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Sample records for cowpea viruses effect

  1. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  2. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from cowpea mosaic virus-infected cowpea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorssers, L.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was the purification and identification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase engaged in replicating viral RNA in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)- infected cowpea leaves.Previously, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata

  3. Expression of Bottom Component RNA of Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Cowpea Protoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Rezelman, Geertje; Goldbach, Rob; van Kammen, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Upon inoculation of cowpea protoplasts with the bottom component of cowpea mosaic virus, at least six virus-induced proteins (with sizes of 170, 110, 87, 84, 60, and 32 kilodaltons) are synthesized, but not the capsid proteins (37 and 23 kilodaltons). These bottom-component-induced proteins were studied with respect to their genetic origin and mode of synthesis. The analyses were based on their electrophoretic peptide patterns resulting from partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protea...

  4. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  5. Virus Survey of Commercial Cowpea Fields in the U. S. and Evaluation of the Core of the USDA Cowpea Germplasm Collection for Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important vegetable crop in the southern United States. Cowpea plants are susceptible to over 20 viruses and many of them are seed-borne. A survey was carried out to evaluate the current virus status in commercial cowpea fields in five States (MO, NM, SC, TN and TX...

  6. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and 7).The aim o

  7. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  8. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is re

  9. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to be responsible for the

  10. Field Performance of Cowpea Genotypes Grown under Virus Pressure in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important grain legume in many regions of the tropics. However, viral diseases, particularly Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV), can be a limiting factor in cowpea production. We evaluated in replicated field plots and un...

  11. Inheritance of tolerance to Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Arrabal Arias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean stem necrosis is caused by Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV and it has been recognized as an emerging and economically important disease in Brazil. No resistant, but only tolerant cultivars have been identified so far, and their genetic control is still unknown. To investigate the inheritance of soybean tolerance to CPMMV, two crosses between tolerant cultivars (BRS 133 x BRSMT Pintado, and between a susceptible (CD 206 and a tolerant cultivar (BRSMT Pintado were carried out to obtain F2 and F2:3 generations. Quantitative and qualitative analyses applied to the data from greenhouse evaluations showed that there are at least two distinct major genes determining tolerance to CPMMV, one in the soybean cultivar BRS 133 and another in the cultivar BRSMT Pintado, with predominance of additive genetic effects and heritability levels that allow for efficient selection based on early generation means

  12. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P.; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as “poor man’s meat”, cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus—a strain of Bean common mosaic virus—[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses. PMID:27764211

  13. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  14. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  15. Intracellular distribution of cowpea mosaic virus movement protein as visualised by green fluorescent protein fusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopinath, K.; Bertens, P.; Pouwels, J.; Marks, H.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Wellink, J.E.; Kammen, van A.

    2003-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) derivatives expressing movement protein (MP) green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (MP:GFP) were used to study the intracellular targeting and localization of the MP in cowpea protoplasts and plants. In protoplasts, a virus coding for a wild type MP:GFP (MPfGFP) induced

  16. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co

  17. Endothelial targeting of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV via surface vimentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J Koudelka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission.

  18. Structure, morphogenesis and function of tubular structures induced by cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D.

    1999-01-01

    During systemic plant infection, viruses move from the initially infected cells through plasmodesmata to neighbouring cells. Different mechanisms have been proposed for this cell-to-cell movement. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) employs one of the major movement mechanisms, i.e. tubule-guided transport o

  19. Engineering Cowpea Mosaic Virus RNA-2 into a vector to express heterologous proteins in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodetham Gopinath,; Wellink, J.; Porta, C.; Taylor, K.M.; Lomonossoff, G.P.; Kammen, van A.

    2000-01-01

    series of new cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2-based expression vectors were designed. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced between the movement protein (MP) and the large (L) coat protein or downstream of the small (S) coat protein. Release of the GFP inserted between the MP

  20. Genes and sequences involved in the replication of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the RNA replication of the cowpea mosaic virus genome. Previously the replication of CPMV RNA has been examined extensively with crude membrane fractions prepared from CPMV inf

  1. Subcellular location of the helper component-proteinase of Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Gopinath, K.; Carette, J.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to obtain HC-Pro antiserum that was used as an analytical tool for HC-Pro studies. The antiserum was used in immunofluorescence assays to study the subcellular location of H

  2. Cowpea mosaic virus infection induces a massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum but not Golgi membranes and is dependent on de novo membrane synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, J.E.; Stuiver, M.; Lent, van J.; Wellink, J.; Kammen, van A.

    2000-01-01

    Replication of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is associated with small membranous vesicles that are induced upon infection. The effect of CPMV replication on the morphology and distribution of the endomembrane system in living plant cells was studied by expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) targete

  3. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  4. Crystal Structure and Proteomics Analysis of Empty Virus-like Particles of Cowpea Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nhung T; Hesketh, Emma L; Saxena, Pooja; Meshcheriakova, Yulia; Ku, You-Chan; Hoang, Linh T; Johnson, John E; Ranson, Neil A; Lomonossoff, George P; Reddy, Vijay S

    2016-04-01

    Empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are currently being utilized as reagents in various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMV eVLPs determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with previously reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of eVLPs and virion crystal structures. Although the X-ray and cryo-EM structures of eVLPs are mostly similar, there exist significant differences at the C terminus of the small (S) subunit. The intact C terminus of the S subunit plays a critical role in enabling the efficient assembly of CPMV virions and eVLPs, but undergoes proteolysis after particle formation. In addition, we report the results of mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of coat protein subunits from CPMV eVLPs and virions that identify the C termini of S subunits undergo proteolytic cleavages at multiple sites instead of a single cleavage site as previously observed.

  5. Inheritance and molecular mapping of an allele providing resistance to Cowpea mild mottle virus-like symptoms in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Cowpea mild mottle virus-like (CPMMV-L) symptoms (family: Betaflexiviridae, genus: Carlavirus) has been of increasing concern in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Soybean cultivars and lines differing in their reaction to the virus have been ...

  6. The use of tobacco mosaic virus and cowpea mosaic virus for the production of novel metal nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Andrew J; Makarov, Valentine; Yaminsky, Igor; Kalinina, Natalia O; Taliansky, Michael E

    2014-01-20

    Due to the nanoscale size and the strictly controlled and consistent morphologies of viruses, there has been a recent interest in utilizing them in nanotechnology. The structure, surface chemistries and physical properties of many viruses have been well elucidated, which have allowed identification of regions of their capsids which can be modified either chemically or genetically for nanotechnological uses. In this review we focus on the use of such modifications for the functionalization and production of viruses and empty viral capsids that can be readily decorated with metals in a highly tuned manner. In particular, we discuss the use of two plant viruses (Cowpea mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus) which have been extensively used for production of novel metal nanoparticles (<100nm), composites and building blocks for 2D and 3D materials, and illustrate their applications.

  7. Expression and silencing of cowpea mosaic virus transgenes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Plant viruses are interesting pathogens because they can not exist without their hosts and exploit the plant machinery for their multiplication. Fundamental knowledge on viral processes is of great importance to understand, prevent and control virus infections which can cause drastic losses in crops

  8. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Origin of the membrane compartment for cowpea mosaic virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Replication of many positive-stranded RNA viruses takes place in association with intracellular membranes. Often these membranes are induced upon infection by vesiculation or rearrangement of membranes from different organelles including the early and late endomembrane system. Upon infection of cowp

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of full-length DNA copies of the genomic RNAs of cowpea mosaic virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to unravel various aspects of the mechanism of gene expression of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). For this purpose full-length DNA copies of both genomic RNAs of CPMV were constructed. Using powerful invitro transcription systems RNA t

  11. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  12. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  13. Immune response induced in mice oral immunization with cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Florindo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the immune response induced by plant viruses since these could be used as antigen-expressing systems in vaccination procedures. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, as a purified preparation (300 g of leaves, 2 weeks post-inoculation, or crude extract from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata leaves infected with CPSMV both administered by gavage to Swiss mice induced a humoral immune response. Groups of 10 Swiss mice (2-month-old females were immunized orally with 10 daily doses of either 50 µg viral capsid protein (boosters of 50 µg at days 21 and 35 after immunization or 0.6 mg protein of the crude extract (boosters of 0.6 mg at days 21 and 35 after immunization. Anti-CPSMV antibodies were quantified by ELISA in pooled sera diluted at least 1:400 at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the 10th dose. IgG and IgA against CPSMV were produced systemically, but IgE was not detected. No synthesis of specific antibodies against the proteins of leaf extracts from V. unguiculata, infected or not with CPSMV, was detected. The use of CPSMV, a plant-infecting virus that apparently does not induce a pathogenic response in animals, induced a humoral and persistent (at least 6 months immune response through the administration of low antigen doses by gavage. These results raise the possibility of using CPSMV either as a vector for the production of vaccines against animal pathogens or in quick and easy methods to produce specific antisera for viral diagnosis.

  14. Biological stability of a strain of Cowpea severe mosaic virus over 20 years Estabilidade biológica de uma estirpe do Cowpea severe mosaic virus ao longo de 20 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albersio Araujo Lima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important crop of the traditional agriculture system in the Northeast of Brazil. It can be infected by more than 20 virus species and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV is one of the most important pathogens that naturally infect cowpea in Brazil. Several CPSMV isolates were obtained and characterized in the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará: CPSMV-CE - the first characterized isolate of the virus obtained from cowpea in the State of Ceará; CPSMV-AL - isolated from cowpea in Alagoas; CPSMV-PE - isolated from cowpea in Pernambuco; CPSMV-PR - obtained from soybean (Glycine max in Paraná and CPSMV-CROT - isolated from Crotalaria paulinea, in Maranhão. An isolate of CPSMV with the property to infect the cv. Macaibo, a cowpea cultivar immune to most of CPSMV isolates was also biologically and serologically characterized as a new strain of the virus (CPSMV-MC. The CPSMV-MC was isolated in January 1990 and has been evaluated over 20 years by host range studies and maintenance in vivo by periodical mechanical inoculations in cowpea. The results of this periodical evaluation revealed that the biological integrity and the serological properties of CPSMV-MC were preserved over 20 years, indicating that the genetic preservation of a virus strain could occur over the years. Molecular studies involving part of the coat protein (CP gene of CPSMV-MC and five other Brazilian CPSMV isolates indicated a high degree of conservation, with 92-100% nucleotide sequence identity among the isolates.O feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata é uma cultura do sistema tradicional do Nordeste do Brasil, que pode ser infetada por mais de 20 espécies de vírus, sendo o vírus do mosaico severo do caupi (Cowpea severe mosaic virus, CPSMV um dos mais importantes patógenos que infeta naturalmente essa leguminosa no Brasil. Vários isolados do CPSMV foram obtidos e caracterizados no Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal da UFC

  15. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  16. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  17. Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R A; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Boyko, V; Reddy, A S; Dawson, W O; Reddy, D V

    1998-01-01

    Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus.

  18. Molecular variability of cowpea mild mottle virus infecting soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardo, L G; Silva, F N; Lima, A T M; Milanesi, D F; Castilho-Urquiza, G P; Almeida, A M R; Zerbini, F M; Carvalho, C M

    2014-04-01

    Molecular variability was assessed for 18 isolates of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) found infecting soybean in various Brazilian states (Bahia, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará) in 2001 and 2010. A variety of symptoms was expressed in soybean cv. CD206, ranging from mild (crinkle/blistering leaves, mosaic and vein clearing) to severe (bud blight, dwarfing, leaf and stem necrosis). Recombination analysis revealed only one CPMMV isolate to be recombinant. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis were performed for partial genomes (ORF 2 to the 3' terminus) and for each ORF individually (ORFs 2 to 6), showing the isolates to be distinct. The topology of the phylogenetic tree could be related to symptoms, but not to the year of collection or geographical origin. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of two distinct strains of the virus, designated CPMMV-BR1 and CPMMV-BR2, with molecular variations between them.

  19. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, P. H.; Wen, A. M.; Sheen, M. R.; Fields, J.; Rojanasopondist, P.; Steinmetz, N. F.; Fiering, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

  20. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND SOME SERUM BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. GUMAA BALAIEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inclusion of different levels of untreated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds (0, 5, 10 and 15% in broiler diet on performance and some serum biochemical factors was studied. The research was conducted on basis of a completely Randomized Design (CRD. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein intake and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced with the inclusion of 15% untreated cowpea seeds. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca and K contents were significantly (P<0.05 decreased with increasing level of cowpea seeds in diets. Uric acid concentration observed to be higher in birds fed 15% cowpea seed. It is concluded that good performance of broiler chicken is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 10% inclusion of cowpea seeds in balanced diet for broiler.

  1. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  2. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  3. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  4. Survey of aphid population in a yellow passion fruit crop and its relationship on the spread Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in a subtropical region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Garcêz, Renata Maia; Chaves, Alexandre Levi Rodrigues; Eiras, Marcelo; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; de Azevedo Filho, Joaquim Adelino; da Silva, Leonardo Assis; Colariccio, Addolorata

    2015-01-01

    Background Passion fruit woodiness may be caused by Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and is currently the major passion fruit disease in Brazil. To assess the virus-vector-host interactions, a newly introduced golden passion fruit plantation located in eastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, was monitored. Methods Dissemination of CABMV was determined analyzing golden passion fruit plants monthly for 18 months by PTA-ELISA. Seasonality and aphid fauna diversity was determined by ide...

  5. Effect of Bradyrhizobium sp.Inoculation on Biomass and Nodulation of Cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYUHUA; C.F.FONJI; 等

    1997-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata(L.)Walp (cowpea)is a tropical legume of very high nutrive and economic values.A laboratory experiment.was conducted to evaluate the BNF (biological nitrogen fixation) effciency of 4 strains of Bradyrhizobium sp.(VUXYI,VUIE1,VUMDS1 and VUID1).From the results obtained these strains were classified into efficiency groups,with VUID1 being the most efficient and VUXY1 the least efficient.the effect of inoculation was tested on 2 cowpea varieties in a field experiment.Remarkable increases in nodulation biomass and crop yield were observed.An increase from 58% ti 81% in dry seed was obtained for the two varieties.A significance test revealed a signifecantly positive correlation between nodulation and biomass.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  7. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  9. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  10. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A. (Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)); Serafini, P.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s[sup [minus]1] as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Awosanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

  12. Detection and some properties of cowpea mild mottle virus isolated from soybean in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Shahraeen, N; Ghorbani, S

    2008-12-01

    During 2006-2007 growing seasons, survey were carried to identify a virus disease causing mosaic of soybean in the field in Southern region (Khozestan Province) of Iran. To detect the viral infection, diseased leaf samples showing mild mosaic and leaf malformation were collected from soybean fields in Dezful, located in Khozestan Province. Infected samples were carried to the lab in a proper condition on ice packages. TPIA and DAS-ELISA serological tests were applied to identify the viral agent. To investigate the host-range, several indicator plants were mechanically inoculated under green-house condition. Seed transmission of CPMMV was examined using the seeds obtained from infected plants. The virus isolate was not found to be seed-borne in Clark variety of soybean. Different steps of ultracentrifugation including sucrose density gradient (10-40%) were carried out in order to obtain partial purified virus. On the basis of biological, serological and EM results, CPMMV-Carla virus was identified in the infected soybean samples. This is the first report of CPMMV infection of soybean in Iran.

  13. Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI. Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant

  14. Can the RNA of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus be released through a channel by means of free diffusion? A test in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, Raul; Aponte, Carlos; Cipriani, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), a plant virus which is member of the Bromoviridae family, is used as a model for the diffusion of a random, short, single stranded RNA, [5'-R(PGpGpApCpUpUpCpGpGpUpCpC)-3')], through a channel on the pseudo-three-fold axis using molecular dynamic simulations. This proposition is based the fact that CCMV undergoes a dynamic structural transition as a response to changes of pH, temperature and ionic strength. Results indicate that the RNA looses its secondary structure and moves into the capside channel by free diffusion. These results are congruent with the hypothesis suggesting that the CCMV capside does not have to dissolve in order to release the RNA into the host. PMID:14962592

  15. The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha-1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha-1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha-1. Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  16. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  18. Preparation of nanoporous polyimide thin films via layer-by-layer self-assembly of cowpea mosaic virus and poly(amic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Bo; Wu Guojun; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang Qian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); Su Zhaohui, E-mail: zhsu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Low dielectric (low-{kappa}) materials are of key importance for the performance of microchips. In this study, we show that nanosized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles can be assembled with poly(amic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions via the layer-by-layer technique. Then, upon thermal treatment CPMV particles are removed and PAA is converted into polyimide in one step, resulting in a porous low-{kappa} polyimide film. The multilayer self-assembly process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Imidization and the removal of the CPMV template was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The dielectric constant of the nanoporous polyimide film thus prepared was 2.32 compared to 3.40 for the corresponding neat polyimide. This work affords a facile approach to fabrication of low-{kappa} polyimide ultrathin films with tunable thickness and dielectric constant.

  19. EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

  20. Preparation and Cell Imaging of Fluorescent Cowpea Mosaic Virus%荧光标记豇豆花叶病毒的制备及细胞成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小慧; 梁淑彩; 刘衍斌; 仰望; 鄢国平

    2013-01-01

    The fluorescent nanoparticles (5-FAM/CPMV) based on cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been prepared by modifying the amine groups on the surface of CPMV with amine -reactive fluorescent probe,5-carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester(5-FAMSE). The structure as well as one- and two-photon fluorescence of the nanoparticles have been investigated. The surface property of 5-FAM/CPMV has also been investigated by capillary electrophoresis. Finally,5-FAM/CPMV was employed for the two-photon fluorescence(TPF) imaging of Hela cells. The results showed that the modification of CPMV had no obvious effect on the nanostructure morphology of CPMV,or the biospecific property of CPMV. 5-FAM/ CPMV could be taken up by Hela cell and the green fluorescence could be observed in cellsap using TPF microscopy with the excitation wavelength of 800 nm, indicating 5-FAM/CPMV has the potential in targeted cancer cell TPF imaging.%利用与氨基选择性反应的荧光染料5羧基荧光素琥珀酰亚胺酯(5 FAMSE)对豇豆花叶病毒(CPMV)表面的氨基进行修饰,制备了荧光功能化CPMV纳米粒(5-FAM/CPMV).对其结构形态和单、双光子荧光进行了测试,用毛细管电泳对其表面特性进行了考察,并将其用于Hela细胞的双光子荧光成像.研究表明,目标纳米粒粒径均匀,仍具有天然CPMV的特性,能进入Hela细胞,在波长800 nm激光激发下可以成功地用于肿瘤细胞的成像分析,可望用于肿瘤靶向双光子荧光细胞成像方面的研究.

  1. Functional properties of acetylated and succinylated cowpea protein concentrate and effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René; Mbome, Israël Lape

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to improve functional properties of cowpea protein concentrate by acylation and partial hydrolysis with pepsin. The acylated concentrate showed significant improvement in protein solubility and water solubility index, at neutral pH. In addition, acylation increased fat absorption capacity compared with the untreated concentrate, and the maximum was obtained at 0.75 g succinic anhydride/g concentrate. Acetylation at concentrations of 0.25-0.50 g/g led to the higher emulsifying activity, and a markedly improvement in emulsifying stability was observed at 1.0 g anhydride/g concentrate. Foaming activity increased following acylation, particularly at 0.25 and 1.00 g/g succinic anhydride/g concentrate, while foam stability decreased. At pH 3.5, protein solubility of the acylated concentrates was low ( < 8%). Partial hydrolysis of cowpea protein concentrate with pepsin increased protein solubility at the isoelectric and neutral pH.

  2. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  3. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of cowpea effect of variet and locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous seeds belong to plant foods which are generally rich in phenolic compounds. Cowpea seeds are a major source of plant proteins and vitamins for man, feed for animals. Polyphenolic compounds are secondary metabolites of amino acids present in many plant species, including legume. Their content depends on various factors, such as cultivar, pedoclimatic and cultivation conditions. The influence of cultivar, locality on the total polyphenols (TPC and antioxidant activity (TAC of Cowpea seeds was studied. Cowpea cultivars were cultivated under different climatic conditions in Iraq Republic. The main objective of the present work was to consider the changes of total polyphenols content in dependence on variety and to evaluate an antioxidant potential of three Cowpea varieties (white, light brown and red color in different localities of Erbil City in Kurdistan Region Iraq and to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds (polyphenolics in legumes commonly utilized in the human diet in Iraq, to compare their antioxidant capacity and to evaluate the influence of grown locality on observed parameters. Total polyphenols were determined by the Lachman´s method and expressed as mg of Gallic acid equivalent per kg dry matter. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by the Brand-Williams method using a compound DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (p0.05 among locality and color for phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. The various varieties of white color cowpea had significant influence on TPC and TAC and affected by locality too. From tested seeds the highest polyphenol content was measured in red color (802.323 ±15.937 - 825.700 ±8.494 mg.kg-1 GAE. The lowest value was in white color (480.195 ±15.286 - 721.952 ±25.004 mg.kg-1GAE.The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest TAC value was determined in red color (28.709 ±15.937 - 34.777 ±8.494% DPPH. The lowest

  4. Assessing non-target effects and host feeding of the exotic parasitoid Apanteles taragamae, a potential biological control agent of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck is a larval parasitoid introduced in Benin for classical biological control of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of A. taragamae on non-target herbivore species, and on another parasitoid of M. vitrata, i.e. the egg

  5. Structuur en eigenschappen van cowpea-mozaiekvirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, J.L.M.C.

    1974-01-01

    Purified infectious preparations of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) consist of three centrifugal components with sedimentation coefficients of 58, 95 and 118 S. These are referred to as top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B) component. M and B are nucleoproteins containing 25 and 36% RNA respectively. All th

  6. Inhibition of Cleavage of a Plant Viral Polyprotein by an Inhibitor Activity Present in Wheat Germ and Cowpea Embryos †

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Ding S.; Bu, Ming; Price, Mary A.; Shih, Chao-Yun T.

    1987-01-01

    In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the bottom component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus directs the synthesis of a 200,000-molecular-weight precursor protein (200K protein) that is cleaved during synthesis by a reticulocyte enzyme to form a 32K protein and a 170K protein. Cleavage of the 200K protein was found to be effectively inhibited by inhibitor activity in wheat germ and cowpea embryo extracts. The inhibitor was nondialyzable, precipitatable by ammonium sulfate, and partially stable at high temp...

  7. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Germination on Anti oxidative activity of Cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti oxidative activity (AOA) of cowpea (Vigna unquiculata L.) methanolic extracts was investigated. AOA of crude methanolic extracts (CME's) for embryo was the strongest (81.4%) followed by seed coat (testa) (80.0%) and whole seed (13.95% of AOA for ∝-tocopherol at 120 hr storage period: while AOA of seed coat and whole seed were 98.6, 86.15% respectively at 168 hr. AOA increased for CME's of seed coat (from 80 to 89.76%) and whole seed (from 13.95 to 83.72%), as irradiation dose increased up to 7.5 KGy. In the first 24 hr germination, AOA declined for seed coat from 40 to 20.46% then start to increase to reach 73.02% at the end of germination period. AOA for whole seed as well increased in the first 48 hr from 13.95 to 44.18% then decreased to 37.5% of AOA for ∝-tocopherol. The research proved the commercial importance of cowpea seed as natural source for antioxidants, and investigated the role of gamma irradiation and germination in increasing the anti oxidative activity

  8. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  9. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Daniel T. Gungula

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  10. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  11. Evaluation of the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants using a cowpea Fe-superoxide dismutase as a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urarte, Estibaliz; Asensio, Aaron C; Tellechea, Edurne; Pires, Laura; Moran, Jose F

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide cytotoxicity arises from its rapid conversion to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the presence of superoxide, provoking functional changes in proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues. The physiological significance of this post-translational modification is associated to tissue injury in animals, but has not been yet clarified in plants. The objective of this study was to establish new approaches that could help to understand ONOO(-) reactivity in plants. A recombinant Fe-superoxide dismutase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), rVuFeSOD, was the target of the ONOO(-)-generator SIN-1, and the anti-nitrative effect of plant antioxidants and haemoglobins was tested in vitro. Nitration on rVuFeSOD was evaluated immunochemically or as the loss of its enzymatic activity. This assay proved to be useful to test a variety of plant compounds for anti-nitrative capacity. Experimental data confirmed that rice (Oryza sativa L.) haemoglobin-1 (rOsHbI) and cowpea leghaemoglobin-2 exerted a protective function against ONOO(-) by diminishing nitration on rVuFeSOD. Both plant haemoglobins were nitrated by SIN-1. The chelator desferrioxamine suppressed nitration in rOsHbI, indicating that Fe plays a key role in the reaction. The removal of the haem moiety in rOsHbI importantly suppressed nitration, evidencing that this reaction may be self-catalyzed. Among small antioxidants, ascorbate remarkably decreased nitration in all tests. The phenolic compounds caffeic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and the flavonoid gossypin also diminished tyrosine nitration and protected rVuFeSOD to different extents. It is concluded that small plant antioxidants, especially ascorbate, and haemoglobins may well play key roles in ONOO(-) homeostasis in vivo. PMID:25221924

  12. Intercropping Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.): Effect of Bradyrhizobium Inoculation and Fertilization on Minerals Composition of Sorghum Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ekhlas M. Musa; Elsiddig A. E. Elsheikh; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of Bradyrhizobium inoculation and fertilization on the nutritional values of macro- and micronutrients of sorghum intercropped with cowpea in the field under rainfed conditions. The results of the present study demonstrated that intercropping, Bradyrhizobium inoculation, and N and P fertilization had significant effect on the mineral status of sorghum seeds. Intercropping significantly ( ≤ 0 . 0 5 ) inc...

  13. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.; Bezerra-Neto Egídio; Burity Hélio A.

    2001-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1), -70.0 (S2) and

  14. Effects of Initial Infestation Levels ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use ofNicotiana tabacum L. Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa A K; Odunayo A; Adeyeye O E

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. onC. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria,Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacumat 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL•50 g-1 cowpea seeds onC. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness againstC. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival ofC. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract ofN. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.

  15. Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.;

    2012-01-01

    The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator...... revealed filamentous virion particles from the leaves of plants showing characteristic virus disease symptoms in growing-on and host inoculation tests. The identity of the strains was confirmed by immunocapture RT-PCR, with a final amplification product of approximately 700 bp for BCMV and BCMV......–BICM. The complete identity of the two viruses was further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the partial coat protein and 3'-UTR regions. The sequences of the four BCMV and BCMV–BICM isolates each consisted of 583–622 and 550–577 nucleotides. The present report confirms the widespread nature of these two serious...

  16. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  17. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  18. Effects of different Fe levels from Fe-nano-chelate and Fe-EDDHA sources on growth and some nutrients concentrations in cowpea in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jokar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of different levels of iron (Fe (from Fe-nano-chelate and Fe-EDDHA sources on growth parameters, concentration and absorption of Fe and some nutrients in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in a calcareous soil, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four levels of Fe (0, 0.135, 0.270 and 0.405 mg Fe per kg soil as Fe-nano-chelate or Fe-EDDHA. The studied soil (Fine-loamy, carbonatic, thermic, Typic Calcixerepts had a loam texture with low available Fe content. Results showed that application of both Fe fertilizers increased shoot dry-matter yield, root dry matter yield, number of pods per plant, weight of pods and seeds per plant, grain weight per pot, shoot Fe concentration and Fe uptake by cowpea as compared to control treatment. Some of the evaluated growth parameters at all levels of Fe from Fe-nano-chelate source were higher than the Fe-EDDHA source and some were the same and had no significant difference. Application of both Fe-nano-chelate and Fe-EDDHA decreased phosphorus and manganese concentrations in shoots as compared to control treatment. Concentration of zinc and cooper in shoots was not significantly affected by the Fe level. In conclusion, lower rates of Fe-nano-chelate were required, as compared to Fe-EDDHA, to alleviate iron deficiency in cowpea grown in calcareous soils.

