab of porous concrete being heated at one surface was analyzed with consideration of evaporation and condensation effects. Analysis was made in the existence of non-condensable fluid (air). Since partial differential equations which describe the total system are very complicated, the existence of similar solution is assumed under the condition of low dry-wet interface temperature. Then, partial differential equations were transformed into ordinary differential equations. Solutions were obtained for two boundary conditions of a permeable outer surface and a impermeable outer surface. (author)

  12. Moisture transfer in a concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.L.D.; Siang, H.H.; Kirmser, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion theory with a linear or a nonlinear coefficient of diffusivity is insufficient for the characterization of the drying behaviour of hydrated concrete slabs. A general mathematical model, based on nonequilibrium, irreversible flows of heat and mass, yields a set of nonlinear partial differential equations of parabolic type. Implicit finite difference calculations for a concrete slab yield moisture, temperature, and pressure histories as well as global average drying rates. Graphs show that during the pendular state of dessication, diffusion, capillary, and evaporation-condensation processes are the governing mechanisms in drying. (orig.)

  13. Moisture-induced stresses in glulam frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Gislason, Oskar V

    2016-01-01

    by hand. Accordingly, there is a need for advanced computer tools to study how the long-term stress behaviour of timber structures is affected by creep and cyclic variations in climate. A beam model to simulate the overall hygro-mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of (inhomogeneous) glulam structures...... is presented. A two-dimensional transient, non-linear moisture transport model for wood is also developed and linked with this beam model. The combined models are used to study the long-term deformations and stresses in a curved frame structure exposed to both mechanical loading and cyclic climate conditions...

  14. Reducing the Influence of Soil Moisture on the Estimation of Clay from Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study Using Simulated PRISMA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Castaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture hampers the estimation of soil variables such as clay content from remote and proximal sensing data, reducing the strength of the relevant spectral absorption features. In the present study, two different strategies have been evaluated for their ability to minimize the influence of soil moisture on clay estimation by using soil spectra acquired in a laboratory and by simulating satellite hyperspectral data. Simulated satellite data were obtained according to the spectral characteristics of the forthcoming hyperspectral imager on board of the Italian PRISMA satellite mission. The soil datasets were split into four groups according to the water content. For each soil moisture level a prediction model was applied, using either spectral indices or partial least squares regression (PLSR. Prediction models were either specifically developed for the soil moisture level or calibrated using synthetically dry soil spectra, generated from wet soil data. Synthetically dry spectra were obtained using a new technique based on the effects caused by soil moisture on the optical spectrum from 400 to 2400 nm. The estimation of soil clay content, when using different prediction models according to soil moisture, was slightly more accurate as compared to the use of synthetically dry soil spectra, both employing clay indices and PLSR models. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the a priori knowledge of the soil moisture class can reduce the error of clay estimation when using hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as those that will be provided by the PRISMA satellite mission in the near future.

  15. A Novel Bias Correction Method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Soil Moisture: Retrieval Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bias correction is a very important pre-processing step in satellite data assimilation analysis, as data assimilation itself cannot circumvent satellite biases. We introduce a retrieval algorithm-specific and spatially heterogeneous Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV bias correction method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS soil moisture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to present the probabilistic presentation of SMOS soil moisture using retrieval ensembles. We illustrate that retrieval ensembles effectively mitigated the overestimation problem of SMOS soil moisture arising from brightness temperature errors over West Africa in a computationally efficient way (ensemble size: 12, no time-integration. In contrast, the existing method of Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF matching considerably increased the SMOS biases, due to the limitations of relying on the imperfect reference data. From the validation at two semi-arid sites, Benin (moderately wet and vegetated area and Niger (dry and sandy bare soils, it was shown that the SMOS errors arising from rain and vegetation attenuation were appropriately corrected by ensemble approaches. In Benin, the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs decreased from 0.1248 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.0678 m3/m3 for the proposed ensemble approach. In Niger, the RMSEs decreased from 0.14 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.045 m3/m3 for the ensemble approach.

  16. Effective moisture diffusivity, moisture sorption, thermo-physical properties and infrared drying kinetics of germinated paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan Tirawanichakul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and relative humidity (RH dependence of moisture sorption phenomena for agricultural products provide valuable information related to the thermodynamics of the system. So the equilibrium moisture contents (EMC, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and thermo-physical properties in terms of void fraction, specific heat capacity, and the apparent density of germinated non-waxy Suphanburi 1 paddy were evaluated. Five commonly cited EMC equations were fitted to the experimental data among temperatures of 40-60°C correlating with RH of 0-90%. The results showed that the modified GAB equation was the best function for describing experimental results while those evaluated thermo-physical properties depended on moisture content. To determine drying kinetics model, the simulated values using Midilli et al. (2002 model and Page’s model was the best fitting to exact drying kinetics values for infrared (IR and hot air (HA drying, respectively. Finally, the Deff value of paddy dried with IR and HA sources were also evaluated and the calculated Deff value of both HA and IR drying was in order of 10-9 m2/s.

  17. Digital neutron moisture meter for moisture determination in the cokes and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibovski, R.; Igel'ski, A.; Kiyanya, K.; Kiyanya, S.; Mnikh, Eh.; Sledzevski, R.; Verba, V.

    1979-01-01

    Description is given of the digital neutron moisture gage for measuring water content in coke or in dry building materials. The device can work independently with indication of the results to personnel carrying out control operation and adjustment of the process or as a part of an automated control system with supplying the results of measurements in a form of analogous signals or electric pulses in the preselected code. The moisture gage described consists of two units: measuring probes with containers and the desk with power supply and the system for digital processing of a radiometric signal. The measuring probe consists of the asotopic fast neutrons source; helium proportional counter of slow neutrons and a pulse amplifier. The probe is mounted in the bunker with the material measured and is located inside the protective tube made of the weare-resistant material. To obtain high accuracy of measurements and to obtain the measuring instrument's reading immediately in the units of moisture measurement, the digizal converter circuit for radiometric signals processing is used. The The digital converter circuit cited, can be applied to any calibration dependence of linear type with initial value. The block diagram of the device is given. The device described permits to measure the moisture content in the metallurgy coks and in the building materials in one minute and with the error not more than 0.5% [ru

  18. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  19. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  20. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation rates in molecular substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation rates have been studied in polymers and graphite-polymer composites as a function of their moisture content. The annihilation rates have been found to increase linearly with increasing moisture content in epoxies and polyamides, whereas no definite trends have been observed in polyimides. These experimental results have been used as the basis for the calculation of moisture content of several polymeric test specimens. For example, the directly measured moisture content of a Kevlar specimen was 45.5 + or - 5.0% of saturation value, whereas the moisture content on the basis of the decrease in positron lifetime was calculated to be 46.5 + or - 3.5%. Similarly, the directly measured moisture content of a graphite-epoxy composite (55 v/o fiber) was 19.2 + or - 0.6% of saturation value as opposed to a calculated value of 16.0 + or - 5.0%

  1. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation rates in molecular substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation rates have been studied in polymers and graphite-polymer composites as a function of their moisture content. The annihilation rates have been found to increase linearly with increasing moisture content in epoxies and polyamides, whereas no definite trends have been observed in the polymides. These experimental results have been used as the basis for the calculation of moisture content of several polymeric test specimens. For example, the directly measured moisture content of a Kevlar/epoxy specimen (55 v/o fiber) was 45.5 +- 5.0% of saturation value, whereas the moisture content on the basis of the decrease in positron lifetime was calculated to be 46.5 +- 3.5%. Similarly, the directly measured moisture content of a graphite/epoxy composite (55 v/o fiber) was 19.2 +- 0.6% of saturation value as opposed to a calculated value of 16.0 +- 5.0%. (orig.)

  2. Use of passive microwave remote sensing to monitor soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigneron, J.P.; Schmugge, T.; Chanzy, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Surface soil moisture is a key variable to describe the water and energy exchanges at the land surface/atmosphere interface. However, soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally. Passive microwave remotely sensed data have great potential for providing estimates of soil moisture with good temporal repetition (on a daily basis) and at regional scale (∼ 10 km). This paper reviews the various methods for remote sensing of soil moisture from microwave radiometric systems. Potential applications from both airborne and spatial observations are discussed in the fields of agronomy, hydrology and meteorology. Emphasis in this paper is given to relatively new aspects of microwave techniques and of temporal soil moisture information analysis. In particular, the aperture synthesis technique allows us now to a address the soil moisture information needs on a global basis, from space instruments. (author) [fr

  3. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While the effe......The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... an alternative basis for quantitative evaluation of interior moisture buffering by the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models. The presented methodology uses simple and fast measurements only and can also be applied to multimaterial and/or multidimensional interior elements....

  4. The neutronic method for measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchat, Ph.

    1967-01-01

    The three group diffusion theory being chosen as the most adequate method for determining the response of the neutron soil moisture probe, a mathematical model is worked out using a numerical calculation programme with Fortran IV coding. This model is fitted to the experimental conditions by determining the effect of different parameters of measuring device: channel, fast neutron source, detector, as also the soil behaviour under neutron irradiation: absorbers, chemical binding of elements. The adequacy of the model is tested by fitting a line through the image points corresponding to the couples of experimental and theoretical values, for seven media having different chemical composition: sand, alumina, line stone, dolomite, kaolin, sandy loam, calcareous clay. The model chosen gives a good expression of the dry density influence and allows α, β, γ and δ constants to be calculated for a definite soil according to the following relation which gives the count rate of the soil moisture probe: N = (α ρ s +β) H v +γ ρ s + δ. (author) [fr

  5. Quasi-geostrophic dynamics in the presence of moisture gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Joy M.; Sukhatme, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The derivation of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) system from the rotating shallow water equations on a midlatitude beta-plane coupled with moisture is presented. Condensation is prescribed to occur whenever the moisture at a point exceeds a prescribed saturation value. It is seen that a slow condensation time scale is required to obtain a consistent set of equations at leading order. Further, since the advecting wind fields are geostrophic, changes in moisture (and hence, precipitation) occur only ...

  6. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  7. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of red pepper seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 4.46, 3.66 and 0.79 mm, respectively, at 7.27% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed showed that the ...

  8. Use of Ultrasonic Technology for Soil Moisture Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Metzl, R.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Belisle, W.; Coleman, T.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve existing soil moisture measurement techniques or find new techniques using physics principles, a new technique is presented in this paper using ultrasonic techniques. It has been found that ultrasonic velocity changes as the moisture content changes. Preliminary values of velocities are 676.1 m/s in dry soil and 356.8 m/s in 100% moist soils. Intermediate values can be calibrated to give exact values for the moisture content in an unknown sample.

  9. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  10. Propagation of soil moisture memory into the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is known for its integrative behaviour and resulting memory characteristics. Associated anomalies can persist for weeks or even months into the future, making initial soil moisture an important potential component in weather forecasting. This is particularly crucial given the role of soil moisture for land-atmosphere interactions and its impacts on the water and energy balances on continents. We present here an analysis of the characteristics of soil moisture memory and of its propagation into runoff and evapotranspiration in Europe, based on available measurements from several sites across the continent and expanding a previous analysis focused on soil moisture [1]. We identify the main drivers of soil moisture memory at the analysed sites, as well as their role for the propagation of soil moisture persistence into runoff and evapotranspiration memory characteristics. We focus on temporal and spatial variations in these relationships and identify seasonal and latitudinal differences in the persistence of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff. Finally, we assess the role of these persistence characteristics for the development of agricultural and hydrological droughts. [1] Orth and Seneviratne: Analysis of soil moisture memory from observations in Europe; submitted to J. Geophysical Research.

  11. Propagation of soil moisture memory to runoff and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-10-01

    As a key variable of the land-climate system soil moisture is a main driver of runoff and evapotranspiration under certain conditions. Soil moisture furthermore exhibits outstanding memory (persistence) characteristics. Also for runoff many studies report distinct low frequency variations that represent a memory. Using data from over 100 near-natural catchments located across Europe we investigate in this study the connection between soil moisture memory and the respective memory of runoff and evapotranspiration on different time scales. For this purpose we use a simple water balance model in which dependencies of runoff (normalized by precipitation) and evapotranspiration (normalized by radiation) on soil moisture are fitted using runoff observations. The model therefore allows to compute memory of soil moisture, runoff and evapotranspiration on catchment scale. We find considerable memory in soil moisture and runoff in many parts of the continent, and evapotranspiration also displays some memory on a monthly time scale in some catchments. We show that the memory of runoff and evapotranspiration jointly depend on soil moisture memory and on the strength of the coupling of runoff and evapotranspiration to soil moisture. Furthermore we find that the coupling strengths of runoff and evapotranspiration to soil moisture depend on the shape of the fitted dependencies and on the variance of the meteorological forcing. To better interpret the magnitude of the respective memories across Europe we finally provide a new perspective on hydrological memory by relating it to the mean duration required to recover from anomalies exceeding a certain threshold.

  12. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 thermodynamic properties such as isosteric heat of sorption, sorption entropy, spreading pressure, net integral enthalpy and entropy. Net isosteric heat of sorption and differential entropy were evaluated through direct use of moisture isotherms by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and used to investigate the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. Both sorption enthalpy and entropy for desorption increase to a maximum with increasing moisture content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  13. Experiments on moisture form of concrete and adhesion of paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Daizo; Sumino, Masahiro

    1975-01-01

    It is necessary for radiation-resisting paints to adhere tightly to concrete in order to exhibit superior effects. As adhesion of paints to concrete is greatly affected by moisture content of concrete, this content is checked severely in the field. However, it may be considered that adhesion will be affected by the form of the moisture in the concrete also. Therefore, experiments were conducted with mortar to investigate the interrelations between pF-moisture content, moisture form and adhesion of paint. The following results were obtained: 1) Adhesion of paint becomes stronger as moisture content falls. 2) Adhesion strength of paint rises sharply until moisture content falls to a pF-value of 5.5 after which the strength is increased gradually until moisture content reaches pF of 7.0. 3) The pF-moisture content of 5.5 varies greatly depending on the mix proportions of mortar, but the form of moisture in such cases remains fixed and unchanged. (auth.)

  14. Influence of moisture content on radon diffusion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Ramola, R.C.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radon diffusion from soil has been studied as a function of the moisture content of the soil. A few simple experiments showed that up to a certain moisture content the radon diffusion increased with increasing moisture. A sharp rise in radon concentration occurred as the moisture was increased from the completely dry state to 13% water by weight. The radon flux was measured for columns of dry, moist and water saturated soil. The highest flux came from the column filled with moist soil. Water saturated soil gave the lowest flux because of the much lower diffusion coefficient of radon through water. (author)

  15. A neutron moisture system on nickel mineral transport rubber belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenbao; Su Tongling; Zhang Xiaomin

    2000-01-01

    A method of density-thickness joint compensation was developed to make the on-line measurement of moisture for moving irregular mineral materials. At the same time, the materials' thickness, as a weighted factor, was chosen to modify the prompt moisture in a fixed time and improve the accuracy of measuring moisture. The experimental data show that the measurement accuracy is better than 5% for a thickness of > 2 cm and a moisture of > 6%. The system has been running on the spot for about three months, with a result accorded with that by the stoving-weighing method

  16. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Macher, Janet M; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with one study reporting an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted OR of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  18. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based......The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture...

  19. A biomimic thermal fabric with high moisture permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture comfort is an essential factor for functional property of thermal cloth, especially for thick thermal cloth, since thick cloth may hinder effective moisture permeation, and high moisture concentration in the micro-climate between skin and fabric would cause cold feeling. Here, we report a biomimic thermal fabric with excellent warm retention and moisture management properties. In this fabric, the warp yarn system constructs many tree-shaped channel nets in the thickness direction of the fabric. Experimental result indicates that the special hierarchic configuration of warp yarns endows the biomimic thermal fabric with a better warm retention and water vapor management properties compared with the traditional fabrics.

  20. Development of the neutron technology for measuring the moisture content in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    According to measuring mode (in-hopper, surface, sampling neutron moisture gauge), the development and application of neutron moisture gauge in china were introduced, which include the following course from only measuring moisture content of soil to monitoring moisture content of farmland and saving water for irrigating farmland, from measuring moisture content of pellet to coke and coal material, from only measuring moisture content to computerized neutron moisture gauges with density compensation and o f high precision. (authors)

  1. Effect of size and moisture on the mechanical behavior of SU-8 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C. J.; Jonnalagadda, K. N.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical properties of SU-8 were investigated in conjunction with size effect, mechanical anisotropy and moisture absorption. Uniaxial tensile experiments were conducted on SU-8 films of 500 nm and 2 μm thickness. A spin coating process was used to fabricate the films with one set from a single coat (single layer) and the others containing multiple coats (multilayer) with pre-baking in between. The stress versus strain response was obtained from in situ optical experiments and a digital image correlation method. Compared to single layer films, the multilayer films showed a significant increase in mechanical properties as well as in-plane anisotropy. This anisotropy was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attributed to the spin coating process, which resulted in higher crosslinking density in the film, and molecular orientation in the radial direction. Moisture absorption studies revealed that the mechanical properties were affected by water, which exists in both the free and bonded form in the polymer and acts as a plasticizer. The effect of moisture was similar in both the single and multilayer films, but was higher for the latter due to multiple processing steps as well as the existence of higher percentage of epoxy polar groups.

  2. Effect of size and moisture on the mechanical behavior of SU-8 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, C J; Jonnalagadda, K N

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of SU-8 were investigated in conjunction with size effect, mechanical anisotropy and moisture absorption. Uniaxial tensile experiments were conducted on SU-8 films of 500 nm and 2 μm thickness. A spin coating process was used to fabricate the films with one set from a single coat (single layer) and the others containing multiple coats (multilayer) with pre-baking in between. The stress versus strain response was obtained from in situ optical experiments and a digital image correlation method. Compared to single layer films, the multilayer films showed a significant increase in mechanical properties as well as in-plane anisotropy. This anisotropy was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attributed to the spin coating process, which resulted in higher crosslinking density in the film, and molecular orientation in the radial direction. Moisture absorption studies revealed that the mechanical properties were affected by water, which exists in both the free and bonded form in the polymer and acts as a plasticizer. The effect of moisture was similar in both the single and multilayer films, but was higher for the latter due to multiple processing steps as well as the existence of higher percentage of epoxy polar groups. (paper)

  3. Radiometric measurement of ceramic material moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominek, A.; Sojka, J.; Votava, P.

    1975-01-01

    Water content measurement using a neutron moisture meter has a long tradition in the CSSR. The method of water content determination using neutron and gamma radiation was developed by the Research Institute of Building Materials in Brno for a number of materials, as e.g. coke, brown coal semi-coke, anthracite, glass sand, dolomite, soda, gravel, aggregates, cement sludge, slag, brick clay, intermediate products of the ceramics industry, refractory building materials, etc. The water content measurement of ceramic materials for the manufacture of wall tiles was performed in a special equipment by detection of the slowed-down neutrons with an accuracy of +-0.6% water (within the range from 5 to 11%) and of materials for the manufacture of floor tiles by means of neutron and gamma radiation with an accuracy of +-0.4% water (within the range from 5 to 8%). (author)

  4. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  5. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  6. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Use of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) in Passive Microwave Algorithms for Soil Moisture Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will provide a unique opportunity for the estimation of soil moisture by having simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements available. As with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the soil moisture algorithms will need to account for the contribution of vegetation to the brightness temperature. Global maps of vegetation volumetric water content (VWC) are difficult to obtain, and the SMOS mission has opted to estimate the optical depth of standing vegetation by using a relationship between the VWC and the leaf area index (LAI). LAI is estimated from optical remote sensing or through soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. During the growing season, the VWC of agricultural crops can increase rapidly, and if cloud cover exists during an optical acquisition, the estimation of LAI may be delayed, resulting in an underestimation of the VWC and overestimation of the soil moisture. Alternatively, the radar vegetation index (RVI) has shown strong correlation and linear relationship with VWC for rice and soybeans. Using the SMAP radar to produce RVI values that are coincident to brightness temperature measurements may eliminate the need for LAI estimates. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was a cal/val campaign for the SMAP mission held in Manitoba, Canada, during a 6-week period in June and July, 2012. During this campaign, soil moisture measurements were obtained for 55 fields with varying soil texture and vegetation cover. Vegetation was sampled from each field weekly to determine the VWC. Soil moisture measurements were taken coincident to overpasses by an aircraft carrying the Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrumentation. The aircraft flew flight lines at both high and low altitudes. The low altitude flight lines provided a footprint size approximately equivalent to the size of the SMAPVEX12 field sites. Of the 55 field sites, the low altitude flight lines provided

  8. The error analysis of coke moisture measured by neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Huixing

    1995-01-01

    The error of coke moisture measured by neutron method in the iron and steel industry is analyzed. The errors are caused by inaccurate sampling location in the calibration procedure on site. By comparison, the instrument error and the statistical fluctuation error are smaller. So the sampling proportion should be increased as large as possible in the calibration procedure on site, and a satisfied calibration effect can be obtained on a suitable size hopper

  9. Sources of Sahelian-Sudan moisture: Insights from a moisture-tracing atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Tjernström, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The summer rainfall across Sahelian-Sudan is one of the main sources of water for agriculture, human, and animal needs. However, the rainfall is characterized by large interannual variability, which has attracted extensive scientific efforts to understand it. This study attempts to identify the source regions that contribute to the Sahelian-Sudan moisture budget during July through September. We have used an atmospheric general circulation model with an embedded moisture-tracing module (Community Atmosphere Model version 3), forced by observed (1979-2013) sea-surface temperatures. The result suggests that about 40% of the moisture comes with the moisture flow associated with the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and originates from Guinea Coast, central Africa, and the Western Sahel. The Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Peninsula, and South Indian Ocean regions account for 10.2%, 8.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Local evaporation and the rest of the globe supply the region with 20.3% and 13.2%, respectively. We also compared the result from this study to a previous analysis that used the Lagrangian model FLEXPART forced by ERA-Interim. The two approaches differ when comparing individual regions, but are in better agreement when neighboring regions of similar atmospheric flow features are grouped together. Interannual variability with the rainfall over the region is highly correlated with contributions from regions that are associated with the ITCZ movement, which is in turn linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Our result is expected to provide insights for the effort on seasonal forecasting of the rainy season over Sahelian Sudan.

  10. Use of Edible Laminate Layers in Intermediate Moisture Food Rations to Inhibit Moisture Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Strike Ration and Meal, Ready-to- Eat (MRE), moisture migration from one part of a component (e.g., sandwich filling) to another (e.g., bread...to improve sensory qualities in commercial products. For example, edible films are currently used in frozen pizza, in microwave dinners , in ready...to- eat ice cream novelties, and as a replacement for seaweed in sushi. 2  These edible barriers are not directly applicable to military uses, so

  11. Internal and external moisture transport resistance during non-stationary adsorption of moisture into wood

    OpenAIRE

    Bučar, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that non-stationary sorption processes associated with wood canbe evaluated by analysis of their transient system response to the disturbance developed is undoubtedly correct. In general it is, in fact, possible to obtain by time analysis of the transient phenomenon - involving the transition into an arbitrary new state of equilibrium - all data required for a credible evaluation of the observed system. Evaluation of moisture movement during drying or moistening requires determ...

  12. Effects of neutron source type on soil moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving Goldberg; Norman A. MacGillivray; Robert R. Ziemer

    1967-01-01

    A number of radioisotopes have recently become commercially available as alternatives to radium-225 in moisture gauging devices using alpha-neutron sources for determining soil moisture, for well logging, and for other industrial applications in which hydrogenous materials are measured.

  13. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  14. An integrated GIS application system for soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Shen, Runping; Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunxiang

    2014-11-01

    The gaps in knowledge and existing challenges in precisely describing the land surface process make it critical to represent the massive soil moisture data visually and mine the data for further research.This article introduces a comprehensive soil moisture assimilation data analysis system, which is instructed by tools of C#, IDL, ArcSDE, Visual Studio 2008 and SQL Server 2005. The system provides integrated service, management of efficient graphics visualization and analysis of land surface data assimilation. The system is not only able to improve the efficiency of data assimilation management, but also comprehensively integrate the data processing and analysis tools into GIS development environment. So analyzing the soil moisture assimilation data and accomplishing GIS spatial analysis can be realized in the same system. This system provides basic GIS map functions, massive data process and soil moisture products analysis etc. Besides,it takes full advantage of a spatial data engine called ArcSDE to effeciently manage, retrieve and store all kinds of data. In the system, characteristics of temporal and spatial pattern of soil moiture will be plotted. By analyzing the soil moisture impact factors, it is possible to acquire the correlation coefficients between soil moisture value and its every single impact factor. Daily and monthly comparative analysis of soil moisture products among observations, simulation results and assimilations can be made in this system to display the different trends of these products. Furthermore, soil moisture map production function is realized for business application.

  15. The global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Konings, Alexandra G.; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Surface soil moisture has a direct impact on food security, human health and ecosystem function. It also plays a key role in the climate system, and the development and persistence of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods and heatwaves. However, sparse and uneven observations have made it difficult to quantify the global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture. Here we introduce a metric of soil moisture memory and use a full year of global observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to show that surface soil moisture--a storage believed to make up less than 0.001% of the global freshwater budget by volume, and equivalent to an, on average, 8-mm thin layer of water covering all land surfaces--plays a significant role in the water cycle. Specifically, we find that surface soil moisture retains a median 14% of precipitation falling on land after three days. Furthermore, the retained fraction of the surface soil moisture storage after three days is highest over arid regions, and in regions where drainage to groundwater storage is lowest. We conclude that lower groundwater storage in these regions is due not only to lower precipitation, but also to the complex partitioning of the water cycle by the surface soil moisture storage layer at the land surface.

  16. Effects of moisture on the mechanical properties of glass fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of moisture absorption and correlating with the mechanical properties, it was observed that the ..... where F is the flux of moisture molecules crossing a unit ... 300. 400. 500. 600. 700 wt% of nascent fibre loading. 63.50. 55.75. 48.48. 38.63.

  17. Determination of moisture in bagasse by neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Suarez, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in Cuba organic samples were analyzed by neutron reflection method. The feasibility of this method to determinate the moisture grade in sugar cane bagasse is fixed. From 0 to 50w% moisture grade with 2-3% relative accuracy can be determinated using 10m. measuring time. 7 refs

  18. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  19. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a low cost, simple digital soil moisture meter, working on the principle of dielectric. A digital soil moisture meter using the NE555 timer and micro controller as a major electronic component was developed and tested, which display its output in a range of 0.0 to 99% on the 7-segment displayed unit.

  20. Brown Boveri moves to fourth generation MSRs [moisture separator reheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckh, P. von

    1987-01-01

    The fourth, space saving, generation of moisture separator reheaters from Brown Boveri and Cie (BBC) consists of two types of high velocity moisture separators, 'Mops' and 'Scrups', and the small size reheater, 'Road' . The design of the unit is described, together with operational experience. (author)

  1. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  2. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  3. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  4. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  5. Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Continuous observation data collected over the year 2008 at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram in south Kerala (76° 59′E longitude and 8° 30′N latitude) are used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal soil moisture variations. The effect of rainfall on diurnal and seasonal soil moisture is discussed.

  6. Effects of moisture on the mechanical properties of glass fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the properties were relatively inferior when treated with boiling water for longer hours attributing to ingress of moisture by capillary action through the interface between the fibre and the resin matrix. Considering the rates of moisture absorption and correlating with the mechanical properties, it was observed that the ...

  7. Influence of moisture stress on growth, dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of moisture stress were evaluated in four Indigofera species (I. amorphoides, I. arrecta, I. coerulea and I. vicioides) using a pot experiment under glasshouse conditions. The aim was to examine the influence of moisture-deficit stress on physiological attributes and performance of the four Indigofera species.

  8. 24 CFR 3285.204 - Ground moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground moisture control. 3285.204 Section 3285.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... moisture control. (a) Vapor retarder. If the space under the home is to be enclosed with skirting or other...

  9. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  10. Influence of Inherent Moisture Content on the Deformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Inherent Moisture Content on the Deformation. Properties of Coconut Tissues During Mechanical Oil. Expression. *J. J. Mpagalile1 and B. Clarke2. 1Department of ... The study confirmed that moisture content has an important role in the deformation of coconut ..... A micro penetration technique for mechanical.

  11. Short Communications Sand moisture as a factor determining depth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-11-05

    Nov 5, 1993 ... The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly. determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into totally dry sand. Animals alter their position in the sand in response to changes in moisture content so as to ensure exposure to suitable conditions.

  12. Moisture transport over the brick/mortar interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Pel, L.

    1995-01-01

    The moisture transport in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and combined brick/mortar samples was studied using NMR. The experimental results show that the mortar is less permeable if it is cured bonded to the brick instead of cured separately. Models of the moisture transport are usually

  13. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  14. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  15. Use of soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of soil moisture sensing devices have been developed and are commercially available for water management applications. Each type of soil moisture sensors has its advantages and shortcomings in terms of accuracy, reliability, and cost. Resistive and capacitive based sensors, and time-d...

  16. A Technical Design Approach to Soil Moisture Content Measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil moisture is an important type of data in many fields; ranging from agriculture to environmental monitoring. Three soil samples were collected at definite proportions to represent the three basic soil types (sandy, loamy and clay soils). The moisture contents of these soil samples were analyzed using the thermogravimetric ...

  17. Moisture Sorption in Artificially aged wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kristoffer Segerholm; Rebecca E. Ibach; Magnus E.P. Wålinder

    2012-01-01

    Moisture sorption in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) affects their durability and dimensional stability. In certain outdoor exposures, the moisture properties of WPCs are altered due to e.g. cracks induced by swelling and shrinkage of the components, as well as UV degradation or biological attack. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different artificial...

  18. Determination of the moisture capacity of porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmeliet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The moisture capacity, which is required to solve the isothermal moisture transport equation, is generally expressed by parametric functions covering both the hygroscopic and over-hygroscopic regime. The modality or number of analytical functions needed to describe the corresponding pore volume

  19. A new method of determining moisture gradient in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai

    2008-01-01

    Moisture gradient in wood and wood composites is one of most important factors that affects both physical stability and mechanical performance. This paper describes a method for measuring moisture gradient in lumber and engineering wood composites as it varies across material thickness. This innovative method employs a collimated radiation beam (x rays or [gamma] rays...

  20. Soil moisture remote sensing: State of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellites (e.g., SMAP, SMOS) using passive microwave techniques, in particular at L band frequency, have shown good promise for global mapping of near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture at a spatial resolution of 25-40 km and temporal resolution of 2-3 days. C- and X-band soil moisture records date bac...

  1. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling) due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to

  2. Continuous moisture measurement in metallurgical coke with automatic charge correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzke, H.; Mehlhose, D.

    1981-01-01

    A process control system has been developed for automatic batching of the coke amount necessary for metallurgical processes taking into account the moisture content. The measurement is performed with a neutron moisture gage consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 counter. The output information of the counter is used for computer-controlled batching

  3. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining almond kernel moisture content while still in the shell is important for both almond growers and processors. A dielectric method was developed for almond kernel moisture determination from dielectric measurements on in-shell almonds at a single microwave frequency. A sample holder was fi...

  4. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances...

  5. On-line determination of moisture in coal and coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The CSIRO Division of Mineral Engineering is developing various techniques for the on-line determination of moisture in coal and coke, and some instruments are now commercially available. These techniques permit accurate and rapid determination of moisture in materials directly on conveyor belts or in bins. The most promising techniques for direct on-belt measurement of moisture in coal are capacitance and microwave transmission. A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter technique has determined moisture in coal to better than 0.5 wt% in field tests. CSIRO is developing a fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission technique, which is proving very accurate in laboratory tests. This technique overcomes many of the limitations of thermal neutrons moisture gauges

  6. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick’s second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  7. Divergent surface and total soil moisture projections under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis; Sheffield, Justin; Milly, Paul C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Land aridity has been projected to increase with global warming. Such projections are mostly based on off-line aridity and drought metrics applied to climate model outputs but also are supported by climate-model projections of decreased surface soil moisture. Here we comprehensively analyze soil moisture projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, including surface, total, and layer-by-layer soil moisture. We identify a robust vertical gradient of projected mean soil moisture changes, with more negative changes near the surface. Some regions of the northern middle to high latitudes exhibit negative annual surface changes but positive total changes. We interpret this behavior in the context of seasonal changes in the surface water budget. This vertical pattern implies that the extensive drying predicted by off-line drought metrics, while consistent with the projected decline in surface soil moisture, will tend to overestimate (negatively) changes in total soil water availability.

  8. Guidelines on the prevention of built-in moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of built-in-moisture, a number of buildings in Denmark were attacked by moulds even before the users moved in. Therefore, the Danish Building Regulations have since 2008 stipulated that building structures and materials must not, on moving in, have a moisture content that is liable...... the execution phase and the building’s capacity to withstand moisture. It also specifies how moisture should be dealt with in the general quality assurance system of the building industry. The Danish guideline is compared with similar guidelines and tools in other Nordic countries. The education of moisture...... specialists is emphasised and it is questioned whether a voluntary guideline will have the desired effect....

  9. Moisture distribution in the stone portal of a church: how it influences the salt accumulation in porous limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Galambos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    Mathias Church of Budapest (Hungary) is an emblematic stone monument that represents various phases of constructions from Medieval period to the early 20th century. The church is found at the elevated Castle Hill and forms a landmark at the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Budapest. Its main construction material is porous Miocene limestone. Besides porous limestone travertine was also extensively used. The current study focuses on the Medieval Gate of the church which encompasses richly decorated porous limestone ornaments. The gate is now sheltered and form an interior portal of the church. It shows various forms of stone decay. The most striking one is efflorescence of salts. This feature has become more intense in the past years leading to flaking and granular disintegration of the limestone, causing damage to the monument. This study focuses on the detection of moisture content within the stone structure and its role in the salt accumulation. To obtain this goal in situ moisture measurements were made along vertical profiles by a portable moisture detector (Gann-Hydromette). It allowed outlining the moisture distribution within the studied structure. The moisture measurement was combined with sampling of salt efflorescence and porous limestone of the gate, itself. The samples were tested by optical microscopy. Conductivity, salt content and main elements were also detected from solutions. Mineralogical composition was recorded by XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. Magnesium-sulphates were found to be the main salts responsible for damages. Besides sulphates chlorides were also detected. Gypsum was also found in the weathering crusts of the previously exposed limestone surfaces. It accumulated in black crusts but was also detected in white efflorescence and below the stone surface. The salt distribution clearly correlates with the moisture content. The financial support of NKFI Fund (ref. no. K 116532) is appreciated.