  19. Kajian Morfologi Anatomi dan Agronomi antara Kedelai Sehat dengan Kedelai Terserang Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus serta Pemanfaatannya sebagai Bahan Ajar Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As’ad Syamsul Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penyebab rendahnya produktivitas kedelai di Indonesia adalah serangan virus belang samar kacang tunggak Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian survei yang bertujuan untuk menggambarkan dan mengumpulkan informasi tentang kajian morfologi, anatomi dan agronomi terhadap infeksi CPMMV antara varietas yang terinfeksi dengan yang tidak terinfeksi. Data dianalisi secara deskriptif dan secara Inferensial ANAVA dengan menggunakan pro-gram SPSS for Windows versi 16. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: Varietas Gumitir sehat, Anjosmoro sehat, Mahameru sehat , MLGG 0021, dan MLGG 0268 memiliki ukuran lebih besar dalam hal panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang petiol daun, nisbah daun (L/W, dan nisbah daun (L/PL dibandingkan va-rietas yang sakit. Varietas Argopuro sakit memiliki ukuran lebih besar dalam hal panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang petiol daun, dan nisbah daun (L/W, Nisbah daun (L/PL dibandingkan varietas yang sehat. Tidak terdapat perbedaan warna hipokotil, perbedaan bentuk daun, warna daun, warna bulu batang, permukaan daun antara kedelai sehat dan sakit pada keenam varietas. Terdapat perbedaan warna biji, warna polong masak, antara kedelai sehat dan sakit pada keenam varietas. Warna bunga pada kelima varietas kedelai sehat dan sakit berwarna ungu, kecuali pada varietas Gumitir berwarna putih. Terdapat perbedaan bentuk daun pada varietas Argopuro, Anjosmoro, Mahameru sehat dan sakit. Tidak terdapat perbedaan bentuk daun antara sehat dan sakit pada varietas Gumitir, MLGG 0021 dan MLGG 0268. Ada pengaruh varietas, kondisi, interaksi varietas dan kondisi terhadap ukuran sel daun. Ada pengaruh varietas terhadap jumlah stomata, kondisi serta interaksi varietas dan kondisi tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap jumlah stomata. Tidak terdapat pengaruh varietas, interaksi varietas dan kondisi terhadap jumlah epidermis. Ada pengaruh kondisi terhadap jumlah epidermis. Jumlah trikoma varietas kedelai sehat lebih banyak daripada

  20. Effect of de cortication and roasting on trypsin inhibitors and tannin contents of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balail, Nasara Gumaa

    2014-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of cowpea seeds. Also to minimize the presence of some anti nutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors. It is aimed to determined the best method by which we can reduce the anti nutritional factors. Samples of raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds were subjected to proximate analysis. The results show that for dry matter (93.63, 94.33 and 95.9), for crude protein (29.18, 31.80 and 29.73), for ash (4.60, 4.0 and 5.52) for fiber (6.22, 3.75 and 4.32) for ether extract (2.30, 2.50 and 1.60) for nitrogen free extract (51.33, 52.28 and 54.73), respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted seeds. Tannin content percentages were determined using method. The results were (0.76, 0.02 and 0.005), respectively. Trypsin inhibitors were determined using enzymatic method the results were (1.68, 0.74 and 1.36), respectively for raw, decorticated and decorticated roasted cowpea seeds. It is concluded that chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Decorticated seeds gives high level of protein followed by the others. De cortication significantly reduced tannin content by 85%. Roasting significantly decreased trypsin inhibitors by 65%. Processing of cowpea seeds either mechanically or by heat, significantly improve their nutritional value. PMID:26035962

  1. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  2. Introduction of the anti-apoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in passion fruit induces herbicide tolerance, reduced bacterial lesions, but does not inhibits passion fruit woodiness disease progress induced by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Daniele Scandiucci; Coelho, Marly C Felipe; Souza, Manoel T; Marques, Abi; Ribeiro, E Bergmann Morais

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of anti-apoptotic genes into plants leads to resistance to environmental stress and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The anti-apoptotic gene (p35) from a baculovirus was introduced into the genome of passion fruit plants by biobalistics. Eleven regenerated plants showed the presence of the p35 gene by PCR and/or dot blot hybridization. Transcriptional analysis of regenerated plants showed the presence of specific p35 transcripts in 9 of them. Regenerated plants containing the p35 gene were inoculated with the cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae, and the herbicide, glufosinate, (Syngenta). None of the plants showed resistance to CABMV. Regenerated plants (p35+) showed less than half of local lesions showed by non-transgenic plants when inoculated with X. axonopodis and some p35+ plants showed increased tolerance to the glufosinate herbicide when compared to non-transgenic plants. PMID:17016672

  3. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  4. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  5. Effect of Osmopriming Duration on Germination, Emergence, and Early Growth of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed osmopriming could be a sustainable method to increase crop establishment, uniform emergence, and growth of plant on the field. Laboratory and field studies were carried out in 2010 cropping season at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the effect of seed osmopriming duration on the germination, emergence, and growth of cowpea seeds. Treatments consisted of three osmopriming duration (soaking in 1% KNO3 salt for 6, 8, and 10 hrs, one hydroprimed control (10 hr, and an unprimed control. These five treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated four times. The results showed that osmopriming with KNO3 for different durations was at par but was superior to unprimed treatments in terms of seed germination, emergence, plant height, and dry matter accumulation at 3 weeks after sowing. From this study, it can therefore be concluded that seeds of cowpea could be primed (both hydro and osmopriming for increased performance. However, osmopriming with KNO3 salt (soaked in 1% KNO3 salt solution and dried before sowing for 6 hours could result in greater seed germination and seedling height than hydropriming.

  6. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756 strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  7. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  8. Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity yield and N2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kuyper, T.W.; Leeuwis, C.; Abekoe, M.K.; Cobbinah, J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N-2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent mai

  9. 茶树油清除豇豆农药残留的效果%Effects of tea tree oils on removing pesticide residue in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽静; 程盛华; 李积华; 黄茂芳; 唐永富; 朱德明

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used as an insurance policy against devastating crop losses from pests and diseases. Excessive usage of pesticides may lead to contamination of the crop and the environment, eventually posing a risk of pesticide-related illnesses to humans. Previous literature has shown that water washing is only partially effective in removing pesticides, and in the case of liposoluble pesticides, a cosolvent must be used as an adjuvant. Recently, naturally occurring adjuvants are gaining prominence over synthetic chemical compounds. Tea tree oil (TTO, the oil of Melaleuca alternifolia), a natural, volatile essential oil, is mainly extracted by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and terminal branchlets of the plant. It has attracted significant interest due to its antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial bioactivities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are fewer experimental data evaluating its efficacy in the removal of pesticide residues. In this study, the effects of TTO on removing pesticide residue were carried out in the cowpea. Volume:volume (v:v) concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% of TTO and water soluble tea tree oil (WTTO) in water were used to remove a standardized pesticide mixture (organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and carbamate compounds) from cowpeas. Sample pretreatment (pesticide application to cowpeas) was performed according to agricultural industry standards. The objective pesticide residues in cowpeas were assayed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS), and then the clearance rate was calculated. The results showed that TTO was able to remove the three kinds of pesticides from cowpeas. Moreover, the removal efficiency increased with increasing concentration of TTO. The effect of clearing organophosphate was much more obvious than that of either pyrethroid or carbamate. It was suggested that small liposoluble molecules of TTO rapidly infiltrate the cowpea surface to

  10. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  11. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  12. Development of IC-RT real-time PCR method for detection of Cowpea severe mosaic virus%一种豇豆重花叶病毒IC-RT real-time PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 粟寒; 吴翠萍; 周明华; 安榆林

    2010-01-01

    为建立豇豆重花叶病毒(Cowpea severe mosaic virus,CPSMV)免疫捕获-反转录-实时荧光(IC-RT real-time)PCR分子检测方法,利用从ATCC和DSMZ引进的CPSMV标准毒株,先建立CPSMV RT real-time PCR检测方法;在此基础上,建立用于CPSMV检测的 IC-RT real-time PCR方法.结果表明:IC-RT real-time PCR方法的灵敏度可达500 pg叶组织;该方法具有特异性好、灵敏度高、操作简便等优点,省去了RNA的提取过程,适用于豇豆等豆类种子及种苗中对豇豆重花叶病毒的快速检测.

  13. Effects of supplementing cassava peels with cassava leaves and cowpea haulms on the performance, intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of West African Dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatan, Oluwayemisi; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Adebayo, Kolawole; Iposu, Shamusideen; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    A 16-week experiment was conducted to determine the utilization of ratios of cassava leaf meal, cassava peel and cowpea haulms by West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Thirty WAD bucks aged 8 ± 1.3 months with body weights of 6-6.5 ± 0.12 kg were divided into five groups of six animals and each group randomly assigned to one of the treatments in a completely randomized design. The five dietary treatments were formulated to contain cassava peels, leaves and cowpea haulms at different proportions of 700:100:175 (T1), 500:200:275 (T2), 300:300:375 (T3) and 100:400:475 (T4) g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. A standard diet formulated to meet the nutrient requirement of the animals with no cassava and cowpea haulms was used as the control diet (T5). DM intake ranged from 316.16 to 458.73 g/day and significantly increased (linear (L), quadratic (Q), cubic (C): P cassava peels reduced and cassava leaves and cowpea haulms increased in the diets. The crude protein (CP) intake significantly increased (L, Q, C: P cassava peels reduced and cassava leaves and cowpea haulms increased in the diets. Growth rate values significantly (L: P cassava leaves and cowpea haulms increased and reduced cassava peels in the diets. The highest N intake of 14.75 g/day obtained in T4 was significantly (L: P cassava peels, leaves and cowpea haulms in the proportion of 100:400:475 g/kg DM improved the growth and digestibility of WAD goats and can therefore be used to sustain animal performance during the dry season in a total mixed ration.

  14. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse. PMID:25300846

  15. Effect of Six Different Audio Frequencies on Growth of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) during Seedling Stage%6种不同声频对豇豆苗期生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜仕仁; 黄俊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同类型、频率特征的声波对豇豆苗期生长的影响.[方法]以古典音乐与昆虫鸣声的混合声波(MI)、杜鹃鸣声、蟋蟀鸣声、单一频率的400 Hz声波和多种频率合成的F5,Fn声波进行试验比较,对豇豆苗高、苗重进行测定,采用EXCEL进行统计分析和多重比较.[结果]经6种不同类型和频率声频处理后,豇豆苗期生长状况均显著优于对照组,表明声波能显著促进株高生长,对豇豆苗期助长效果较好的是400Hz、杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声,其次是MI,Fn和F5;与对照组相比,杜鹃鸣声和蟋蟀鸣声处理组在生长期间能显著促进苗株增重.[结论]不同类型、频率特征的声波对豇豆苗期生长都有明显的助长作用,但作用效果有所差异.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the effects of acoustic waves with different types and frequency characteristics on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) during seedling stage. [ Method] The insect-music mixed sound (MS), cuckoo acoustic song, cricket acoustic song, single 400 Hz frequency acoustic wave, F5 and Fn acoustic waves composed of different frequencies were designed to investigate the effects on height and weight of cowpea seedling, and experimental data were statistically analyzed and multiple-compared by EXCEL. [ Result ] After treatment by six different types and frequencies of acoustic waves, the growth situations of cowpea were better than control. This indicated that acoustic waves could significantly promote height growth of plant. The treatments with good growth promotion effect included 400 Hz frequency acoustic wave, cuckoo acoustic song and cricket acoustic song, followed by MI, Fn and F5. Cuckoo and cricket acoustic song treatment could promote the weight of cowpea seedling during growth stage. [ Conclusion ] Acoustic waves with different types and frequency characteristics had significant growth-promotion effect on growth of cowpea during seedling stage, but

  16. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  17. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yussef F.B. Braga; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Eder A. Freire; Helano L. Lopes; José N. S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Mary Anne S. Lima

    2007-01-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to ...

  18. Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Antwi, K.K.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the

  19. De zuivering en de eigenschappen van de replicatieve vorm van het RNA van cowpea-mozaiekvirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    1970-01-01

    Purified infectious preparations of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) consist of three centrifugal components with sedimentation coefficients of 58, 95 and 115 S . These are referred to as top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B) component and contain 0, 24 and 33% RNA respectively (Van Kammen, 1967). All three

  20. Effects of Brewers Spent Grains-typed Bio-organic Fertilizer on Cowpea Photosynthesis Characteristics%啤酒糟型生物有机肥对豇豆光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻夜兰; 荣湘民; 刘强; 谢桂先; 曾晶

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究在豇豆生长过程中施用啤酒糟型生物有机肥对豇豆光合特性的影响.[方法]采用田间小区试验,共设4个处理,以自然堆肥+化肥处理、纯化肥处理作为对照,比较啤酒糟型生物有机肥和双效活性精致有机肥2种肥料对豇豆功能叶光合特性的影响.[结果]在开花结英期,啤酒糟型生物有机肥处理豇豆功能叶净光合速率、胞间CO2浓度、叶绿素含量最高.[结论]啤酒糟型生物有机肥能明显促进豇豆中后期功能叶净光合速率,提高叶绿素含量,但对功能叶气孔导度影响不大.%[Objective] The effects of brewer's spent grains-typed bio-organic fertilizer on cowpea photosynthesis characteristics were studied. [ Method] Field plot experiments were conducted which had four treatments including natural compost, pure chemical fertilizer, brewers spent grains-typed bio-organic fertilizer, double effect exquisite bio-organic fertilizer. [Result] Net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentra tion and content of chlorophyll of cowpea functional leaves were uppermost during flower buds. [ Conclusion ] Brewers spent grains-typed bio organic fertilizer could increase net photosynthetic rate in later stage of cowpea growth, improve the content of chlorophyll of functional leaves, decrease transpiration rate, and it had little effect on stomata conductance of functional leaves.

  1. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ndor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined to form nine treatments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated three times to form twenty seven plots. The result showed that Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant (p<0.05 effect on the entire growth and yield parameter assessed in both years. 40 kg/ha of phosphorus gave a significantly higher number of nodulation count/plant (34.95 and 32.24, number of pod/plant (20.64 and 20.24, seed weight/plant (39.56 and 37.64, pods weight/plant (51.45 and 45.31 and seed weight/ha (1.56 and 1.52 t/ha in both years. The spacing also had a significant (p<0.05 response on almost the entire growth and yield parameter assessed except on the weight of 100 seeds. Spacing of 30×60 cm did not differ significantly with 45x80 cm which gave similar result in the no. of pod/plant, seed weight/plant, pods weight/plant and seed weight (t/ha in both years.

  2. 水溶性叶面肥对豇豆产量的影响%Effect of Water Soluble Foliar Fertilizer on Cowpea Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧亮; 许恩光; 王顺德

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer on the yield of cowpea, eight different foliar fertilizers were sprayed in cowpea vegetative growth stage for 3 times. Results showed that the yield increased 67%by spraying 4.3%fulvic acid foliar fertilizer, increased 57% by spraying 8% fulvic acid+(N+P2O5+K2O), increased 48.2% by spraying major elements and trace elements[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23% 9∶6∶8)+(Fe+B+Z≥1%)], increased 43.2% by spraying 4%potassium humate+major elements+trace elements[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23% 9∶6∶8)+(Fe+B+Zn≥1%)], increased 40.8%by spraying 3% potassium humate+vitamin+carbamide urea+potassium sulfate≥7%; increased 39.5% by spraying major elements+tace elements[(N+P2O5+K2O≥35% 12∶10∶13)+(Fe+B+Zn≥0.6%)]; increased 33.7% by spraying 3%potassium humate+major elements and trace elements [(N+P2O5+K2O≥35% 12∶10∶13)+(Fe+B+Zn≥0.6%)];increased 15.9%by spraying 4%potassium humate. The most obvious of yield increase was fulvic acid, the effect of trace elements was better than that of major elements, potassium humate was the lowest, potassium humate+major elements+trace elements was less than major elements+trace elements.%使用8个不同配方叶面肥在豇豆营养生长阶段喷施3次,调查叶面肥对豇豆产量的影响。结果表明,与对照相比,喷施4.3%黄腐酸叶面肥处理增产67.0%;8%黄腐酸+氮磷钾增产57.1%;大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23%9∶6∶8)+(F e+B+Z n≥1%)]的增产48.2%;4%腐植酸钾+大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥23%9∶6∶8)+(Fe+B+Zn≥1%)]增产43.2%(添加腐植酸钾不利于提高产量);3%腐植酸钾+维生素+尿素+硫酸钾≥7%增产40.8%;大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥35%12∶10∶13)+(F e+B+Z n≥0.6%)]增产39.5%;3%腐植酸钾+大量元素+微量元素[(N+P2O5+K2O≥35%12∶10∶13)+(F e+B+Z n≥0.6%)]增产33.7%;4%腐植酸钾增产15.9%。黄腐酸增产效果最明显,微量元素增产效果比大量元素明显,腐植酸

  3. Nodulation of cowpeas and survival of cowpeas Rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils. [Vigna unguiculata; Rhizobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartel, P.G.; Whelan, A.M.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the reduced nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown in certain acid, Alrich soils resulted from the poor survival of the potentially infective rhizobia. Two strains of Rhizobium capable of nodulating cowpeas were used. The lowest pH for growth in defined liquid medium was 4.2 for one strain and 3.9 for the other. Only the latter was Al tolerant and could grow in a defined liquid medium containing 50 ..mu..M KAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. The survival of the bacteria and their ability to nodulate cowpeas in three soils were measured after the soils were amended with Ca or Al salts to give pH values ranging from 5.7 to 4.1 and extractable-Al concentrations from < 0.1 to 3.7 cmol(p/sup +/)/kg of soil. Only small differences in survival in 7 or 8 weeks were noted between the two strains. Plants inoculated with the Al-sensitive strain bore significantly fewer nodules in the more acid, Al-rich soils than in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. No significant reduction in nodule number was evident for plants inoculated with the Al-tolerant strain and grown in the more acid, Al-rich soils compared to cowpeas grown in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. It is suggested that the Al content of soil is not a major factor in the survival of cowpea rhizobia but that it does have a significant effect on nodulation. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  4. The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s responsible for the effect is (are concentrate in the globulin fraction.

  5. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: report of the deliberations of an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesing, Joseph; Romeis, Jörg; Ellstrand, Norman; Raybould, Alan; Hellmich, Richard; Wolt, Jeff; Ehlers, Jeff; Dabiré, Clémentine; Fatokun, Christian; Hokanson, Karen; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Margam, Venu; Obokoh, Nompumelelo; Mignouna, Jacob; Nangayo, Francis; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Pasquet, Rémy; Pittendrigh, Barry; Schaal, Barbara; Stein, Jeff; Tamò, Manuele; Murdock, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation--predominately from the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata), flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) and a complex of pod-sucking bugs (e.g., Clavigralla spp)--is a major yield-limiting factor in West African cowpea production. Dramatic increases in yield are shown when M. vitrata is controlled with insecticides. However, availability, costs, and safety considerations limit pesticides as a viable option for boosting cowpea production. Development of Bt-cowpea through genetic modification (GM) to control the legume pod borer is a promising approach to cowpea improvement. Cowpea expressing the lepidopteran-active Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis is being developed as a first generation Bt-cowpea crop for West Africa. Appropriate stewardship of Bt-cowpea to assure its sustainability under West African conditions is critical to its successful development. A first step in this process is an environmental risk assessment to determine the likelihood and magnitude of adverse effects of the Cry1Ab protein on key environmental protection goals in West Africa. Here we describe the results of an expert panel convened in 2009 to develop the problem formulation phase for Bt-cowpea and to address specific issues around gene flow, non-target arthropods, and insect resistance management.

  6. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants. PMID:25146839

  7. Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L.Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walison Fabio Rogério

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is one of Brazil's national treasures prepared from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp, grated onions and salt and deep-fried in crude palm oil. The results of this study on akara preparation methods showed that, in general, cowpeas were soaked for up 3 hours at room temperature, and the seed coats were then removed. The akara makers preferred the olho de pombo cultivar, because of its cream hue, or the macassar cultivar because it produces a crispier paste. The seeds purchased from street markets had lower ranges of InsP6, InsP5, and InsP4 (1.03-7.62 ∝mol.g- 1; 0.14-1.31 ∝mol.g- 1; and 0.0-0.10 ∝mol.g- 1, respectively than both the paste and akara (6.72-19.24 ∝mol.g- 1; 1.29-4.57 ∝mol.g- 1; 0.0-0.76 ∝mol.g- 1; 3.31-13.71 ∝mol.g- 1; 0.0-4.48 ∝mol.g- 1; and 0.0-1.32 ∝mol.g- 1. These results suggest that other beans or cowpea varieties have been used in the preparation of akara and that the phytate levels do not affect its nutritional quality.

  8. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1, -70.0 (S2 and <-85.0 KPa (S3. The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15, E2 (15-30, E3 (20-35 and E4 (30-45 days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

  10. Whole cowpea meal fortified with NaFeEDTA reduces iron deficiency among Ghanaian school children in a malaria endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Moretti, D.; Schuth, S.; Zimmerman, M.B.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas, like other legumes, contain high amounts of native iron but are rich in phytic acid (PA) and polyphenols (PP) that inhibit iron absorption. NaFeEDTA may overcome the combined inhibitory effect of PA and PP. Our objective was to test the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified cowpea meal in improvin

  11. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  12. The Cowpea mosaic virus movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  13. Preparation, Consumption, and Nutritional Composition of West African cowpea dishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Houssou, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    In Africa, nutrient intake deficiencies are widespread. We, therefore, investigated the potential contribution of cowpea dishes to the ingestion of several macro- and micronutrients. Processors and consumers were interviewed and cowpea dishes analyzed. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and calcium conten

  14. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component. PMID:25300227

  15. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. L. Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium and chromium content. Plant growth, nodulation, N accumulation, and cowpea yield increased up to 10 Mg/ha; however, above this rate, these variables decreased. After 5 years of CTS amendment, the increase in soil chemical properties, particularly EC and Na content, exerted negative effects on the growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea.

  16. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

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    Rattanaruji Pomwised

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ. Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  17. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Joseany Andrade Santos; Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Wanderley José de Melo; Marcia Barreto do Vale Figueiredo; Rajeev Pratap Singh; Antônio Aécio Carvalho Bezerra; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC) rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emerg...

  18. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  19. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

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    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  20. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

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    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  1. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  2. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  3. Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.

    OpenAIRE

    Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva; José Maria Arcanjo Alves; José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima; Maria Edite da Silva Veloso; Luana dos Santos Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba) was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m). The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks wit...

  4. Efeito de extratos vegetais no controle de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum em sementes de caupi Effect of naturals extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum in cowpea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandiê Araújo da Silva

    2009-04-01

    environment. The present work had the objective to compare the effect of natural extracts on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphlum, originated from seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L, compared to chemical fungicide effect. Extracts of Allium sativum, Anadenanthera colubrine, and Ocimum basilicum were used alone or in combination with Mancozeb. A 50 µL aliquot of each treatment was added in a hole (6 mm of diameter made in the center of Petri dishes with BDA and a fungus mycelia disk was inoculated on it. Evaluations were done during seven days, measuring the pathogen mycelial growth. Seeds of cowpea were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, sowed in plastic bags with autoclaved soil. Eight days after germination, wounds were made on the basal part of the plantlets, and fungus spore suspension (1.4 x 10-5 con/mL was applied on it. Evaluations of the disease severity were accomplished daily during 30 days after inoculation, using a disease index. Combination of extracts of A. sativum + Ocimum basilicum and Anadenanthera colubrina + Ocimum basilicum did not reduce fungus mycelial growth, whereas Ocimum basilicum extract alone showed minor mycelial growth, indicating fungicide action of this treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp tracheipphlum under the conditions studied. Combination of Mancozeb + Anadenanthera colubrina was responsible for lower average of severity on the evaluated plants.

  5. Seed Size Influence On Germination And Seedling Development Of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp

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    Olayemi Ibukun Ehoniyotan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed size on the germination and seedling development was carried out on four local varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L walp, oloyin,drum, ifebrown and local white. Each of the varieties were sorted into big and small seeds, 100 seeds each of both big and small seeds of the four Varieties were weighed and the average weights were calculated and recorded. Six seeds of each sort were planted in a plastic pot filled with sandy-loamy soil in three replicates. Results of the various parameters studied revealed that germination efficiency was similar in both big and small seeds of drum, oloyin and ifebrown but not in small seeds of local white, weights of 100 seeds from big seeds were much heavier than those of small seeds. Number of leaves, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, stem height and dry weight, were consistently higher in cowpea plants from big seeds than the small seeds of all the varieties. Number of seeds per pod was higher in cowpea from big seeds in all the varieties except in drum where number of seeds was higher in plants from small seeds. In general, seedlings emerging from big seeds of all the cowpea varieties performed better in all the parameters studied than those emerging from smaller seeds.

  6. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  7. Biological and physicochemical properties of cowpea severe mosaic comovirus isolated from soybean in the State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula V. Bertacini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean plants with symptoms of bud blight were growing close to cowpea with severe symptoms of mosaic associated with blisters in the leaves. A group of plants of both species were collected and used for etiological studies. This kind of symptom in soybeans was common in certain areas of the State of Paraná, induced by tobacco streak ilarvirus. Host range, serological reaction, particle morphology and size, protein and nucleic acid analysis, and transmission by beetles from species Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. showed that the virus involved was cowpea severe mosaic comovirus. This is the first report on the occurrence of this virus in soybean plants in the State of Paraná. Results using indirect ELISA showed that in cowpea the relative virus concentration was higher in green leaf areas than in chlorotic ones. Also, virus concentration, determined through indirect ELISA was much higher in plants kept at diurnal regime of 25º C x 23º C (12 x 12 h than at 30º C x 28º C.

  8. Influence of planting densities on the performance of intercropped bambara groundnut with cowpea in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Alhassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken during the rainy seasons (August – December of 2010 and 2011 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi in Benue State, located in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the suitability of some landraces of bambara groundnut for intercropping at varying planting densities with cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 3 x 3 split-split plot set out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Intercropping decreased canopy width, number of pods per plant and grain yields of bambara groundnut component. Number of pods plant-1 and grain yields of bambara groundnuts increased with increased planting density. Landrace x planting density interaction effects was significant signifying that landraces have to be selected for specific densities. The landraces of bambara groundnuts used for this study are better suited for planting at high densities (>100,000 plants ha-1. Sole cowpea proved superior to intercropped cowpea with bambara groundnut in dry grain yield, total plant biomass and harvest index. Productivity indices indicated that bambara groundnut/ cowpea intercropping was productive, but cowpea was the dominant component of this intercropping system.

  9. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  10. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  11. Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz; Syme, Christopher D.;

    2002-01-01

    A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chira...

  12. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  13. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  14. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  15. Relationship between the yield contributing characters in cowpea for grain purpose [vigna unguiculata ( l. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Usha kumari, K.S .Usharani, R.Suguna, and C.R. Anandakumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted using fourteen genotypes of cowpea collected from different states in India to study the nature ofgenotypic association between the eight yield contributing characters and direct and indirect effects of the different characters onyield. The study revealed that the days to maturity, number of branches per plant and number of pods per plant showed positivesignificant correlation with seed yield. Path coefficient analysis exhibited days to fifty per cent flowering, plant height, pods perplant showed positive direct effect on yield except days to maturity, branches per plant, seeds per pod and hundred seed weightwhich showed negative direct effects. The characters plant stand at harvest and pods per plant exhibited moderate direct effects onyield. The implications of the results revealed that selection can be done for days to maturity, number of branches per plant andnumber of pods per plant for improving the grain yield in cowpea.

  16. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho; Magda Beatriz de Almeida Matteucci

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp), Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus level...

  17. Chemotherapy pro-drug activation by biocatalytic virus-like nanoparticles containing cytochrome P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Lorena; Cadena-Nava, Rubén D; Palomares, Laura A; Ruiz-Garcia, Jaime; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2014-06-10

    This work shows, for the first time, the encapsulation of a highly relevant protein in the biomedical field into virus-like particles (VLPs). A bacterial CYP variant was effectively encapsulated in VLPs constituted of coat protein from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). The catalytic VLPs are able to transform the chemotherapeutic pro-drug, tamoxifen, and the emerging pro-drug resveratrol. The chemical nature of the products was identified, confirming similar active products than those obtained with human CYP. The enzymatic VLPs remain stable after the catalytic reaction. The potential use of these biocatalytic nanoparticles as targeted CYP carriers for the activation of chemotherapy drugs is discussed. PMID:24835096

  18. (Restriction of virus infection by plants: Annual report, 1986)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, G.