  10. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  11. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  12. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  13. Free-Tropospheric Moisture Convergence and Tropical Convective Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is known that quiescent periods with only shallow cumuli prevalent are frequently observed even in the deep Tropics, which is considered from the climatological perspectives as an area harboring vigorous deep convection. It is argued in this work that the free-tropospheric (FT) moisture convergence is a crucial factor for separating the stable maintenance of isolated shallow cumuli in the quiescent periods from the self-sustaining growth of organized convective systems in the dynamic periods over tropical oceans. The analysis is based on a variety of satellite measurements including Aqua AIRS T and q soundings and QuikSCAT surface wind, composited with reference to the time before or after the occurrence of precipitating clouds detected by TRMM PR. The FT moisture convergence and updraft moisture flux at cloud base are then derived from this dataset under large-scale moisture budget constraint (see Figure). Free-tropospheric precipitation efficiency (FTPE), or the ratio of precipitation to updraft moisture flux at cloud base, is introduced as a measure of convective intensity (rather than the population) over the large-scale domain. The following hypothesis is discussed in light of the analysis results. Isolated shallow cumuli would stay shallow when large-scale FT moisture is diverging (although moisture is weakly converging when integrated over the whole troposphere) since an increase in cumulus population would be counteracted by an additional moisture divergence in the FT. When large-scale FT convergence is positive, in contrast, developing clouds would induce a more moisture input and allow an unstable growth to a highly organized convective system. Zero FT moisture convergence may serve as the neutrality separating the negative feedback acting in the quiescent regime from the positive feedback instrumental for the dynamic regime.

  14. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  15. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  16. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  17. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage time, grain processing (whole vs. rolled) and the combination of phytase, xylanase, β-glucanase and protease on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) solubility during high moisture airtight (HMA) storage of barley and triticale at various...... moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  18. Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...

  19. An introduction to NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huaian; Jiang Yulan; Yin Xilin; Yu Peiying; Luo Pinjie

    1988-01-01

    NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage is an accurate instrument which can measure earth moisture rapidly and non-destructively and display moisture results immediately. The deviation is estimated at ±0.012g/cm

  20. Moisture distribution in sludges based on different testing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi Deng; Xiaodong Li; Jianhua Yan; Fei Wang; Yong Chi; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Moisture distributions in municipal sewage sludge, printing and dyeing sludge and paper mill sludge were experimentally studied based on four different methods, i.e., drying test, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test, thermogravimetricdifferential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) test and water activity test. The results indicated that the moistures in the mechanically dewatered sludges were interstitial water, surface water and bound water. The interstitial water accounted for more than 50% wet basis (wb) of the total moisture content. The bond strength of sludge moisture increased with decreasing moisture content, especially when the moisture content was lower than 50% wb. Furthermore, the comparison among the four different testing methods was presented.The drying test was advantaged by its ability to quantify free water, interstitial water, surface water and bound water; while TG-DSC test, TG-DTA test and water activity test were capable of determining the bond strength of moisture in sludge. It was found that the results from TG-DSC and TG-DTA test are more persuasive than water activity test.

  1. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  2. Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates

  3. Package selection for moisture protection for solid, oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; MacDonald, Bruce C

    2010-11-01

    This review describes how best to select the appropriate packaging options for solid, oral drug products based on both chemical and physical stability, with respect to moisture protection. This process combines an accounting for the initial moisture content of dosage form components, moisture transfer into (out of) packaging based on a moisture vapor transfer rate (MVTR), and equilibration between drug products and desiccants based on their moisture sorption isotherms to provide an estimate of the instantaneous relative humidity (RH) within the packaging. This time-based RH is calculationally combined with a moisture-sensitive Arrhenius equation (determined using the accelerated stability assessment program, ASAP) to predict the drug product's chemical stability over time as a function of storage conditions and packaging options. While physical stability of dosage forms with respect to moisture has been less well documented, a process is recommended based on the threshold RH at which changes (e.g., dosage form dissolution, tablet hardness, drug form) become problematic. The overall process described allows packaging to be determined for a drug product scientifically, with the effect of any changes to storage conditions or packaging to be explicitly accounted for. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  4. Moisture damage and asthma: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Korppi, Matti; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra I; Remes, Sami; Genuneit, Jon; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-03-01

    Excess moisture and visible mold are associated with increased risk of asthma. Only a few studies have performed detailed home visits to characterize the extent and location of moisture damage and mold growth. Structured home inspections were performed in a birth cohort study when the children were 5 months old (on average). Children (N = 398) were followed up to the age of 6 years. Specific immunoglobulin E concentrations were determined at 6 years. Moisture damage and mold at an early age in the child's main living areas (but not in bathrooms or other interior spaces) were associated with the risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma ever, persistent asthma, and respiratory symptoms during the first 6 years. Associations with asthma ever were strongest for moisture damage with visible mold in the child's bedroom (adjusted odds ratio: 4.82 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-18.02]) and in the living room (adjusted odds ratio: 7.51 [95% confidence interval: 1.49-37.83]). Associations with asthma ever were stronger in the earlier part of the follow-up and among atopic children. No consistent associations were found between moisture damage with or without visible mold and atopic sensitization. Moisture damage and mold in early infancy in the child's main living areas were associated with asthma development. Atopic children may be more susceptible to the effects of moisture damage and mold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  6. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  7. Use of moisture probes in building materials industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, L.

    A neutron probe to be built in the production line was developed for monitoring moisture content of bulk materials and suspensions of all types in the building material industry. The probe is dust- and external moisture-protected. The probe measuring capacity is about 100 l, the mean measurement error is +- 0.008 g water per 1 cm 3 , which for fine sand represents an error of +- 0.3%. The probe is connected via a cable to a measuring instrument showing an electrical value proportional to the measured material moisture content. (Z.M.)

  8. Moisture buffering and its consequence in whole building hygrothermal modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Moisture absorption and desorption of materials in contact with indoor air of buildings can be used as a passive, i.e., nonmechanical, way to moderate the variation of indoor humidity. This phenomenon, which is recognized as,moisture buffering', could potentially be used as an attractive feature...... for ventilation if indoor humidity is a parameter for controlling ventilation rate, 2. it is possible to improve the perceived acceptability of indoor air, as judged by the temperature and humidity of the air, by using moisture buffering to control the indoor humidity. The results of the whole building...

  9. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  10. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

  11. Optical Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Damien; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical computing architectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical computing, as well as some of the computational efficiencies of optical devices. We go on to discuss optical computing from the point of view of computational complexity theory, with the aim of putting some old, and some very recent, re...

  12. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  13. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shaffer, M. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  14. New calibration algorithms for dielectric-based microwave moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    New calibration algorithms for determining moisture content in granular and particulate materials from measurement of the dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency are proposed. The algorithms are based on identifying empirically correlations between the dielectric properties and the par...

  15. Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... moisture content and reduced with increasing roasting duration. Analysis of ... Within the studied range, 13 h was the minimum OS recorded while maximum were 63.3 h.

  16. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation spectra in nylon-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Clair, T.L.S.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Positron annihilation time spectra have been measured in nylon-6 specimens as a function of their moisture content. The measured average longlife component lifetime values are: 1722 +- 47 ps (dry), 1676 +- 40 ps (14.6% saturation value), 1718 +- 26 ps (29.3% saturation value), 1720 +- 35 ps (50% of saturation value), 1857 +- 35 ps (78.1% of saturation value) and 1936 +- 57 ps (saturated). It is noted that the longlife component lifetime at first decreases and then increases with increasing moisture content in the specimens. This behavior is quite different from that observed in earlier studies of various epoxy, polyamide, and polyimide materials, where the longlife component lifetime decreased linearly with increasing moisture content. The longlife component intensity on the other hand, decreases steadily as the moisture content increases from 0 to 100% of the saturation value. A possible explanation for these anomalous features is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Molecular Sensors for Moisture Detection by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, F.; Souza, P. A. de; Klingelhoefer, G.; Goodwin, H. A.

    2002-01-01

    A parameter of importance in various industrial and commercial applications is sensitivity to moisture. A new class of molecular sensors which enable the qualitative and quantitative determination of air moisture (high selectivity and sensitivity) by application of Moessbauer spectroscopy as the probe technique has been investigated. The electronic properties of the iron-containing sensor depend upon the presence of moisture which is taken up by it and this process is accompanied by a change in electronic spin ground state which can be detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The sensor is suitable for in-field and industrial application using the recently developed Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II. Possible suitability for the detection of moisture in extraterrestrial environments is considered.

  18. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete......Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly...

  19. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  20. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to draw some conclusions on the magnitude of moisture transport due to temperature gradient on a range of porous light-weight building materials. A special constructed non-isothermal set-up allowed the creation of a temperature gradient of 10K...... and given humidity gradient over the sample. The resulting moisture ux as well as the hygrothermal states around and within the material were monitored. The hypothesis of relative humidity being a driving force for non-isothermal moisture transport already in the hygroscopic range could not be confirmed....... On the contrary, indications exist that the temperature gradient itself is driving the moisture from the warm side towards the cold side. An attempt to identify and quantify the single contributions of the different transport forms involved is also presented. The diferent results gave, however, diverging...

  1. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass ( C. dactylon ) and switchgrass ( P. virgatum ) in mixture with alfalfa ( M. sativa ) or treated with urea and plantain ( Musa AAB )

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought and Crop Moisture Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Palmer Drought Severity and Crop Moisture Indices are computed for the 344 U.S. Climate Divisions on a weekly basis based on a...

  3. Use of nondestructive evaluation to detect moisture in flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the currently available nondestructive evaluation technology that holds the greatest potential to detect moisture in flexible pavements and then apply the technology in multiple locations throughout Virginia....

  4. IR transmittance of moisture-resistant germanate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocharova, T.V.; Karapetyan, G.O. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the infrared spectra of gallogermante glasses and develop methods of improving their moisture resistance while retaining transparency. The ion exchange properties had been previously investigated.

  5. Determination of moisture in fiber reinforced composites using pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkanin, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from hydrogen atoms in two organic matrix composite systems subjected to environmental conditioning at 51.6 C (125 F) and 95% relative humidity were examined. The composites were 8 ply, + or - 45 deg laminates fabricated from SP 250 resin/S2 glass fiber and Reliabond 9350 resin/Kevlar 49 fiber. Free induction decay NMR signals from the composite specimens consisted of a large amplitude, fast decaying component associated with hydrogen in rigid polymer molecules and a lower amplitude, slower decaying component associated with hydrogen in the mobile absorbed moisture molecules. The absorbed moisture NMR signals consists of distinct multiple components which were attributed to moisture in various states of molecular binding. Particularly complex free induction decay signals were observed from Kevlar composite as well as from Kevlar fiber. Good correlation was obtained between the NMR signal amplitude and the dry weight moisture percentage for both composite systems. Results of destructive tensile tests were examined

  6. Moisture dependence of positron lifetime in Kevlar-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Holt, William H.; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Because of filamentary character of Kevlar-49 aramid fibers, there is some concern about the moisture uptake and its effect on plastic composites reinforced with Kevlar-49 fibers. As part of continuing studies of positron lifetime in polymers, we have measured positron lifetime spectra in Kevlar-49 fibers as a function of their moisture content. The long lifetime component intensities are rather low, being only of the order of 2-3 percent. The measured values of long component lifetimes at various moisture levels in the specimens are as follows: 2072 +/- 173 ps (dry); 2013 +/- 193 ps (20.7 percent saturation); 1665 +/- 85 ps (25.7 percent saturation); 1745 +/- 257 ps (32.1 percent saturation); and 1772 +/- 217 ps (100 percent saturation). It is apparent that the long component lifetime at first decreases and then increases as the specimen moisture content increases. These results have been compared with those inferred from Epon-815 and Epon-815/K-49 composite data.

  7. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  8. Development of density and moisture gauge by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelaviraj, V.; Karasuddhi, P.; Banchornthevakal, V.; Punyachaiya, S.

    1981-08-01

    A combined soil moisture/density gauge using nuclear technique was developed. Simultaneous density and moisture measurements can take place by means of gamma and neutron sources which are attached to the moisture probe. Backscattered gamma radiation giving information on density is detected by a G.M. counter while slow neutron radiation containing moisture information is detected by a boron-lined proportional counter. The instrument makes use of a 30 mCi americium 241-beryllium neutron source and a 10 mCi cesium 137 gamma source. The instrument was calibrated using soil and sand filled in a 200 litre-barrel in laboratory and field work which was carried out to check the correctness of the calibration curves. (author)

  9. Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of cassava roots ... after harvest coupled with non-‐availability of acceptable storage alternatives. ... the properties simultaneously based on the transient line heat source method.

  10. Soil moisture determination with Tesla NZK 203 neutron gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hally, J.

    1977-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured using the NZK 203 neutron probe manufactured by Tesla Premysleni. The individual measuring sites were spaced at a distance of 100 m. The NZK 203 set consists of a NPK 202 moisture gage and a NSK 301 scintillation detector and features the following specifications: moisture density measuring range 20 to 500 kg/m 3 , 241 Am-Be fast neutron source having a neutron flux of 7.5x10 4 n.sec -1 +-10%, operating temperature -10 to +45 degC. The measured counting rate was primarily affected by the statistical fluctuation of ionizing radiation and by instrument instability. In order that these effects should be limited each measurement was repeated 10 times with the optimum measurement time at an interval of 20 to 100 sec. The NZK 203 Tesla set was proven to be suitable for rapid and reproducible determination of moisture profiles. (J.P.)

  11. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  12. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  13. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  14. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  15. The neutron probe and the detection of soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, G.; Morgenschweis, G.

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a brief outline of the direct and indirect field methods used at present in soil moisture measurement; particularly the advantages and disadvantages of neutron diffusion measurement are illustrated by means of various types of instruments available. The recently developed Wellingford Neutron Moisture Probe IH II, used for hydrological and pedohydrological fieldwork respectively, is presented and the first test results concerning the handling, measuring time, measured volume and layer thickness are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  17. Development of an Objective High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; White, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drought detection, analysis, and mitigation has become a key challenge for a diverse set of decision makers, including but not limited to operational weather forecasters, climatologists, agricultural interests, and water resource management. One tool that is heavily used is the United States Drought Monitor (USDM), which is derived from a complex blend of objective data and subjective analysis on a state-by-state basis using a variety of modeled and observed precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic, and vegetation and crop health data. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center currently runs a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The LIS-Noah is run at 3-km resolution for local numerical weather prediction (NWP) and situational awareness applications at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices over the Continental U.S. (CONUS). To enhance the practicality of the LIS-Noah output for drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, a 30+-year soil moisture climatology has been developed in an attempt to place near real-time soil moisture values in historical context at county- and/or watershed-scale resolutions. This LIS-Noah soil moisture climatology and accompanying anomalies is intended to complement the current suite of operational products, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2), which are generated on a coarser-resolution grid that may not capture localized, yet important soil moisture features. Daily soil moisture histograms are used to identify the real-time soil moisture percentiles at each grid point according to the county or watershed in which the grid point resides. Spatial plots are then produced that map the percentiles as proxies to the different USDM categories. This presentation will highlight recent developments of this gridded, objective soil moisture index, comparison to subjective

  18. Determination of moisture content in hard coals using microwave meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Kopec, M.; Turek, B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of hard-coal moisture-content measurements, performed with the aid of the ZAM-WILMER microwave meter are presented. Over 80 ground coal samples, weighing 1.5 kg (approx.) each, were examined. The moisture content values ranged from 0 to 15 wt%, with the mean standard error being equal to 0.8 wt%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  19. Moisture transfer across the interface between brick and mortar joint

    OpenAIRE

    Derluyn, Hannelore; Moonen, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental and modelling work on moisture transport in masonry, with special attention to the liquid transport across the interface between brick and mortar joint. Experiments and simulations reveal that two aspects need to be taken into account: (1) the dependence of moisture transport properties on the curing of the mortar; (2) the presence of a hydraulic interface resistance between brick and mortar. The resistance is due to imperfect contact between brick and morta...

  20. Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oentarini Tjandra; Linda J Wijayadi; Marcella E Rumawas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin c...

  1. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  2. Quantifying soil moisture impacts on light use efficiency across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Zscheischler, Jakob; Keenan, Trevor F; Prentice, I Colin; Peñuelas, Josep; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2018-06-01

    Terrestrial primary productivity and carbon cycle impacts of droughts are commonly quantified using vapour pressure deficit (VPD) data and remotely sensed greenness, without accounting for soil moisture. However, soil moisture limitation is known to strongly affect plant physiology. Here, we investigate light use efficiency, the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to absorbed light. We derive its fractional reduction due to soil moisture (fLUE), separated from VPD and greenness changes, using artificial neural networks trained on eddy covariance data, multiple soil moisture datasets and remotely sensed greenness. This reveals substantial impacts of soil moisture alone that reduce GPP by up to 40% at sites located in sub-humid, semi-arid or arid regions. For sites in relatively moist climates, we find, paradoxically, a muted fLUE response to drying soil, but reduced fLUE under wet conditions. fLUE identifies substantial drought impacts that are not captured when relying solely on VPD and greenness changes and, when seasonally recurring, are missed by traditional, anomaly-based drought indices. Counter to common assumptions, fLUE reductions are largest in drought-deciduous vegetation, including grasslands. Our results highlight the necessity to account for soil moisture limitation in terrestrial primary productivity data products, especially for drought-related assessments. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  4. Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally (Selaroides leptolepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phomajun, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally was studied. The optimal time (8, 12, 16, 20 hrs. for curing marinade was investigated. The effects of different humectants (glycerol, sorbitol, lactitol, glucose syrup at 50% w/w of curing ingredients were compared. Results showed that moisture content and water activity of cured yellowstrip trevally decreased as curing time increased (p0.05. However, the hardness of intermediate moisture Yellowstrip trevally, determined by texture analyzer, decreased. Hardness, shear force, L a b value of sample added with various humectants were lower than those of the control (p0.05. The glycerol-added samples had the highest overall acceptability score and were higher than control, whereas the glucose syrup-added samples had the lowest score. Moisture content of the samples with the addition of various humectants was higher than that of the control (18.28 %. The samples added with glycerol retained the highest moisture (24.94%. The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium moisture of sample added with glycerol was higher than that added with lactitol.

  5. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  6. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  7. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on.

  8. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  9. A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank

  10. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  11. Exploiting Soil Moisture, Precipitation, and Streamflow Observations to Evaluate Soil Moisture/Runoff Coupling in Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Chen, F.; Reichle, R. H.; Xia, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff is a fundamental objective of land surface models tasked with characterizing the surface water and energy balance. Temporal variability in this partitioning is due, in part, to changes in prestorm soil moisture, which determine soil infiltration capacity and unsaturated storage. Utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Soil Moisture Active Passive Level-4 soil moisture product in combination with streamflow and precipitation observations, we demonstrate that land surface models (LSMs) generally underestimate the strength of the positive rank correlation between prestorm soil moisture and event runoff coefficients (i.e., the fraction of rainfall accumulation volume converted into stormflow runoff during a storm event). Underestimation is largest for LSMs employing an infiltration-excess approach for stormflow runoff generation. More accurate coupling strength is found in LSMs that explicitly represent subsurface stormflow or saturation-excess runoff generation processes.

  12. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  13. Soil moisture storage and hillslope stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we presented a steady-state analytical hillslope stability model to study rain-induced shallow landslides. This model is based on kinematic wave dynamics of saturated subsurface storage and the infinite slope stability assumption. Here we apply the model to investigate the effect of neglecting the unsaturated storage on the assessment of slope stability in the steady-state hydrology. For that purpose we extend the hydrological model to compute the soil pore pressure distribution over the entire flow domain. We also apply this model for hillslopes with non-constant soil depth to compare the stability of different hillslopes and to find the critical slip surface in hillslopes with different geometric characteristics. In order to do this, we incorporate more complex approaches to compute slope stability (Janbu's non-circular method and Bishop's simplified method in the steady-state analytical hillslope stability model. We compare the safety factor (FS derived from the infinite slope stability method and the more complex approach for two cases: with and without the soil moisture profile in the unsaturated zone. We apply this extended hillslope stability model to nine characteristic hillslope types with three different profile curvatures (concave, straight, convex and three different plan shapes (convergent, parallel, divergent. Overall, we find that unsaturated zone storage does not play a critical role in determining the factor of safety for shallow and deep landslides. As a result, the effect of the unsaturated zone storage on slope stability can be neglected in the steady-state hydrology and one can assume the same bulk specific weight below and above the water table. We find that steep slopes with concave profile and convergent plan shape have the least stability. We also demonstrate that in hillslopes with non-constant soil depth (possible deep landslides, the ones with convex profiles and convergent plan shapes have

  14. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  15. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  16. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  17. From ASCAT to Sentinel-1: Soil Moisture Monitoring using European C-Band Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Hochstöger, Simon

    2016-04-01

    backscatter observation, the same physical processes and geophysical variables (e.g. vegetation optical depth, surface roughness, soil volume scattering, etc.) need to be considered. The difference lies mainly in the scaling, i.e. how prominently the different variables influence the C-band data at the different spatial (25 km versus 20 m) and temporal (daily versus 3-30 days repeat coverage) scales. Therefore, while the general properties of soil moisture retrievals schemes used for ASCAT and Sentinel-1 can be the same, the details of the algorithm and parameterization will be different. This presentation will review similarities and differences of soil moisture retrieval approaches used for ASCAT and Sentinel-1, with a focus on the change detection method developed by TU Wien. Some first comparisons of ASCAT and Sentinel-1 soil moisture data over Europe will also be shown. REFERENCES Entekhabi, D., Njoku, E.G., O'Neill, P.E., Kellog, K.H., Crow, W.T., Edelstein, W.N., Entin, J.K., Goodman, S.D., Jackson, T.J., Johnson, J., Kimball, J., Piepmeier, J.R., Koster, R., Martin, N., McDonald, K.C., Moghaddam, M., Moran, S., Reichle, R., Shi, J.C., Spencer, M.W., Thurman, S.W., Tsang, L., & Van Zyl, J. (2010). The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Proceedings of the IEEE, 98, 704-716 Hornacek, M., Wagner, W., Sabel, D., Truong, H.L., Snoeij, P., Hahmann, T., Diedrich, E., & Doubkova, M. (2012). Potential for High Resolution Systematic Global Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval via Change Detection Using Sentinel-1. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 5, 1303-1311 Wagner, W., Hahn, S., Kidd, R., Melzer, T., Bartalis, Z., Hasenauer, S., Figa-Saldana, J., De Rosnay, P., Jann, A., Schneider, S., Komma, J., Kubu, G., Brugger, K., Aubrecht, C., Züger, C., Gangkofer, U., Kienberger, S., Brocca, L., Wang, Y., Blöschl, G., Eitzinger, J., Steinnocher, K., Zeil, P., & Rubel, F. (2013). The ASCAT soil moisture product: A review of its

  18. A Proposed Extension to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Level 2 Algorithm for Mixed Forest and Moderate Vegetation Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, Rocco; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Kalma, Jetse; Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)mission, launched in November 2009, provides global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity by measuring the L-band (1.4 GHz) emission of the Earth's surface with a spatial resolution of 40-50 km.Uncertainty in the retrieval of soilmoisture over large heterogeneous areas such as SMOS pixels is expected, due to the non-linearity of the relationship between soil moisture and the microwave emission. The current baseline soilmoisture retrieval algorithm adopted by SMOS and implemented in the SMOS Level 2 (SMOS L2) processor partially accounts for the sub-pixel heterogeneity of the land surface, by modelling the individual contributions of different pixel fractions to the overall pixel emission. This retrieval approach is tested in this study using airborne L-band data over an area the size of a SMOS pixel characterised by a mix Eucalypt forest and moderate vegetation types (grassland and crops),with the objective of assessing its ability to correct for the soil moisture retrieval error induced by the land surface heterogeneity. A preliminary analysis using a traditional uniform pixel retrieval approach shows that the sub-pixel heterogeneity of land cover type causes significant errors in soil moisture retrieval (7.7%v/v RMSE, 2%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a significant amount of forest (40-60%). Although the retrieval approach adopted by SMOS partially reduces this error, it is affected by errors beyond the SMOS target accuracy, presenting in particular a strong dry bias when a fraction of the pixel is occupied by forest (4.1%v/v RMSE,-3.1%v/v bias). An extension to the SMOS approach is proposed that accounts for the heterogeneity of vegetation optical depth within the SMOS pixel. The proposed approach is shown to significantly reduce the error in retrieved soil moisture (2.8%v/v RMSE, -0.3%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a critical amount of forest (40-60%), at the limited cost of only a crude estimate of the

  19. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    delivery point some kind of automatic fuel sampling is needed, either based on extraction of fuel samples or through probe measurements directly in the bulk. The first alternative would result in a minor addition to the type of mechanical fuel sampling equipment already today used at some installations. The second alternative would be a simplified probe based on optical fibre that measure over the surface of or directly in the bulk. The mechanical equipment needed for the later alternative should be possible to implement at a lower cost compared with the mechanical sampling systems used today. There are also other alternatives for the integration of a NIR-instrument for the measurements of moisture content in fuel, e.g. measurements over transportation band for fuel feeding to day silo or from day silo to boiler. This would result in a possibility to even out unwanted fluctuations in fuel moisture content and are easy to implement since no extra equipment for fuel sampling is needed.

  20. Error Characterisation and Merging of Active and Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Gruber, Alexander; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Chung, Daniel; Dorigo, Wouter; Reimer, Christoph; Kidd, Richard

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) a data fusion system has been developed which is capable of ingesting surface soil moisture data derived from active and passive microwave sensors (ASCAT, AMSR-E, etc.) flown on different satellite platforms and merging them to create long and consistent time series of soil moisture suitable for use in climate change studies. The so-created soil moisture data records (latest version: ESA CCI SM v02.1 released on 5/12/2014) are freely available and can be obtained from http://www.esa-soilmoisture-cci.org/. As described by Wagner et al. (2012) the principle steps of the data fusion process are: 1) error characterisation, 2) matching to account for data set specific biases, and 3) merging. In this presentation we present the current data fusion process and discuss how new error characterisation methods, such as the increasingly popular triple collocation method as discussed for example by Zwieback et al. (2012) may be used to improve it. The main benefit of an improved error characterisation would be a more reliable identification of the best performing microwave soil moisture retrieval(s) for each grid point and each point in time. In case that two or more satellite data sets provides useful information, the estimated errors can be used to define the weights with which each satellite data set are merged, i.e. the lower its error the higher its weight. This is expected to bring a significant improvement over the current data fusion scheme which is not yet based on quantitative estimates of the retrieval errors but on a proxy measure, namely the vegetation optical depth (Dorigo et al., 2015): over areas with low vegetation passive soil moisture retrievals are used, while over areas with moderate vegetation density active retrievals are used. In transition areas, where both products correlate well, both products are being used in a synergistic way: on time steps where only one of

  1. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  2. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  3. Tile Drainage Expansion Detection using Satellite Soil Moisture Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Cho, E.; Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the past two decades, tile drainage installation has accelerated throughout the Red River of the North Basin (RRB) in parts of western Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and a small area of northeastern South Dakota, because the flat topography and low-permeability soils in this region necessitated the removal of excess water to improve crop production. Interestingly, streamflow in the Red River has markedly increased and six of 13 major floods during the past century have occurred since the late 1990s. It has been suggested that the increase in RRB flooding could be due to change in agricultural practices, including extensive tile drainage installation. Reliable information on existing and future tile drainage installation is greatly needed to capture the rapid extension of tile drainage systems and to locate tile drainage systems in the north central U.S. including the RRB region. However, there are few reliable data of tile drainage installation records, except tile drainage permit records in the Bois de Sioux watershed (a sub-basin in southern part of the RRB where permits are required for tile drainage installation). This study presents a tile drainage expansion detection method based on a physical principle that the soil-drying rate may increase with increasing tile drainage for a given area. In order to capture the rate of change in soil drying rate with time over entire RRB (101,500 km2), two satellite-based microwave soil moisture records from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and AMSR2 were used during 2002 to 2016. In this study, a sub-watershed level (HUC10) potential tile drainage growth map was developed and the results show good agreement with tile drainage permit records of six sub-watersheds in the Bois de Sioux watershed. Future analyses will include improvement of the potential tile drainage map through additional information using optical- and thermal-based sensor products and evaluation of its

  4. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.

  5. Multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limodehi, Hamid E.; Mozafari, Morteza; Amiri, Hesam; Légaré, François

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we introduce a multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor which works using a novel method based on relation between surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and water vapor condensation. The proposed sensor can instantly detect moisture or dew formation through its fiber optic channels, separately situated in different places. It enables to simultaneously measure the ambient Relative Humidity (RH) and dew point temperature of several environments with accuracy of 5%.

  6. Effect of molecular weight, temperature, and additives on the moisture sorption properties of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jared A; Olayo-Valles, Roberto; Rinaldi, Carlos; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hygroscopic polymer that undergoes the phenomenon of deliquescence once a critical relative humidity (RH(0)) is reached. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the deliquescence behavior of PEG will be affected by the polymer molecular weight, temperature, and the presence of additives. The deliquescence relative humidity for single component (RH(0)) and binary mixtures (RH(0,mix)) were measured using an automated gravimetric moisture analyzer at 25 and 40 degrees C. Changes in PEG crystallinity after exposure to moisture were qualitatively assessed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Optical microscopy was used to visually observe the deliquescence phenomenon. For single component systems, decreasing PEG MW and elevating the temperature resulted in a decrease in the observed RH(0). Physical mixtures of acetaminophen and anhydrous citric acid with both PEG 3350 and PEG 100,000 exhibited deliquescence (RH(0,mix)) at a relative humidity below that of either individual component. Qualitative changes in crystallinity were observed from the X-ray diffractograms for each PEG MW grade at high relative humidities, indicating that phase transformation (deliquescence) of the samples had occurred. In conclusion, it was found that the deliquescence behavior of PEG was affected by the polymer MW, temperature, and the presence of additives. This phenomenon may have important implications for the stability of PEG containing formulations.

  7. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    , and the single scattering albedo. After this climatological calibration, the modeling system can provide L-band brightness temperatures with a global mean absolute bias of less than 10K against SMOS observations, across multiple incidence angles and for horizontal and vertical polarization. Third, seasonal and regional variations in the residual biases are addressed by estimating the vegetation optical depth through state augmentation during the assimilation of the L-band brightness temperatures. This strategy, tested here with SMOS data, is part of the baseline approach for the Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture data product from the planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission.

  8. Stochastic Models for the Kinematics of Moisture Transport and Condensation in Homogeneous Turbulent Flows

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Paul A.; Schneider, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    The transport of a condensing passive scalar is studied as a prototype model for the kinematics of moisture transport on isentropic surfaces. Condensation occurs whenever the scalar concentration exceeds a specified local saturation value. Since condensation rates are strongly nonlinear functions of moisture content, the mean moisture flux is generally not diffusive. To relate the mean moisture content, mean condensation rate, and mean moisture flux to statistics of the advecting velocity fie...

  9. Highly Reliable PON Optical Splitters for Optical Access Networks in Outside Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Araki, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Hisashi

    Broadband optical access services are spreading throughout the world, and the number of fiber to the home (FTTH) subscribers is increasing rapidly. Telecom operators are constructing passive optical networks (PONs) to provide optical access services. Externally installed optical splitters for PONs are very important passive devices in optical access networks, and they must provide satisfactory performance as outdoor plant over long periods. Therefore, we calculate the failure rate of optical access networks and assign a failure rate to the optical splitters in optical access networks. The maximum cumulative failure rate of 1 × 8 optical splitters was calculated as 0.025 for an optical access fiber length of 2.1km and a 20-year operating lifetime. We examined planar lightwave circuit (PLC) type optical splitters for use as outside plant in terms of their optical characteristics and environmental reliability. We confirmed that PLC type optical splitters have sufficient optical performance for a PON splitter and sufficient reliability as outside plant in accordance with ITU-T standard values. We estimated the lifetimes of three kinds of PLC type optical splitters by using accelerated aging tests. The estimated failure rate of these splitters installed in optical access networks was below the target value for the cumulative failure rate, and we confirmed that they have sufficient reliability to maintain the quality of the network service. We developed 1 × 8 optical splitter modules with plug and socket type optical connectors and optical fiber cords for optical aerial closures designed for use as outside plant. These technologies make it easy to install optical splitters in an aerial optical closure. The optical splitter modules have sufficient optical performance levels for PONs because the insertion loss at the commercially used wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55µm is less than the criterion established by ITU-T Recommendation G.671 for optical splitters. We performed a

  10. Fluidic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  11. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  12. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  13. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  14. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  15. Physically plausible prescription of land surface model soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Thiery, Wim; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Land surface hydrology is an important control of surface weather and climate, especially under extreme dry or wet conditions where it can amplify heat waves or floods, respectively. Prescribing soil moisture in land surface models is a valuable technique to investigate this link between hydrology and climate. It has been used for example to assess the influence of soil moisture on temperature variability, mean and extremes (Seneviratne et al. 2006, 2013, Lorenz et al., 2015). However, perturbing the soil moisture content artificially can lead to a violation of the energy and water balances. Here we present a new method for prescribing soil moisture which ensures water and energy balance closure by using only water from runoff and a reservoir term. If water is available, the method prevents soil moisture decrease below climatological values. Results from simulations with the Community Land Model (CLM) indicate that our new method allows to avoid soil moisture deficits in many regions of the world. We show the influence of the irrigation-supported soil moisture content on mean and extreme temperatures and contrast our findings with that of earlier studies. Additionally, we will assess how long into the 21st century the new method will be able to maintain present-day climatological soil moisture levels for different regions. Lorenz, R., Argüeso, D., Donat, M.G., Pitman, A.J., den Hurk, B.V., Berg, A., Lawrence, D.M., Chéruy, F., Ducharne, A., Hagemann, S. and Meier, A., 2015. Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on temperature and precipitation extremes in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Seneviratne, S.I., Lüthi, D., Litschi, M. and Schär, C., 2006. Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443(7108), pp.205-209. Seneviratne, S.I., Wilhelm, M., Stanelle, T., Hurk, B., Hagemann, S., Berg, A., Cheruy, F., Higgins, M.E., Meier, A., Brovkin, V. and Claussen, M., 2013. Impact of soil moisture

  16. Comparing soil moisture memory in satellite observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan; Loew, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    A major obstacle to a correct parametrization of soil processes in large scale global land surface models is the lack of long term soil moisture observations for large parts of the globe. Currently, a compilation of soil moisture data derived from a range of satellites is released by the ESA Climate Change Initiative (ECV_SM). Comprising the period from 1978 until 2010, it provides the opportunity to compute climatological relevant statistics on a quasi-global scale and to compare these to the output of climate models. Our study is focused on the investigation of soil moisture memory in satellite observations and models. As a proxy for memory we compute the autocorrelation length (ACL) of the available satellite data and the uppermost soil layer of the models. Additional to the ECV_SM data, AMSR-E soil moisture is used as observational estimate. Simulated soil moisture fields are taken from ERA-Interim reanalysis and generated with the land surface model JSBACH, which was driven with quasi-observational meteorological forcing data. The satellite data show ACLs between one week and one month for the greater part of the land surface while the models simulate a longer memory of up to two months. Some pattern are similar in models and observations, e.g. a longer memory in the Sahel Zone and the Arabian Peninsula, but the models are not able to reproduce regions with a very short ACL of just a few days. If the long term seasonality is subtracted from the data the memory is strongly shortened, indicating the importance of seasonal variations for the memory in most regions. Furthermore, we analyze the change of soil moisture memory in the different soil layers of the models to investigate to which extent the surface soil moisture includes information about the whole soil column. A first analysis reveals that the ACL is increasing for deeper layers. However, its increase is stronger in the soil moisture anomaly than in its absolute values and the first even exceeds the

  17. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Macelloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz. The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz, is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths. Keywords: microwave radiometry, soil moisture

  18. Compact polarimetric synthetic aperture radar for monitoring soil moisture condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzouki, A.; McNairn, H.; Powers, J.; Friesen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Coarse resolution soil moisture maps are currently operationally delivered by ESA's SMOS and NASA's SMAP passive microwaves sensors. Despite this evolution, operational soil moisture monitoring at the field scale remains challenging. A number of factors contribute to this challenge including the complexity of the retrieval that requires advanced SAR systems with enhanced temporal revisit capabilities. Since the launch of RADARSAT-2 in 2007, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) has been evaluating the accuracy of these data for estimating surface soil moisture. Thus, a hybrid (multi-angle/multi-polarization) retrieval approach was found well suited for the planned RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) considering the more frequent relook expected with the three satellite configuration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of C-band CP data to estimate soil moisture over agricultural fields, in anticipation of the launch of RCM. In this research we introduce a new CP approach based on the IEM and simulated RCM CP mode intensities from RADARSAT-2 images acquired at different dates. The accuracy of soil moisture retrieval from the proposed multi-polarization and hybrid methods will be contrasted with that from a more conventional quad-pol approach, and validated against in situ measurements by pooling data collected over AAFC test sites in Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada.