    1986-12-05

    This research concerns the strong resistance, or even immunity, against a specific virus that is exhibited by one or a few lines of a plant species, in contrast to the general susceptibility of most lines of that species. The contrast between the reactions to virus inoculation of different lines of one species implies that a single gene or a very few genes may mediate the resistance or immunity. The prospects for isolating, studying and transferring such a gene should be good for a system with these characteristics. Seedlings of a line Arlington of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fail to support the replication of cowpea mosaic virus strain SB (CPMV-SB). Genetic crosses of Arlington cowpea to the systemic host Blackeye 5 cowpea show that the immunity is inherited as a simple dominant gene. In contrast to the seedlings, the protoplasts of the Arlington cowpea support CPMV-SB replication, but only to a very low level compared to protoplasts of Blackeye 5 cowpeas. From evidence reported earlier we concluded that Arlington cowpea protoplasts restrict the production of CPMV-SB proteins. We postulated, and obtained evidence for, a proteinase inhibitor that is specific for a CPMV-SB proteinase. This proteinase inhibitor is our prime candidate for the mediator of the resistance of Arlington protoplasts to CPMV-SB. Progress to date is described.

  19. [Restriction of virus infection by plants: Annual report, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, G.

    1986-12-05

    This research concerns the strong resistance, or even immunity, against a specific virus that is exhibited by one or a few lines of a plant species, in contrast to the general susceptibility of most lines of that species. The contrast between the reactions to virus inoculation of different lines of one species implies that a single gene or a very few genes may mediate the resistance or immunity. The prospects for isolating, studying and transferring such a gene should be good for a system with these characteristics. Seedlings of a line Arlington of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fail to support the replication of cowpea mosaic virus strain SB (CPMV-SB). Genetic crosses of Arlington cowpea to the systemic host Blackeye 5 cowpea show that the immunity is inherited as a simple dominant gene. In contrast to the seedlings, the protoplasts of the Arlington cowpea support CPMV-SB replication, but only to a very low level compared to protoplasts of Blackeye 5 cowpeas. From evidence reported earlier we concluded that Arlington cowpea protoplasts restrict the production of CPMV-SB proteins. We postulated, and obtained evidence for, a proteinase inhibitor that is specific for a CPMV-SB proteinase. This proteinase inhibitor is our prime candidate for the mediator of the resistance of Arlington protoplasts to CPMV-SB. Progress to date is described.

  20. Efeito da adição de lodo de curtume na fertilidade do solo, nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do Caupi Effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield of Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla Rafaelly Gramosa Teixeira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do lodo de curtume sobre a fertilidade do solo, a nodulação e rendimento de matéria seca do caupi. O estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se lodo de curtume adicionado ao solo, sendo em seguida plantadas sementes de caupi inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp. Os dados foram coletados aos 35 e 49 dias após a emergência das plantas. O lodo de curtume elevou o pH e os teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio e sódio do solo. Além disso, houve aumento na salinidade do solo com a aplicação do resíduo. Por outro lado, houve um incremento no rendimento de matéria seca do caupi com a adição do lodo de curtume, embora, em altas doses, o resíduo tenha diminuído a nodulação do caupi pela estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp inoculada.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of tannery sludge addition on soil fertility, nodulation and dry matter yield by cowpea. The study was conducted in greenhouse using tannery sludge applied to soil, and cowpea seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Data were collected at 35 and 49 days after plant emergence. Tannery sludge increased soil pH and organic matter, calcium and sodium content. There was an increase in soil salinity with application of the residue. There was also an increase in the dry matter yield of cowpea with tannery sludge addition, however, in higher rates, the residue decreased the Bradyrhizobium sp nodulation.

  1. Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation. PMID:27070504

  2. FARMERS RESOURCE – USE AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Omononona B.T.; A.T. Akanbi; O.A. Egbetokun

    2010-01-01

    In Nigeria, the use of stochastic frontier to estimate farm level efficiency effects is still at the rudimentary level and is beginning to build up. Few studies have been undertaken but there is dearth need for more empirical studies on this important issue. This paper presents the analysis of technical efficiency of cowpea production in Osun state southwest Nigeria, using the stochastic production frontier, budgetary and resource-use efficiency analyses. The marginal value products of all th...

  3. Preparation, consumption, and nutritional composition of west African cowpea dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madodé, Y E; Houssou, P A; Linnemann, A R; Hounhouigan, D J; Nout, M J R; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2011-01-01

    In Africa, nutrient intake deficiencies are widespread. We, therefore, investigated the potential contribution of cowpea dishes to the ingestion of several macro- and micronutrients. Processors and consumers were interviewed and cowpea dishes analyzed. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and calcium contents ranged from 1647 to 2570 kJ, 10 to 25 g, 1 to 35 mg, 1.5 to 3.0 mg, 38 to 380 mg per 100 g d.w., respectively. The iron and calcium contents were highest in dishes containing leaves. The consumption of these dishes should be promoted along with research on how to further decrease the associated antinutritional factors of traditional cowpea dishes. PMID:21888592

  4. Does a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for contributing to alleviating oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2014-08-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with cream-coloured cowpea and porridge preparation on phenolic profile and radical scavenging activity was studied. A maize-soybean composite porridge representing a similar product on the South African market was used as reference sample. UPLC-QToF-MS-ESI was used to determine phenolic composition of the grain flours, their composites and porridges. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging activity was determined using the ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging assays. Four benzoic acid derivatives and five cinnamic acid derivatives were identified in the samples. The predominant flavonoid subclasses identified in sorghum were flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones while cowpea had mainly flavan-3-ols and flavonols with soybean having mainly isoflavones. Compositing the cereals with legumes significantly (pporridge showed better promise in contributing to alleviating radical induced oxidative stress than maize-soybean composite porridge.

  5. Variability for dry fodder yield and component traits in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola M.O. 1and P.A.S. Soremi2

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cowpea genotypes were evaluated and significant genotypic effects for most of the traits studied. Number of pods/plants, pod, seed and dry fodder yields were high for phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation. High heritability values were recorded for number of pods/plant, 100 seed weight and dry fodder yield. Genetic advance was high for seed, pod and dry fodder yield indicating that the traits could be improved through selection. All traits had high genetic advance as per cent of mean except days to 50% flowering and number of seeds/pods. Dry fodder yield alone had combined high genetic advance and heritability values indicating that this trait has high selection value and considered important in cowpea improvement. IT99K-494-6 and IT98k-573-2-1 that were high for seed and pod yield; and dry fodder yield respectively, may be considered for further improvement.

  6. Field studies of sweet potatoes and cowpeas in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Progress report. [Ipomoea batatas; Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of enriched CO/sub 2/ on sweet potatoes and cowpeas were studied in open top chambers. The main task was to assemble equipment to generate test atmospheres of CO/sub 2/ in the field, using open top chambers as the basic exposure unit for studying the response of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to enriched CO/sub 2/. Plant responses to CO/sub 2/ in open top chambers have been demonstrated by several investigators in a variety of crops. This study focused on growth and development of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas at levels of CO/sub 2/ ranging from the ambient level of 354 ppM to 659 ppM. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on leaf and stem weights, stem length, leaf area, and stomatal number and conductance were studied on both species. Additional studies on sweet potatoes included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight, chemical content and quality of tubers. Additional studies on cowpeas included the effects of CO/sub 2/ on the weight of seeds and rate of nitrogen fixation. 27 figs., 35 tabs. (ACR)

  7. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a n

  8. Impacts of certain biofertilizers on cowpea plants in sludge amended sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge from El-Gabal EI-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 percent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 percent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 percent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 percent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application

  9. Comparison of inoculant and indigenous rhizobial dinitrogen fixation in cowpeas by direct nitrogen-15 analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil that contained 15N enriched organic matter (0.461 % 15N) was used to determine competitiveness of six strains at different logarithmic inoculum densities against indigenous rhizobia and against a previous surviving inoculant (strain P132). Analyses of N content of plant tissues by direct 15N technique showed that cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were capable of deriving 60 to 98% of shoot N from N2 fixation. The two fast-growing strains (176A26 and 176A28) were poorer competitors and fixed less N2 compared to the other slow-growing strains. Inoculum density had no effect upon yield response of cowpeas, but inoculation with strains P132, 401, and 22A1 effected greater seed yield, shoot dry matter, total N, and percentage of N derived from fixation (86-98%) than other strains and the uninoculated control (60-73%). By contrast, N2 fixation and yield parameters in inoculated cowpeas were not significantly different from inoculated controls that contained residual P132 from a previous inoculum study. The higher hydrogen uptake (Hup) efficiency of nodules containing residual P132 (98 ± 2%) facilitated presumptive identification of P132 (100% ± 0 Hup efficiency axenically) as the surviving and infecting inoculant strain since nodules infected by indigenous rhizobia had lower Hup efficiencies (88 ± 2%)

  10. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

    2007-03-01

    The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

  11. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  12. Generation Means Analysis of Seed Sucrose Content in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Noubissie Tchiagam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sucrose concentration of seeds is an important component of the taste in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.. The objective of this research was to estimate the heritability, to investigate the mode of genetic control and to evaluate the potential for genetic improvement of sucrose content in cowpea using generation’s means analysis. F1 and F2 generations as well as backcross populations (BCP1 and BCP2 were produced in three hybrid combinations by crosses of four selected cultivars. The sucrose level was measured via a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC system. The range of variation in sucrose content among tested varieties was from 1.88 mg/g (Lori to 5.32 mg/g (C93W-24-125. Broad-sense heritability (h2 was of a moderate 58.50% to high 68.12% value and no transgressive segregation was observed. Narrow-sense heritability (39.47 to 47.83% and heterosis (-20.00 to - 5.94% values and gene effects analysis suggested that the sucrose content is controlled by additive and non-additive genes. At 10% level of selection, an increase of 19.60 to 33.64% was predicted after one cycle. Epistasis was significant in most of crosses and at least five genes affected the sucrose accumulation in cowpea seeds. These results suggested that breeding for increased sucrose content in the seeds of cowpea can be quite successful through recurrent selection in later generations.

  13. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation. PMID:25601371

  15. Selection of Novel Cowpea Genotypes Derived through Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lydia N; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Shimelis, Hussein A

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) yields are considerably low in Namibia due to lack of improved varieties and biotic and abiotic stresses, notably, recurrent drought. Thus, genetic improvement in cowpea aims to develop cultivars with improved grain yield and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify agronomically desirable cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis using gamma irradiation. Seeds of three traditional cowpea varieties widely grown in Namibia including Nakare (IT81D-985), Shindimba (IT89KD-245-1), and Bira (IT87D-453-2) were gamma irradiated with varied doses and desirable mutants were selected from M2 through M6 generations. Substantial genetic variability was detected among cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis across generations including in flowering ability, maturity, flower and seed colors and grain yields. Ten phenotypically and agronomically stable novel mutants were isolated at the M6 each from the genetic background of the above three varieties. The selected promising mutants' lines are recommended for adaptability and stability tests across representative agro-ecologies for large-scale production or breeding in Namibia or similar environments. The novel cowpea genotypes selected through the study are valuable genetic resources for genetic enhancement and breeding. PMID:27148275

  16. Selection of Novel Cowpea Genotypes Derived Through Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eHorn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. yields are considerably low in Namibia due to lack of improved varieties and biotic and abiotic stresses, notably, recurrent drought. Thus, genetic improvement in cowpea aims to develop cultivars with improved grain yield and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify agronomically desirable cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis using gamma irradiation. Seeds of three traditional cowpea varieties widely grown in Namibia including Nakare (IT81D-985, Shindimba (IT89KD-245-1 and Bira (IT87D-453-2 were gamma irradiated with varied doses and desirable mutants were selected from M2 through M6 generations. Substantial genetic variability was detected among cowpea genotypes after mutagenesis across generations including in flowering ability, maturity, flower and seed colours and grain yields. Ten phenotypically and agronomically stable novel mutants were isolated at the M6 each from the genetic background of the above three varieties. The selected promising mutants’ lines are recommended for adaptability and stability tests across representative agro-ecologies for large-scale production or breeding in Namibia or similar environments. The novel cowpea genotypes selected through the study are valuable genetic resources for genetic enhancement and breeding.

  17. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  18. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Razak Abizari; Nerisa Pilime; Margaret Armar-Klemesu; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Hea...

  19. Antiviral effect of ranpirnase against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Thomas; Draper, Ken; Brasel, Trevor; Freiberg, Alexander; Squiquera, Luis; Sidransky, David; Sulley, Jamie; Taxman, Debra J

    2016-08-01

    The recent epidemic of Ebola has intensified the need for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics that prolong and improve survival against deadly viral diseases. We sought to determine whether ranpirnase, an endoribonuclease from Rana pipiens with a demonstrated human safety profile in phase III oncology trials, can reduce titers of Ebola virus (EBOV) in infected cells, protect mice against mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, and reduce virus levels in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that 0.50 μg/ml ranpirnase is potently effective at reducing EBOV Zaire Kikwit infection in cultured Vero E6 cells (Selectivity Index 47.8-70.2). In a prophylactic study, a single intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase protected 70% of mice from progressive infection. Additionally, in a post-exposure prophylactic study, 100% of female mice survived infection after intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase for ten days beginning 1 h post challenge. Most of the male counterparts were sacrificed due to weight loss by Study Day 8 or 9; however, the Clinical Activity/Behavior scores of these mice remained low and no significant microscopic pathologies could be detected in the kidneys, livers or spleens. Furthermore, live virus could not be detected in the sera of ranpirnase-treated mice by Study Day 8 or in the kidneys, livers or spleens by Study Day 12, and viral RNA levels declined exponentially by Study Day 12. Because ranpirnase is exceptionally stable and has a long track record of safe intravenous administration to humans, this drug provides a promising new candidate for clinical consideration in the treatment of Ebola virus disease alone or in combination with other therapeutics. PMID:27350309

  20. Evaluation of native and collected Germplasm for earliness Seed traits and resistance to rust, CMV and leaf spot in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sanjeev. Deshpand, B.R.Patil, P. M. Salimath , J.M. Nidagundi and S. Karthigeyan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 225 germplasm collections of cowpea including local types were evaluated in augmented design alongwith C152 (check for high test weight, desirable seed and pod features, earliness and resistance to Cowpea rust (Uromycesvignae, Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CMV and Cercospora leaf spot for two years ( kharif 2008 and kharif 2009 at Dharwad. Theresults of the investigation revealed that fifteen of the accessions showed bold seeds (test weight > 10g. Accession numberIC202932 and IC247435 showed extra bold seeds (test weight >14g and also bold pods. About 15 germplasm accessions werefound to be highly resistant to rust; 10 accessions displayed HR reaction to CMV and about 5 accessions showed highlyresistant reaction against leafspot. With respect to Multiple Disease Resistance, accession numbers IC201095, IC257406,IC257435 showed highly resistant reaction against leaf spot and CMV and accessions IC257410 and IC214753 showedresistance against rust and leaf spot. Some of the accessions identified against earliness are IC201087, IC201099,IC202707and IC202709 (68-75 days maturity. Such of the superior germplasm lines identified for earliness, multiple diseaseresistance, bold seed (100 seed weight > 12g and desirable seed features would be further useful in Cowpea breeding programas parents.

  1. Molecular effects: interactions with chemicals and viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research focused upon an understanding of the cellular responses to the molecular effects of ionizing radiation should be an essential program component in the Federal Strategy for Research into the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although we know that DNA is a principal target molecule for some highly significant biological effects of ionizing radiation, we need to learn which other target substances such as membrane components may also be important. Most of the emphasis should continue to be on DNA effects and highest priority should be assigned to the identification of the complete spectrum of products produced in DNA. Once the lesions are known we can proceed to determine how these behave as blocks to replication and transcription or as modulators on the fidelity of these crucial processes. Considerable work should be done on the repair of these lesions. High priority should be given to the search for mutants in mammalian cell systems with evident defects in the processing of specific lesions. Viruses should provide important tools for the research in this area, as probes for host cell repair responses and also for the isolation of mutants. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interaction of viruses and ionizing radiation with regard to possible modulating effects on repair processes and tumorigenesis. Finally we must consider the important problem of the modification of repair responses by environmental factors

  2. Whole cowpea meal fortified with NaFeEDTA reduces iron deficiency among Ghanaian school children in a malaria endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Moretti, Diego; Zimmermann, Michael B; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Brouwer, Inge D

    2012-10-01

    Cowpeas, like other legumes, contain high amounts of native iron but are rich in phytic acid (PA) and polyphenols (PP) that inhibit iron absorption. NaFeEDTA may overcome the combined inhibitory effect of PA and PP. Our objective was to test the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified cowpea meal in improving iron status of school children in a malaria endemic area. We conducted a double-blind, controlled trial with 5- to 12-y-old school children from 2 rural communities in northern Ghana (n = 241). Eligible children were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups to receive either cowpea meal fortified with 10 mg Fe/meal as NaFeEDTA, or an identical but nonfortified cowpea meal. Meals were provided 3 d/wk for a period of ~7 mo under strict supervision. Mass deworming and malaria antigenemia screening and treatment were carried out at baseline and 3.5 mo into the trial. Consumption of cowpea flour fortified with NaFeEDTA resulted in improvement of hemoglobin (P iron stores (P iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (P rural northern Ghana.

  3. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We p

  4. Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 μmole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID

  5. Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 μmole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields.

  6. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  7. Genetische analyse van cowpea-mozaiekvirusmutanten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de C.P.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis the genetic analysis of a plant virus with a divided genome is described.In chapter 1 a review is given of RNA plant viruses with multipartite genomes (Table 1.1). If in plant viruses with heterogeneous RNA complements specific marker properties can be assigned to specific RNAs a func

  8. An Automatic Unpacking Method for Computer Virus Effective in the Virus Filter Based on Paul Graham's Bayesian Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengfeng; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji; Yoshida, Hitoaki

    Recently, the appearance frequency of computer virus variants has increased. Updates to virus information using the normal pattern matching method are increasingly unable to keep up with the speed at which viruses occur, since it takes time to extract the characteristic patterns for each virus. Therefore, a rapid, automatic virus detection algorithm using static code analysis is necessary. However, recent computer viruses are almost always compressed and obfuscated. It is difficult to determine the characteristics of the binary code from the obfuscated computer viruses. Therefore, this paper proposes a method that unpacks compressed computer viruses automatically independent of the compression format. The proposed method unpacks the common compression formats accurately 80% of the time, while unknown compression formats can also be unpacked. The proposed method is effective against unknown viruses by combining it with the existing known virus detection system like Paul Graham's Bayesian Virus Filter etc.

  9. Protective effects of phillyrin against influenza A virus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin-Yan; Li, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Influenza A virus infection represents a great threat to public health. However, owing to side effects and the emergence of resistant virus strains, the use of currently available anti-influenza drugs may be limited. In order to identify novel anti-influenza drugs, we investigated the antiviral effects of phillyrin against influenza A virus infection in vivo. The mean survival time, lung index, viral titers, influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein and serum cytokines levels, and histopathological changes in lung tissue were examined. Administration of phillyrin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly prolonged the mean survival time, reduced the lung index, decreased the virus titers and interleukin-6 levels, reduced the expression of HA, and attenuated lung tissue damage in mice infected with influenza A virus. Taken together, these data showed that phillyrin had potential protective effects against infection caused by influenza A virus. PMID:27323762

  10. Ultrastructural changes in rat epididymides induced by cowpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, E; Msamati, B C; Torode, M

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of tubular inclusions of caput and cauda epididymides were studied in rats that were fed only cowpeas from weaning (20-22 days old) to 130 days. The results showed significant (p fall in body weight and testicular, caput, and cauda epididymal weights in the cowpea-fed animals. Although the walls of the epididymides remained intact, the lumina of both segments showed cellular inclusions of various types amid sperm clumps. Unlike controls, where sperm flagella and headpieces were free-floating in lumina of both segments of epididymides, the experimental tubules showed cytoplasmic droplets containing trapped flagella at various stages of disintegration. Other inclusions included multilobular giant cells, lymphocytes, and membrane-bound amorphous bodies. It is proposed that these changes might be due to an altered immune response induced by lectins, one of the antinutritional factors found in cowpeas, which causes epididymal dysfunction and possibly renders these animals infertile. PMID:8166576

  11. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  12. Effects of the Fermented Products of Trichoderma harzianum T2-16 on the Cell Membrane and Cell Protective Enzyme System of Cowpea Seeds%哈茨木霉T2-16发酵产物对豇豆种子细胞膜及细胞保护酶系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏林; 梁志怀; 曹福祥; 陈玉荣

    2011-01-01

    应用哈茨木霉T2-16菌株在改良后的GPF培养基中发酵培养获得的发酵产物,对豇豆种子进行浸种处理,分析了发酵产物在种子萌发过程中主要生理生化过程的影响.结果表明,该发酵产物可增强豇豆体内超氧化歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)等保护酶活性,有效保护种子细胞膜结构的完整性,减少了氨基酸、蛋白质、可溶性糖等胞内营养物质的外渗,从而起到提高豇豆种子活力的效果.%The fermented product of T. harzianum T2-16 strain was applied on cowpea by seed soaking. The effects on the seeds vigor were studied. The results showed that the specific activities of protective enzymes, superoxide dismutase ( SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) all increased. The fermented substance could also make the cell membrane permeability, decrease the conductivity rate. The contents of protein, dissoluble sugar and amino acids in cell exudates of eowpea seedlings were less than that of treated by water. The seeds vigor of cowpea treated by the fermented product were significantly improved.

  13. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Ana R. L. Miranda; Luis A. P. L. Nunes; Mara L. J. Oliveira; Wanderley J. Melo; Ademir S. F. Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS) may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha) to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electr...

  14. Effects of chloroquine and cytochalasin B on the infection of cells by Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, K; Mann, E; Edwards, J; Brown, D T

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cytochalasin B and chloroquine on the process of endocytosis of Sindbis virus particles and polystyrene spheres were determined by electron microscopy. The effects of these agents on the process of infection (attachment, penetration, and uncoating) of BHK-21 cells by Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were also determined. Cytochalasin B completely blocked ingestion of Sindbis virus particles or latex spheres by BHK cells but had no effect on the ability of Sindbis vi...

  15. Diversity patterns of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Benin, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. M.; Houngnandan, P.; A. Kane; Sanon, K. B.; Neyra, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of diversity and understanding factors underlying species distribution are fundamental themes in ecology. However, the diversity of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in African tropical agro-ecosystems remains weakly known. This research was carried out to assess the morphological diversity of indigenous AMF species associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) in different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Benin and to examine the effects of soil...

  16. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  17. Breeding drought tolerant cowpea: constraints, accomplishments, and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.; Fatokun, C.A.; Muranaka, S.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2009-01-01

    This review presents an overview of accomplishments on different aspects of cowpea breeding for drought tolerance. Furthermore it provides options to enhance the genetic potential of the crop by minimizing yield loss due to drought stress. Recent efforts have focused on the genetic dissection of dro

  18. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is with preemergence and some postemergence herbicides, but recently fresh market...

  19. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  20. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  1. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  2. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with ace

  3. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  4. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Elie A; Tamò, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-10-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore.

  5. Pretreatment with nitric oxide reduces lead toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghipour Omid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is one of the most important toxic heavy metals that reduce plant growth and development. Therefore, finding compounds that can alleviate the toxic effects of Pb is necessary. Nitric oxide (NO is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in different physiological processes in plants, such as the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenously applied NO on Pb stress tolerance in cowpea. Seeds were soaked at various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; NO donor (0, 0.5 and 1 mM for 20 h, and then sown in pots containing 0 or 200 mg kg-1 Pb (NO32. The obtained results showed that Pb stress significantly reduced the chlorophyll value, relative water content (RWC and net photosynthetic rate, but increased lipid peroxidation, proline content and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Nonetheless, different levels of NO significantly lowered Pb toxicity by further increasing SOD, CAT, APX and GR activities as well as proline accumulation. NO pretreatment also raised the chlorophyll value, RWC and net photosynthetic rate but reduced lipid peroxidation. Both NO levels (0.5 and 1 mM were effective in Pb stress tolerance; however, 0.5 mM was more effective. These results indicate that NO pretreatment plays an important role in protecting cowpea plants against Pb toxicity by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and proline accumulation.

  6. Thermal stability of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in african cowpea leaves ( Vigna unguiculata ) of different maturities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis; Njoroge, Charles; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Cowpea, an African leafy vegetable ( Vigna unguiculata ), contains a high level of vitamin C. The leaves harvested at 4-9 weeks are highly prone to vitamin C losses during handling and processing. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), total vitamin C content (l-ascorbic acid, l-AA), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves harvested at different maturities (4, 6, and 8 weeks old). The results showed that AAO activity, total vitamin C content, and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves increased with increasing maturity (up to 8 weeks). Eight-week-old leaves were the best source of total vitamin C and showed a high ratio of l-AA/DHAA (4:1). Thermal inactivation of AAO followed first-order reaction kinetics. Heating at temperatures above 90 °C for short times resulted in a complete AAO inactivation, resulting in a protective effect of l-AA toward enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. Total vitamin C in young leaves (harvested at 4 and 6 weeks) was predominantly in the form of DHAA, and therefore temperature treatment at 30-90 °C for 10 min decreased the total vitamin C content, whereas total vitamin C in 8-week-old cowpea leaves was more than 80% in the form of l-AA, so that a high retention of the total vitamin C can be obtained even after heating and/or reheating (30-90 °C for 10 min) before consumption. The results indicated that the stability of total vitamin C in situ was strongly dependent on the plant maturity stage and the processing conditions applied. PMID:21309563

  7. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  8. STRAIN DIFFERENCES IN TWO SPECIES OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE DEVELOPING ON SEEDS OF COWPEA {VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.} AND GREEN GRAM {V. RADIATA (L.}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHIL DOBIE

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovipositional behaviour, development period, and density effect on adult survival of C. maculatus strains from Indonesia, Nigeria, and Yemen, and C. chinensis strains from Indonesia and Kenya on cowpea and green gram were studied at 20°C and 70% relative humidity. Variations on ovipositional behaviour were found among C. maculatus as well as among C. chinensis strains. Variations on developmental period were found only among C. maculatus strains. The developmental period of Callosobruchus spp. was shorter on green gram than that on cowpea. Density effect was remarkably found only on adult survival of C. maculatus Yemen strain. These results make useful contribution to the species biology, and have important implication if strains of these species are accidentally imported to countries, or when new legume crops are introduced. INTRODUCTION Beetles belonging to the family Bruchidae are the most important insect pests of stored legumes. Infestation by bruchids causes losses of weight, nutritional value and germination potential, and therefore the commercial value of the commodity may be reduced (Southgate 1978; Dick and Credland 1986. The most economically important and widespread bruchids species are the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, and the Adzuki bean beetle, C. chinensis (Linnaeus (Southgate 1978; TDRI 1984. The use of resistant varieties of cultivated legumes is one of the recommended control methods of bruchid infestations. Varietal resistance against Callosobruchus has been reported in cowpeas and chickpea (Dobie 1981; Raina 1971; Singh 1978.