  19. Determining moisture content in pasta by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Kuzawińska, Ewelina; Sobota, Aldona; Szostak, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Pasta aside from bread is the most consumed cereal-based product in the world. Its taste and cooking ease makes it the basis of many cuisines. The pasta dough formed by mixing flour and water is extruded through an extrusion die to mould the appropriate pasta form and is dried to obtain a stable product. The concentration of moisture in the pasta dough is a one of key parameters determining the final quality of the product. Monitoring the moisture content of pasta after extrusion is also critically important. It enables a selection of suitable drying conditions that ensure the appropriate parameters of pasta, such as texture, color and taste, are met. A method for the quantitative determination of moisture content in pasta dough and in pasta based on the partial least squares treatment of infrared spectra registered using a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance diamond accessory is described. Results of a similar quality were found using models derived from near infrared spectra obtained in a diffuse reflectance mode and slightly worse based on Raman spectra. Relative standard errors of prediction calculated for moisture quantification by ATR/NIR/Raman techniques amounted to 2.54/3.16/5.56% and 2.15/3.32/5.67%, for calibration and validation sets, respectively. The proposed procedures can be used for fast and efficient pasta moisture quantification and may replace the current, more laborious methods used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil-moisture transport in arid site vadose zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.; Brownell, L.E.; Nelson, R.W.; Roetman, E.L.

    1974-01-01

    Soil-moisture transport processes in the arid soils of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Hanford site are being evaluated. The depth of penetration of meteoric precipitation has been determined by profiling fall-out tritium at two locations where the water table is about 90 m below ground surface. In situ temperatures and water potentials were measured with temperature transducers and thermocouple psychrometers at the same location to obtain thermodynamic data for identifying the factors influencing soil-moisture transport. Neutron probes are being used to monitor soil-moisture changes in two lysimeters, three metres in diameter by 20 metres deep. The lysimeters are also equipped to measure pressure, temperature and relative humidity as a function of depth and time. Theoretical models based on conservation of momentum expressions are being developed to analyse non-isothermal soil-moisture transport processes. Future work will be concerned with combining the theoretical and experimental work and determining the amount of rainfall required to cause migration of soil-moisture to the water table. (author)

  1. Combined Radar-Radiometer Surface Soil Moisture and Roughness Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Ruzbeh; Cosh, Michael H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Moghaddam, Mahta

    2017-01-01

    A robust physics-based combined radar-radiometer, or Active-Passive, surface soil moisture and roughness estimation methodology is presented. Soil moisture and roughness retrieval is performed via optimization, i.e., minimization, of a joint objective function which constrains similar resolution radar and radiometer observations simultaneously. A data-driven and noise-dependent regularization term has also been developed to automatically regularize and balance corresponding radar and radiometer contributions to achieve optimal soil moisture retrievals. It is shown that in order to compensate for measurement and observation noise, as well as forward model inaccuracies, in combined radar-radiometer estimation surface roughness can be considered a free parameter. Extensive Monte-Carlo numerical simulations and assessment using field data have been performed to both evaluate the algorithms performance and to demonstrate soil moisture estimation. Unbiased root mean squared errors (RMSE) range from 0.18 to 0.03 cm3cm3 for two different land cover types of corn and soybean. In summary, in the context of soil moisture retrieval, the importance of consistent forward emission and scattering development is discussed and presented.

  2. Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lv, Aifeng; Jia, Shaofeng; Sun, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Several parameterization schemes have been developed to retrieve the soil moisture information involved in the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts - VI) space. However, most of them are performed with the constraint of the dry edge of the Ts - VI space to define the maximum water stressed conditions. In view of the subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the determination of the dry edge, a new index termed as the Modified Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) was developed in this paper to reduce the reliance of the parameterization scheme on the dry edge. In the parameterization scheme of MTVDI, isopleth lines of soil moisture involved in the feature space were retrieved by the temperature-vegetation index method, and only the maximum surface temperature of bare soil (Tsmax) was indispensable in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions. For evaluation purpose, the MTVDI was demonstrated in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. and was compared with two other traditional soil moisture indexes developed under the constraint of dry edge. The comparison confirmed the effectivity of the MTVDI in monitoring the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of soil moisture. Our analyses also suggest that Tsmax, the only parameter needed in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions, can be retrieved directly from the parameterization scheme itself. Therefore, the retrieval of MTVDI can be performed independent of the dry edge, which is a significant improvement to the traditional parameterization schemes of soil moisture from the Ts - VI feature space.

  3. Downscaling Coarse Scale Microwave Soil Moisture Product using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, P.; Moradkhani, H.; Yan, H.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable in partitioning and examining the global water-energy cycle, agricultural planning, and water resource management. It is also strongly coupled with climate change, playing an important role in weather forecasting and drought monitoring and prediction, flood modeling and irrigation management. Although satellite retrievals can provide an unprecedented information of soil moisture at a global-scale, the products might be inadequate for basin scale study or regional assessment. To improve the spatial resolution of SM, this work presents a novel approach based on Machine Learning (ML) technique that allows for downscaling of the satellite soil moisture to fine resolution. For this purpose, the SMAP L-band radiometer SM products were used and conditioned on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model prediction to describe the relationship between the coarse and fine scale soil moisture data. The proposed downscaling approach was applied to a western US basin and the products were compared against the available SM data from in-situ gauge stations. The obtained results indicated a great potential of the machine learning technique to derive the fine resolution soil moisture information that is currently used for land data assimilation applications.

  4. Use of digital images to estimate soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. C. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between the moisture and the spectral response of the soil to generate prediction models. Samples with different moisture contents were prepared and photographed. The photographs were taken under homogeneous light condition and with previous correction for the white balance of the digital photograph camera. The images were processed for extraction of the median values in the Red, Green and Blue bands of the RGB color space; Hue, Saturation and Value of the HSV color space; and values of the digital numbers of a panchromatic image obtained from the RGB bands. The moisture of the samples was determined with the thermogravimetric method. Regression models were evaluated for each image type: RGB, HSV and panchromatic. It was observed the darkening of the soil with the increase of moisture. For each type of soil, a model with best fit was observed and to use these models for prediction purposes, it is necessary to choose the model with best fit in advance, according to the soil characteristics. Soil moisture estimation as a function of its spectral response by digital image processing proves promising.

  5. Mechanisms of deterioration of intermediate moisture food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A study of shelf stability in intermediate moisture foods was made. Major efforts were made to control lipid oxidation and nonenzymatic browning. In order to determine means of preventing these reactions, model systems were developed having the same water activity content relationship of intermediate moisture foods. Models were based on a cellulose-lipid and protein-lipid system with glycerol added as the humectant. Experiments with both systems indicate that lipid oxidation is promoted significantly in the intermediate moisture range. The effect appeared to be related to increased mobility of either reactants or catalysts, since when the amount of water in the system reached a level where capillary condensation occurred and thus free water was present, the rates of oxidation increased. With added glycerol, which is water soluble and thus increases the amount of mobile phase, the increase in oxidation rate occurs at a lower relative humidity. The rates of oxidation were maximized at 61% RH and decreased again at 75% RH probably due to dilution. No significant non-enzymatic browning occurred in the protein-lipid systems. Prevention of oxidation by the use of metal chelating agents was enhanced in the cellulose system, whereas, with protein present, the lipid soluble chain terminating antioxidants (such as BHA) worked equally as well. Preliminary studies of foods adjusted to the intermediate moisture range bear out the results of oxidation in model systems. It can be concluded that for most fat containing intermediate moisture foods, rancidity will be the reaction most limiting stability.

  6. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der Ent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to quantify the spatial and temporal scale of moisture recycling, independent of the size and shape of the region under study. In contrast to previous studies, which essentially used curve fitting, the scaling laws presented by us follow directly from the process equation. thus allowing a fair comparison between regions and seasons. The calculation is based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the period 1999 to 2008. It is shown that in the tropics or in mountainous terrain the length scale of recycling can be as low as 500 to 2000 km. In temperate climates the length scale is typically between 3000 to 5000 km whereas it amounts to more than 7000 km in desert areas. The time scale of recycling ranges from 3 to 20 days, with the exception of deserts, where it is much longer. The most distinct seasonal differences can be observed over the Northern Hemisphere: in winter, moisture recycling is insignificant, whereas in summer it plays a major role in the climate. The length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling can be useful metrics to quantify local climatic effects of land use change.

  7. Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization on Seasonal Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The potential role of soil moisture initialization in seasonal forecasting is illustrated through ensembles of simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) model. For each boreal summer during 1997-2001, we generated two 16-member ensembles of 3-month simulations. The first, "AMIP-style" ensemble establishes the degree to which a perfect prediction of SSTs would contribute to the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature over continents. The second ensemble is identical to the first, except that the land surface is also initialized with "realistic" soil moisture contents through the continuous prior application (within GCM simulations leading up to the start of the forecast period) of a daily observational precipitation data set and the associated avoidance of model drift through the scaling of all surface prognostic variables. A comparison of the two ensembles shows that soil moisture initialization has a statistically significant impact on summertime precipitation and temperature over only a handful of continental regions. These regions agree, to first order, with regions that satisfy three conditions: (1) a tendency toward large initial soil moisture anomalies, (2) a strong sensitivity of evaporation to soil moisture, and (3) a strong sensitivity of precipitation to evaporation. The degree to which the initialization improves forecasts relative to observations is mixed, reflecting a critical need for the continued development of model parameterizations and data analysis strategies.

  8. Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E J; Bell, J E; Benedict, K; Shriber, J; McCotter, O; Cosh, M H

    2017-04-17

    Coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley fever) is caused by a soilborne fungus, Coccidioides spp. , in arid regions of the southwestern United States. Though some who develop infections from this fungus remain asymptomatic, others develop respiratory disease as a consequence. Less commonly, severe illness and death can occur when the infection spreads to other regions of the body. Previous analyses have attempted to connect the incidence of coccidioidomycosis to broadly available climatic measurements, such as precipitation or temperature. However, with the limited availability of long-term, in situ soil moisture data sets, it has not been feasible to perform a direct analysis of the relationships between soil moisture levels and coccidioidomycosis incidence on a larger temporal and spatial scale. Utilizing in situ soil moisture gauges throughout the southwest from the U.S. Climate Reference Network and a model with which to extend those estimates, this work connects periods of higher and lower soil moisture in Arizona and California between 2002 and 2014 to the reported incidence of coccidioidomycosis. The results indicate that in both states, coccidioidomycosis incidence is related to soil moisture levels from previous summers and falls. Stated differently, a higher number of coccidioidomycosis cases are likely to be reported if previous bands of months have been atypically wet or dry, depending on the location.

  9. Observer Based Fault Detection and Moisture Estimating in Coal Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing...... requirements to the general performance of power plants. Detection  of faults and moisture content estimation are consequently of high interest in the handling of the problems caused by faults and moisture content. The coal flow out of the mill is the obvious variable to monitor, when detecting non-intended drops in the coal...... flow out of the coal mill. However, this variable is not measurable. Another estimated variable is the moisture content, which is only "measurable" during steady-state operations of the coal mill. Instead, this paper suggests a method where these unknown variables are estimated based on a simple energy...

  10. Experience of Implementing Moisture Sorption Control in Historical Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel approach to inhibiting the harmful impact of moisture sorption in old art works and historical exhibits preserved in remote historic buildings that are in use as depositories or exhibition rooms for cultural heritage collections. It is a sequel to the previous work presented in [2], where the principle of moisture sorption stabilization was explained. Sorption isotherm investigations and EMC control implementation in historical buildings not provided with heating are the main concern in this paper. The proposed microclimate adjustment consists in leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, while the air humidity is maintained in a specific relationship to the current interior temperature. The interior air humidity is modestly adjusted to protect historical exhibits and art works from harmful variations in the content of absorbed moisture, which would otherwise arise owing to the interior temperature drifts. Since direct measurements of moisture content are not feasible, the air humidity is controlled via a model-based principle. Two long-term implementations of the proposed microclimate control have already proved that it can permanently maintain a constant moisture content in the preserved exhibits. 

  11. Quantitative identification of moisture sources over the Tibetan Plateau and the relationship between thermal forcing and moisture transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing; Zhu, Tong

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to the surrounding water cycle, the moisture sources of the TP remain uncertain. In this study, the moisture sources of the TP are quantitatively identified based on a 33-year simulation with a horizontal resolution of 1.9° × 2.5° using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1), in which atmospheric water tracer technology is incorporated. Results demonstrate that the major moisture sources differ over the southern TP (STP) and northern TP (NTP). During the winter, Africa, the TP, and India are the dominant source regions, contributing nearly half of the water vapour over the STP. During the summer, the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) supplies 28.5 ± 3.6% of the water vapour over the STP and becomes the dominant source region. The dominant moisture source regions of the water vapour over the NTP are Africa (19.0 ± 2.8%) during the winter and the TP (25.8 ± 2.4%) during the summer. The overall relative contribution of each source region to the precipitation is similar to the contribution to the water vapour over the TP. Like most models, CAM5.1 generally overestimates the precipitation over the TP, yielding uncertainty in the absolute contributions to the precipitation. Composite analyses exhibit significant variations in the TIO-supplied moisture transport and precipitation over the STP during the summer alongside anomalous TP heating. This relationship between moisture transport from the TIO and the TP heating primarily involves the dynamic change in the TIO-supplied moisture flux, which further controls the variation in the TIO-contributed precipitation over the STP.

  12. Automated Quality Control of in Situ Soil Moisture from the North American Soil Moisture Database Using NLDAS-2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Ford, T.; Wu, Y.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) was initiated in 2011 to provide support for developing climate forecasting tools, calibrating land surface models and validating satellite-derived soil moisture algorithms. The NASMD has collected data from over 30 soil moisture observation networks providing millions of in situ soil moisture observations in all 50 states as well as Canada and Mexico. It is recognized that the quality of measured soil moisture in NASMD is highly variable due to the diversity of climatological conditions, land cover, soil texture, and topographies of the stations and differences in measurement devices (e.g., sensors) and installation. It is also recognized that error, inaccuracy and imprecision in the data set can have significant impacts on practical operations and scientific studies. Therefore, developing an appropriate quality control procedure is essential to ensure the data is of the best quality. In this study, an automated quality control approach is developed using the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) Noah soil porosity, soil temperature, and fraction of liquid and total soil moisture to flag erroneous and/or spurious measurements. Overall results show that this approach is able to flag unreasonable values when the soil is partially frozen. A validation example using NLDAS-2 multiple model soil moisture products at the 20 cm soil layer showed that the quality control procedure had a significant positive impact in Alabama, North Carolina, and West Texas. It had a greater impact in colder regions, particularly during spring and autumn. Over 433 NASMD stations have been quality controlled using the methodology proposed in this study, and the algorithm will be implemented to control data quality from the other ~1,200 NASMD stations in the near future.

  13. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture

  14. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  15. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al Bitar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO surface soil moisture (SM and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an

  16. Use of midlatitude soil moisture and meteorological observations to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Vinnikov, Konstantin YA.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Speranskaya, Nina A.; Xue, Yongkang

    1995-01-01

    Soil moisture observations in sites with natural vegetation were made for several decades in the former Soviet Union at hundreds of stations. In this paper, the authors use data from six of these stations from different climatic regimes, along with ancillary meteorological and actinometric data, to demonstrate a method to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models. Some early and current general circulation models (GCMs) use bucket models for soil hydrology calculations. More recently, the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) was developed to incorporate the effects of vegetation on fluxes of moisture, momentum, and energy at the earth's surface into soil hydrology models. Until now, the bucket and SiB have been verified by comparison with actual soil moisture data only on a limited basis. In this study, a Simplified SiB (SSiB) soil hydrology model and a 15-cm bucket model are forced by observed meteorological and actinometric data every 3 h for 6-yr simulations at the six stations. The model calculations of soil moisture are compared to observations of soil moisture, literally 'ground truth,' snow cover, surface albedo, and net radiation, and with each other. For three of the stations, the SSiB and 15-cm bucket models produce good simulations of seasonal cycles and interannual variations of soil moisture. For the other three stations, there are large errors in the simulations by both models. Inconsistencies in specification of field capacity may be partly responsible. There is no evidence that the SSiB simulations are superior in simulating soil moisture variations. In fact, the models are quite similar since SSiB implicitly has a bucket embedded in it. One of the main differences between the models is in the treatment of runoff due to melting snow in the spring -- SSiB incorrectly puts all the snowmelt into runoff. While producing similar soil moisture simulations, the models produce very different surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, which

  17. A soil moisture network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, N.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    network was established in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. The objectives of this article are to describe a method to implement a network suited for SMOS validation, and to present sample data collected by the network to verify the approach. The design phase included (1) selection of a single SMOS...... between the north-east and south-west were found to be small. A first comparison between the 0–5 cm network averages and the SMOS soil moisture (level 2) product is in range with worldwide validation results, showing comparable trends for SMOS retrieved soil moisture (R2 of 0.49) as well as initial soil......). Based on these findings, the network performs according to expectations and proves to be well-suited for its purpose. The discrepancies between network and SMOS soil moisture will be subject of subsequent studies...