  9. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  10. RNA viruses and their silencing suppressors boost Abutilon mosaic virus, but not the Old World Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Luca; Wege, Christina; Kober, Sigrid; Kocher, Conny; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Noris, Emanuela

    2011-11-01

    Mixed viral infections can induce different changes in symptom development, genome accumulation and tissue tropism. These issues were investigated for two phloem-limited begomoviruses, Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants doubly infected by either the potyvirus Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) or the tombusvirus Artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV). Both RNA viruses induced an increase of the amount of AbMV, led to its occasional egress from the phloem and induced symptom aggravation, while the amount and tissue tropism of TYLCSV were almost unaffected. In transgenic plants expressing the silencing suppressors of CABMV (HC-Pro) or AMCV (P19), AbMV was supported to a much lesser extent than in the mixed infections, with the effect of CABMV HC-Pro being superior to that of AMCV P19. Neither of the silencing suppressors influenced TYLCSV accumulation. These results demonstrate that begomoviruses differentially respond to the invasion of other viruses and to silencing suppression. PMID:21843560

  11. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  12. The Effects of High Temperature on Infection by Potato virus Y, Potato virus A, and Potato leafroll virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Nam; Canto, Tomas; Tenllado, Francisco; Choi, Kyung San; Joa, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Kim, Chun Hwan; Do, Ki Seck

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on acquisition of Potato virus Y-O (PVY-O), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae by performing transmission tests with aphids that acquired each virus at different temperatures. Infection by PVY-O/PVA and PLRV increased with increasing plant temperature in Nicotiana benthamiana and Physalis floridana, respectively, after being transmitted by aphids that acquired them within a temperature range of 10-20°C. However, infection rates subsequently decreased. Direct qRT-PCR of RNA extracted from a single aphid showed that PLRV infection increased in the 10-20°C range, but this trend also declined shortly thereafter. We examined the effect of temperature on establishment of virus infection. The greatest number of plants became infected when N. benthamiana was held at 20°C after inoculation with PVY-O or PVA. The largest number of P. floridana plants became infected with PLRV when the plants were maintained at 25°C. PLRV levels were highest in P. floridana kept at 20-25°C. These results indicate that the optimum temperatures for proliferation of PVY-O/PVA and PLRV differed. Western blot analysis showed that accumulations of PVY-O and PVA coat proteins (CPs) were lower at 10°C or 15°C than at 20°C during early infection. However, accumulation increased over time. At 25°C or 30°C, the CPs of both viruses accumulated during early infection but disappeared as time passed. Our results suggest that symptom attenuation and reduction of PVY-O and PVA CP accumulation at higher temperatures appear to be attributable to increased RNA silencing. PMID:27493607

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research. PMID:27509049

  14. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  15. Root N turnover in cowpea-millet rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of N from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to a succeeding millet crop grown in rotation was studied in 15 kg soil pot culture using the 15N isotope. The proportion of N in the roots differed significantly between cowpea varieties, ranging between 19.4 and 31.6%, but was not related to the N derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa), which ranged between 885.4 and 1346.2 mg N/pot. Of the four varieties of cowpea, TN7575-80 and KVX309-66 had a positive N balance of 73.3 and 25.5 mg/pot, respectively, and TN3-78 and TN88-63 had a negative N balance of 15 and 108 mg/pot, respectively. The N balance was not related to the N yield or Ndfa, but was related to the proportion of N found in the roots - varieties with a high proportion of N in their roots had a positive N balance and varieties with a low proportion of N in their roots had a negative N balance. Fallowed soil gave the highest millet shoot dry weight (50.7 g/pot) and N yield (437.7 mg/pot). The soil planted with the four cowpea varieties had a significantly higher shoot dry matter and N yield in the subsequent millet crop than the soil planted with millet. The percentage and amount of N derived from the roots (Ndfr) or the preceding crop was higher for cowpea than for millet, and was positively correlated with Ndfa, indicating the importance of fixing legumes in crop rotations. The percentage recovery of root N was quite low, ranging between 3.9 for millet and 23.2 for the cowpea variety TN3-78. It is concluded that residual root N is not important as a source of N for a succeeding cereal crop in a rotation but it is maintaining a favourable soil N balance. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

  17. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  18. Antagonistic effects of soybean viruses on soybean aphid performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jack R; Gratton, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    Although there is long-standing recognition that pest complexes require different management approaches than individual pests, relatively little research has explored how pests interact. In particular, little is known of how herbivorous insects and plant pathogens interact when sharing the same host plant. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Mastumura, a recently introduced pest of soybean in the upper midwestern United States, and a complex of plant viruses vectored to soybean by insects have become a major concern for growers in the region. Given the abundance of soybean aphid and the increase in virus incidence in recent years, soybean aphids often use soybean infected by plant viral pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that soybean aphid performance is affected by virus infection of soybean plants. We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments that examined how infection of soybeans with the common plant viruses, alfalfa mosaic, soybean mosaic, and bean pod mottle viruses, influenced soybean aphid performance. Soybean plants (in the field and laboratory) were hand inoculated with individual viruses, and aphids were allowed to colonize plants naturally in field experiments or added to the plants in clip-cages or within mesh bags in laboratory assays. In the field, aphid density on uninfected control soybean plants was nearly double that on infected plants. In laboratory assays, aphid population growth rates were on average 20% lower for aphids on virus infected compared with uninfected plants. Life table analyses showed that increased mortality on virus-infected plants likely explain differences in aphid population growth. Although there was some heterogeneity in the significance of treatment effects among different experiments, when independent experiments are taken together, there is on average an overall negative effect of these viruses on soybean aphids. PMID:17716484

  19. Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds contaminated by Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) can be prevented by sterilization of the adult forms and destruction of the eggs, larvae and pupae using an ionizing treatment at doses less than 100 Gy, without causing unfavorable nutritional consequences. Storage of these cowpea seeds in polyethylene bags of a thickness greater than 100 micrometer avoids all recontamination by this weevil. Economically, the irradiation of such a foodstuff would certainly be worthwhile in Senegal on the condition that the ionizing treatment would also be profitable for other foodstuffs harvested locally, so as to attain a satisfactory utilization rate for the industrial plant which would be set up in this country

  20. Restriction of virus infection by plants. Final report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, G.

    1992-12-31

    The basis of genotypic resistance of the Arlington line of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) against cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been attributed, to an inhibitor of the processing of CPMV polyproteins. We sought to purify the protein that is postulated to be the inhibitor of polyprotein processing and to characterize the inhibitor and its gene. Such information can be the basis for engineering resistance to specific viruses in plants. In studies with cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) we sought understanding of the biochemical basis of the resistance.

  1. In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mehrbod

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent. RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

  2. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

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    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  3. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

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    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  4. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  5. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf p

  6. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  7. Identification of markers associated with bacterial blight resistance loci in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.; Fatokun, C.A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Wydra, K.; Diop, N.N.; Muchero, W.; Ehlers, J.D.; Roberts, P.A.; Close, T.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpea bacterial blight (CoBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola (Xav), is a worldwide major disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Among different strategies to control the disease including cultural practices, intercropping, application of chemicals, and sowing pathogen-fr

  8. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the factors that predict caregivers' intention to give them to schoolchildren.

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    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model. We used correlations and multiple regressions to measure simple associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Cowpea landraces contained iron and zinc in the range of 4.9-8.2 mg/100 g d.w and 2.7-4.1 mg/100 g d.w respectively. The landraces also contained high amounts of phytate (477-1110 mg/100 g d.w and polyphenol (327-1055 mg/100 g d.w. Intention of mothers was strongly associated (rs = 0.72, P<0.001 with and predicted (β = 0.63, P<0.001 behaviour. The constructs, barriers (β = -0.42, P = 0.001 and attitudes towards behaviour (β = 0.25, P<0.028, significantly predicted intention albeit the predictive ability of the model was weak. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that some cowpea landraces from northern Ghana have appreciable amounts of iron and zinc but probably with poor bioavailability. Attitudes towards giving cowpeas and perception of barriers are important predictors of caregivers' intention to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Finally our results suggest that increasing knowledge on nutritional benefits of cowpeas may increase health values caregivers hold for their children in support of giving cowpeas to schoolchildren.

  9. Effects of single and double infections with Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus on disease development, plant growth, and virus accumulation in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    BALOGUN OLUSEGUN S.; XU LEIXIN; TERAOKA TOHRU; HOSOKAWA DAIJIRO

    2002-01-01

    The tomato cv. Fukuju nº. 2 was used for studying the effect of single and double infections with Potato virus X (PVX) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Mixed infection resulted in a synergistic increase of disease severity, where more growth reduction was seen with simultaneous inoculations than with sequential inoculations at four-day intervals. At five and 12 days post-inoculation, the increased severity of the disease coincided with enhancement of virus accumulation in the rapidly expanding...

  10. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Young Yin; Hyoung Jin Kim; Hong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extr...

  11. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

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    He Wen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  12. 豇豆隧道式热风干燥特性和模型%Drying characteristics and model of cowpea in tunnel hot air dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师建芳; 吴辉煌; 娄正; 吴中华; 刘清

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea, also known as beans, black-eyed peas, is an important leguminous vegetable, which is extensively grown in China. Fresh cowpeas having relatively high moisture content must be distributed to customers or processed as quickly as possible in order to prevent microbial fermentation and thermal degradation. Cowpeas resources have great losses as which are putrescible at normal temperatures and pressures, and this severely limits the transportation, storage and process of cowpea, therefore the development of cowpea deep processing is necessary. As Asian people have the habit of eating dried vegetables such as dried cowpea, drying can not only solve the serious problem of huge losses, but also create more economic benefits for farmers;and because most of deep processing technology needs dried cowpea, drying is of great importance as a preprocessing method. The tunnel type of hot air drying technology has been widely utilized in the drying of carrots, preserved fruits, and plums etc. In this paper, hot air drying characteristics and a drying model of tunnel type of hot air drying technology was studied in drying Cowpea, in order to establish the best model to simulate and predict the water ratio and to provide a technical basis for the industrial application of the control and prediction of the drying process and the tunnel type of hot air drying for cowpea. The tunnel dryer was made by the Institute of Agricultural Product Processing, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering and College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology. According to the pre-test results, the drying characteristics of Cowpea was investigated under different air temperatures (70℃、80℃and 90℃), air velocities (0.3、0.4 and 0.5 m/s) and material thickness (6 mm、18 mm and 30 mm). The empirical relationships between Cowpea moisture then natural logarithmic lnMR and drying time, water effective diffusion coefficient Deff and drying air temperature was

  13. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  14. Protective Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Influenza A Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun Young; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG) are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1). We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide) and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases. PMID:24392148

  15. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Yin

    Full Text Available Xylitol has been used as a substitute for sugar to prevent cavity-causing bacteria, and most studies have focused on its benefits in dental care. Meanwhile, the constituents of red ginseng (RG are known to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of influenza virus infection when they are administered orally for 14 days. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection (H1N1. We designed regimens containing various fractions of RG (RGs: whole extract, water soluble fraction, saponin and polysaccharide and xylitol, and combination of xylitol with the RG fractions. Mice received the various combinations orally for 5 days prior to lethal influenza A virus infection. Almost all the mice died post challenge when xylitol or RGs were administered separately. Survival was markedly enhanced when xylitol was administered along with RGs, pointing to a synergistic effect. The effect of xylitol plus RG fractions increased with increasing dose of xylitol. Moreover, dietary xylitol along with the RG water soluble fraction significantly reduced lung virus titers after infection. Therefore, we suggest that dietary xylitol is effective in ameliorating influenza-induced symptoms when it is administered with RG fractions, and this protective effect of xylitol should be considered in relation to other diseases.

  16. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  17. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit. PMID:27323025

  18. Identification and comparative analysis of drought-associated microRNAs in two cowpea genotypes

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    Roberts Philip A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important crop in arid and semi-arid regions and is a good model for studying drought tolerance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to play critical roles in plant stress responses, but drought-associated miRNAs have not been identified in cowpea. In addition, it is not understood how miRNAs might contribute to different capacities of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes. Results We generated deep sequencing small RNA reads from two cowpea genotypes (CB46, drought-sensitive, and IT93K503-1, drought-tolerant that grew under well-watered and drought stress conditions. We mapped small RNA reads to cowpea genomic sequences and identified 157 miRNA genes that belong to 89 families. Among 44 drought-associated miRNAs, 30 were upregulated in drought condition and 14 were downregulated. Although miRNA expression was in general consistent in two genotypes, we found that nine miRNAs were predominantly or exclusively expressed in one of the two genotypes and that 11 miRNAs were drought-regulated in only one genotype, but not the other. Conclusions These results suggest that miRNAs may play important roles in drought tolerance in cowpea and may be a key factor in determining the level of drought tolerance in different cowpea genotypes.

  19. The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Chrispeels, M J; Jackai, L E

    2000-03-01

    Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level.

  20. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25524889

  1. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  2. The Incidence, Severity and Occurrence of Four Viruses Infecting Pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

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    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, severity and occurrence of four viruses infecting pepper were determined in Kwara State, Nigeria. A disease survey and antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA were the tools deployed to achieve these objectives. The survey indicated the highest virus incidence (97% in four locations, and the lowest incidence (16% in three locations, with variations in severity scores. Th e ELISA result indicated the occurrence of all four viruses with the highest percentage occurrence of virus in the samples as follows: Pepper veinal mottle virus (36.3%, Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (16.2%, Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (7.4%, and Cucumber mosaic virus in the locations (4.8%. The results indicate the prevalence of these viruses on pepper in the Southern Guinea savannah agroecological zone and therefore the need for constant studies to detect other viruses that limit pepper production.

  3. Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina R Drago

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación. Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante altoIn the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nutrients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

  4. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamphuis Lars G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis using a F2 population (n = 150 from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

  5. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped

  6. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China. PMID:26429578

  7. Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Cowpea Hulls: A Kinetic Study

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    Chioma M. Onyelucheya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dilute acid hydrolysis of cowpea hulls was carried out in two stages under the following conditions: pre-hydrolysis (4%v/v H2SO4, 121˚C, 30 minutes and hydrolysis ( at 10% and 15% v/v H2SO4,varied at different temperatures 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC and 180 oC for 2.5 hrs.. The substrate was characterized using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proximate analysis. The percentage lignocellulosic composition of the substrate was obtained for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as 34%, 14% and 4.7% respectively. Maximum glucose concentration of 8.09g was obtained using 10%v/v acid concentration at 170˚C after a reaction time of 90min. Saeman’s model gave a good fit for the experimental data. Activation energy for glucose formation using 10%v/v and 15%v/v H2SO4 was obtained as 38.28KJ and 82.204KJ respectively. From the results obtained it can be concluded that cowpea hulls can be converted to a useful product.

  8. Inactivation of pathogenic viruses by plant-derived tannins: strong effects of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki on a broad range of viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Ueda

    Full Text Available Tannins, plant-derived polyphenols and other related compounds, have been utilized for a long time in many fields such as the food industry and manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of tannins on 12 different viruses including both enveloped viruses (influenza virus H3N2, H5N3, herpes simplex virus-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, coxsachievirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, feline calicivirus and mouse norovirus. We found that extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, which contains ca. 22% of persimmon tannin, reduced viral infectivity in more than 4-log scale against all of the viruses tested, showing strong anti-viral effects against a broad range of viruses. Other tannins derived from green tea, acacia and gallnuts were effective for some of the viruses, while the coffee extracts were not effective for any of the virus. We then investigated the mechanism of the anti-viral effects of persimmon extracts by using mainly influenza virus. Persimmon extracts were effective within 30 seconds at a concentration of 0.25% and inhibited attachment of the virus to cells. Pretreatment of cells with the persimmon extracts before virus infection or post-treatment after virus infection did not inhibit virus replication. Protein aggregation seems to be a fundamental mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of persimmon tannin, since viral proteins formed aggregates when purified virions were treated with the persimmon extracts and since the anti-viral effect was competitively inhibited by a non-specific protein, bovine serum albumin. Considering that persimmon tannin is a food supplement, it has a potential to be utilized as a safe and highly effective anti-viral reagent against pathogenic viruses.

  9. Some characters of vacuum-uv effects on Sendai virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking advantage of having assay techniques for various functions located in nucleocapside (infectivity) and in the envelope (hemagglutination, neuraminidase activity and hemolysis), effects of vacuum-uv radiation on Sendai virus were investigated. Monochromatic 163-nm photons from a bromine discharge lamp and polychromatic synchrotron radiation with wave-lengths longer than 115 nm from the electron storage ring were used as the vacuum-uv sources. Irradiation was performed in vacuum (dry) and in aqueous suspension (wet). For comparison the viruses were irradiated with far-uv radiation (254 nm). While the far-uv radiation affected only infectivity, the vacuum-uv radiation affected the infectivity and other virus functions as well. SDS-electrophoretic behaviors after irradiation in dry state indicated that vacuum-uv radiation caused uniform damage over several polypeptide components. The pattern was more similar to that of γ-rays previously studied. These results may be related to the fact that far-uv photons are absorbed predominantly in viral nucleic acids while vacuum-uv photons are absorbed more or less uniformly by various virus components. In the irradiation in suspension some difference was noted between vacuum-uv and γ-radiations. (author)

  10. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G

    2015-10-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises. PMID:26512988

  11. Some characters of vacuum-uv effects on Sendai virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megumi, Tsuneo (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)); Ito, Takashi; Ito, Atsushi

    1982-09-01

    Taking advantage of having assay techniques for various functions located in nucleocapside (infectivity) and in the envelope (hemagglutination, neuraminidase activity and hemolysis), effects of vacuum-uv radiation on Sendai virus were investigated. Monochromatic 163-nm photons from a bromine discharge lamp and polychromatic synchrotron radiation with wave-lengths longer than 115 nm from the electron storage ring were used as the vacuum-uv sources. Irradiation was performed in vacuum (dry) and in aqueous suspension (wet). For comparison the viruses were irradiated with far-uv radiation (254 nm). While the far-uv radiation affected only infectivity, the vacuum-uv radiation affected the infectivity and other virus functions as well. SDS-electrophoretic behaviors after irradiation in dry state indicated that vacuum-uv radiation caused uniform damage over several polypeptide components. The pattern was more similar to that of ..gamma..-rays previously studied. These results may be related to the fact that far-uv photons are absorbed predominantly in viral nucleic acids while vacuum-uv photons are absorbed more or less uniformly by various virus components. In the irradiation in suspension some difference was noted between vacuum-uv and ..gamma..-radiations.

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of conventional insecticides against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), on four different substrata surfaces%四种基质表面上常规杀虫剂对四纹豆象的药效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid MAHDAVI; Moosa SABER; Samad VOJOUDI

    2012-01-01

    In pest management programs,the control of pests in structural facilities or sites,where processed food products are consumed or stored,requires the application of insecticides upon a variety of substrate surfaces. In order to determine the insecticidal effectiveness on different substrate surfaces,adults of the cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus ( F.),were exposed to field recommended concentrations of chlorpyrifos, abamectin and deltamethrin insecticides. The results showed that abamectin caused mortality rates of 63.33%,22.41%,12.9% and 11.9% while deltamethrin caused mortality rates of 55%,44.2%,41.3% and 37.4% on glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces,respectively.Exposures to chlorpyrifos led to 100% mortality in all surfaces.Probit analysis of data showed that LC50 values were 8.66,13.6,29.16 and 56.5 μg/mL for chlorpyrifos,119.4,446.2,774.2 and 836.4 μg/mL for abamectin,and 1008,1131,1210 and 1336 μg/mL for deltamethrin on the glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces,respectively,based on formulated materials.It is concluded that chlorpyrifos is the most toxic insecticide to the cowpea weevil,but that its toxicity was reduced in the glass,ceramic tile,plastic and paper disc surfaces in sequence.%在害虫治理中,在消费或贮藏粮食加工产品的建筑设施或场所进行害虫防治需要将杀虫剂施用在各种基质表面上.为了测定不同基质表面上杀虫剂的药效,将四纹豆象Callosobruchus maculatus(F.)成虫接触田间推荐剂量的阿维菌素、溴氰菊酯和毒死蜱.结果表明:施用在玻璃、瓷砖、塑料和纸盘表面上,阿维菌素对四纹豆象成虫的致死率分别为63.33%,22.41%,12.9%和11.9%,而溴氰菊酯在这4种基质表面上对四纹豆象成虫的致死率分别为55%,44.2%,41.3%和37.4%.在所有基质表面上接触毒死蜱,四纹豆象成虫的死亡率均为100%.对数据进行的Probit分析表明,毒死

  13. Effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenhaut, Christine; Dörner, Thomas; Pauli, Georg; Pruss, Axel

    2005-11-01

    Recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. The now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. The lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (Maus Elberfeld virus, MEV; Porcine parvovirus, PPV) and one enveloped virus (Vesicular Stomatitis virus, VSV) was examined for virus-spiked bone material in comparison to lyophilized viruses, original virus stock, and air-dried viruses. All experiments were carried out with both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Significant differences were observed regarding the reduction of virus titers (TCID50). Infectivity of VSV was reduced by about 3-4 log10 using lyophilization in presence of bone matrix and of MEV by 6-7 log10, while no substantial reduction in virus titers was observed for PPV. Lyophilization of cell-free or cell-associated virus is not sufficient to inactivate viruses completely. However, lyophilization could have an additive effect in line with other production steps used in the manufacturing process.

  14. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  15. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented la

  16. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  17. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  18. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

  19. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Gao, Lingling; Singh, Karam B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Researc...

  20. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  1. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  2. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. PMID:26228563

  3. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  4. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxin byAspergillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssou, P A; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Geisen, R; Fandohan, P; Ahohuendo, B C; Hounhouigan, D J; Jakobsen, M

    2008-06-01

    A number of 21Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterized by RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped withA. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other isolates grouped withA. parasiticus. All of these strains except 3 produced aflatoxin. Two additional strains neither fit with theA. flavus group, nor theA. parasiticus group according to their RAPD pattern. Both did not produce aflatoxin in measurable amounts.Generally the aflatoxin positive strains produced high amounts of aflatoxin after growth on YES medium. However after growth on cowpea based medium aflatoxin biosynthesis was strongly ceased, albeit the growth of the colony was only partly reduced. This was true for media made either with the whole cowpea seed or with cowpea seed without seed coat. Interestingly when the cowpea medium was heat sterilized the fungus was able to produce high amounts of aflatoxin. This, however, was not the case after the use of gamma irradiation as sterilization method for the medium. The expression of thenor- 1 gene, which is one of the early genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis, was significantly repressed after growth on gamma irradiated cowpea medium in contrast to YES medium. PMID:23604687

  5. Modeling evolution of resistance by Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal cowpea in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, D W; Kang, J; Ba, N M; Tamò, M; Jackai, L; Dabire, C; Pittendrigh, B R

    2012-10-01

    We created a detailed model of the Maruca vitrata (F.) and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] system to study the possible evolution of resistance by the insect to transgenic insecticidal cowpea, which is under development. We focused on population dynamics and genetics in a region of west Africa. We simulated single-toxin and pyramided (two-toxin) cowpea and emphasized conservative, worst-case scenarios in our analysis. The results indicate that as long as a pyramided, transgenic cowpea can be developed, seed saving by farmers and reliance on natural refuge are not major problems for resistance management. Furthermore, it is possible that one or both toxins in the pyramid may not need to be high dose for evolution to be delayed significantly (>20 yr or 80 generations for resistance to become a concern if transgenic cowpea is deployed in areas where M. vitrata is endemic). If efforts are made to deploy transgenic cowpea only into the regions where M. vitrata is not endemic, then there is little to no concern with resistance emerging in the M. vitrata population.

  6. Quality of cowpea seeds treated with chemicals and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucicléia Mendes de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea is a Fabaceae originated in Africa cultivated in the northern and northeastern of Brazil, where stands out as the main source of protein for the population. For the establishment of culture, seeds are treated to control and prevent pest attacks and diseases, can also attach nutrients to the seeds which will be available for plant development. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of cowpea seeds treated with chemical products and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The following seeds treatments were applied: control (no treatment; micronutrient Comol 118, insecticide thiamethoxam, fipronil and pyraclostrobin+thiophanate-methyl and imidacloprid+thiodicarb were then stored in a cold environment and natural. The assessment of physiological seed quality was made initially and every 45 days through the germination and vigor. Among all products used, the imidacloprid + thiodicarb and fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl provides stimulating effect on seed performance; seeds treated with thiamethoxam were less affected by storage than the untreated seeds; seeds treated with micronutrients exhibits similar behavior to untreated seeds and storage in a controlled environment better preserves the seed physiological quality.

  7. Characteristic properties of lipase from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase activity was assayed in 4 days old cowpea seedlings using olive oil emulsion stabilized with 10% gum acacia as a substrate. The maximum lipase activity was observed at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCI buffer and at 30 degree C. The pH stability was found in between 7.5-8.5. Lipase activity was fairly stable up to 60 degree C and retaining 80% activity whereas, 26% lipase activity was remaining at 100 degree C within 15 minutes. Lipase activity was slightly increased in the presence of MnC/sub 2/ and decreased by the addition of Triton X 100, Tween 80, ZnCI/sub 2/ and mercaptoethanol. (author)

  8. Jatropha curcas (L. and Jatropha gossypifolia (L., Botanical Entomocides For Poor Resource Farmers As Protectants Of Cowpea Seeds Against Infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/jatropha-curcas-l-and-jatropha-gossypifolia-l-botanical-entomocides-poor-re#sthash.JHvpn57c.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileke Kayode David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The powder, wood ash and latex of Jatropha carcus and Jatropha gossypifolia were bioassayed for their insecticidal potential against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus in the laboratory at ambient temperature and humidity. The plant wood ash, powder and latex were tested at rate 2g/20g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insect were investigated. Result showed that wood ash of J. carcus evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of application. This is followed by powder of J. carcus which caused 92.5% mortality while powder of J. gossypifolia was the least effective that caused 90% mortality of adult bruchids. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with wood ash and latex of both J. carcus and J. gossypifolia compared with untreated that had 81.1% adult emergence. The result obtained from this study revealed that J. carcus and J. gossypifolia wood ash and latex were effective in controlling C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpea against cowpea bruchid for the poor resource farmers in developing countries. -

  9. Efeitos das culturas de milho (Zea mays, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e caupi (Vigna unguiculata na agregação de valor ao cultivo da bananeira 'Terra', em Teolândia, litoral sul da Bahia Effects of corn (Zea mays, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in addition of values plantains 'Terra', in Teolândia, South Coast of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bezerra Lima

    2005-04-01

    .0 x 2.0 x 2.8 m and were the most efficient space arrangements of intercropping for a longer period of time. Corn, beans or the cowpea, occupied only the rows between the double rows of the plantains, whereas the interrows remained free in order to avoid shading effect of the plantain. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the performance of corn, beans and cowpea crops in addition of values in plantains. Rentability index - RI (total income ÷ costs for the best treatments, (T9, T6, T8 and T4, reached significant values of 3.36 (T4 up to 6.68 (T9 resulting in positive effects due to technology and fertilizers applied, which allow greater addition of values to the banana crop and, consequently, increase the producers income. A RI of 3.36 and 6.68 means that for each Real (R$ invested there was a return of R$ 3,36 and R$ 6,68, respectively. RIs lower than 1.0 indicate that the effect of intercrops on the addition of values of bananas crops was negative, resulting in a decrease of net income, which occurred in treatment T2 that presented RI 0.91.

  10. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  11. Fertilizer Use and Management Practices among Maize and Cowpea Smallholder Farmer in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okebalama, CB.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of West Africa, poverty contributes immensely to poor fertilizer adoption by smallholder farmers. Fertilizer adoption could be improved with micro-dosing technology. A socio-economic survey was conducted in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to assess the extent of fertilizer use and management among maize and cowpea smallholder farmers. Oral interview with structured questionnaire was used to interview one hundred farmers each at two locations. The results showed that farmers are aware of the use of fertilizer to increase crop yield. About 65% and 80% of maize and cowpea farmers respectively, identified high cost of fertilizer as a major constraint to fertilizer utilization. Consequently, only 32% maize farmers and 19% cowpea farmers were fertilizer users. In addition, the choice of fertilizer type to use was dependent on the type available on the market. As such, NPK 15:15:15 was mostly used for both maize and cowpea crops. Also, fertilizer application rate was mainly determined by the quantity farmer can purchase. On average, fertilizer application rate for maize and cowpea crops were 18.45 kg/ha and 9.05 kg/ha, respectively. The prevalent fertilizer application method on maize was mostly by point/side placement while ring application was largely used for cowpea. Awareness of fertilizer micro-dosing among the farmers was only 10%. Since the quantity of fertilizer used by the farmers as well as the fertilizer application methods were comparable to fertilizer micro-dosing, dissemination of micro-dosing technology to these farmers could promote fertilizer use and management among smallholder farmers, and ultimately sustain maize and cowpea production.