  18. Moisture imaging of a camphor tree by neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Karakama, Isamu; Sakura, Tsuguo; Matsubayashi, Masashi

    1998-01-01

    Moisture distribution of a camphor tree was presented. A 23 year old camphor tree was downed at university forest and a wood disk, about 1 cm in width, was lumbered out from the breast height of the tree. The wood disk as well as a newly developing branch of the tree were irradiated with thermal neutrons at an atomic reactor installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The total flux of thermal neutron was 3.0 x 10 9 n/cm 2 . Water specific images of the disk and a branch were presented with high resolution, which was estimated to be about 16 μm. In the case of wood disk, moisture decreasing manner while drying was also shown through neutron image. Neutron images showed that the moisture decreasing rate in sapwood was similar to that of heartwood. (author)

  19. Multifrequency passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloscia, S.; Pampaloni, P.; Chiarantini, L.; Coppo, P.; Gagliani, S.; Luzi, G.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy achievable in the surface soil moisture measurement of rough bare and vegetated soils, typical of the Italian landscape, has been investigated by using microwave experimental data collected by means of a multi-band sensor package (L, X, Ka and infrared bands). The thickness of soil that mainly affects the emission at the three microwave frequencies has been assessed. The sensitivity of L band emission to the moisture content of a soil layer about 5 cm thick has been confirmed, as well as the attenuation effect due to the surface roughness and presence of vegetation. A correction criterion based on the sensitivity to roughness and crop parameters of the highest frequencies (X and Ka bands) is proposed in order to increase the precision in soil moisture measurements

  20. Investigation on Moisture and Indoor Environment in Eight Danish Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    then need to be ventilated actively either by natural or mechanical ventilation. Increased focus on energy reduction together with requirements for e.g. thermal comfort indoors may lead to reduced indoor air quality and moisture problems which in turn may cause mould problems. This paper describes...... an investigation of the indoor air quality, relative humidity and air change rate in eight Danish houses. The houses were selected as they are all having recurrent problems with condensation on the windows. The houses were built between 1930 and 2007. Some of them have been only slightly renovated where others......, to indoor air quality in terms of CO2 concentration, and to the use of the house in terms of the level of the relative humidity and indoor moisture excess. Furthermore, the moisture production in the houses was estimated and compared to values provided in the literature. A better indoor air quality...

  1. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  2. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However,uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and theprocedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  3. Model Based Control of Moisture Sorption in a Historical Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel scheme for microclimate control in historical exhibition rooms, inhibiting moisture sorption phenomena that are inadmissible from the preventive conservation point of view. The impact of air humidity is the most significant harmful exposure for a great deal of the cultural heritage deposited in remote historical buildings. Leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, the proposed non-linear model-based control protects exhibits from harmful variations in moisture content by compensating the temperature drifts with an adequate adjustment of the air humidity. Already implemented in a medieval interior since 1999, the proposed microclimate control has proved capable of permanently maintaining constant a desirable moisture content in organic or porous materials in the interior of a building. 

  4. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  5. Horizontal and vertical variability of soil moisture in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2004-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key hydrological variable that mediates the interactions between climate, soil, and vegetation dynamics in water-limited ecosystems. Because of the importance of water limitation in savannas, a number of theoretical models of tree-grass coexistence have been developed which differ in their underlying assumptions about the ways in which trees and grasses access and use soil moisture. However, clarification of the mechanisms that allow savanna vegetation to persist as a mixture of grasses and trees remains a vexing problem in both hydrological and vegetation science. A particular challenge is the fact that the spatial pattern of vegetation is both a cause and effect of variation in water availability in semiarid ecosystems. At landscape to regional scales, climatic and geologic constraints on soil moisture availability are primary determinants of vegetation structural pattern. However, at local to landscape scales the patchy vegetation structural mosaic serves to redistribute the availability of soil moisture in ways that have important consequences for structural dynamics and community composition. In this regard, the emerging field of ecohydrology is well suited to investigate questions concerning couplings between the patchy structural mosaic of savanna vegetation and the kinds self-organizing dynamics known to exist in other light and nutrient-limited vegetation systems. Here we address the role of patchy vegetation structure through the use of a lumped model of soil moisture dynamics that accounts for the effect of tree canopy on the lateral and vertical distribution of soil moisture. The model includes mechanisms for the drying of the ground surface due to soil evaporation in the sites with no tree cover, and for the lateral water uptake due to root invading areas with no canopy cover located in the proximity of trees. The model, when applied to a series of sites along a rainfall gradient in southern Africa, is able to explain the cover

  6. Surface Soil Moisture Memory Estimated from Models and SMAP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Mccoll, K. A.; Li, C.; Lu, H.; Akbar, R.; Pan, M.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture memory(SMM), which is loosely defined as the time taken by soil to forget an anomaly, has been proved to be important in land-atmosphere interaction. There are many metrics to calculate the SMM timescale, for example, the timescale based on the time-series autocorrelation, the timescale ignoring the soil moisture time series and the timescale which only considers soil moisture increment. Recently, a new timescale based on `Water Cycle Fraction' (Kaighin et al., 2017), in which the impact of precipitation on soil moisture memory is considered, has been put up but not been fully evaluated in global. In this study, we compared the surface SMM derived from SMAP observations with that from land surface model simulations (i.e., the SMAP Nature Run (NR) provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5) (Rolf et al., 2014). Three timescale metrics were used to quantify the surface SMM as: T0 based on the soil moisture time series autocorrelation, deT0 based on the detrending soil moisture time series autocorrelation, and tHalf based on the Water Cycle Fraction. The comparisons indicate that: (1) there are big gaps between the T0 derived from SMAP and that from NR (2) the gaps get small for deT0 case, in which the seasonality of surface soil moisture was removed with a moving average filter; (3) the tHalf estimated from SMAP is much closer to that from NR. The results demonstrate that surface SMM can vary dramatically among different metrics, while the memory derived from land surface model differs from the one from SMAP observation. tHalf, with considering the impact of precipitation, may be a good choice to quantify surface SMM and have high potential in studies related to land atmosphere interactions. References McColl. K.A., S.H. Alemohammad, R. Akbar, A.G. Konings, S. Yueh, D. Entekhabi. The Global Distribution and Dynamics of Surface Soil Moisture, Nature Geoscience, 2017 Reichle. R., L. Qing, D.L. Gabrielle, A. Joe. The "SMAP_Nature_v03" Data

  7. Moisture diffusivity in structure of random fractal fiber bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fanglong, E-mail: zhufanglong_168@163.com [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); The Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfan City (China); Zhou, Yu; Feng, Qianqian [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); Xia, Dehong [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-08

    A theoretical expression related to effective moisture diffusivity to random fiber bed is derived by using fractal theory and considering both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. In this Letter, macroporous structure of hydrophobic nonwoven material is investigated, and Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion are neglected. The effective moisture diffusivity predicted by the present fractal model are compared with water vapor transfer rate (WVTR) experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models. This verifies the validity of the present fractal diffusivity of fibrous structural beds.

  8. The Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the mechanization level of harvest and post-harvest operations of Berberis fruit, as one of the major and local crops of south Khorasan province, some of its physical properties were investigated. Different dimensions, geometrical mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, mass of thousand fruit, true density, bulk density, porosity, static coefficient of friction and the repose angles were determined. The properties and the effect of moisture content on them were studied by the completely randomized designs statistical method. Analysis of data indicated that the change of moisture content caused significant difference (P

  9. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany

    1985-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  10. Applications of moisture monitoring using TAUPE-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeniger, F.

    2007-01-01

    TAUPE as a moisture sensor has been developed in cooperation with Technology Transfer Division in Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe since 1996. These sensors can be used to monitor moisture in a variety of materials, using time domain or frequency domain techniques. Major applications are large area supervision of landfill sealings, determination of the snow water equivalent, e.g. in the project SNOWPOWER for the forecasting of the amount of water for energy production in storage lakes and, as a new project, continuous monitoring of groundwater level in the flood plane of river Rhine. (orig.)

  11. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  12. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  13. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  14. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  15. Evaluation of skin moisturizer effects using terahertz time domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Meza, L. H.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Castro-Camus, E.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.

    2018-02-01

    We use terahertz time domain imaging for the evaluation of the effects of skin-moisturizers in vivo. We evaluate three principal substances used in commercial moisturizers: glycerin, hyaluronic acid and lanolin. We image the interaction of the forearm with each of the substances taking terahertz spectra at sequential times. With this, we are able to measure the effect of the substances on the hydration level of the skin in time, determining the feasibility of using THz imaging for the evaluation of the products and their effects on the hydration levels of the skin.

  16. A simple algorithm to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation biomass using passive microwave measurements over crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigneron, J.P.; Chanzy, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Bruguier, N.

    1995-01-01

    A simple algorithm to retrieve sail moisture and vegetation water content from passive microwave measurements is analyzed in this study. The approach is based on a zeroth-order solution of the radiative transfer equations in a vegetation layer. In this study, the single scattering albedo accounts for scattering effects and two parameters account for the dependence of the optical thickness on polarization, incidence angle, and frequency. The algorithm requires only ancillary information about crop type and surface temperature. Retrievals of the surface parameters from two radiometric data sets acquired over a soybean and a wheat crop have been attempted. The model parameters have been fitted in order to achieve best match between measured and retrieved surface data. The results of the inversion are analyzed for different configurations of the radiometric observations: one or several look angles, L-band, C-band or (L-band and C-band). Sensitivity of the retrievals to the best fit values of the model parameters has also been investigated. The best configurations, requiring simultaneous measurements at L- and C-band, produce retrievals of soil moisture and biomass with a 15% estimated precision (about 0.06 m 3 /m 3 for soil moisture and 0.3 kg/m 2 for biomass) and exhibit a limited sensitivity to the best fit parameters. (author)

  17. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  18. Optical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  19. CPAC: Energy-Efficient Data Collection through Adaptive Selection of Compression Algorithms for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyungJune; Kim, HyunSeok; Chang, Ik Joon

    2014-01-01

    We propose a technique to optimize the energy efficiency of data collection in sensor networks by exploiting a selective data compression. To achieve such an aim, we need to make optimal decisions regarding two aspects: (1) which sensor nodes should execute compression; and (2) which compression algorithm should be used by the selected sensor nodes. We formulate this problem into binary integer programs, which provide an energy-optimal solution under the given latency constraint. Our simulation results show that the optimization algorithm significantly reduces the overall network-wide energy consumption for data collection. In the environment having a stationary sink from stationary sensor nodes, the optimized data collection shows 47% energy savings compared to the state-of-the-art collection protocol (CTP). More importantly, we demonstrate that our optimized data collection provides the best performance in an intermittent network under high interference. In such networks, we found that the selective compression for frequent packet retransmissions saves up to 55% energy compared to the best known protocol. PMID:24721763

  20. Crop yield monitoring in the Sahel using root zone soil moisture anomalies derived from SMOS soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, François; Pellarin, Thierry; Alhassane, Agali; Traoré, Seydou; Baron, Christian

    2017-04-01

    West Africa is greatly vulnerable, especially in terms of food sustainability. Mainly based on rainfed agriculture, the high variability of the rainy season strongly impacts the crop production driven by the soil water availability in the soil. To monitor this water availability, classical methods are based on daily precipitation measurements. However, the raingauge network suffers from the poor network density in Africa (1/10000km2). Alternatively, real-time satellite-derived precipitations can be used, but they are known to suffer from large uncertainties which produce significant error on crop yield estimations. The present study proposes to use root soil moisture rather than precipitation to evaluate crop yield variations. First, a local analysis of the spatiotemporal impact of water deficit on millet crop production in Niger was done, from in-situ soil moisture measurements (AMMA-CATCH/OZCAR (French Critical Zone exploration network)) and in-situ millet yield survey. Crop yield measurements were obtained for 10 villages located in the Niamey region from 2005 to 2012. The mean production (over 8 years) is 690 kg/ha, and ranges from 381 to 872 kg/ha during this period. Various statistical relationships based on soil moisture estimates were tested, and the most promising one (R>0.9) linked the 30-cm soil moisture anomalies from mid-August to mid-September (grain filling period) to the crop yield anomalies. Based on this local study, it was proposed to derive regional statistical relationships using 30-cm soil moisture maps over West Africa. The selected approach was to use a simple hydrological model, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), forced by real-time satellite-based precipitation (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TRMM3B42). To reduce uncertainties related to the quality of real-time rainfall satellite products, SMOS soil moisture measurements were assimilated into the API model through a Particular Filter algorithm. Then, obtained soil moisture anomalies were

  1. Analysis on the moment method for determining the moisture transport properties in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.X.; Fang, Z.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss a new unsteady-state method proposed for determining the moisture transport properties in wet porous media. It is based on measurement of the change in moment of gravity caused by the moisture migration. In addition to its high-speed performance, this method may get rid of the difficulty in determination of a changing moisture content or moisture distribution. On this basis, two particular procedures are contrived: a constant heat source method for determining the thermal mass diffusivity and an instantaneous moisture source method for determining the moisture diffusivity

  2. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  3. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  4. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope...

  5. Uncertainty Assessment of Space-Borne Passive Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Jan; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Reichle, Rolf; Cosh, Michael; van der Schalie, Robin; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with passive soil moisture retrieval is hard to quantify, and known to be underlain by various, diverse, and complex causes. Factors affecting space-borne retrieved soil moisture estimation include: (i) the optimization or inversion method applied to the radiative transfer model (RTM), such as e.g. the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), or the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), (ii) the selection of the observed brightness temperatures (Tbs), e.g. polarization and incidence angle, (iii) the definition of the cost function and the impact of prior information in it, and (iv) the RTM parameterization (e.g. parameterizations officially used by the SMOS L2 and SMAP L2 retrieval products, ECMWF-based SMOS assimilation product, SMAP L4 assimilation product, and perturbations from those configurations). This study aims at disentangling the relative importance of the above-mentioned sources of uncertainty, by carrying out soil moisture retrieval experiments, using SMOS Tb observations in different settings, of which some are mentioned above. The ensemble uncertainties are evaluated at 11 reference CalVal sites, over a time period of more than 5 years. These experimental retrievals were inter-compared, and further confronted with in situ soil moisture measurements and operational SMOS L2 retrievals, using commonly used skill metrics to quantify the temporal uncertainty in the retrievals.

  6. Unfired clay bricks – moisture properties and compressive strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E.J. de Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus, methods and test results from an experimental investigation of (1) the properties for moisture performance of the materials, including water vapour sorption and water vapour transmission, (2) humidity buffering of the indoor climate by an absorbent material, and (3) the compressive...... strength are presented....

  7. Evapotranspiration Estimates for a Stochastic Soil-Moisture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaleeraktrakoon, Chavalit; Somsakun, Somrit

    2009-03-01

    Potential evapotranspiration is information that is necessary for applying a widely used stochastic model of soil moisture (I. Rodriguez Iturbe, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, V. Isham and D. R. Cox, Probabilistic modelling of water balance at a point: The role of climate, soil and vegetation, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A455 (1999) 3789-3805). An objective of the present paper is thus to find a proper estimate of the evapotranspiration for the stochastic model. This estimate is obtained by comparing the calculated soil-moisture distribution resulting from various techniques, such as Thornthwaite, Makkink, Jensen-Haise, FAO Modified Penman, and Blaney-Criddle, with an observed one. The comparison results using five sequences of daily soil-moisture for a dry season from November 2003 to April 2004 (Udornthani Province, Thailand) have indicated that all methods can be used if the weather information required is available. This is because their soil-moisture distributions are alike. In addition, the model is shown to have its ability in approximately describing the phenomenon at a weekly or biweekly time scale which is desirable for agricultural engineering applications.

  8. Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heatmoisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with ...

  9. Biodegradation and moisture uptake modified starch-filled Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen different modified-cassava starch-LLDPE blends containing starch in the range of 10-40% by weight were prepared. Calcium chloride, D-glucose, chloroform and alumina were differently used as modifying agents. The Moisture uptake and biodegradation of each of the composites were investigated. Both of these ...

  10. Moisture dependent of some physical and morphological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The static coefficients for friction of dent corn seeds were determined steel, plywood, wood, glass and galvanized sheet at various moisture contents. The highest static coefficient of friction was found on the wood and the lowest on the glass sheet among the materials tested. Key words: Dent corn, physical properties, ...

  11. Statistical techniques to extract information during SMAP soil moisture assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Q.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Statistical techniques permit the retrieval of soil moisture estimates in a model climatology while retaining the spatial and temporal signatures of the satellite observations. As a consequence, the need for bias correction prior to an assimilation of these estimates is reduced, which could result in a more effective use of the independent information provided by the satellite observations. In this study, a statistical neural network (NN) retrieval algorithm is calibrated using SMAP brightness temperature observations and modeled soil moisture estimates (similar to those used to calibrate the SMAP Level 4 DA system). Daily values of surface soil moisture are estimated using the NN and then assimilated into the NASA Catchment model. The skill of the assimilation estimates is assessed based on a comprehensive comparison to in situ measurements from the SMAP core and sparse network sites as well as the International Soil Moisture Network. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to significantly improve the model skill, particularly in areas where the model does not represent processes related to agricultural practices. Additionally, the NN method is compared to assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to more effectively use the independent information provided by SMAP resulting in larger model skill improvements than assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques.