  12. The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2013-12-01

    Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

  13. Complex Assembly Behavior During the Encapsulation of Green Fluorescent Protein Analogs in Virus Derived Protein Capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes encapsulated in nanocontainers are a better model of the conditions inside a living cell than free enzymes in solution. In a first step toward the encapsulation of multiple enzymes inside the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was attached

  14. Effects of stoichiometry of retroviral components on virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, M W; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of increasing the amount of each retroviral component on vector production. It was found that, while the components of both amphotropic and ecotropic vectors were expressed independently of each other in a transient transfection system, increasing the amount of the gag/gag-pol component resulted in a decrease in virus titres for the amphotropic particles but not ecotropic particles. Analyses of the virus stocks produced indicated that the negative effect on titres was closely linked to the availability of envelope proteins for virion incorporation. The negative effect was not observed for ecotropic particle production in 293T cells, where the ecotropic receptor was absent, but was manifested when production was conducted in 293/12 cells expressing the ecotropic receptor. This suggested that the premature interaction between envelope and receptor in producer cells could limit the amount of envelope available for virion incorporation. In designing optimal vector production systems it is essential, therefore, to balance the concentration of the vector components and to ensure that there is never an excess of Gag/Gag-Pol. PMID:10950977

  15. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  16. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  17. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A

  18. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  19. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  20. Selection of cowpea progenies with enhanced drought-tolerance traits using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C C; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Bastos, E A; Rocha, M M

    2015-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea) is a food crop with high nutritional value that is cultivated throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The main constraint on high productivity of cowpea is water deficit, caused by the long periods of drought that occur in these regions. The aim of the present study was to select elite cowpea genotypes with enhanced drought tolerance, by applying principal component analysis to 219 first-cycle progenies obtained in a recurrent selection program. The experimental design comprised a simple 15 x 15 lattice with 450 plots, each of two rows of 10 plants. Plants were grown under water-deficit conditions by applying a water depth of 205 mm representing one-half of that required by cowpea. Variables assessed were flowering, maturation, pod length, number and mass of beans/pod, mass of 100 beans, and productivity/plot. Ten elite cowpea genotypes were selected, in which principal components 1 and 2 encompassed variables related to yield (pod length, beans/pod, and productivity/plot) and life precocity (flowering and maturation), respectively. PMID:26662390

  1. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of NAA-Pulse Treated Plumular Leaf Explants of Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AASIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an economically important grain legume crop and is an important source of dietary protein in many of the developing countries. The present study reports the effect of pulse treatment duration, concentration of NAA and presence of NAA in the culture medium on shoot regeneration from plumular leaf explant of Turkish cowpea cv. �Akkiz� and �Karagoz�. Pulse treatment of mature embryos with 20 mg l-1 NAA for 1 and 3 weeks followed by culturing of plumular leaf explant on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 BAP with 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 NAA promoted somatic embryogenesis in both cultivars. Longer duration of pulse treatment was deleterious resulting in browning and consequently death of the embryos on explants. Pulse treatment with 20 mg l-1 NAA for one week was less deleterious and developed two plantlets after the explants were transferred to MS0 medium after 6 weeks through somatic embryogenesis in cv. �Akkiz�. Pulse treatment with 10 mg l-1 NAA for 1 week showed 33.33-50.00 % and 25.00-50.00% shoot regeneration frequency in cv. �Akkiz� and �Karagoz� respectively on MS medium containing 0.25-1.00 mg l-1 BAP. Maximum number of 2.50 shoots each per explant were recorded in cv. �Akkiz� and �Karagoz� on MS medium containing 1.00 and 0.50 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Contrarily, maximum shoot length of 8.98 cm of cv. �Akkiz� and 9.42 cm of cv. �Karagoz� was recorded on MS medium containing 0.50 mg l-1 BAP and 1.00 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 IBA and and acclimatized in growth room at room temprature where they produced viable seeds.

  2. Ocean viruses and their effects on microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Joshua S; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life forms on Earth, with an estimated 10(31) total viruses globally. The majority of these viruses infect microbes, whether bacteria, archaea or microeukaryotes. Given the importance of microbes in driving global biogeochemical cycles, it would seem, based on numerical abundances alone, that viruses also play an important role in the global cycling of carbon and nutrients. However, the importance of viruses in controlling host populations and ecosystem functions, such as the regeneration, storage and export of carbon and other nutrients, remains unresolved. Here, we report on advances in the study of ecological effects of viruses of microbes. In doing so, we focus on an area of increasing importance: the role that ocean viruses play in shaping microbial population sizes as well as in regenerating carbon and other nutrients.

  3. BREEDING FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN PROGNIES OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad A Abed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken for two seasons viz spring and autumn of 2013 on farm of Department of field crop science, College of Agriculture university of Baghdad for genetic improvement and screening high yielding cultivars of cowpea under water stress condition. In this study total three progenies i.e.S1, S2, S3 were planted under two period of irrigation. All among the tested progenies S3 proved best in all tested parameters. Highest amount of chlorophyll content (65.20 & 56 was reported from the S3 progeny under period of 10 days irrigation in both seasons. In addition , same progeny have about 0.88 and 0.91 relative water content (RWC, 27 & 36 pod per branch, 13 & 12 seeds per pod and 79.39 & 109.29 gm/plant yield under the period of 10 days irrigation respectively for two seasons. The selection led to increase the effectiveness of physiological and morphological traits, which can be considered as effects of selection criteria on plant yield. Results of the study recommended the use selection methods to for developing cultivars of high vigor.

  4. Effect of the CTL proliferation program on virus dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    to occur independent from antigenic stimulation when virus load drops to low levels. This results in stronger effector activity at low virus loads, and in a higher chance of virus extinction. On the other hand, the more programmed divisions occur, the less efficient the response is at preventing high acute...... virus loads and thus acute symptoms. The reason is that the programmed divisions are independent from antigenic stimulation, and an increase in virus load does not speed up the rate of CTL expansion. We hypothesize that the 7-10 programmed divisions observed in vivo represent an optimal solution...

  5. Potential of plant materials for the management of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus analis (coleoptera: bruchidae) in gram cicer arietinum during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present research was carried out to identify alternatives to synthetic insecticides to control cowpea weevil Callosobruchus analis (F.) population in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.), during storage. The efficacies of three plant materials such as Nicotiana tabacum, Citrullus colocythis and Aloe vera were assessed to determine their insecticidal activities against survival of bruchid C. analis on seeds of gram varieties viz., CM-98 and Jubiha-1. These plant materials tested reduced weevil infestation and emergence as compared with untreated control seeds. Seeds treatment with A. vera followed by N. tabacum reduced maximum pest damage over C. colocythis, which proved least effective to control C. analis population. Consequently, the tested plant materials should be given due consideration for effective gram protection as a component of integrated pest management approach in storage. (author)

  6. NOTE - Phenotypic correlations between combining abilities of F 2 cowpea populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline de Jesús Pires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is a crop that has become socio-economically relevant, mainly in developing countries. Correlation studies are important to determine the association between quantitative traits and yield to guide the selection, i.e., choose direct or indirect selection. The objective was to estimate the correlations between six agronomic traits in cowpea as well as the correlations between the estimates of combining abilities of parents. Genotypes with high pod weight and pod length, 100-grain weight, and number of beans per pod should be used to improve grain yield in cowpea. The breeder should preferably insert plants into his group of crosses that have a high combining ability for pod length, number of grains per pod and yield per plot.

  7. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes. PMID:27173351

  8. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie; Phelps, Amanda; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O’Brien, Lyn; Dutch, Andrew; Lever, Mark Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. Although chlorine-based products are widely used, they can also be damaging to equipment or apparatus that needs continuous use such as aircraft use for transportation of infected people. Two aircraft cleaning solutions were assessed alongside two common laboratory disinfectants in a contact kill assay with EBOV on two aircraft relevant materials representative of a porous and non-porous surface. A decimal log reduction of viral titre of 4 is required for a disinfectant to be deemed effective and two of the disinfectants fulfilled this criteria under the conditions tested. One product, Ardrox 6092, was found to perform similarly to sodium hypochlorite, but as it does not have the corrosive properties of sodium hypochlorite, it could be an alternative disinfectant solution to be used for decontamination of EBOV on sensitive apparatus. PMID:27399759

  9. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie; Phelps, Amanda; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O'Brien, Lyn; Dutch, Andrew; Lever, Mark Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. Although chlorine-based products are widely used, they can also be damaging to equipment or apparatus that needs continuous use such as aircraft use for transportation of infected people. Two aircraft cleaning solutions were assessed alongside two common laboratory disinfectants in a contact kill assay with EBOV on two aircraft relevant materials representative of a porous and non-porous surface. A decimal log reduction of viral titre of 4 is required for a disinfectant to be deemed effective and two of the disinfectants fulfilled this criteria under the conditions tested. One product, Ardrox 6092, was found to perform similarly to sodium hypochlorite, but as it does not have the corrosive properties of sodium hypochlorite, it could be an alternative disinfectant solution to be used for decontamination of EBOV on sensitive apparatus. PMID:27399759

  10. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  11. Sepia 200cH at 1:1000 dilution ameliorates salt stress in cowpea seedlings but its medium 90% ethanol proves ineffective at the same dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhimita Mondal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1 control in sterile water, (2 in 50mM NaCl solution, (3 seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4 seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.

  12. Carbon dioxide and light responses of photosynthesis in cowpea and pigeonpea during water deficit and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, F.B.; Setter, T.L.; McDavid, C.R.

    1987-10-01

    Greenhouse-grown pigeonpea (Cajunus cajan, (L.)) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, (L.)) were well-watered or subjected to low water potential by withholding water to compare their modes of adaptation to water-limited conditions. Leaf CO/sub 2/ exchange rate (CER), leaf diffusive conductance to CO/sub 2/ (g/sub L/), and CO/sub 2/ concentration in the leaf intercellular air space (C/sub i/) were determined at various CO/sub 2/ concentrations and photon flux densities (PFD) of photosynthetically active radiation. In cowpea, g/sub L/ declined to less than 15% of controls and total water potential (Psi/sub w/) at midafternoon declined to -0.8 megapascal after 5 days of withholding water, whereas g/sub L/ in pigeonpea was about 40% of controls even though midafternoon Psi/sub w/ was -1.9 megapascal. After 8 days of withholding water, Psi/sub w/ at midafternoon decline to -0.9 and -2.4 megapascals in cowpea and pigeonpea, respectively. The solute component of water potential (Psi/sub s/) decreased substantially less in cowpea than pigeonpea. Photosynthetic CER at saturation photon flux density (PFD) and ambient external CO/sub 2/ concentration on day 5 of withholding decreased by 83 and 55% in cowpea and pigeonpea, respectively. When measured at external, CO/sub 2/ concentration in bulk air of 360 microliters per liter, the CER of cowpea had fully recovered to control levels 3 days after rewatering; however, at 970 microliters per liter the PFD-saturated CERS of both species were substantially lower than in controls, indicating residual impairment.

  13. Effects of pH and ionic strength on precipitation of phytopathogenic viruses by polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, J; Marcinka, K

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ionic strength of the solution (changed by varying NaCl concentrations or buffer molarity) on the precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were studied on phytopathogenic viruses of different morphology: the isometric red clover mottle virus (RCMV), rod-shaped tobacco mosaic virus, flexuous potato virus X (PVX) and bacilliform alfalfa mosaic virus. With increasing NaCl concentration or buffer molarity up to a certain level (0.1 mol/l), the efficiency of PEG precipitation increased. This relationship did not apply to PVX. The effects of pH on PEG precipitation were studied on RCMV. The efficiency of precipitation increased with decreasing difference between pH of the solution and pI of the virus. PMID:2565676

  14. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  15. Control of insect pests of cowpea in the savanna of Roraima, Brazil. = Controle de insetos-praga do feijão-caupi na savana de Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyse Cristina Oliveira da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the insecticides acephate, imidacloprid and neem oil to control major insect pests of cowpea in cerrado of Roraima. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR. The planting of cowpea (c.v. BRS Guariba was carried out between the double rows of cassava (2.0 x 0.8 x 0.8 m. The rows of cowpea were spaced 0.5 m apart and 0.75 m double rows of cassava. We adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were as follows: T1 - control (without application of products, T2 - Neem oil ( applied to 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after planting - DAP, T3 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Acephate (30 DAP + Imidacloprid (40 DAP + Acephate (50 DAP, T4 - Acephate (20 DAP + Imidacloprid (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAP + Imidacloprid (50 DAP T5 - Imidacloprid (20 DAP + Oil nim (30 DAP + Acephate (40 DAE + neem oil (50 DAP. It measured the number of plants located in the middle row with symptoms of pest attack, and the calculation of the percentage of plants attacked. It was found that all treatments were effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, the best treatments for control of Chalcodermus bimaculatus were those who had been cunning application of neem oil, that the treatment using only the neem oil was effective in controlling Aphis craccivora, Bemisia tabaci, Empoasca kraemeri and the Chalcodermus bimaculatus. The treatments used in this study were not effective to control the Cerotoma arcuatus.

  16. Effects of human respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 3 and influenza virus on CD4+ T cell activation by dendritic cells.

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    Cyril Le Nouën

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, and to a lesser extent human metapneumovirus (HMPV and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3, re-infect symptomatically throughout life without antigenic change, suggestive of incomplete immunity. One causative factor is thought to be viral interference with dendritic cell (DC-mediated stimulation of CD4+ T cells. METHODOLOGY, PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected human monocyte-derived DC with purified HRSV, HMPV, HPIV3, or influenza A virus (IAV and compared their ability to induce activation and proliferation of autologous CD4+ T cells in vitro. IAV was included because symptomatic re-infection without antigenic change is less frequent, suggesting that immune protection is more complete and durable. We examined virus-specific memory responses and superantigen-induced responses by multiparameter flow cytometry. Live virus was more stimulatory than inactivated virus in inducing DC-mediated proliferation of virus-specific memory CD4+ T cells, suggesting a lack of strong suppression by live virus. There were trends of increasing proliferation in the order: HMPVeffect was transitory and greatest for IAV. T cell cytokine production was similar, with no evidence of Th2 or Th17 skewing. CONCLUSIONS, SIGNIFICANCE: Understanding the basis for the ability of HRSV in particular to symptomatically re-infect without significant antigenic change is of considerable interest. The present results show that these common respiratory viruses are similar in their ability to induce DC to activate CD4+ T cells. Thus, the results do not support the common model in which viral suppression of CD4+ T cell activation and

  17. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo; Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Nunes; Antônio Aécio Carvalho Bezerra; Wanderley José de Melo

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS) for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy ...

  18. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  19. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin

    2015-10-01

    Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.

  20. Cowpea nodulation, biomass yield and nutrient uptake, as affected by biofertilizers and rhizobia, in a sodic soil amended with Acidithiobacillus - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.16994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Pereira Stamford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodic soils require application of amendments as gypsum and organic matter. Many types of compost have been tested in sodic soils reclamation; however, these materials often do not provide satisfactory pH reduction. A recent study reported effective effects applying mixture of gypsum and sulfur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus in sodic soils with high pH and exchangeable sodium, though the effects on plant parameters were not evaluated. The present study was conducted to verify the effects of BPK rock biofertilizers on nodulation, biomass yield and nutrient uptake in cowpea compared with mineral fertilizer after sodic soil amendment. The BPK biofertilizers and PK mineral fertilizer were applied at different rates, and plants were inoculated with effective rhizobia strains. A control that did not receive PK fertilization was included. The results indicated that gypsum and sulfur with Acidithiobacillus reduced the soil’s pH and the amount of soil exchangeable sodium. BPK rock biofertilizer increased cowpea nodulation, biomass yield and nutrient uptake. The native rhizobia in the soil exhibited effectiveness in cowpea growth; displaying similar results compared with the rhizobia inoculated plants. BPK biofertilizers may be used as alternative to mineral PK fertilizers in sodic soils after the application of gypsum and sulfur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus.

  1. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on virus growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, G A

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation of ozone and sulfur dioxide inhibited influenza virus growth in the nose of mice. Ozone inhalation caused the more pronounced inhibition of influenza virus growth: 0.6 ppm ozone for 3 hours post-virus exposure almost completely inhibited influenza virus growth in the nose, whereas sulfur dioxide (6 ppm for 7 days) causes only partial inhibition of influenza growth in the nose. Neither gas altered the propagation of influenza virus in the lungs of mice. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) growth was either unaffected by exposure to ozone (0.9 ppm for 3 hours) or, when ozone exposure preceeded VSV exposure, the virus may have grown to slightly higher titer. The inhibitory effect of ozone and sulfur dioxide on influenza virus growth in nasal epithelium suggests a competitive interaction between the chemical inhalant, the virus, and host tissues, with net consequences for the pathogenesis of this disease. If the effcts of these inhalants are to be properly interpreted, they should be determined for all major regions of virus growth and inhalant deposition. PMID:189703

  2. Effects of RNA branching on the electrostatic stabilization of viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Wagner, Jef; van der Schoot, Paul; Podgornik, Rudolf; Zandi, Roya

    2016-08-01

    Many single-stranded (ss) ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses self-assemble from capsid protein subunits and the nucleic acid to form an infectious virion. It is believed that the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged RNA and the positively charged viral capsid proteins drive the encapsidation, although there is growing evidence that the sequence of the viral RNA also plays a role in packaging. In particular, the sequence will determine the possible secondary structures that the ssRNA will take in solution. In this work, we use a mean-field theory to investigate how the secondary structure of the RNA combined with electrostatic interactions affects the efficiency of assembly and stability of the assembled virions. We show that the secondary structure of RNA may result in negative osmotic pressures while a linear polymer causes positive osmotic pressures for the same conditions. This may suggest that the branched structure makes the RNA more effectively packaged and the virion more stable.

  3. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the

  4. Salt stress in cowpea plants on biofertilized soil = Estresse salino em plantas de feijão-caupi em solo com fertilizantes orgânicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa; Thales Vinícius de Araújo Viana; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; Benito Moreira de Azevedo; Giovana Lopes da Silva; Fellype Rodrigo Barroso Costa

    2014-01-01

    The use of organic fertilizer from animal waste can mitigate the harmful effects of salinity of irrigation water on the plants. This experiment was performed in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Weather Station (Estação Meteorológica), from September to November 2012, aiming at evaluate the response of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) to salinity levels and biofertilizer types in a greenhouse. The experimental design was that of completely randomized, 5x3 f...

  5. Fresh Preservation of Cowpea with Extracts of Millettia specisoa Champ Isolated with Chloroform%牛大力氯仿提取物保鲜豇豆研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏敏; 李天略; 刘艺洁; 陈光英; 史载锋

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究牛大力氯仿提取物的乙醇水溶液对豇豆的保鲜作用.[方法]将豇豆在不同浓度牛大力氯仿提取物中浸泡,然后取出在空气中晾干存放.在存放过程中,测定豇豆表观、失重率、pH、总糖含量以及Vc含量的变化来分析其保鲜效果.[结果]用浓度为6 ml/L的牛大力氯仿提取物乙醇水溶液浸泡的豇豆样品,好果率、失重率、pH、Vc含量、总糖含量的变化幅度均较小,保鲜效果最佳,保鲜期比不经任何处理的豇豆延长2d.[结论]研究可为天然植物提取物用于果蔬保鲜的开发应用提供参考依据.%[Objective] To study the preservation effects of cowpea with extracts of Millettia specisoa Champ isolated with chloroform. [Method ] Cowpeas were immersed in alcohol-water solution of the extracts, then stored in the open-air at room temperature after dried out. Changes of the factors such as apparent, weight loss, pH value, VC and total sugar contents were determined during the preservation process. [ Result ] The results indicated that it gives the best fresh reservation effects on cowpea with the extracts concentration of 6 ml/L, changes of all factors are the smallest. It is to say that the extracts may show good preservation effect on cowpeas at proper conditions, the keeping fresh time is 2 days longer than that without any preservation treatment. [Conclusion] The study provides reference basis for utilization of natural plant extracts in fruit and vegetable preservation.

  6. Modeling the indirect effect of Wolbachia on the infection dynamics of horizontally transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Jakob F; Telschow, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widely distributed in arthropods. There is growing empirical evidence that Wolbachia directly interacts with viruses and other parasites inside the arthropod host, sometimes resulting in low or no pathogen replication. Previous theoretical studies showed that this direct effect of Wolbachia can result in a reduced virus prevalence (within the population), suggesting that Wolbachia could be used in the biological control of vector-borne diseases (e.g., dengue fever). However, Wolbachia might also indirectly affect virus dynamics because Wolbachia-induced reproductive phenotypes (cytoplasmic incompatibility or male killing) increase the larval mortality of hosts and thus alter the age structure of populations. We investigated this indirect effect using mathematical models with overlapping generations, and found the results to depend strongly on the host's life history. In general, the indirect effect can result in two different outcomes: (1) reduced virus prevalence and virus invasion ability, and (2) increased virus prevalence and virus invasion ability. The former occurs for host species with larval competition and undercompensation, the latter for hosts with either adult competition or larval competition and overcompensation. These findings suggest that the effect of Wolbachia on a specific virus is sensitive to the host's life history. We discuss the results with respect to biocontrol programs using Wolbachia. PMID:25972858

  7. Modeling the indirect effect of Wolbachia on the infection dynamics of horizontally transmitted viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Friedrich Strauß

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widely distributed in arthropods. There is growing empirical evidence that Wolbachia directly interacts with viruses and other parasites inside the arthropod host, sometimes resulting in low or no pathogen replication. Previous theoretical studies showed that this direct effect of Wolbachia can result in a reduced virus prevalence (within the population, suggesting that Wolbachia could be used in the biological control of vector-borne diseases (e.g., dengue fever. However, Wolbachia might also indirectly affect virus dynamics because Wolbachia-induced reproductive phenotypes (cytoplasmic incompatibility or male killing increase the larval mortality of hosts and thus alter the age structure of populations. We investigated this indirect effect using mathematical models with overlapping generations, and found the results to depend strongly on the host's life history. In general, the indirect effect can result in two different outcomes: (1 reduced virus prevalence and virus invasion ability, and (2 increased virus prevalence and virus invasion ability. The former occurs for host species with larval competition and undercompensation, the latter for hosts with either adult competition or larval competition and overcompensation. These findings suggest that the effect of Wolbachia on a specific virus is sensitive to the host's life history. We discuss the results with respect to biocontrol programs using Wolbachia.

  8. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Kano, northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, P.; W. Sampers; Pauwels, F.

    1986-01-01

    The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when th...

  9. Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-season (rainy and dry study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB, No till-Herbicide applied (NH, Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT, and Minimum-ploughed only (MT. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on percentage emergence, leaf and branch number in both seasons. In the first season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by tillage treatments at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing (WAS with NH showing superiority over the other treatments. In the second season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 higher in NSB and MT treatments at 6 and 8 WAS, respectively. Pod and grain yield (t ha-1 were not affected by tillage treatments in the first season but in the second season, NSB (1.84 t ha-1 and MT (1.53 t ha-1 showed significant superiority over other treatments. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while CT produced the highest economie returns. Some soil properties were also influenced with NSB treatment having a higher soil bulk density at sowing and 6 WAS than the other treatments, while NH recorded a higher soil moisture content at 6 WAS than the other treatments. The study also suggests that with optimum precipitation, CT appears a better land preparation option for cowpea production.

  10. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Junzeng; Peng Shizhang; Luo Yufeng; Jiao Xiyun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001) and cowpea (2004) crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants' growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio αin lagged behind that of the outside ratio αout. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of αin, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  11. Tomato and cowpea crop evapotranspiration in an unheated greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Junzeng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of protected cultivation of vegetables in China, it is necessary to study the water requirements of crops in greenhouses. Lysimeter experiments were carried out to investigate tomato (2001 and cowpea (2004 crop evapotranspiration (ETc in an unheated greenhouse in Eastern China. Results showed remarkably reduced crop evapotranspiration inside the greenhouse as compared with that outside. ETc increased with the growth of the crops, and varied in accordance with the temperature inside the greenhouse and 20-cm pan evaporation outside, reaching its maximum value at the stage when plants’ growth was most active. Differences between the variation of crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation inside the greenhouse were caused by shading of the pan in the later period when the crops were taller than the location where the pan was installed, 70 cm above ground. The ratio of crop evapotranspiration to pan evaporation was not constant as reported in previous studies, and the variation of the inside ratio αin lagged behind that of the outside ratio αout. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration based on 20-cm pan evaporation inside the greenhouse is more reasonable than that based on 20-cm pan evaporation outside, although pan evaporation outside is more consistent with ETc than that inside. The value of αin, calculated based on air temperature, relative humidity, and ground temperature inside, plays a dominant role in the calculation of ETc. As the crop height increases, altering the location of the inside pan and placing it above the canopy, out of the shade, would help to achieve more reasonable values of crop evapotranspiration.

  12. Lessons from an experiential learning process: the case of cowpea farmer field schools in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, E.S.; Odonkor, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementati

  13. Process Optimization of Tempeh Protein Isolate from Soybean (Glycine Max Merr and Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrul Bahar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of ‘tempeh’ (fermented soybean protein isolates in Indonesia is still very low. It is necessary to increase the production with the alternative materials which is make by soybean and cowpea mixture. The utilization of this soybean cake (tempeh as protein isolate raw material is expecting benefits both of soybean and cowpea component which can complement each other. Protein’s content of protein isolates should be a minimum of 90% (db. Therefore, it is necessary to find the precipitation pH and the optimum level of purification in order to get tempeh protein isolate with high protein content. The analytical method used descriptive analysis. The optimal process of tempeh protein isolates from soybean and cowpea mixture conducted with pH 5 and pH 4 precipitation, the oil extraction was carried out at the beginning of the process (before extraction of protein and before the drying stage. The result showed that the tempeh protein isolate of soybean and cowpea mixing have 75.12% (db protein content. It was increasing in 20.67% to 50.16% from previous research.

  14. US-1136, US-1137, and US-1138 Cowpea Germplasm Lines for Use as a Cover Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adoption of sustainable and organic cultural practices in recent years has resulted in an increased use of cover crops. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an excellent warm season cover crop due to its tolerance of heat and drought stress, ability to grow well in sandy, poor, acidic soils, high b...

  15. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

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    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  16. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in the

  17. Genetic analysis of abiotic and biotic resistance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is a most versatile African crop, it feeds people, their livestock and because of its ability in nitrogen-fixation, it improves soil fertility, and consequently helps to increase the yields of cereal crops when grown in rotation and contributes to the sustainabi

  18. The Effect of Precipitation on the Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE Virus in Nature: A Complex Effect on Antibody-Positive Rate to JE Virus in Sentinel Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Takasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to JE virus, in the entire year and during summertime over the period of 32 years from 1969 to 2000. The levels of the annual and summertime precipitation demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations with sero-conversion rates for the whole of the country and for some regions in Japan. The levels of the summertime precipitation, on the other hand, demonstrated statistically significant inverse correlations with the sero-conversion rates in other regions. Further, the levels of precipitation during preceding 10-day periods from days 1–40 before blood collection showed inverse correlation with antibody-positive rates in some regions. The results indicate that the relationship between the annual and summertime precipitation, and the sero-conversion rate to JE virus is complex; both positive and inverse effects are demonstrated depending on the regions.

  19. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  20. Transmission Model of Hepatitis B Virus with the Migration Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Islam, Saeed; Arif, Muhammad; ul Haq, Zahoor

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: “the transmission between migrated and exposed class” and “the transmission between migrated and acute class.” With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease. PMID:23984318

  1. Transmission Model of Hepatitis B Virus with the Migration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Altaf Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: “the transmission between migrated and exposed class” and “the transmission between migrated and acute class.” With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease.

  2. Effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on rabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbarrtar; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Okutani, Akiko; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamada, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Although there are several reports on candidates for rabies virus (RABV) receptor, possible roles played by these receptor candidates in determination of highly neurotropic nature of RABV have not been well understood. Since these candidate receptors for RABV were reported to be frequently associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains characterized by lipid rafts and caveolae structures, we attempted to determine whether the disturbance of microdomains caused by the cholesterol depletion showed any effects on RABV infection. When the cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) treatment, increase in RABV adsorption and infection, but not multiplication rather than suppression was observed in both BHK-21 and HEp-2 cells. These effects exerted by MBCD treatment on RABV infection could be reversed by cholesterol reconstitution. These results suggest that RABV enters BHK-21 or HEp-2 cells through ports of entry other than those located on cholesterol-rich microdomains and raise the possibility that RABV uses different mechanisms to enter the non-neuronal cells. PMID:19010362

  3. Effectiveness of Four Disinfectants against Ebola Virus on Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smither

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The West Africa Ebola virus (EBOV outbreak has highlighted the need for effective disinfectants capable of reducing viral load in a range of sample types, equipment and settings. Although chlorine-based products are widely used, they can also be damaging to equipment or apparatus that needs continuous use such as aircraft use for transportation of infected people. Two aircraft cleaning solutions were assessed alongside two common laboratory disinfectants in a contact kill assay with EBOV on two aircraft relevant materials representative of a porous and non-porous surface. A decimal log reduction of viral titre of 4 is required for a disinfectant to be deemed effective and two of the disinfectants fulfilled this criteria under the conditions tested. One product, Ardrox 6092, was found to perform similarly to sodium hypochlorite, but as it does not have the corrosive properties of sodium hypochlorite, it could be an alternative disinfectant solution to be used for decontamination of EBOV on sensitive apparatus.

  4. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Powell, Kevin S; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J; Yen, Alan L; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Luck, Jo E

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  5. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  7. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxinby Aspergillus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Schnidt-Heydt, M.; Geisen, R.;

    2008-01-01

    A number of 21 Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterizedby RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped with A. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other...... isolates grouped with A. parasiticus. All of these strains except 3 produced aflatoxin. Two additional strains neither fit with the A. flavus group, nor the A. parasiticus group according to their RAPD pattern. Both did not produce aflatoxin in measurable amounts. Generally the aflatoxin positive strains...... produced high amounts of aflatoxin after growth on YES medium. However after growth on cowpea based medium aflatoxin biosynthesis was strongly ceased, albeit the growth of the colony was only partly reduced. This was true for media made either with the whole cowpea seed or with cowpea seed without seed...

  8. Foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga towards biological control of bruchid pests in stored cowpea in West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Seed beetles cause considerable losses in traditionally stored cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walp.) under subsistence farming conditions in West Africa. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) is evaluated as a candidate for a conservation strategy of bi

  9. In-Vitro Experiments on the Radiosensitivity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and other Animal Viruses to the Direct Effect of X-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various in-vitro techniques have been used to observe the direct X-ray inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and the virus of Teschen disease. All these methods were intended to eliminate the indirect effects of the irradiation, and for each virus an upper limit to the radioresistance was observed, which was assumed to correspond to inactivation by the direct effect. Further confirmation of the absence of indirect effects was obtained by observing the dose-rate and the concentration-independent survival curves, and by direct observation of the inactivated virus in the electron microscope. Virus suffering only direct inactivation retained its morphological integrity at a much higher radiation dose level (relative to loss of infectivity) than virus which was exposed to some residual indirect effects. These results are of value since the radio resistances observed represent the upper limits which may have to be taken into account in, for example, the elimination of foot-and-mouth disease virus from frozen meat. (author)

  10. Host effect on the genetic diversification of beet necrotic yellow vein virus single-plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Leal, Rodolfo; Bryan, Becky K; Rush, Charles M

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical models predict that, under restrictive host conditions, virus populations will exhibit greater genetic variability. This virus response has been experimentally demonstrated in a few cases but its relation with a virus's capability to overcome plant resistance is unknown. To explore the genetic host effects on Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) populations that might be related to resistance durability, a wild-type virus isolate was vector inoculated into partially resistant Rz1, Rz2, and susceptible sugar beet cultivars during a serial planting experiment. Cloning and sequencing a region of the viral RNA-3, involving the pathogenic determinant p25, revealed that virus diversity significantly increased in direct proportion to the strength of host resistance. Thus, whereas virus titers were highest, intermediate, and lowest in susceptible, Rz1, and Rz2 plants, respectively; the average number of nucleotide differences among single-plant populations was 0.8 (±0.1) in susceptible, 1.4 (±0.1) in Rz1, and 2.4 (±0.2) in Rz2 genotypes. A similar relationship between host restriction to BNYVV root accumulation and virus genetic variability was detected in fields of sugar beet where these specific Rz1- and Rz2-mediated resistances have been defeated.

  11. Host effect on the genetic diversification of beet necrotic yellow vein virus single-plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Leal, Rodolfo; Bryan, Becky K; Rush, Charles M

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical models predict that, under restrictive host conditions, virus populations will exhibit greater genetic variability. This virus response has been experimentally demonstrated in a few cases but its relation with a virus's capability to overcome plant resistance is unknown. To explore the genetic host effects on Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) populations that might be related to resistance durability, a wild-type virus isolate was vector inoculated into partially resistant Rz1, Rz2, and susceptible sugar beet cultivars during a serial planting experiment. Cloning and sequencing a region of the viral RNA-3, involving the pathogenic determinant p25, revealed that virus diversity significantly increased in direct proportion to the strength of host resistance. Thus, whereas virus titers were highest, intermediate, and lowest in susceptible, Rz1, and Rz2 plants, respectively; the average number of nucleotide differences among single-plant populations was 0.8 (±0.1) in susceptible, 1.4 (±0.1) in Rz1, and 2.4 (±0.2) in Rz2 genotypes. A similar relationship between host restriction to BNYVV root accumulation and virus genetic variability was detected in fields of sugar beet where these specific Rz1- and Rz2-mediated resistances have been defeated. PMID:20649415

  12. Effect of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus on the Reproduction and Survival of its Nematode Vector, Xiphinema index Thorne &Allen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Raski, D J

    1969-04-01

    Studies on the virus-vector interaction between the grapevine fanleaf virus (GFV) and its nematode vector, Xiphinema index, indicate the virus had no measurable effect on the rate of reproduction of its vector, but significantly influenced survNal of the nematodes.

  13. A colorimetric bioassay for high-througput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious animal viruses and has a devastating effect on livestock industries if an outbreaks occurs, especially in FMD-free countries. The virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type I interferons. Currently, a reported assay to measure FM...

  14. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, E. R.; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage

  15. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  16. Systemic transport of Alfalfa mosaic virus can be mediated by the movement proteins of several viruses assigned to five genera of the 30K family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Thor V M; Peiró, Ana; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is functionally exchangeable for the cell-to-cell transport of the corresponding genes of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Brome mosaic virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Cowpea mosaic virus. We have analysed the capacity of the heterologous MPs to systemically transport the corresponding chimeric AMV genome. All MPs were competent in systemic transport but required the fusion at their C terminus of the coat protein-interacting C-terminal 44 aa (A44) of the AMV MP. Except for the TMV MP, the presence of the hybrid virus in upper leaves correlated with the capacity to move locally. These results suggest that all the MPs assigned to the 30K superfamily should be exchangeable not only for local virus movement but also for systemic transport when the A44 fragment is present. PMID:23136366

  17. Effects of interferons on hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Ivanko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of hepatitis C virus infections (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are one of the major problems in clinical medicine. The persistence of infection in spite of high specific antibody titre suggests that the virus has the ability to "escape" the immunological response. Interferon therapy. Interferons are important components of the early host response to infection. They have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Many viruses have developed the ability to "annul" or alleviate the action of interferon by preventing its synthesis or by interfering with signaling pathways in the cells. During acute infection some of the non-structural proteins of HCV block regulatory factors that are responsible for the synthesis of endogenous infection. Within a cell, interferon induces a number of genes to produce proteins that prevent virus replication. Among them, the most important are RNA-dependent protein kinase and the eukaryotic initiation factor. However, viral proteins, especially viral envelope proteins and nonstructural protein 5A, prevent their phosphorylation and activation which enhance virus replication. These are the facts that have to be considered when using IFN in chronic hepatitis C patients. .

  18. Sorghum-cowpea composite porridge as a functional food, Part II: Antioxidant properties as affected by simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2016-04-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with brownish-cream cowpea and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge was studied. Maize-soybean composite porridge was used as a reference sample. Antioxidant properties were studied using radical scavenging activities against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), peroxyl and NO radicals as well as inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidative damage of vector DNA. Hydroperoxide content of the samples was also measured. All the samples demonstrated radical scavenging activity. Simulated duodenal digests of the porridges had hydroperoxides and therefore caused LDL oxidation. The undigested porridges and simulated gastric digests inhibited LDL oxidation. Compositing the cereals with legumes increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents and NO scavenging activity of their porridges. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the porridges increased their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activities and LDL oxidation inhibitory activity. PMID:26616954

  19. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

  20. Sorghum-cowpea composite porridge as a functional food, Part II: Antioxidant properties as affected by simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2016-04-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with brownish-cream cowpea and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge was studied. Maize-soybean composite porridge was used as a reference sample. Antioxidant properties were studied using radical scavenging activities against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), peroxyl and NO radicals as well as inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidative damage of vector DNA. Hydroperoxide content of the samples was also measured. All the samples demonstrated radical scavenging activity. Simulated duodenal digests of the porridges had hydroperoxides and therefore caused LDL oxidation. The undigested porridges and simulated gastric digests inhibited LDL oxidation. Compositing the cereals with legumes increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents and NO scavenging activity of their porridges. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the porridges increased their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activities and LDL oxidation inhibitory activity.

  1. Increased Salinity Tolerance of Cowpea Plants by Dual Inoculation of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus clarum and a Nitrogen-fixer Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, G H; Aboul-Nasr, M B; Al-Humiany, A

    2005-03-01

    Pot greenhouse experiments were carried out to attempt to increase the salinity tolerance of one of the most popular legume of the world; cowpea; by using dual inoculation of an Am fungus Glomus clarum and a nitrogen-fixer Azospirillum brasilense. The effect of these beneficial microbes, as single- or dual inoculation-treatments, was assessed in sterilized loamy sand soil at five NaCl levels (0.0~7.2 ds/m) in irrigating water. The results of this study revealed that percentage of mycorrhizal infection, plant height, dry weight, nodule number, protein content, nitrogenase and phosphatase activities, as well as nutrient elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg were significantly decreased by increasing salinity level in non-mycorrhized plants in absence of NFB. Plants inoculated with NFB showed higher nodule numbers, protein content, nitrogen concentration and nitrogenase activities than those of non-inoculated at all salinity levels. Mycorrhized plants exhibited better improvement in all measurements than that of non-mycorrhized ones at all salinity levels, especially, in the presence of NFB. The concentration of Na(+) was significantly accumulated in cowpea plants by rising salinity except in shoots of mycorrhizal plants which had K(+)/Na(+) ratios higher than other treatments. This study indicated that dual inoculation with Am fungi and N-fixer Azospirillum can support both needs for N and P, excess of NaCl and will be useful in terms of soil recovery in saline area.

  2. Combination of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Hepatitis C virus E2 protein effectively blocks virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Mihika; Mullick, Ranajoy; Das, Soma; Das, Saumitra; Karande, Anjali A

    2016-09-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major global health threat. The envelope glycoproteins, E1-E2 of HCV play an important role in infection by binding to hepatocyte surface receptors leading to viral entry. Several regions on the E1-E2 are conserved for maintaining structural stability, despite the high mutation rate of HCV. Identification of antigenic determinants in these domains would aid in the development of anti-virals. The present study was aimed to delineate neutralizing epitopes by generating monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to envelope proteins that can block virus binding and entry. Using HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) corresponding to genotype 3a (prevalent in India), we obtained three mAbs specific for the E2 protein that significantly inhibited virus binding to hepatoma cells. Using overlapping protein fragments and peptides of the E2 protein, the epitopes corresponding to the mAbs were delineated. MAbs H6D3 and A10F2 recognise sequential linear epitopes, whereas, mAb E3D8 recognises a discontinuous epitope. The epitope of mAb E3D8 overlaps with the CD81 receptor-binding site and that of mAb A10F2 with the hypervariable region 2 of the E2 protein. The epitopes corresponding to these mAbs are distinct and unique. A combination of these antibodies significantly inhibited HCV binding and entry in both HCV pseudoparticle (in vitro) and HCV cell culture (ex vivo) system compared to the mAbs alone (P<0.0001). In conclusion, our findings support the potential of employing a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs in the management of HCV infection. PMID:27574733

  3. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PLANT DENSITY ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF COW-PEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: MORFOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS EFEITO DO FÓSFORO E DA DENSIDADE DE POPULAÇÃO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp: CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Carlos Lemos de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A field experiment was carried out on a distrophic Red Yellow Latosol Text, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of population densities and levels of phosphorous dressing on some morphological characteristics of cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp, Cv “Tv x 1836-013J”, with a determinate growing habit. Population densities of 40, 80, 160 and 320 thousands of plants per hectare and phosphorus levels at 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg P205 per hectare were applied. Early and late flowering measurements were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts, foliar area, foliar area index and dry matter production per plant. At harvest date, were taken for number of knots on stems and sprouts. From the observations made at early flowering, only foliar index was affected by plant density. An increment of about 531% was observed on foliar area index by increasing plant density from 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare. Data collected at late flowering showed a significant effect of plant density on the number of knots per sprout, total number of knots per plant and foliar area, that diminished with increasing plant density. Phosphorus levels had a significant and positive effect on those variables. However, increasing plant density caused a significant reduction on total dry matter yield per plant and a significant increase on foliar index. At harvest, a significant and negative effect of plant density was observed on the number of stem knots, number of sprout knots and total number of knots per plant, with increasing plant densities for 40.000 to 320.000 plants per hectare.

    Foi conduzido um experimento em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em solo do tipo latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Àlico Textural, onde foi estudado o efeito das densidades de população (DP de 40.000, 80.000, 160.000 e 320.000 plantas/ha e das doses de f

  4. Response of Sorghum bicolor L. to Residual Phosphate on Two Contrasting Soils Previously Planted to Cowpea or Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola Omolayo Olasunkanmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizer nutrient management through adequate utilization of the residual value coupled with healthy crop rotation contributes significantly to sustainable crop production. This study was conducted to evaluate the direct and residual effects of two rock phosphate (RP materials on two contrasting soils previously planted with either the cereal crop or the leguminous crop. The effectiveness of the RP materials as substitute for the conventional P fertilizers was evaluated using single superphosphate as reference at the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiments were 2 × 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design. The test crops in the first cropping performed better on the slightly acidic loamy sand than on the strongly acidic sandy clay loam. Performance of each crop was improved by P supply in the first and second cropping. Single superphosphate proved to be more efficient than the RPs in the first cropping but not as effective as MRP in the second cropping. In the second cropping, sorghum performed better on the soil previously cropped to cowpea while Morocco RP had the highest residual effect among the P-fertilizer sources. It is evident that rock phosphates are better substitutes to the conventional phosphorus fertilizers due to their long term residual effect in soils. The positive effects of healthy rotation of crops as well as the negative effects of low soil pH are also quite obvious.

  5. Oncolytic effects of a novel influenza A virus expressing interleukin-15 from the NS reading frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke van Rikxoort

    Full Text Available Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1 replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15 coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15. DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1 infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.

  6. Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Penny A; Raphael, Anthony P; Yamada, Miko; Nufer, Kaitlin L; Gardner, Joy; Le, Thuy T T; Prow, Natalie A; Dang, Nhung; Schroder, Wayne A; Prow, Tarl W; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-09-22

    Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine and antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia and disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines.

  7. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on structural components of enveloped RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro R.; Couceiro, Jose N.S.S.; Brito, Sieberth N.; Cabral, Maulori C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of ultraviolet radiation and virus particles of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (WEE) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) which have respectively RNA of positive (RNA+) and negative (RNA-) polarity as genomes, was studied using purified particles. The purified virus preparations were irradiated at a range of 1,000 to 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} with posterior analysis of their propagation in primary cells cultures of chicken embryos. It could be observed that a radiation dose of 4,500 joules per m{sup 2} could induce 10{sup 9} TCID50 per ml as minimal loss of titer for WEE virus and NDV. The hemagglutination assay was used as a tool for evaluate the alterations caused by UV radiation on the molecular arrangement of virus proteins. Alterations of the virus hemagglutinating activity were only observed when radiation levels higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2} were used. The results from hemolysis assays showed the importance of the loss of the envelope integrity and the damages to nucleoprotein structures during the inactivation process, when we use radiation doses higher than 6,000 joules per m{sup 2}. This model of study can increase our comprehension of the radiation effects on the cell physiology and biological components of the cell membranes. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnost...

  9. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    OpenAIRE

    MacCarthy Kathleen A; Slate Dennis; McLean Robert G; Root J Jeffrey; Osorio Jorge E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor). The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on success...

  10. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. PMID:25142352

  11. A high yielding short duration cowpea (Vigna unguiculata.L variety ‘Hridya’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Bindu*, Sverup John, G. Suja, M.Indira and T.N. Vilasini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding experiments was conducted at Onattukara Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kayamkulam,Kerala AgriculturalUniversity to evolve a high yielding cowpea variety with synchronized maturity during 2000-09. Local cultivars and releasedvarieties like V-2, CO-3, COVU-358, COVU-8456, V-118 and COVU-623 were used as parents in the programme. A shortduration cowpea variety with synchronized maturity was identified and released as ‘Hridya’ at the state level variety releasecommittee during 2010. This variety was developed by mass selection of the lacal Kuttipayar.The important charecteristics of thevariety are the height is 45 cm, pod colour is green, seed colour is straw, and the 100 seed weight is 4.67g. The productivity ofthe variety is 9.5 q ha-1and the duration is 55 days.

  12. Interactive effects of turkeypox virus and Plasmodium hermani on Turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; Nayar, Jai K; Forrester, Donald J

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of two disease agents of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), turkeypox virus and the malarial organism, Plasmodium hermani, on the health of turkey poults. Groups of domestic broad-breasted white turkey poults of 1 and 10 wk of age were infected with either turkeypox virus, P. hermani, both turkeypox virus and P. hermani, or were maintained as uninfected controls. The strains of turkeypox virus and P. hermani had been isolated from wild turkeys in southern Florida (USA). The goals of these experiments were two-fold and included both an examination of age differences in response to infections, and an examination of the effects of dual versus singular infections with the two agents. Both singular and concomitant infections of turkeypox virus and P. hermani were more detrimental to poults infected at 1 wk of age than to those infected at 10 wk, based on mortality, weight gain, and parasitemia. Dual infections of turkeypox virus and P. hermani were found to be slightly more harmful to 1-wk-old poults than were singular infections. No such interactive effects were noted in the poults infected at 10 wk of age.

  13. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function

  14. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew, E-mail: apekosz@jhsph.edu

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  15. Business Dynamics and Informal Contracts: Experimental Evidence from the Cowpea Street Food Sector in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan R.; Wu, Steven Y.; Ibro, Germaine

    2010-01-01

    We use field experiments in Niger to investigate the nature and efficiency of contractual structures in market transactions between kossai vendors and cowpea grinders (key input suppliers). Three contractual structures were employed: gift contract, standard price contract and discretionary bonus contract (most incomplete). Gift contracts and standard price contracts involve an upfront payment of grinding fees where discretionary bonus contracts involve payment after the quality of service is ...

  16. Bacterial strains from floodplain soils perform different plant-growth promoting processes and enhance cowpea growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins da Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Certain nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes and other nodule endophytes perform different plant-growth promoting processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate 26 bacterial strains isolated from cowpea nodules grown in floodplain soils in the Brazilian savannas, regarding performance of plant-growth promoting processes and ability to enhance cowpea growth. We also identified these strains by 16S rRNA sequencing. The following processes were evaluated: free-living biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, solubilization of calcium, aluminum and iron phosphates and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. The abilities to nodulate and promote cowpea growth were evaluated in Leonard jars. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified 60 % of the strains as belonging to genus Paenibacillus. The following four genera were also identified: Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas. None of the strains fixed N2 free-living. Among the strains, 80 % solubilized Ca phosphate and one solubilized Al phosphate and none solubilized Fe phosphate. The highest IAA concentrations (52.37, 51.52 and 51.00 μg mL−1 were obtained in the 79 medium with tryptophan by Enterobacter strains UFPI B5-7A, UFPI B5-4 and UFPI B5-6, respectively. Only eight strains nodulated cowpea, however, all increased production of total dry matter. The fact that the strains evaluated perform different biological processes to promote plant growth indicates that these strains have potential use in agricultural crops to increase production and environmental sustainability.

  17. 3-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyltheobroxide from Aerial Parts of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Arata; Yamashita, Yudai; Gao, Xiquan; Uematsu, Makoto; Ota, Maremichi; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Theobroxide has been isolated from culture filtrates of Lasiodiplodia theobromae as a potato tuber-inducing compound. In this study, the metabolism of theobroxide was investigated using cowpea as an experimental model and [2H3-7]theobroxide as a substrate for analyzing a metabolite, which revealed that theobroxide applied exogenously to the roots was converted into 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyltheobroxide. PMID:27319148

  18. Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping Respostas fisiológicas do milho e caupi à consorciação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ MOACIR PINHEIRO LIMA FILHO

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.Estudou-se, na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-Árido (CPATSA em Petrolina, PE, o efeito do plantio consorciado sobre o comportamento hídrico, trocas gasosas e produtividade do milho (Zea mays L. cv. Centralmex, e do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp cv. Pitiuba, em condições semi-áridas. Os tratamentos foram: milho e caupi em cultivos isolados na população de 40.000 plantas ha-1, e consorciados na população de 20.000 plantas ha-1. No sistema de consórcio, o milho obteve valores mais altos de potencial hídrico, condutância estomática, transpiração e fotossíntese, em relação ao cultivo isolado. Com o caupi, observaram-se valores

  19. Detailed Report on 2014/15 Influenza Virus Characteristics, and Estimates on Influenza Virus Vaccine Effectiveness from Austria’s Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network

    OpenAIRE

    Redlberger-Fritz, Monika; Kundi, Michael; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is influenced by the antigenic similarity between vaccine- and circulating strains. Material and Methods This paper presents data obtained by the Austrian sentinel surveillance system on the evolution of influenza viruses during the season 2014/15 and its impact on influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in Austria as estimated by a test-negative case control design. VE estimates were performed for each influenza virus type/subtype, stra...

  20. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  1. Effect of the deletion of genes encoding proteins of the extracellular virion form of vaccinia virus on vaccine immunogenicity and protective effectiveness in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available Antibodies to both infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the mature virion (MV and the enveloped virion (EV, as well as cell-mediated immune response appear to be important for protection against smallpox. EV virus particles, although more labile and less numerous than MV, are important for dissemination and spread of virus in infected hosts and thus important in virus pathogenesis. The importance of the EV A33 and B5 proteins for vaccine induced immunity and protection in a murine intranasal challenge model was evaluated by deletion of both the A33R and B5R genes in a vaccine-derived strain of vaccinia virus. Deletion of either A33R or B5R resulted in viruses with a small plaque phenotype and reduced virus yields, as reported previously, whereas deletion of both EV protein-encoding genes resulted in a virus that formed small infection foci that were detectable and quantifiable only by immunostaining and an even more dramatic decrease in total virus yield in cell culture. Deletion of B5R, either as a single gene knockout or in the double EV gene knockout virus, resulted in a loss of EV neutralizing activity, but all EV gene knockout viruses still induced a robust neutralizing activity against the vaccinia MV form of the virus. The effect of elimination of A33 and/or B5 on the protection afforded by vaccination was evaluated by intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of either vaccinia virus WR or IHD-J, a strain of vaccinia virus that produces relatively higher amounts of EV virus. The results from multiple experiments, using a range of vaccination doses and virus challenge doses, and using mortality, morbidity, and virus dissemination as endpoints, indicate that the absence of A33 and B5 have little effect on the ability of a vaccinia vaccine virus to provide protection against a lethal intranasal challenge in a mouse model.

  2. Simplified methods for screening cowpea cultivars for manganese leaf-tissue tolerance. [Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemeier, A.H.; Horst, W.J. (Univ. of Hannover (West Germany))

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) dark brown speckles on old leaves are typical symptoms of Mn toxicity and indicate Mn sensitivity of leaf tissue. Induction and subsequent quantification of brown Mn speckles in leaf tissues were used to screen cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance using three different techniques: (i) leaf cuttings cultured for 22 days in solution culture with 20 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}, (ii) leaf rings mounted on leaves of intact plants and filled with 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4} for 5 days, and (iii) leaf disks floated for 3 days on 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}. Density of brown speckles differed considerably among the six cultivars tested, and was not related to the Mn concentrations of the leaf tissues. There were close relationships between genotypic Mn-toxicity symptom expression and depression of dry matter production of the cultivars at high Mn supply in a long-term sand culture experiment. The floating leaf-disk method is particularly suited for screening large numbers of cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance because it requires only 3 days. The ranking of the cultivars for Mn tolerance was highly correlated to Mn tolerance of intact plants.

  3. Diversity in 113 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] accessions assessed with 458 SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbadzor, Kenneth F; Ofori, Kwadwo; Yeboah, Martin; Aboagye, Lawrence M; Opoku-Agyeman, Michael O; Danquah, Eric Y; Offei, Samuel K

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in characterization of 113 cowpea accessions comprising of 108 from Ghana and 5 from abroad. Leaf tissues from plants cultivated at the University of Ghana were genotyped at KBioscience in the United Kingdom. Data was generated for 477 SNPs, out of which 458 revealed polymorphism. The results were used to analyze genetic dissimilarity among the accessions using Darwin 5 software. The markers discriminated among all of the cowpea accessions and the dissimilarity values which ranged from 0.006 to 0.63 were used for factorial plot. Unexpected high levels of heterozygosity were observed on some of the accessions. Accessions known to be closely related clustered together in a dendrogram drawn with WPGMA method. A maximum length sub-tree which comprised of 48 core accessions was constructed. The software package structure was used to separate accessions into three groups, and the programme correctly identified varieties that were known hybrids. The hybrids were those accessions with numerous heterozygous loci. The structure plot showed closely related accessions with similar genome patterns. The SNP markers were more efficient in discriminating among the cowpea germplasm than morphological, seed protein polymorphism and simple sequence repeat studies reported earlier on the same collection. PMID:25332852

  4. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  5. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  6. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  7. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Rhizobia inoculation and liming increase cowpea productivity in Maranhão State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Palhares Farias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetives of the study were to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of strains approved as inoculants for cowpea and of three new strains under selection, as well as to evaluate the influence of liming on the symbiosis and productivity. Two field experiments were conducted using cowpea (BRS Guariba from June to September 2013. In the first experiment, a completely randomized block experimental design was used, with four replicates and seven treatments (INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, UFLA03-154, UFLA03-164 and two controls. In the second experiment, a 7 x 2 factorial design was used, with the above described treatments being the first factor and liming as the second factor. Parameters evaluated were: nodule dry matter, shoot dry matter, shoot N content and accumulation, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 seeds, grain yield and grain N content and accumulation. Strains UFLA03-153 and UFLA03-164 were more efficient for cowpea inoculation than the strains approved as inoculants, UFLA03-84 and INPA03-11B. Although the tested rhizobia strains and cultivar BRS Guariba are tolerant to soil acidity, productivity washigher when soil was limed. Yields obtained with fertilized and inoculated treatments were well above Maranhão state average.

  9. Resource Use Efficiency for Cowpea Production in Akatsi District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas have been identified as one of the crops with the highest and cheapest source of protein which can be relied on to help curb malnutrition problem in most developing countries. Farmers in most farming communities in Ghana, such as Akatsi in the Volta region, still practice the ‘tradition bound’ agriculture. The returns from such production system are estimated to be below potential levels. Assessment of the productivity of major inputs employed in the production of cowpeas in the study area indicates that outputs are below maximum potentials. The level of inputs such as farm size, labour, pesticide, and ploughing (land preparation were found to be positively related to output, while quantity of seed was negatively related to output. The marginal value products (MVPs of the inputs were lower than their unit costs. It is anticipated that farmers could increase production beyond current levels, if the resources employed are utilized efficiently. Among the problems identified to affecting the production of cowpeas in the study area include: unfavorable climate, incidence of pests and diseases, land tenure problem, lack of credit for operation, lack of storage facility, transportation and lack of ready market for the produce. To help improve the production, and hence farmers’ income and their living standards, there is the need for an accelerated education programme to provide information on the appropriate methods of production, especially on how inputs could be allocated by the resource-poor farmers.

  10. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea....... The results imply that resources must be invested in improving the quality of seed from the smallholder sector. National and international germplasm collection centres should be equipped with capacity to test for seed-borne viruses so as to minimize the movement of infected germplasm in breeding materials...

  11. Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, S.W.; McCormick, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors.

  12. A bispecific antibody effectively neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus by simultaneous blocking virus attachment and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Deng, Yongqiang; Wang, Huajing; Ji, Guanghui; Tan, Wenlong; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hui; Xia, Tian; Meng, Yanchun; Wang, Chao; Yu, Xiaojie; Yang, Yang; Li, Bohua; Qin, E-De; Dai, Jianxin; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Guo, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Although dengue virus (DENV) infection severely threatens the health of humans, no specific antiviral drugs are currently approved for clinical use against DENV infection. Attachment and fusion are 2 critical steps for the flavivirus infection, and the corresponding functional epitopes are located at E protein domain III (E-DIII) and domain II (E-DII), respectively. Here, we constructed a bispecific antibody (DVD-1A1D-2A10) based on the 2 well-characterized anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies 1A1D-2 (1A1D) and 2A10G6 (2A10). The 1A1D antibody binds E-DIII and can block the virus attaching to the cell surface, while the 2A10 antibody binds E-DII and is able to prevent the virus from fusing with the endosomal membrane. Our data showed that DVD-1A1D-2A10 retained the antigen-binding activity of both parental antibodies. Importantly, it was demonstrated to be significantly more effective at neutralizing DENV than its parental antibodies both in vitro and in vivo, even better than the combination of them. To eliminate the potential antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect, this bispecific antibody was successfully engineered to prevent Fc-γ-R interaction. Overall, we generated a bispecific anti-DENV antibody targeting both attachment and fusion stages, and this bispecific antibody broadly neutralized all 4 serotypes of DENV without risk of ADE, suggesting that it has great potential as a novel antiviral strategy against DENV. PMID:26905804

  13. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D. S.; Scott, F. W.; Schiff, E I

    1985-01-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and...