  12. Specialized moisture retention eyewear for evaporative dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Tan, Chien Hua; Fong, Yee Wei; Tong, Louis

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the suitablity of commercially available moisture retention eyewear for treating evaporative dry eye. Eleven patients with evaporative dry eyes were prescibed moisture retention eyewear for 3 months in addition to regular lubricant eye drops. Frequency and severity of dry eye symptoms, corneal fluorescein staining and tear break up time (TBUT) were evaluated at baseline and 3-month post-treatment. Main outcome measure was global symptom score (based on severity and frequency of dry eye symptoms on a visual analog scale) and secondary outcomes were changes in sectoral corneal fluorescein staining and tear break up time (TBUT) from pre-treatment level. There was a significant improvement in dry eye symptoms after using moisture retention eyewear for 3 months (p eyes improved significantly (p dry eye symptoms in windy, air-conditioned environments or when doing vision-related daily tasks. This study shows that moisture retention eyewear might be a valuable adjunct in management of evaporative dry eye and this new design of commercially available eyewear could have a good acceptability rate.

  13. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of minor millets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db.

  14. Model FT631 moisture/density combined gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Dai Zhude; Zhang Jianguo; Zhang Enshang; Huang Jiling; Meng Qingbao

    1990-01-01

    Model FT631 Moisture/Density Combined Gauge has been developed, with which both water content and density, the two parameters of measured medium (soil), are obtained in one act of measurement at the same time. A China patent has been taken for this invention

  15. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  16. Effects of Natural and Synthetic Soil Conditioners on Soil Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The field investigation was a 4 × 5 factorial pot-experiment with maize as the test crop. ... The soil samples were air-dried to about 20% (v v–1) moisture content, pounded and passed through a 2- ..... properties of gel-amended container media.

  17. Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time (s). A. Amplitude of the soil thermal wave at any depth (. ◦. C). A0. Amplitude of thermal ... system, soil moisture has a long memory (Pielke et al 1999; Wu et al .... measurements of the short wave radiation compo- nents as follows: α = Su.

  18. A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drainage rates through the profile were established using time domain reflectometry probes while water drainage volumes were assessed using shallow plate lysimeters. Despite slow growth in the unfelled crop during the monitoring period (attributed to a pest infestation), soil moisture depletion remained rapid and ...

  19. Development of an Integrated Moisture Index for predicting species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Charles T. Scott; Martin E. Dale; Anantha Prasad

    1996-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used to develop an Integrated Moisture Index (IMI), which was used to predict species composition for Ohio forests. Several landscape features (a slope-aspect shading index, cumulative flow of water downslope, curvature of the landscape, and the water-holding capacity of the soil) were derived from elevation and soils...

  20. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  1. Impact of nitrogen nutrition and moisture deficits on growth, yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the impact of nitrogen nutrition and moisture deficits on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a field experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during 2008 to 2009. The study comprised of four nitrogen levels, that is, ...

  2. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our ... resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared ... contribution of other interactions to the attenuation of the incident wave, i.e. ...

  3. Inference of soil hydrologic parameters from electronic soil moisture records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture is an important control on hydrologic function, as it governs vertical fluxes from and to the atmosphere, groundwater recharge, and lateral fluxes through the soil. Historically, the traditional model parameters of saturation, field capacity, and permanent wilting point have been deter...

  4. Responses of macropropagated Musa plantlets to transient moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture stress causes serious devastating effects on crops ranging from retarded growth, tissue desiccation, and severe yield drop to outright death. In this study, the efficacy of six nursery substrates formulated in varying volume ratios of composted plantain fruit/bunch wastes (PFW), sawdust (SD), poultry manure (PM) and ...

  5. Influence of molasses additive and moisture level at ensiling on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to day 0 (control), silage pH dropped significantly at day 7 for molasses-treated silage regardless of initial moisture level. In the untreated silage a slightly lower pH was recorded for the unwilted silage. Molasses treatment resulted in a lower silage pH, higher lactic acid and lower acetic acid concentrations starting ...

  6. Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Dambu-nama – A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture sorption characteristics of traditional Dambu-nama (control) (TDBN) and laboratory Dambu-nama (LDBN), a cooked, pounded, shredded and dried Nigerian meat product, were determined at four different temperatures (10oC, 20oC, 30oC and 40oC) and relative humidities of 10 – 96% using the standard static, ...

  7. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  8. Effect of moisture on natural fibre reinforced plastics | Ogakwu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the rate of moisture absorption of the composites reinforced with natural fibres – Ukam plant fibres (chochlostermum placoni) were studied and determined.Composite cubes and plates of different sizes were prepared, then immersed in water for 24 hours at room temperature in order to determine the extent ...

  9. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  10. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  11. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  12. Moisture source for summer monsoon rainfall over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.

    Southwest monsoon plays a vital role in India's economy as the major income comes from agriculture. What could be the moisture source for this copious amount of rainfall over the Indian sub-continent?. This has been studied in detail and noticed...

  13. Soil moisture prediction: bridging event and continuous runoff modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, V.

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of providing spatially distributed soil moisture data for event-based hydrological models close before a rainfall event. The study area is known as "Catsop", a small catchmment in south Limburg. The models used are: LISEM and

  14. On the contribution of atmospheric moisture to dew formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.

    1988-09-01

    The relative contributions of dewfall (a flux of water vapour from air to surface) and distillation (a flux of water vapour from soil to canopy) to dew formation on closed canopy and bare soil surfaces are assessed, and the dependence of dew amount upon wind speed, absolute temperature, atmospheric stability, relative humidity, soil characteristics and cloudiness, all of which are significant factors, is evaluated. Some of these evaluations provide refinements to similar ones given in Monteith (1961). High dewfall rates are usually ≲0.06 mm hr-1 over canopy or bare soil, though upon a canopy under soil-saturated and air-saturated conditions, rates of dew formation may reach 0.07 0.09 mm hr-1 with contributions from distillation. Various sets of observations are reanalyzed to illustrate the importance of the horizontal advection of moisture in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) to observed high rates of dew formation arising from the atmospheric contribution of water vapour (dewfall). These locally observed high dewfall rates must be the result of small-scale or mesoscale horizontal advection of moisture in the NBL, since the humidity changes within the typically shallow NBL required to balance the loss of water at the surface are not observed. Over extensive areas of uniform surface (horizontal scales ≫10 km), such continuously high dewfall rates could only be balanced by a local supply of atmospheric moisture since advection of moisture would necessarily be small.

  15. Seasonal moisture fluctuations four species of pocosin vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George W. Wendel; Theodore G. Storey

    1962-01-01

    During the most severe burning conditions practically all of the living understory vegetation on pocosins may be consumed by fire (9). Even under less severe conditions leaves and branch tips are readily consumed. Whether the moisture content in the living vegetation is high, as it is in the spring, or low, as in the winter, exerts a strong influence on fuel...

  16. Moisture sorption in mixtures of biopolymer, disaccharides and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The moisture sorption of ternary mixtures of biopolymer, sugar and water is investigated by means of the Free-Volume-Flory-Huggins (FVFH) theory. The earlier FVFH theory developed for binary mixtures of biopolymer/water and sugar/water has to be modified to account for two effects: 1) the change in

  17. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L.

    2003-01-01

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials

  18. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  19. Subcellular Electrical Measurements as a Function of Wood Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The percolation model developed by Zelinka et al. was based upon macroscale measurements of the electrical conductivity and implicitly treats the wood material as homogenous. The transport mechanism proposed by Jakes et al. depends upon a moisture induced glass transition occurring in the hemicelluloses. This theory suggests that there are likely differences in the...

  20. Adsorption of moisture on molecular sieve adsorbents at low humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Ruthven, D.M.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a contractor's study on the performance of 4A molecular sieve under very low humidity conditions, e.g., as expected in fusion reactor plants. The results suggest that: (a) very efficient regeneration of the sieve to low residual moisture contents ( 2 O/4A sieve system

  1. Testing for moisture content in foods by neutron gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron gaging was applied to the testing for moisture content in bulk powdered foods and in canned Army field rations. The technique is based on the moderation or thermalization of fast neutrons by hydrogenous matter and the measurement of thermal neutron intensity as a function of moisture content. A small californium-252 capsule, of approximate output 10 7 neutrons per second, was used as the source of fast neutrons. It is concluded that a fast neutron moderation technique is feasible for the nondestructive measurement or control of moisture or both in near-dry bulk powdered foods. Samples must be measured under identical geometric conditions, that is, uniform bulk density and volume using a standard metal container or cell. For canned or otherwise prepacked rations, measurement of moisture is interfered with by variations in fill weight among cans or packages of the same product. A gamma-ray attenuation gaging method proved to be of insufficient sensitivity to correct for fill weight variation and was further complicated by nonuniformity in can wall dimensions. Neutron gaging, however, appears to be quite useful for monitoring a standard packaged item for fill weight since the neutron signal is virtually unaffected by variations in container dimensions. The radiation dose imparted to a sample or package of food subjected to such a test is judged to pose no threat to humans from subsequent consumption of the food. An estimate is given for the cost range of a commercial neutron gage and of encapsulated radioisotopic neutron sources

  2. Moisture damage with magnesium oxide boards in Danish facade structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium oxide boards have been widely used on facades in Denmark during 2010-2015. However, the magnesium salts absorb humidity from the ambient, and they begin to leak salty water, which is highly corrosive, and leads to moisture and mould problems in wooden members of the structures. Mg...

  3. Fast qualification using thermal shock combined with moisture absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.S.; Zhang, G.Q.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Driel, van W.D.; Sluis, van der O.; Ernst, L.J.; Regard, C.; Gautier, C.; Fremont, H.

    2009-01-01

    Time to market is becoming one of the most important factors because of the fierce market competition. However, traditional reliability and interface toughness characterization tests take very long time. For example, moisture sensitivity level assessment (MSL1) will take 168 hours pre conditioning

  4. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...... intermittently. For one of the materials, aerated concrete, the sorption curves are determined at three different temperatures....

  5. Measurement of moisture in smoldering smoke and implications for fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2006-01-01

    Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the southern United States. A project began in 2002 to determine whether moisture released during the smoldering phases of southern prescribed burns could contribute to fog formation. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 27...

  6. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) technology can offer rapid and cost-effective determination of the trace elements concentrations in soils. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of soil moisture content under different condition on PXRF measurement quality. For this purpose, PXRF was used to evaluate the soil ...

  7. Exchange of moisture between atmosphere and ground regarding tritium transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnenberg, C.

    1980-09-01

    Two measuring equipment have been developed in the framework of this study which fulfill important conditions to avoid microclimatic interferences during measurement by using site-specific ground samples and embedding these in the ground surface. The beta-absorption lysimeter allows the detection of a minimum deposit height of 0.001 mm in a 1 mm sample layer. The conductivity moisture probe is to measure the moisture diffusion within the first 80 mm of the upper ground with a vertical spacial resolution of 2 mm. It is possible to measure a minimum water content increase of 0.02 wt% per 2 mm ground layer using this probe. The influences of single microclimatic parameter on condensation and evaporation were investigated and a transport equation was developed. Investigations in the Negev proved the application ability of the measuring equipment. The application of the transport equation showed very good agreement with the measured values. When the ground surface starts to cool in the afternoon, there is a countercurrent moisture transport from the atmosphere and the deeper ground layers which lead to a higher water content in the upper ground layer. At about 50 mm depth there is an overlapping layer of the two moisture flows which remains almost constant over the 24 h cycle. This exchange zone of atmospheric humidity and ground water must be paid great attention with regard to HTO transfer. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Moisture Buffer Performance of a Fully Furnished Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennberg, Kaisa; Hedegaard, Lone Grønbæk; Rode, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    of the indoor air, such as growth of house dust mites, emissions from materials and mould growth it is anticipated that the moisture buffer effect can help to ensure healthier indoor environments. The building materials as well as furniture and other furnishing materials exposed to the indoor air...

  9. Moisture rainout fraction over the Indian Ocean during austral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35

    summer based on 18O/16O ratios of surface sea water, rainwater at .... In other words, the average rainout fraction (fraction of the overhead moisture ..... The highest wind speed and direction are found after 40oS latitude whereas low values.

  10. Response of maize and cucumber intercrop to soil moisture control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replicate field plots were used in experiments aimed at evaluating the yield potentials of maize and cucumber intercrop resulting from the control of soil moisture through irrigation and mulching, for a period of eleven weeks. Three irrigation depths, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mm; and two mulch levels, zero mulch and 10 ton/ha of oil ...

  11. Estimating soil moisture using the Danish polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiankang, Ji; Thomsen, A.; Skriver, Henning

    1995-01-01

    The results of applying data from the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) to estimate soil moisture for bare fields are presented. Fully calibrated C-band SAR images for hh, vv and cross polarizations have been used in this study. The measured surface roughness data showed that classical roughness a...... of surface parameters with the bilinear model, the correlation coefficient between the estimated and measured soil moisture, as well as rms height, is about 0.77. To improve the result, the local incidence angles need to be taken into account......The results of applying data from the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) to estimate soil moisture for bare fields are presented. Fully calibrated C-band SAR images for hh, vv and cross polarizations have been used in this study. The measured surface roughness data showed that classical roughness...... autocorrelation functions (Gaussian and Exponential) were not able to fit natural surfaces well. A Gauss-Exp hybrid model which agreed better with the measured data has been proposed. Theoretical surface scattering models (POM, IEM), as well as an empirical model for retrieval of soil moisture and surface rms...

  12. U.S National cropland soil moisture monitoring using SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop condition information is critical for public and private sector decision making that concerns agricultural policy, food production, food security, and food commodity prices. Crop conditions change quickly due to various growing condition events, such as temperature extremes, soil moisture defic...

  13. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  14. The micrometeorological investigation of heat flux and moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diurnal and seasonal variations of heat flux and the moisture content in the soil at a site for the Nigeria Mesoscale Experiment (NIMEX) in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (7.380 N and 3.930 E), had been investigated. The study also investigated effects of the atmospheric phenomena on magnitudes of the surface layer ...

  15. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...

  16. GCOM-W soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  17. Moisture sources of the Mono Lake deglacial pluvial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liang, M. C.; Ali, G.; Shen, C. C.; Cai, Y.; Ke, L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Enormously expanded lakes existed in the today's dry western US Great Basin during the last glacial period. The ancient shorelines located well above modern lake levels suggest that precipitation in lake basins must have been substantially higher in the past. It is however under debate whether the subtropical North Pacific or the tropical Pacific is the major moisture source that contributed to the pluvial events, particularly during the deglaciation. Here, we collected a suite of tufa carbonate samples deposited at the 2,080 meter terrace ( 135 meters above today's lake level) in the Mono Basin, California, a closed lake basin for the last 130 thousand years (kyr). At Goat Ranch, we discovered white, shiny, laminated botryoidal carbonate coatings on tufa mounds. Most of these coatings present two generations of formation separated by a hiatus, which indicates lake level fluctuations. Using high-precision U-Th dating techniques, we found that the lower layer was formed 14.1-14.4 kyr BP (corresponding to the North Atlantic Bølling warming period). The upper layer of the coating was formed 11.9-12.3 kyr BP (within the Younger Dryas event). We then obtained d18O, d13C, D47 and 17O-excess values for the two carbonate layers. The upper part is characterized by low d18O values, -8 to -12 ‰ VPDB, whereas the lower one has higher d18O values, -5 to -6 ‰ VPDB. Both share similar d13C values ( 1-2‰ VPDB). D47 analysis on the carbonates suggests that both layers were deposited in a water temperature of 9±2 oC (1s, n = 4 and 8, respectively). The two generations of carbonates present 17O-excess of moisture in values of 50±5 (1s, n=4) and 25±5 (1s, n=8) per meg VSMOW-SLAP, respectively. The large difference in 17O-excess of parent meteoric water points to different origins of moisture for the tufa carbonate formations. The high 17O-excess values during YD suggest a moisture source with a low relative humidity, consistent with the conventional view that the moisture

  18. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel; Fukthaltsmaetning av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Njurell, Rolf; Ehleskog, Rickard [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Direct determination of the moisture content, i.e. analysis of the fuel, is the most dominating moisture measuring method of today, and is usually done manually by weighing and drying a sample. By measuring on the exhaust gases the moisture content is determined indirect. This method is based upon the fact that there is a relation between the moisture content in the fuel and in the exhaust gases. This is an alternative that is only considered briefly in this report. Acceptance test of the fuel today takes place in several ways. The methods vary from advanced automatic mechanical devices to manually taken tests made by the driver him self. In the simplest case when the plant only has one fuel supplier, deduction is maid against the amount of produced energy. There are no systems today that can automatically take tests for continuous measuring. This project aims to find methods that are practical for direct, automatic and continuous measurement of the moisture content for the following applications: Moisture determination of fuel supplies, acceptance test. Moisture determination for combustion control in furnaces and boilers. The possibilities to automate the sampling are discussed in detail, at which important background information concerning the handling problems associated with the point of measuring is illustrated. The measurement techniques that are described more in detail are NIR (Near Infra Red), radar technique, microwave technique, radio frequency scan, radioactive technique, double energy X-ray and some combinations of these techniques. In the report, suppliers of interesting instruments are presented. The fundamental technical demands and the basis that should be included in a specification of a measuring device are gathered. Our appraisal is that a sequel to this project should be concentrated on the following main issues: Automatic acceptance test: The measuring is suggested to be done with a test probe direct in the incoming batch. The most suited

  19. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other advantages of optics include low manufacturing costs, immunity to ... It is now possible to control atoms by trapping single photons in small, .... cement, and optical spectrum analyzers. ... risk of noise is further reduced, as light is immune to electro- ..... mode of operation including management of large multimedia.