  14. A theoretical assessment of the effects of vector-virus transmission mechanisms on plant virus disease epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madden, L.V.; Jeger, M.J.; Bosch, van den F.

    2000-01-01

    A continuous-time and deterministic model was used to characterize plant virus disease epidemics in relation to virus transmission mechanism and population dynamics of the insect vectors. The model can be written as a set of linked differential equations for healthy (virus-free), latently infected,

  15. Using violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for crop yield assessment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Tetteh, Jonathan P.

    2004-07-01

    The use of violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra to monitor the growth of five varieties of cowpea in the University of Cape Coast Botanical Garden is presented. Radiation from a continuous-wave violet laser diode emitting at 396 nm through a fibre is closely incident on in vivo leaves of cowpea to excite chlorophyll fluorescence, which is detected by an integrated spectrometer with CCD readout. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra with peaks at 683 and 731 nm were used for growth monitoring of the cowpea plants over three weeks and analysed using Gaussian spectral functions with curve fitted parameters to determine the peak positions, area under the spectral curve and the intensity ratio F683/F731. The variation in the intensity ratio of the chlorophyll bands showed sensitive changes indicating the photosynthetic activity of the cowpea varieties. A discussion of the fluorescence result as compared to conventional assessment is presented with regard to discrimination between the cowpea varieties in terms of crop yield performance.

  16. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

  17. Avian influenza virus (H5N1; effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Sajid

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 (local strain virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 108.3 ELD50/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon®-S, zeptin 10%, KEPCIDE 300, KEPCIDE 400, lifebuoy, surf excel and caustic soda agents. Harvested amnio-allantoic fluid (AAF from embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H5N1 treated virus (0.2 ml/egg was subjected to haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI tests. H5N1 virus lost infectivity after 30 min at 56°C, after 1 day at 28°C but remained viable for more than 100 days at 4°C. Acidic pH (1, 3 and basic pH (11, 13 were virucidal after 6 h contact time; however virus retained infectivity at pH 5 (18 h, 7 and 9 (more than 24 h. UV light was proved ineffectual in inactivating virus completely even after 60 min. Soap (lifebuoy®, detergent (surf excel® and alkali (caustic soda destroyed infectivity after 5 min at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% dilution. All commercially available disinfectants inactivated virus at recommended concentrations. Results of present study would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV outbreak.

  18. Polyprotein processing in the expression of the cowpea mosaic virus genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellink, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In our study on the proteolytic processing of the 200K polyprotein encoded by CPMV B-RNA we first examined the types of cleavage sites present in this polyprotein. Previously Zabel etal . (1984) had shown that VPg is released from its 60K precursor by cleavage between a glutamine-serin

  19. Effect of swine hepatitis E virus on the livers of experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils by swine hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Mao, Jingjing; Du, Fang; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Can

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted between rats, pigs, cattle, rabbits, chicken, cats, and deer. Because wild and domestic rodents have anti-HEV antibodies, they are considered potential reservoirs of HEV. In the current study, Mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with swine hepatitis E virus and the effects of this infection were investigated. After inoculation with HEV, the liver-to-body weight ratio increased at 7 dpi. Mongolian gerbils demonstrated significant increase (pPCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the liver were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 28 dpi at a concentration of 7.73 logs g(-1). Using both light and electron microscopy, hepatic lesions were observed in the HEV inoculated animals. In the experimental group, characteristic viral hepatitis lesions were prominent in the liver. HEV antigen was detected in the liver by immunohistochemistry, and HEV ORF3 antigen was detectable in liver by Western blot. These results clearly demonstrate that viral load of HEV in livers was dynamic, and ultrastructural hepatic injury in HEV infected Mongolian gerbils and anti-HEV IgG positive seroconversion were observed during infection. PMID:26093307

  20. FY04 LDRD Final Report: Interaction of Viruses with Membranes and Soil Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaldach, C M

    2005-02-08

    The influence of ionic strength on the electrostatic interaction of viruses with environmentally relevant surfaces was determined for three viruses, MS2, Q{beta} and Norwalk. The environmental surface is modeled as charged Gouy-Chapman plane with and without a finite atomistic region (patch) of opposite charge. The virus is modeled as a particle comprised of ionizable amino acid residues in a shell surrounding a spherical RNA core of negative charge, these charges being compensated for by a Coulomb screening due to intercalated ions. Surface potential calculations for each of the viruses show excellent agreement with electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential measurements as a function of pH. The results indicate that the electrostatic interaction between the virus and the planar surface, mitigated by the ionic strength of the solute, is dependent upon the spatial distribution of the amino acid residues in the different viruses. Specifically, the order of interaction energies with the patch (MS2 greatest at 5 mM; Norwalk greatest at 20 mM) is dependent upon the ionic strength of the fluid as a direct result of the viral coat amino acid distributions. We have developed an atomistic-scale method of calculation of the binding energy of viruses to surfaces including electrostatic, van der Waals, electron-overlap repulsion, surface charge polarization (images), and hydrophobic effects. The surface is treated as a Gouy-Chapman plane allowing inclusion of pH and ionic strength effects on the electrostatic potential at each amino acid charge. Van der Waals parameters are obtained from the DREIDING force field and from Hamaker constant measurements. We applied this method to the calculation of the Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV), a negatively charged virus at a pH of 7.0, and find that the viral-gold surface interaction is very long range for both signs of surface potential, a result due to the electrostatic forces. For a negative (Au) surface potential of -0.05 volts, a nearly

  1. Effects of poliovirus 2A(pro) on vaccinia virus gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Aldabe, R; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-12-15

    The effects of transient expression of poliovirus 2A(pro) on p220 cleavage in COS cells have been analyzed. When 2A(pro) was cloned in plasmid pTM1 and transiently expressed in COS cells, efficient cleavage of p220 occurred after infection of these cells with a recombinant vaccinia virus bearing phage T7 RNA polymerase. High numbers of COS cells were transfected with pTM1-2A, as judged by p220 cleavage, thereby allowing an analysis of the effects of poliovirus 2A(pro) on vaccinia virus gene expression. A 40-50% cleavage of p220 by transfected poliovirus 2A(pro) was observed ten hours post infection and cleavage was almost complete (80-90%) 20-25 hours post infection with vaccinia virus. Profound inhibition of vaccinia virus protein synthesis was detectable ten hours post infection and was maximal 20-25 hours post infection. This inhibition resulted from neither a blockade of transcription of vaccinia virus nor a lack of translatability of the mRNAs present in cells that synthesize poliovirus 2A(pro). Addition of ara-C inhibited the replication of vaccinia virus and allowed the continued synthesis of cellular proteins. Under these conditions, 2A(pro) is expressed and blocks cellular translation. Finally, p220 cleavage by 2A(pro) did not inhibit the translation of a mRNA encoding poliovirus protein 2C, as directed by the 5' leader sequences of encephalomiocarditis virus. Therefore, these findings show a correlation between p220 cleavage and inhibition of translation from newly made mRNAs. Our results are discussed in the light of present knowledge of p220 function, and new approaches are considered that might provide further insights into the function(s) of initiation factor eIF-4F.

  2. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

  3. Comparison of the effects of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose and polyacrylic acid on the multiplication of phytopathogenic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S

    1985-10-01

    Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM) inhibit the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf disks by up to 50%. The reduction in TMV content is time-dependent and decreases with longer time intervals between the virus infection and the application of substances. The multiplication of potato virus X (PVX) in leaf disks is not affected by either PAA or COAM. In intact plants PAA produces a strong antiviral effect on both PVX and red clover mottle virus (RCMV). The effect produced by COAM is much less pronounced, although this substance is less toxic and could be used in a higher concentration than PAA. Neither of these compounds has a significant influence on the development of virus-induced necroses in Nicotiana glutinosa, Gomphrena globosa or Phaseolus vulgaris plants when administered one day before or after virus infection.

  4. Individualistic impact of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolade, Mathew K

    2016-05-01

    The individualistic effect of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products (moin-moin, akara, and gbegiri) was investigated. Four cowpea types (IT93K-452-1, IT95K-499s-35, IT97K-568-18, and market sample) were used for the study, whereas the three traditional food products were produced from each of the cowpea types, respectively. The results revealed that every unit operation involved in the production of moin-moin, akara or gbegiri contributed to the overall reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid (PA), and tannin; though at varying degrees. In the production of moin-moin, the major contributions to the overall reduction in TIA were from steaming (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The contributions to the overall reduction in PA were from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and steaming (7.8-14.0%), whereas that of tannin were from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), steaming (19.6-24.7%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). For akara production, the major contributions to TIA reduction were from deep frying (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The PA reduction was from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and deep frying (9.6-15.9%), whereas that of tannin reduction was from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), deep frying (20.7-25.3%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). In the production of gbegiri, the overall reduction in TIA was contributed from pressure cooking (79.0-84.8%), preliminary soaking (5.8-11.3%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The reduction in PA was contributed by dehulling (34.0-40.4%), pressure cooking (24.7-35.0%), and preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), whereas the overall reduction in tannin content was similarly contributed by dehulling (39.7-47.6%), pressure cooking (29.8-34.4%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). PMID:27247774

  5. Zika Virus Infectious Cell Culture System and the In Vitro Prophylactic Effect of Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Deisy; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja

    2016-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that is linked to fetal developmental abnormalities such as microcephaly, eye defects, and impaired growth. ZIKV is an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes, but can also be spread by maternal to fetal vertical transmission as well as sexual contact. To date, there are no reliable treatment or vaccine options available to protect those infected by the virus. The development of a reproducible, effective Zika virus infectious cell culture system is critical for studying the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV replication as well as drug and vaccine development. In this regard, a protocol describing a mammalian cell-based in vitro Zika virus culture system for viral production and growth analysis is reported here. Details on the formation of plaques by Zika virus on a cell monolayer and plaque assay for measuring viral titer are presented. Viral genome replication kinetics and double-stranded RNA genome replicatory intermediates are determined. This culture platform was utilized to screen against a library of a small set of cytokines resulting in the identification of interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β and IFN-γ as potent inhibitors of Zika viral growth. In summary, an in vitro infectious Zika viral culture system and various virological assays are demonstrated in this study, which has the potential to greatly benefit the research community in elucidating further the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and the evolution of viral virulence. Antiviral IFN-alpha can further be evaluated as a prophylactic, post-exposure prophylactic, and treatment option for Zika virus infections in high-risk populations, including infected pregnant women. PMID:27584546

  6. Vicilins (7S storage globulins of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seed vicilins (7S storage proteins bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae.

  7. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:27275830

  8. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:27275830

  9. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  10. Antiviral Effects of Blackberry Extract Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Robert J.; Wang, Chunmei; Dai, Jin; Mumper, Russell J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antiviral properties of blackberry extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Methods HSV-infected oral epithelial (OKF6) cells and cell-free virus suspensions were treated with blackberry extract (2.24 to 1400 μg/mL) and virus yield and infectivity were quantified by direct plaque assay. Results Blackberry extract ≥ 56 μg/ml inhibited HSV-1 replication in oral epithelial cells by > 99% (p < 0.005). Concentrations ≥ 280 μg/ml were antiviral when the extract was added after virus adsorption and entry. Exposure of cell-free virus to ≥ 280 μg/ml blackberry extract for 15 minutes at room temperature was virucidal (p = 0.0002). The virucidal effects were not due to pH changes at concentrations up to 1500 μg/ml. Conclusions Blackberry extract inhibited the early stages of HSV-1 replication and had potent virucidal activity. These properties suggest that this natural fruit extract could provide advantage as a topical prophylactic/therapeutic agent for HSV infections. PMID:21827957

  11. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCarthy Kathleen A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The USDA, Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus vaccine, Raboral V-RG® (V-RG, to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the U.S. Several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in North America, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (Procyon lotor. The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study. Results Overall, raccoons pre-immunized (n = 10 with a recombinant raccoonpox virus vaccine (RCN-F1 responded to vaccination with V-RG with lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA titers than those which were not pre-immunized (n = 10 and some failed to seroconvert for rabies VNA to detectable levels. Conclusion These results suggest that the success of some ORV campaigns may be hindered where raccoonpox virus or possibly other orthopoxvirus antibodies are common in wildlife species targeted for ORV. If these areas are identified, different vaccination strategies may be warranted.

  12. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration.

  13. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration. PMID:27155240

  14. Pregnane steroids from a gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa with anti-flu virus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Ren, Jinwei; Huang, Qixi; Long, Hailin; Jin, Hongwei; Zhang, Liangren; Liu, Huagang; van Ofwegen, Leen; Lin, Wenhan

    2016-04-01

    Five new pregnane-type steroids namely subergorgols T-X (1-5) and three known analogues (6-8) were isolated from a gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analyses, in association with photochemical transformation and ECD methods for the configurational assignment. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for the inhibitory effects against H1N1 virus infected in MDCK cells, while subergorgols T-U and 1,2-dehydroprogesterone exerted potent inhibition against A/WSN/33 virus. PMID:26853156

  15. Effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental temperature has been shown to affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit numerous arboviruses and for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in particular. We evaluated the effect of incubation temperatures ranging from 14-26ºC on infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for Culex ta...

  16. Effects of dietary fat on virus-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kril, A.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of diets supplemented with low (5%) and high (20%) corn oil on a Pts 56 retrovirus-induced model of pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl. The early microscopic lesions appear after 3 mo after virus treatment and progress over time. Eight to 1

  17. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.

  18. Effects of mild stress on the immune response against pseudorabies virus in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J; Moonen-Leusen, HWM; Thomas, G; Bianchi, ATJ; Koolhaas, JM; van Milligen, FJ

    1999-01-01

    Stress is a recognised problem in intensive pig husbandry, which might lead to changes in immune reactivity. To study the effect of stress on the development of an anti-viral immune response, we used a murine model in which mice were immunized with an attenuated strain of pseudorabies virus (PRV). T

  19. Effects of glycosylation on antigenicity and immunogenicity of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) harbors three envelope glycoproteins (E(rns), E1 and E2). Previous studies have demonstrated that removal of specific glycosylation sites within these proteins yielded attenuated and immunogenic CSFV mutants. Here we analyzed the effects of lack of glycosylation of...

  20. Evaluation and Characterization of Mutant Cowpea Plants for Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation-induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim of the project was to select mutant cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the color of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variations observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well-watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterize the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiological techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress. The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defense/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dry land as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  1. Evaluation and characterisation of mutant cowpea plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim project was to select cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterise the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiologically techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress.The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defence/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dryland as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  2. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  3. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  4. [Effect of Yunnan herb Laggera pterodonta against influenza A (H1N1) virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-ling; Sun, Qiang-ming; Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Yu-jiao; Yang, Zi-feng; Huang, Qing-hui; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Xin-hua; Zhang, Rong-ping

    2015-09-01

    Laggera pterodonta is commonly used for treating influenza in Southwest China, especially in Yunnnan province. The main clinical effects of L. pterodonta include anti-influenza, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory. To investigate the anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus effect of L. pterodonta, neutralization inhibition and proliferation inhibition tests were performed. MDCK culture method was used to observe the cytopathic effect (CPE) of extracts from L. pterodonta in inhibiting influenza A (H1N1) virus and haemagglutination titre of H1N1 virus in vitro. The culture medium were collected at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and detected by Real time RT-PCR, in order to compare the effect of different extracts from L. pterodonta on in vitro proliferation of H1N1, virus. The result of neutralization inhibition test showed that hemagglutination titer of ethyl acetate extract were 8 times lower at 72 h; in proliferation inhibition test, hemagglutination titer of ethyl acetate extracts reduced by 2 and 4 times. According to the results of Real time RT-PCR test, the H1N1 inhibition ratio of ethyl acetate extract was 72.5%, while the proliferation inhibition ratio of ethyl acetate extract was 25.3%; as for petroleum ether extracts, the H1N1 inhibition ratio was 60.2%, while the proliferation inhibition ratio was 81.4%. In conclusion, both ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract of L. pterodonta have significant neutralization and direct proliferation inhibition effects on influenza A virus.

  5. Chemical inactivation of recombinant vaccinia viruses and the effects on antigenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); S.G. Norley (Stephen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe efficiency of paraformaldehyde (PFA) and binary ethylenimine (BEI) in inactivating recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), present in baby hamster kidney cells expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (SIV-Env), was measured in a series of inactivation studies. Both

  6. Effects of intercropping on maize stemborers and their natural enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Päts, Peeter

    1996-01-01

    The effects of maize-cowpea intercropping on three lepidopteran stemborers (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) C. orichalcociliellus (Strand) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson) and their natural enemies were studied in Kenya. Oviposition was not affected by intercropping, but significantly fewer larvae...... and wandering spiders, were not augmented by intercropping, but an inverse relationship in abundance was found between these two predator groups. It is concluded that maize intercropped with cowpea has only limited potential as a method of controlling the key pests in maize....

  7. Inhibition of visna virus replication and cytopathic effect in sheep choroid plexus cell cultures by selected anti-HIV agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, H; Balzarini, J; Debyser, Z; Witvrouw, M; Desmyter, J; De Clercq, E

    1995-05-01

    Several anti-HIV agents were tested against visna virus replication and cytopathic effect (CPE) in sheep choroid plexus cell cultures. Sulphated polysaccharides (i.e., dextran sulphate, pentosan polysulphate and heparin) and plant lectins, which inhibit viral adsorption and fusion, were found to be 10- to 40-fold less active against visna virus than against HIV. Bicyclam derivatives were at least 250-fold less active against visna virus and the highly HIV-1 specific TIBO derivatives were without a significant inhibitory effect on visna virus at subtoxic concentrations. In contrast, several 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, which inhibit reverse transcription, were found to be very effective inhibitors of visna virus replication and viral CPE in cell culture. PMID:7486958

  8. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Joshua S.; Stock, Charles A.; Wilhelm, Steven W.;

    2015-01-01

    of a virus component promotes the emergence of complex communities. In addition, biomass partitioning of the emergent multitrophic community is consistent with well-established empirical norms in the surface oceans. At steady state, ecosystem fluxes can be probed to characterize the effects that viruses have...... that viruses can have significant stimulatory effects across whole-ecosystem scales. We suggest that existing efforts to predict carbon and nutrient cycling without considering virus effects are likely to miss essential features of marine food webs that regulate global biogeochemical cycles.The ISME Journal...... ecosystem models to include a virus component, specifically parameterized for processes taking place in the ocean euphotic zone. Crucially, we are able to solve this model analytically, facilitating evaluation of model behavior under many alternative parameterizations. Analyses reveal that the addition...

  9. Evidence of local adaptation in plant virus effects on host-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, K E; De Moraes, C M; Mescher, M C

    2014-07-01

    Recent research suggests that plant viruses, and other pathogens, frequently alter host-plant phenotypes in ways that facilitate transmission by arthropod vectors. However, many viruses infect multiple hosts, raising questions about whether these pathogens are capable of inducing transmission-facilitating phenotypes in phylogenetically divergent host plants and the extent to which evolutionary history with a given host or plant community influences such effects. To explore these issues, we worked with two newly acquired field isolates of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-a widespread multi-host plant pathogen transmitted in a non-persistent manner by aphids-and explored effects on the phenotypes of different host plants and on their subsequent interactions with aphid vectors. An isolate collected from cultivated squash fields (KVPG2-CMV) induced in the native squash host (Cucurbita pepo) a suite of effects on host-vector interactions suggested by previous work to be conducive to transmission (including reduced host-plant quality for aphids, rapid aphid dispersal from infected to healthy plants, and enhanced aphid attraction to the elevated emission of a volatile blend similar to that of healthy plants). A second isolate (P1-CMV) collected from cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) induced more neutral effects in its native host (largely exhibiting non-significant trends in the direction of effects seen for KVPG2-CMV in squash). When we attempted cross-host inoculations of these two CMV isolates (KVPG2-CMV in pepper and P1-CMV in squash), P1-CMV was only sporadically able to infect the novel host; KVPG2-CMV infected the novel pepper host with somewhat reduced success compared with its native host and reached virus titers significantly lower than those observed for either strain in its native host. Furthermore, KVPG2-CMV induced changes in the phenotype of the novel host, and consequently in host-vector interactions, dramatically different than those observed in the native

  10. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  11. Anti-Influenza A Virus Effect of Hypericum perforatum L. Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-ying PU; Jian-ping LIANG; Xue-hong WANG; Tao XU; Lan-ying HUA; Ruo-feng SHANG; Yu LIU; Yan-mei XING

    2009-01-01

    To study the antiviral effect of Hypericum perforatum L. extract (HPE) on influenza A virus (IAV) (H1N1) in vitro and in vivo. Cytopathic effect (CPE) and neutral red (NR) dye uptake were used to examine the antiviral effect of HPE on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells which were infected with IAV in vitro. HPE was effective against influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 40 μg/mL. The mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) in the MDCK used in these experiments was 1.5 mg/mL. Ribavirin was run in parallel with EC50 values of 5.0 μg/mL; the mean CC50 for ribavirin was 520 μg/mL. Oral gavage administrations of HPE or ribavirin to mice infected with the IAV were highly effective in preventing death, slowing the decline of arterial oxygen saturation, inhibiting lung consolidation and reducing lung virus titers. The minimum effective dose of HPE in these studies was 31.25 mg/kg/day, which was administered twice daily for 5 d beginning 4 h prior to virus exposure. Below a dosage of 2000 mg/kg/day, almost all treated mice survived, which suggests that HPE is of low toxicity. Ribavirin's minimum effective dose was 40 mg/kg/day with the LD50 determined to be 200 mg/kg/day. Delay of the initiation of either HPE or ribavirin therapy, using approximately 1/3 LD50 dose each time, could still be protective as late as 48 h after exposure to the IAV. While both agents appeared to have similar efficacy against IAV infections, HPE was considered to be less toxic and may warrant further evaluation as a possible therapy for influenza.

  12. Infectivity analysis of a blackgram isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus and genetic assortment with MYMIV in selective hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Q M I; Rouhibakhsh, A; Ali, Arif; Malathi, V G

    2011-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease in grain legumes in Indian subcontinent is caused by two important virus species viz. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. The genomic components of a begomovirus causing yellow mosaic disease in blackgram in southern India were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison of DNA A component shows the virus isolate to be a variant of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus:-(MYMV-[IN:Vam:05]). However, DNA B component of the present virus isolate has greater similarity (92%) to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. Agroinoculations of the viral clones produced typical yellow mosaic symptoms in blackgram and mungbean, severe leaf curl and stunting in French bean, similar to blackgram isolate of MYMIV. Blackgram isolates of both the virus species were only mildly infectious on cowpea, produced atypical leaf curl symptoms and not yellow or golden mosaic. In agroinoculations done by exchanging genomic components, symptom expression was seen only in French bean. In cowpea, blackgram and mungbean there was no visible symptoms though viral DNA could be detected by PCR.

  13. Local Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor Encoded by Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is Effective in Controlling Viral Replication in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambhi, Sharan K.; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Ramshaw, Ian A.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-α. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-α during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo.

  14. Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Ivan; de Miranda, Joachim R; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wäckers, Felix; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) together with Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Kashmir bee virus (KBV) constitute a complex of closely related dicistroviruses. They are infamous for their high mortality after injection in honeybees. These viruses have also been reported in non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators such as bumblebees, which got infected with IAPV when placed in the same greenhouse with IAPV infected honeybee hives. Here we orally infected Bombus terrestris workers with different doses of either IAPV or KBV viral particles. The success of the infection was established by analysis of the bumblebees after the impact studies: 50days after infection. Doses of 0.5×10(7) and 1×10(7) virus particles per bee were infectious over this period, for IAPV and KBV respectively, while a dose of 0.5×10(6) IAPV particles per bee was not infectious. The impact of virus infection was studied in micro-colonies consisting of 5 bumblebees, one of which becomes a pseudo-queen which proceeds to lay unfertilized (drone) eggs. The impact parameters studied were: the establishment of a laying pseudo-queen, the timing of egg-laying, the number of drones produced, the weight of these drones and worker mortality. In this setup KBV infection resulted in a significant slower colony startup and offspring production, while only the latter can be reported for IAPV. Neither virus increased worker mortality, at the oral doses used. We recommend further studies on how these viruses transmit between different pollinator species. It is also vital to understand how viral prevalence can affect wild bee populations because disturbance of the natural host-virus association may deteriorate the already critically endangered status of many bumblebee species. PMID:25004171

  15. Effect of Antiviral Therapy on Hepatitis C Virus Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ghulam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus associated glome-rulopathy, we studied 30 patients with HCV-associated glomerulopathy at Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from June 2004 to February 2007. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN was the commonest kidney lesion, being reported in 25/30 (83%, followed by membra-nous glomerulonephritis (MGN in 3/30 (10% and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesGN in 2/30 (7%. Cryoglobulinaemia was positive in 8/20 (40% cases. Most common HCV genotype was 3a. All the patients received interferon alpha combined with ribavirin therapy for 6-12 months based on viral genotypes and doses were adjusted according to renal function. Anti-viral response was achieved in the form of aviremia at completion of 6 months treatment in 8/30 (26.6%, decreased transaminases levels from a mean of 96.4 ± 72.2 to 60.1 ± 44.3 IU/L, p= 0.005, 24-hour proteinuria decreased significantly from a mean of 4.8 g to 1.20 g, p= 0.001, and complement C3 and C4 concentrations returned to normal in those subjects who responded to treatment. The rate of relapse was 50%. We conclude that though the overall antiviral response of HCV was not high, there was a significant reduction in proteinuria suggesting indirectly an improvement in renal patho-logy. Further studies with large number of patients with follow-up renal biopsies are warranted.

  16. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  17. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golo, Patrícia S; Gardner, Dale R; Grilley, Michelle M; Takemoto, Jon Y; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Pires, Marcus S; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods. PMID:25127450

  18. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Souvika; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2011-12-01

    An improved method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea was developed employing both sonication and vacuum infiltration treatments. 4 day-old cotyledonary nodes were used as explants for co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pSouv-cry1Ac. Among the different injury treatments, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, sonication for 20 s followed by vacuum infiltration for 5 min with A. tumefaciens resulted in highest transient GUS expression efficiency (93% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were cultured in 150 mg/l kanamycin-containing selection medium and putative transformed plants were recovered. The presence, integration and expression of nptII and cry1Ac genes in T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genomic Southern and qualitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. Western blot hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected and demonstrated the accumulation of Cry1Ac protein in transgenic plants. The cry1Ac gene transmitted in a Mendelian fashion. The stable transformation efficiency increased by 88.4% using both sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) and vacuum infiltration than simple Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in cowpea.

  19. Yield and productivity components of cowpea varieties in micro-region of Cariri Paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The State of Paraíba is the largest producer in the Northeast of cowpea, with great importance for the socioeconomic system of production of family farming becoming in food energy and source of income. However, the production of are low, depending on the use of productive low-capacity varieties planted in a successive year. In view of these considerations, it was evaluated the performance of varieties of cowpea under climate-soil conditions of micro-region of Cariri Oriental Paraibano. The experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions in the site Barbosa, at São João Cariri council, Brazil in the period April to July, 2008. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 4 treatments (Varieties EPACE-10, Cariri, Galanjão and Canapu in five replicates. Each plot was formed by four rows of 5 meters long (20 m2, where collected the two central rows useful. The variety EPACE-10 showed improved productivity and productive behavior in relation to the materials traditionally grown by farmers in the region. The incorporation of this variety in the system of family farming is of great importance to the economy of the rural producer in terms of productivity and capacity for adaptation to low rainfall of rain.