  20. Assessment of Multi-frequency Electromagnetic Induction for Determining Soil Moisture Patterns at the Hillslope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp-van Meerveld, I.; McDonnell, J.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of electromagnetic induction (EM) as a potential rapid and non-invasive method to map soil moisture patterns at the Panola (GA, USA) hillslope. We address the following questions regarding the applicability of EM measurements for hillslope hydrological investigations: (1) Can EM be used for soil moisture measurements in areas with shallow soils?; (2) Can EM represent the temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture throughout the year?; and (3) can multiple frequencies be used to extract additional information content from the EM approach and explain the depth profile of soil moisture? We found that the apparent conductivity measured with the multi-frequency GEM-300 was linearly related to soil moisture measured with an Aqua-pro capacitance sensor below a threshold conductivity and represented the temporal patterns in soil moisture well. During spring rainfall events that wetted only the surface soil layers the apparent conductivity measurements explained the soil moisture dynamics at depth better than the surface soil moisture dynamics. All four EM frequencies (7290, 9090, 11250, and 14010 Hz) were highly correlated and linearly related to each other and could be used to predict soil moisture. This limited our ability to use the four different EM frequencies to obtain a soil moisture profile with depth. The apparent conductivity patterns represented the observed spatial soil moisture patterns well when the individually fitted relationships between measured soil moisture and apparent conductivity were used for each measurement point. However, when the same (master) relationship was used for all measurement locations, the soil moisture patterns were smoothed and did not resemble the observed soil moisture patterns very well. In addition, the range in calculated soil moisture values was reduced compared to observed soil moisture. Part of the smoothing was likely due to the much larger measurement area of the GEM-300 compared to the Aqua

  1. Estimating Regional Scale Hydroclimatic Risk Conditions from the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Champagne

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite soil moisture is a critical variable for identifying susceptibility to hydroclimatic risks such as drought, dryness, and excess moisture. Satellite soil moisture data from the Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP mission was used to evaluate the sensitivity to hydroclimatic risk events in Canada. The SMAP soil moisture data sets in general capture relative moisture trends with the best estimates from the passive-only derived soil moisture and little difference between the data at different spatial resolutions. In general, SMAP data sets overestimated the magnitude of moisture at the wet extremes of wetting events. A soil moisture difference from average (SMDA was calculated from SMAP and historical Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS data showed a relatively good delineation of hydroclimatic risk events, although caution must be taken due to the large variability in the data within risk categories. Satellite soil moisture data sets are more sensitive to short term water shortages than longer term water deficits. This was not improved by adding “memory” to satellite soil moisture indices to improve the sensitivity of the data to drought, and there is a large variability in satellite soil moisture values with the same drought severity rating.

  2. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, D F

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Optics gives a comprehensive coverage of developments in quantum optics over the past years. In the early chapters the formalism of quantum optics is elucidated and the main techniques are introduced. These are applied in the later chapters to problems such as squeezed states of light, resonance fluorescence, laser theory, quantum theory of four-wave mixing, quantum non-demolition measurements, Bell's inequalities, and atom optics. Experimental results are used to illustrate the theory throughout. This yields the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of experiment and theory in quantum optics in any textbook. More than 40 exercises helps readers test their understanding and provide practice in quantitative problem solving.

  3. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  5. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  6. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  7. Measuring Soil Moisture in Skeletal Soils Using a COSMOS Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.; Neely, H.; Desilets, D.; Mohanty, B.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of coarse fragments directly influences the volumetric water content of the soil. Current surface soil moisture sensors often do not account for the presence of coarse fragments, and little research has been done to calibrate these sensors under such conditions. The cosmic-ray soil moisture observation system (COSMOS) rover is a passive, non-invasive surface soil moisture sensor with a footprint greater than 100 m. Despite its potential, the COSMOS rover has yet to be validated in skeletal soils. The goal of this study was to validate measurements of surface soil moisture as taken by a COSMOS rover on a Texas skeletal soil. Data was collected for two soils, a Marfla clay loam and Chinati-Boracho-Berrend association, in West Texas. Three levels of data were collected: 1) COSMOS surveys at three different soil moistures, 2) electrical conductivity surveys within those COSMOS surveys, and 3) ground-truth measurements. Surveys with the COSMOS rover covered an 8000-h area and were taken both after large rain events (>2") and a long dry period. Within the COSMOS surveys, the EM38-MK2 was used to estimate the spatial distribution of coarse fragments in the soil around two COSMOS points. Ground truth measurements included coarse fragment mass and volume, bulk density, and water content at 3 locations within each EM38 survey. Ground-truth measurements were weighted using EM38 data, and COSMOS measurements were validated by their distance from the samples. There was a decrease in water content as the percent volume of coarse fragment increased. COSMOS estimations responded to both changes in coarse fragment percent volume and the ground-truth volumetric water content. Further research will focus on creating digital soil maps using landform data and water content estimations from the COSMOS rover.

  8. The Combined Effect of Cold and Moisture on Manual Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Matthew; Sanli, Elizabeth; Brown, Robert; Ennis, Kerri Ann; Carnahan, Heather

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of cold and moisture on manual performance and tactile sensitivity. Background People working in the ocean environment often perform manual work in cold and wet conditions. Although the independent effects of cold and moisture on hand function are known, their combined effect has not been investigated. Method Participants completed sensory (Touch-Test, two-point discrimination) and motor (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) tests in the following conditions: dry hand, wet hand, cold hand, and cold and wet hand. Results For the Purdue Pegboard and knot untying tasks, the greatest decrement in performance was observed in the cold-and-wet-hand condition, whereas the decrements seen in the cold-hand and wet-hand conditions were similar. In the Grooved Pegboard task, the performance decrements exhibited in the cold-and-wet-hand condition and the cold-hand condition were similar, whereas no decrement was observed in the wet-hand condition. Tactile sensitivity was reduced in the cold conditions for the Touch-Test but not the two-point discrimination test. The combined effect of cold and moisture led to the largest performance decrements except when intrinsic object properties helped with grasp maintenance. The independent effects of cold and moisture on manual performance were comparable. Application Tools and equipment for use in the cold ocean environment should be designed to minimize the effects of cold and moisture on manual performance by including object properties that enhance grasp maintenance and minimize the fine-dexterity requirements.

  9. Estimation of Soil Moisture Under Vegetation Cover at Multiple Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadghuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Weiß, Thomas; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture under vegetation cover was estimated by a polarimetric, iterative, generalized, hybrid decomposition and inversion approach at multiple frequencies (X-, C- and L-band). Therefore the algorithm, originally designed for longer wavelength (L-band), was adapted to deal with the short wavelength scattering scenarios of X- and C-band. The Integral Equation Method (IEM) was incorporated together with a pedo-transfer function of Dobson et al. to account for the peculiarities of short wavelength scattering at X- and C-band. DLR's F-SAR system acquired fully polarimetric SAR data in X-, C- and L-band over the Wallerfing test site in Lower Bavaria, Germany in 2014. Simultaneously, soil and vegetation measurements were conducted on different agricultural test fields. The results indicate a spatially continuous inversion of soil moisture in all three frequencies (inversion rates >92%), mainly due to the careful adaption of the vegetation volume removal including a physical constraining of the decomposition algorithm. However, for X- and C-band the inversion results reveal moisture pattern inconsistencies and in some cases an incorrectly high inversion of soil moisture at X-band. The validation with in situ measurements states a stable performance of 2.1- 7.6vol.% at L-band for the entire growing period. At C- and X-band a reliable performance of 3.7-13.4vol.% in RMSE can only be achieved after distinct filtering (X- band) leading to a loss of almost 60% in spatial inversion rate. Hence, a robust inversion for soil moisture estimation under vegetation cover can only be conducted at L-band due to a constant availability of the soil signal in contrast to higher frequencies (X- and C-band).

  10. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  11. Initializing numerical weather prediction models with satellite-derived surface soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and the TMI soil moisture data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2007-02-01

    Satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analyzed from the modeled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. For this study, three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the 2-month period of June and July 2002: a control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States. In this experimental run the satellite-derived soil moisture product is introduced through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly increments. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analyzed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage.

  12. Plasticisation of amylodextrin by moisture : Consequences for drug release from tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, Rob; Eissens, Anco C.E.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Lerk, Coenraad F.

    2000-01-01

    Moisture influences the consolidation behaviour of amylodextrin powders and the porosity and mechanical strength of compacts thereof. The aim of this study is to relate moisture content and compact properties to drug release characteristics of amylodextrin tablets. Therefore, amylodextrin tablets

  13. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public Buildings (EPA 402-F-13053)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled "Moisture Control Guida...

  14. Plasticisation of amylodextrin by moisture. Consequences for compaction behaviour and tablet properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, R; Frijlink, H W; Lerk, C F

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Amylodextrin, a starch-based controlled release excipient, spontaneously absorbs moisture during storage. The aim of this study was to investigate plasticisation of amylodextrin by moisture and its effect on compaction and tablet characteristics. Methods: The glass transition temperature

  15. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  16. Seasonal soil moisture patterns in contrasting habitats in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changing seasonal soil moisture regimes caused by global warming may alter plant community composition in sensitive habitats such as wetlands and oak savannas. To evaluate such changes, an understanding of typical seasonal soil moisture regimes is necessary. The primary objective...

  17. Microhabitat effects of litter temperature and moisture on forest-floor invertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim A. Christiansen; Sue A. Perry; William B. Perry

    1996-01-01

    Litter temperature and moisture may be altered due to changes in global climate. We investigated the effect of small changes in litter temperature and moisture on forest-floor communities in West Virginia.

  18. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, M. U.; Jana, Raghavendra Belur; Hoteit, Ibrahim; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial component of the hydrologic cycle, significantly influencing runoff, infiltration, recharge, evaporation and transpiration processes. Models characterizing these processes require soil moisture as an input, either directly

  19. Northern Hemisphere moisture variability during the Last Glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Lachniet, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    It was previously shown that large oxygen isotope variability related to changing moisture sources in the southwestern United States (SW) match the Greenland ice core temperature record. The variations were attributed to changes in the ratio of winter to summer precipitation delivered to the SW, with lighter winter δ18O values compared to summer monsoon rainfall, due to meridonial shifts in the position of the polar jet stream, which directs winter storm tracks. Cold stadial δ18O excursions are associated with strongly negative values, while interstadials have higher than average δ18O values. Although these data documented moisture source variability to the SW, the question of effective moisture variability remains unanswered. Here we present new high-resolution δ18O and δ13C isotopic data from a precisely dated speleothem, FS-AH1, from Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico USA. The sample grew continuously between 47.6 and 11.1 kyr. The new chronology is more precise than previous work due to high sample growth rate, new gains in efficiency provided by our upgraded Neptune MC-ICPMS and new more precise determinations of the half-lives of 230Th and 234U. The FS-AH1 δ18O and the Greenland δ18O data (on the GICC05 time scale) show a remarkable match, both with respect to stadials/interstadial amplitudes and variability, and in the overall long-term trend. Our interpretation of the δ18O data remains the same, an indicator of moisture source variability. The δ18O and δ13C isotopic data show no correlation (R2 effective moisture in the soil zone overlying the cave, with low δ13C attributed to high soil productivity, high effective moisture, and wet conditions. The stadial and interstadial events are expressed mutely, if at all, in the δ13C data, while the secular variation follows the change in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (insolation), similar to other Northern Hemisphere data, such as the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon as recorded in the Hulu

  20. Non-destructive radio-frequency and microwave measurement of moisture content in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of moisture content in agricultural commodities, the usefulness of the dielectric properties of such products for sensing moisture content by radiofrequency and microwave measurements, and factors affecting these properties are briefly discussed. Recent developments in the understanding of principles for online moisture sensing and the sensing of individual kernel, seed, nut and fruit moisture contents by radiofrequency and microwave techniques are reviewed. A brief discussion is included on aspects of practical application

  1. Moisture diffusion coefficients determination of furan bonded sands and water based foundry coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content in furan bonded sand and water based coatings can be one of the main causes for gas related defects in large cast iron parts. Moisture diffusion coefficients for these materials are needed to precisely predict the possible moisture levels in foundry moulds. In this study, we first...... provide an example on how it is possible to apply this knowledge to estimate moisture variation in a sand mould during production....

  2. Quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department

    1999-07-01

    Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.

  3. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert J; Lin, Lawrence H

    1971-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  4. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  5. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  6. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information from SMAP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kolassa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP observations. Neural network (NN and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture. Assimilating the NN retrievals without further bias correction improved the surface and root zone correlations against in situ measurements from 14 SMAP core validation sites (CVS by 0.12 and 0.16, respectively, over the model-only skill, and reduced the surface and root zone unbiased root-mean-square error (ubRMSE by 0.005 m 3 m − 3 and 0.001 m 3 m − 3 , respectively. The assimilation reduced the average absolute surface bias against the CVS measurements by 0.009 m 3 m − 3 , but increased the root zone bias by 0.014 m 3 m − 3 . Assimilating the NN retrievals after a localized bias correction yielded slightly lower surface correlation and ubRMSE improvements, but generally the skill differences were small. The assimilation of the physically-based SMAP Level-2 passive soil moisture retrievals using a global bias correction yielded similar skill improvements, as did the direct assimilation of locally bias-corrected SMAP brightness temperatures within the SMAP Level-4 soil moisture algorithm. The results show that global bias correction methods may be able to extract more independent information from SMAP observations compared to local bias correction methods, but without accurate quality control and observation error characterization they are also more vulnerable to adverse effects from retrieval errors related to uncertainties in the retrieval inputs and algorithm. Furthermore, the results show that using global bias correction approaches without a

  7. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima; Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP satellite was successfully launched January 31st 2015, and began acquiring Earth observation data following in-orbit sensor calibration. Global data products derived from the SMAP L-band microwave measurements include Level 1 calibrated and geolocated radiometric brightness temperatures, Level 23 surface soil moisture and freezethaw geophysical retrievals mapped to a fixed Earth grid, and model enhanced Level 4 data products for surface to root zone soil moisture and terrestrial carbon (CO2) fluxes. The post-launch SMAP mission CalVal Phase had two primary objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product pertaining to the validated release. The L4_C validated product release effectively replaces an earlier L4_C beta-product release (Kimball et al. 2015). The validated release described in this report incorporates a longer data record and benefits from algorithm and CalVal refinements acquired during the SMAP post-launch CalVal intensive period. The SMAP L4_C algorithms utilize a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and component carbon fluxes for vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw (FT) controls on GPP and respiration (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and

  8. Potential of bias correction for downscaling passive microwave and soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave satellites such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) or SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) observe brightness temperature (TB) and retrieve soil moisture at a spatial resolution greater than most hydrological processes. Bias correction is proposed as a simple method to disag...

  9. [Bare Soil Moisture Inversion Model Based on Visible-Shortwave Infrared Reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Qin, Qi-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong; Gao, Zhong-ling; Wu, Ling; Meng, Qing-ye; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Soil is the loose solum of land surface that can support plants. It consists of minerals, organics, atmosphere, moisture, microbes, et al. Among its complex compositions, soil moisture varies greatly. Therefore, the fast and accurate inversion of soil moisture by using remote sensing is very crucial. In order to reduce the influence of soil type on the retrieval of soil moisture, this paper proposed a normalized spectral slope and absorption index named NSSAI to estimate soil moisture. The modeling of the new index contains several key steps: Firstly, soil samples with different moisture level were artificially prepared, and soil reflectance spectra was consequently measured using spectroradiometer produced by ASD Company. Secondly, the moisture absorption spectral feature located at shortwave wavelengths and the spectral slope of visible wavelengths were calculated after analyzing the regular spectral feature change patterns of different soil at different moisture conditions. Then advantages of the two features at reducing soil types' effects was synthesized to build the NSSAI. Thirdly, a linear relationship between NSSAI and soil moisture was established. The result showed that NSSAI worked better (correlation coefficient is 0.93) than most of other traditional methods in soil moisture extraction. It can weaken the influences caused by soil types at different moisture levels and improve the bare soil moisture inversion accuracy.

  10. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  11. 19 CFR 151.23 - Allowance for moisture in raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance for moisture in raw sugar. 151.23...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.23 Allowance for moisture in raw sugar. Inasmuch as the absorption of sea water or moisture...

  12. Effect of moisture content on strength of CCA-treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is unknown. This report discusses the influence of moisture content and its...

  13. Moisture Distribution in Broccoli: Measurements by MRI Hot Air Drying Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments

  14. Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with

  15. Dendrochronological analysis of white oak growth patterns across a topographic moisture gradient in southern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander K. Anning; Darrin L. Rubino; Elaine K. Sutherland; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    Moisture availability is a key factor that influences white oak (Quercus alba L.) growth and wood production. In unglaciated eastern North America, available soil moisture varies greatly along topographic and edaphic gradients. This study was aimed at determining the effects of soil moisture variability and macroclimate on white oak growth in mixed-oak forests of...

  16. A comparison of two methods for estimating conifer live foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow

    2012-01-01

    Foliar moisture content is an important factor regulating how wildland fires ignite in and spread through live fuels but moisture content determination methods are rarely standardised between studies. One such difference lies between the uses of rapid moisture analysers or drying ovens. Both of these methods are commonly used in live fuel research but they have never...

  17. 30 CFR 27.41 - Test to determine resistance to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine resistance to moisture. 27.41... determine resistance to moisture. Components, subassemblies, or assemblies, the normal functioning of which might be affected by moisture, shall be tested in atmospheres of high relative humidity (80 percent or...

  18. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  19. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  20. An inverse moisture diffusion algorithm for the determination of diffusion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu; William T. Simpson; Steve P. Verrill

    2000-01-01

    The finite difference approximation is applied to estimate the moisture-dependent diffusion coefficient by utilizing test data of isothermal moisture desorption in northern red oak (Quercus rubra). The test data contain moisture distributions at discrete locations across the thickness of specimens, which coincides with the radial direction of northern red oak, and at...