  20. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  1. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  2. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of disodium cromoglycate on influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidari, Kazuya I P J; Tsujii, Eisaku; Hiroi, Jun; Mano, Eriko; Miyatake, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Daisei; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2004-06-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is one of the safest drugs for the prevention of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis attacks. The effect of DSCG on acute upper respiratory tract viral infection is still controversial. Here we investigated DSCG inhibition of influenza virus infection in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects of DSCG on viral infection were assessed using a murine model of respiratory tract infection. Intranasal administration of DSCG protected mice from death induced by infection with influenza virus A/PR/8/34. We analyzed DSCG anti-viral effects in vitro by either (i) treating cells prior to viral adsorption, (ii) treating cells concurrently with viral adsorption, or (iii) treating cells after viral adsorption. DSCG treatment of cells during or after, but not before, viral adsorption significantly inhibited influenza viral infection, indicating DSCG acts on events late in viral infection. DSCG exerts anti-influenza effect both in vitro and in vivo at the doses compatible with treatment for asthma. DSCG marginally inhibited influenza viral neuraminidase and membrane fusion functions, suggesting that DSCG inhibition of viral neuraminidase and fusion activities may partially mediate this anti-influenza effect. Our results indicate that treatment of patients including children with DSCG may take advantages for prevention from influenza virus infection. PMID:15187427

  3. Evaluation antiviral effect of leaf extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell cultur

    OpenAIRE

    G Yousefi Kordestani; M Parsania

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Herpes simplex virus type I belongs to herpesviridae. Several studies are ongoing for achieve a drug with good effectiveness and lower side effects, because the incidence of infections caused by this virus is increasing and there is some HSV resistance in the world. In this study, anti-viral effects of rosemary extract against of HSV was evaluated in cell culture. Material and methods: At first the rosemary extract toxicity on Hela cells with trypan blue and MTT methods has been ...

  4. Pentacyclic triterpenes grafted on CD cores to interfere with influenza virus entry: A dramatic multivalent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sulong; Si, Longlong; Tian, Zhenyu; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Meng, Kun; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Han, Xu; Fu, Ge; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin

    2016-02-01

    Multivalent effect plays an important role in biological processes, particularly in the specific recognition of virus with its host cell during the first step of infection. Here we report the synthesis of multivalent pentacyclic triterpene grafted on cyclodextrin core and potency of against influenza entry activity. Nine star-shaped compounds containing six, seven and eight pentacyclic triterpene pharmacophore on cyclodextrin scaffold were prepared by way of copper-catalyzed azide-alkyl cycloaddition reaction under microwave activation. Some of the multimers exhibited much potent antiviral activity against H1N1 virus (A/WSN/33), even equivalent or superior to oseltamivir. The most active compound 31, a heptavalent oleanolic acid-β-cyclodextrin conjugate, shows an up to 125-fold potency enhancement by its IC50 value over the corresponding monovalent conjugate and oleanolic acid, disclosing a clear multivalent effect. Further studies show that three compounds 31-33 exhibited broad spectrum inhibitory activity against other two human influenza A/JX/312 (H3N2) and A/HN/1222 (H3N2) viruses with the IC50 values at 2.47-14.90 μM. Most importantly, we found that compound 31, one of the best representative conjugate, binds tightly to the viral envelope hemagglutinin with a dissociation constant of KD = 2.08 μM, disrupting the interaction of hemagglutinin with the sialic acid receptor and thus the attachment of viruses to host cells. Our study might establish a strategy for the design of new pharmaceutical agents based on multivalency so as to block influenza virus entry into host cells. PMID:26686050

  5. Effect of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein G on virus attachment, penetration, growth curve and direct cell-to-cell spread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhaogang; ZHANG Manfu

    2005-01-01

    The secreted alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein G (gG) works differently from other proteins. Analysis of the role of ILTV gG in virus attachment, penetration, direct cell-to-cell spread (CTCS) and the growth curve showed that gG or its antibody had no effect on ILTV attachment and penetration and that the gG antibody reduced the virus plaque size and the one-step growth curve on chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells, but gG did not affect the virus plaque size or the one-step growth curve on CEL cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) detection showed that ILTV gG is located in the perinuclear region and the membrane of the CEL cells. These results suggested that ILTV gG might contribute to direct cell-to-cell transmission.

  6. Deficiency of caspase 3 in tumor xenograft impairs therapeutic effect of measles virus Edmoston strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Yan, Xu; Guo, Qingguo; Li, Yan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xie, Ji Sheng; Meng, Xin

    2015-06-30

    The oncolytic measles virus Edmonston (MV-Edm) strain shows considerable oncolytic activity against a variety of human tumors. In this study, we report MV-Edm is able to trigger apoptosis pathways in infected tumor cells and elucidate the roles of cellular apoptosis in the whole oncolytic process. We also show that activated caspase 3, a key executioner of apoptosis, plays key roles in the oncolytic virotherapy. Activated caspase 3 can accelerate viral replication in cervical cancer cells and enhance the killing effects of the virus. Deficiency of caspase 3 either in tumor cells or in tumor xenograft significantly desensitized tumor to oncolysis with MV-Edm. In the infected cells, caspase 3 regulates interferon α release, which can inhibit viral replication in neighboring tumor cells. We propose that caspase-3 activation enhances the oncolytic effects of MV-Edm, thus inhibiting tumor growth in mice. PMID:25909216

  7. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tolulope A Agunbiade; Weilin Sun; Coates, Brad S; Rousseau Djouaka; Manuele Tamò; Ba, Malick N; Clementine Binso-Dabire; Ibrahim Baoua; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrip...

  8. Growth and yield response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) to soils from different fallow physiognomies in the rainforest zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samson Olajide OKE; Eyitayo, Damilola Lanre

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedlings to soil collected from four fallows of different physiognomy. Seedlings of cowpea weregrown from seeds on soil samples collected from the four different fallow statuses(Panicum maximum-dominated fallow soil, Chromolaena odorata-dominated fallow soil,Tithonia spp.-dominated fallow soil and bush fallow soil that contains many herbaceousplant species) in plastic containers each having fifteen replicates. Among...

  9. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis Lars G; Gao Lingling; Singh Karam B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australia...

  10. Larval Temperature-Food Effects on Adult Mosquito Infection and Vertical Transmission of Dengue-1 Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Eva A; Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L Philip

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history and population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus life history and DENV-1 infection and vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny and DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature and food affected number of progeny and DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny and this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low and high food led to the highest (∼90%) and lowest (∼65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (∼75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature and food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission and a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology. PMID:26489999

  11. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  12. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  13. Ameliorating Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. The lack of proper prophylactics and therapeutics for controlling hRSV infection has been of great concern worldwide. Xylitol is a well-known sugar substitute and its effect against bacteria in the oral cavity is well known. However, little is known of its effect on viral infections. In this study, the effect of dietary xylitol on hRSV infection was investigated in a mouse model for the first time. Mice received xylitol for 14 d prior to virus challenge and for a further 3 d post challenge. Significantly larger reductions in lung virus titers were observed in the mice receiving xylitol than in the controls receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, fewer CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes, whose numbers reflect inflammatory status, were recruited in the mice receiving xylitol. These results indicate that dietary xylitol can ameliorate hRSV infections and reduce inflammation-associated immune responses to hRSV infection. PMID:27040626

  14. The effects of monitoring the abundance and species composition of aphids as virus vectors on seed potato production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are the most important vectors of potato viruses during the crop’s growing season. The most widespread and damaging viruses, the potato virus Y and potato leaf roll virus, are transmitted by aphids in non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively. The two viruses cause the greatest concern of potato producers and a great constraint to seed potato production in Serbia, the region and across the world. Potato virus Y is particularly harmful, given its distribution and spreading rate. Seed potato production systems under well-managed conditions involve a series of virus control measures, including the monitoring of outbreaks of winged aphids, their abundance and species composition, in order to forecast virosis, i.e. potential plant and tuber infection periods. Monitoring the aphid vectors of potato viruses enables determination of optimum dates for haulm destruction when higher than normal numbers of winged aphids as vectors of economically harmful diseases have been observed. Haulm destruction in a potato crop reduces the risk of plant infection and virus translocation from the aboveground parts to tubers, thus keeping the proportion of infected tubers within tolerance limits allowed for certain categories of seed potatoes. This practice has positive effects if used in combination with other viral disease control measures; otherwise, it becomes ineffective. This paper provides an integral analysis of the effects and role of monitoring outbreaks of aphids, their abundance and species composition in timing haulm growth termination to prevent plant infection, virus translocation and tuber infestation in potato crops in Serbia and the wider region.

  15. Effects of single and double infections with Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus on disease development, plant growth, and virus accumulation in tomato Efeito de infecções simples e dupla com Potato virus X e Tobacco mosaic virus sobre o desenvolvimento da doença, crescimento da planta e acumulação de vírus em tomate

    OpenAIRE

    OLUSEGUN S. BALOGUN; LEIXIN XU; TOHRU TERAOKA; DAIJIRO HOSOKAWA

    2002-01-01

    The tomato cv. Fukuju nº. 2 was used for studying the effect of single and double infections with Potato virus X (PVX) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Mixed infection resulted in a synergistic increase of disease severity, where more growth reduction was seen with simultaneous inoculations than with sequential inoculations at four-day intervals. At five and 12 days post-inoculation, the increased severity of the disease coincided with enhancement of virus accumulation in the rapidly expanding...

  16. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is an Effective and Non—perturbing Vector for Human Dendritic Cells Transfected with Epstein—Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继军; 姚Kun; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of dendritic cells(DC) transfected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) latent membrane protein 2A(LMP2A) gene,and to provide evidence for further investigation on the therapeutic uaccines against EBV-associated malignancies.Methods Mature DC were transfected with EVB-LMP2A recombinant vaccinia virus(rVV-LMP2A).Before and after the transfection,the expression of surface antigens on mature DC including CD1a,CD83,CD40,CD80,HLA-DR was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorter(FACS) and the function of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation was measured by mixed leukocyte reactions(MLR).Results LMP2A protein was highly expressed (66.1%) in DC after the transfection of rVV-LMP2A.No significant changes in the primary surface antigens expression and in the MLR were detected during the transfection.Transfected DC still had strong potential in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells.Conclusion Recombinant vaccinia virus was an effective and non-perturbing vector to mediate the transfection of LMP2A into DC.The functions of mature DC were not affected significantly by the transfection of Vac-LMP2A.This study could provide evidence for the further immunotherapy of EBV-associated malignancies,e.g.nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC).

  17. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is an Effective and Non-perturbing Vector for Human Dendritic Cells Transfected with Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继军; 姚堃; 彭光勇; 谢芳艺; 丁传林; 朱建中; 秦健

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the effects of dendritic cells (DC) transfected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A(LMP2A) gene,and to provide evidence for further investigation on the therapeutic vaccines against EBV-associated malignancies.MethodsMature DC were transfected with EBV-LMP2A recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV-LMP2A).Before and after the transfection,the expression of surface antigens on mature DC including CD1a,CD83,CD40,CD80,HLA-DR was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) and the function of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation was measured by mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR).ResultsLMP2A protein was highly expressed (66.1%) in DC after the transfection of rVV-LMP2A.No significant changes in the primary surface antigens expression and in the MLR were detected during the transfection.Transfected DC still had strong potential in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells.ConclusionRecombinant vaccinia virus was an effective and non-perturbing vector to mediate the transfection of LMP2A into DC.The functions of mature DC were not affected significantly by the transfection of Vac-LMP2A.This study could provide evidence for the further immunotherapy of EBV-associated malignancies,e.g.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).``

  18. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado

  19. Effective chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine produced in insect cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.

  20. Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes. PMID:24067450

  1. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  2. Distribution of the phenotypic effects of random homologous recombination between two virus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Vuillaume

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recombination has an evident impact on virus evolution and emergence of new pathotypes, and has generated an immense literature. However, the distribution of phenotypic effects caused by genome-wide random homologous recombination has never been formally investigated. Previous data on the subject have promoted the implicit view that most viral recombinant genomes are likely to be deleterious or lethal if the nucleotide identity of parental sequences is below 90%. We decided to challenge this view by creating a bank of near-random recombinants between two viral species of the genus Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae exhibiting 82% nucleotide identity, and by testing infectivity and in planta accumulation of recombinant clones randomly extracted from this bank. The bank was created by DNA-shuffling-a technology initially applied to the random shuffling of individual genes, and here implemented for the first time to shuffle full-length viral genomes. Together with our previously described system allowing the direct cloning of full-length infectious geminivirus genomes, it provided a unique opportunity to generate hundreds of "mosaic" virus genomes, directly testable for infectivity. A subset of 47 randomly chosen recombinants was sequenced, individually inoculated into tomato plants, and compared with the parental viruses. Surprisingly, our results showed that all recombinants were infectious and accumulated at levels comparable or intermediate to that of the parental clones. This indicates that, in our experimental system, despite the fact that the parental genomes differ by nearly 20%, lethal and/or large deleterious effects of recombination are very rare, in striking contrast to the common view that has emerged from previous studies published on other viruses.

  3. Ozone phytotoxicity in relation to stress ethylene evolution and stomatal resistance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adepipe, N.O.; Tingey, D.T.

    1979-01-01

    In greenhouse experiments, the ozone sensitivities of three cowpea cultivars differing in growth habits and some physiological traits were determined and related to stress ethylene production and leaf diffusive resistance. The cultivars were more sensitive at the 3-leaf than at the 2-leaf stages of growth. There was no consistent leaf injury at less than 0.50 ..mu..l/l of ozone for 2 hr. At an ozone concentration of 1.0 ..mu..l/l for 2 hr. the cultivar Adzuki exhibited marked leaf injury, amounting to over 80% symptom coverage of the leaf surface while New Era and Ife Brown sustained leaf injury maxima of 58 and 35% respectively. Stress ethylene production did not differ among the cultivars. While ozone increased stomatal diffusive resistance in all cultivars, there were not significant differences among the cultivars.

  4. Genetic divergence in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] for yield components and seed quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaiah M, Jhansi Rani K, Sunil N and Keshavulu K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty cowpea genotypes were evaluated for 18 quantitative characters to estimate the genetic diversity existing among them by using Mahalanobis D2statistics. The genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The cluster strength varied from single genotype (Clusters III, IV and V to 25 genotypes (Cluster I. Clusteres IV and VI had high inter cluster distance. Clusters II, III and I had maximum 100-seed weight, number of seeds per pod and seed yield respectively. Cluster IV had maximum seedling vigour index, germination per cent, peduncle length, number of clusters per plant and number of primary branches. The genotypes from clusters IV and IV may be inter crossed to obtain high variation.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feride; Aylin; Kantarci; Ali; Reza; Faraji; Aykut; Ozkul; Fikret; Akata

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).·METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney(MDBK) cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus(BHV1) type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane(V-HAM),acyclovir(V-A), and amniotic membrane and acyclovir(V-HAM-A) were applied to these subgroup cultures,respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48 h for cytopathic effect positive(CPE +) with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE(+) samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.·RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures.CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold(Ct) values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group(amniotic membrane group < acyclovir group < membrane and acyclovir group). This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated thatmembrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug.·CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides,we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture.However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  6. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  7. Induction of tolerance to water stress in the cowpea seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Agostini Colman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies in several species have been conducted under conditions of water stress. However, the germination and young seedlings, there are few studies aimed at developing techniques that seek a future tolerance and acclimation of plants to water stress. Given the above, the objective of this study was to simulate drought stress on seed germination of cowpea and evaluate the thermal shock applied during hydration can lead to culture to acquire stress tolerance. Seeds were subjected to the process of soaking and remained in BOD at 25ºC for 24 hours. After this part has been kept at this temperature part and transferred to the thermal shock to 7°C for 24 hours. Both plots that have gone through shock, as the others were transferred to the substrate moistened with mannitol at concentrations of 0, 22.29, 44.58, 66.87 and 89.17 g L-1, simulating the osmotic potential of 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa in BOD at 25ºC. Were evaluated: germination, speed of germination, abnormal seedlings, shoot length, primary root length, total length and relative seedling root/shoot. The best performance in germination was obtained by the seeds that passed hrough the thermal shock to 7ºC for 24 hours, which allows us to affirm that there was an induction of cross-tolerance and that this can be activated at the beginning of the imbibition in seeds of cowpea.

  8. Traits for Screening and Selection of Cowpea Genotypes for Drought Tolerance at Early Stages of Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kumar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of leaf water content with yield-attributes such as pod setting and number of pods/plant and seed yield in cowpea was examined using midday drop of leaf relative water content (RWC determined from morning (800 h and midday (1330 h measurements of RWC. Midday drop of RWC was significantly correlated to pod setting ratio (R2 = 0.80, P < 0.01, number of pods/plant (R2 = 0.87, P < 0.01 and seed yield (R2 = 0.37, P < 0.05. There was a significant genotypic variation for leaf water potential (LWP at 800 and 1330 h and for RWC at 1330 h. Significant genotypic differences were also observed in pod setting ratio, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight, biomass and seed yield. Pod setting ratio was significantly and positively correlated with number of pods/plant (R2 = 0.80, P < 0.01 and seed yield (R2 = 0.38, P < 0.05. These results showed that the genotypes with a smaller reduction in midday drop of RWC produced a larger number of pods/plant and consequently had higher seed yield as compared with a larger midday drop of RWC. The results also showed that there was a large genotypic variation in the midday drop of RWC, which was correlated with yield-attributes and seed yield. It may therefore be possible to use midday drop of RWC as a screening and selection trait for drought tolerance of cowpea genotypes.

  9. Effects of hepatitis B virus infection on human sperm chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Huang; Tian-Hua Huang; Huan-Ying Qiu; Xiao-Wu Fang; Tian-Gang Zhuang; Hong-Xi Liu; Yong-Hua Wang; Li-Zhi Deng; Jie-Wen Qiu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the level of sperm chromosome aberrations in male patients with hepatitis B, and to directly detect whether there are HBV DNA integrations in sperm chromosomes of hepatitis B patients.METHODS: Sperm chromosomes of 14 tested subjects (5healthy controls, 9 patients with HBV infection, including 1with acute hepatitis B, 2 with chronic active hepatitis B, 4with chronic persistent hepatitis B, 2 chronic HBsAg carriers with no clinical symptoms) were prepared using interspecific in vitro fertilization between zona-free golden hamster ova and human spermatozoa, and the frequencies of aberration spermatozoa were compared between subjects of HBV infection and controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to sperm chromosome spreads was carried out with biotin-labeled full length HBV DNA probe to detect the specific HBV DNA sequences in the sperm chromosomes.RESULTS: The total frequency of sperm chromosome aberrations in HBV infection group (14.8%, 33/223) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%,5/116). Moreover, the sperm chromosomes in HBV infection patients commonly presented stickiness, clumping, failure to staining, etc, which would affect the analysis of sperm chromosomes. Specific fluorescent signal spots for HBV DNA were seen in sperm chromosomes of one patient with chronic persistent hepatitis. In 9 (9/42) sperm chromosome complements containing fluorescent signal spots, one presented 5 obvious FISH spots, others presented 2 to 4signals. There was significant difference of fluorescence intensity among the signal spots. The distribution of signal sites among chromosomes was random.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can bring about mutagenic effects on sperm chromosomes. Integrations of viral DNA into sperm chromosomes which are multisites and nonspecific, can further increase the instability of sperm chromosomes. This study suggested that HBV infection can create extensively hereditary effects by alteration genetic constituent and

  10. Effect of Pregnancy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Intracellular Interleukin-2 Production Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Madeline Y.; Holland, Bart; Thomas N Denny; Garcia, Ambrosia; Garcia, Zenaida; Stein, Dana; Arlene D. Bardeguez

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection decreases the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Recombinant IL-2 (rIl-2) has been given to HIV-infected individuals to generate significant increases in CD4+ T-cell counts. There are limited data regarding the effects of pregnancy and HIV infection on IL-2 production in humans. To investigate the effects of human pregnancy, HIV infection, and HIV therapy on IL-2 production, we evaluated 61 women. Intracellular ...

  11. In vitro effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Christian; Pinilla, Vicente; Provost, Chantale; Segura, Mariela; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

    2014-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. Among monogastric farm animals, swine are the most susceptible to DON as it markedly reduces feed intake and decreases weight gain. DON has also been shown to increase susceptibility to viral infections; therefore the objective of this study was to investigate in vitro impact of DON on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Permissive cells were infected or not with PRRSV and were treated with increasing concentrations of DON. Cell survival and mortality were evaluated by determining the number of viable cells with a tetrazolium compound and by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, respectively. Virus titration and antiviral cytokines mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative PCR. DON significantly affected the survival of noninfected cells in a dose dependent manner. However, DON concentrations between 140 and 280 significantly increased the survival of cells infected with PRRSV. These concentrations significantly decreased PRRSV replication by inducing a pro-inflammatory cytokines environment and an early activation of apoptosis, which in turn seem to interrupt viral replication. For the first time, this study showed that DON had significant effects on the survival of PRRSV infected cells and on virus replication, in a dose dependent manner.

  12. Effective virus inactivation and removal by steps of Biotest Pharmaceuticals IGIV production process

    OpenAIRE

    Dichtelmüller, Herbert O.; Flechsig, Eckhard; Sananes, Frank; Kretschmar, Michael; Dougherty, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The virus validation of three steps of Biotest Pharmaceuticals IGIV production process is described here. The steps validated are precipitation and removal of fraction III of the cold ethanol fractionation process, solvent/detergent treatment and 35 nm virus filtration. Virus validation was performed considering combined worst case conditions. By these validated steps sufficient virus inactivation/removal is achieved, resulting in a virus safe product.

  13. Heartland Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  14. Optimising functional properties during preparation of cowpea protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René; Mbome, Israël Lape

    2014-07-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modelisation and optimisation of protein extraction parameters in order to obtain a protein concentrate with high functional properties. A central composite rotatable design of experiments was used to investigate the effects of two factors, namely pH and NaCl concentration, on six responses: water solubility index (WSI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil holding capacity (OHC), emulsifying activity (EA), emulsifying stability (ES) and foam ability (FA). The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation showed that the second-order polynomial model was appropriate to fit experimental data. The optimum condition was: pH 8.43 and NaCl concentration 0.25M, and under this condition WSI was ⩾17.20%, WAC⩾383.62%, OHC⩾1.75g/g, EA⩾0.15, ES⩾19.76min and FA⩾66.30%. The suitability of the model employed was confirmed by the agreement between the experimental and predicted values for functional properties.

  15. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  16. Effective Thermophilic Composting of Crop Residues for Inactivation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective thermophilic composting bioreactor, in which a homogenous distribution of temperature was maintained at 63-65°C by the addition of a bioavailable carbon and low mixing, was developed. The bioreactor operated on a mixture of tomato plant residues-wood shavings-municipal solid waste compost infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. The initial C: N ratio and moisture content of the compost mixture were adjusted to 30:1 and 60%, respectively. The composting process was successful in destroying the tobacco mosaic virus. The results showed that the ability of the untreated virus (inoculum to infect tobacco plants (150 LL L-1 was much higher than its ability to infect tomato plants (22 LL L-1. The TMV completely lost its ability to infect the leaves of susceptible hosts (tobacco and tomato plants after 96 hrs of controlled thermophilic (63-65°C composting (or 126 h from the start of the composting process. Semilog plots of the ratio of the infection ability of the surviving virus to that of the initial inoculum (as measured by the number of local lesions were developed. The decimal reduction time (the time necessary to reduce the infection ability of TMV by 1-log or 90% was found to be 62.4 and 109.7 hrs for tobacco and tomato plants, respectively. The relatively short time required for complete inactivation of TMV in this study was achieved as a result of the extension of the thermophilic stage and maintaining a constant high temperature with a uniform temperature distribution by the continuous addition of the proper amount of bioavailable carbon (used cooking oil and low mixing.

  17. Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Amber M [UNIV OF UTAH; Adler, Frederick R [UNIV OF UTAH; Mcauley, Julie L [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH; Mccullers, Jonathan A [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alters viral polymerase activity in vitro, and produces enhanced inflammation and increased secondary pneumonia in vivo. However, the effects the PB1-F2 protein have in vivo remain unclear. To address the mechanisms involved, we intranasally infected groups of mice with either influenza A virus PR8 or a genetically engineered virus that expresses the 1918 PB1-F2 protein on a PR8 background, PR8-PB1-F2(1918). Mice inoculated with PR8 had viral concentrations peaking at 72 hours, while those infected with PR8-PB1-F2(1918) reached peak concentrations earlier, 48 hours. Mice given PR8-PB1-F2(1918) also showed a faster decline in viral loads. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate parameter values and select the best model. This model supports a lower viral clearance rate and higher infected cell death rate with the PR8-PB1-F2(1918) virus, although the viral production rate may also be higher. We hypothesize that the higher PR8-PB1-F2(1918) viral titers early in an infection are due to both an increase in viral production with decreased viral clearance, and that the faster decline in the later stages of infection result from elevated cell death rates. We discuss the implications these mechanisms have during an infection with a virus expressing a virulent PBI-F2 on the possibility of a pandemic and on the importance of antiviral treatments.

  18. Virus susceptibility and clinical effectiveness of anti-influenza drugs during the 2010–2011 influenza season in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Leneva; E.I. Burtseva; S.B. Yatsyshina; I.T. Fedyakina; E.S. Kirillova; E.P. Selkova; Osipova, E.; V. V. Maleev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antiviral drugs are critical adjuncts to influenza vaccination. This study determined the in vitro susceptibilities of influenza A and B viruses isolated in the 2010–2011 season in Russia to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir and the hemagglutinin fusion inhibitor umifenovir and clinical efficacy of this antiviral drugs in this season. Methods: The antiviral potency of these drugs against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in mice was assessed. Importantly, the clinical effectiveness of o...

  19. Glycoprotein Exchange Vectors Based on Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Allow Effective Boosting and Generation of Neutralizing Antibodies to a Primary Isolate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Nina F.; Roberts, Anjeanette; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, John K.

    2000-01-01

    Live recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) expressing foreign antigens are highly effective vaccine vectors. However, these vectors induce high-titer neutralizing antibody directed at the single VSV glycoprotein (G), and this antibody alone can prevent reinfection and boosting with the same vector. To determine if efficient boosting could be achieved by changing the G protein of the vector, we have developed two new recombinant VSV vectors based on the VSV Indiana serotype but with ...

  20. Differentiation of aecidiospore-and uredospore-derived infection structures on cowpea leaves and on artificial surfaces by Uromyces vignae

    OpenAIRE

    Stark-Urnau, Martina; Mendgen, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    Aecidiospores and uredospores are the two dikaryotic spore fonus of the cowpea rust fungus Uromyees vignae. After germination they can be induced to develop a series of infection structures including appressoria, infection hyphae, and haustorial mother cells. Haustoria are then fonned within host cells. The differentiation of infection structures was compared on polystyrene membranes with defined topographies, on-scratched polyethylene membranes, and in ·planta. On polystyrene membranes with ...

  1. Exploratory and multidisciplinary survey of the cowpea network in the Tolon-Kumbungu district of Ghana: A food sovereignty perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Madode, Y.E.E.; Abizari, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    An exploratory survey of selected deprived communities in the Tolon-Kumbungu district of northern region of Ghana was conducted in August 2007 by a multi-disciplinary team of social scientist, food technologist, plant breeder and food nutritionist. The survey sought to identify with farmers their critical agronomic needs and production constraints in order to develop appropriate breeding strategies, as well as cowpea varietal preference for improved processing technology development. A rural ...

  2. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  3. Rotação cultural feijão caupi/milho utilizando-se águas de salinidades diferentes Cowpea/corn crop rotation utilizing waters of different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karine Paiva Bezerra

    2010-05-01

    0.8 (T1, 2.2 (T2, 3.6 (T3 and 5.0dS m-1 (T4. In the first crop with cowpea (dry season the space used was 0.8m between rows and 0.3m between plants, with two plants per hole. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of corn (rainy season, using a spacing between rows of 0.8m and 0.2m between plants and one plant per hole. During the trial period, the chemical properties of soil, plant growth, productivity and partitioning of dry matter were evaluated. The use of saline water during cultivation of the cowpea in the dry season increased the salinity and sodicity of the soil, which reduced the growth and productivity of cowpea. High rainfall before and during the cultivation of corn eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity in this crop. The high yield of crops and the relatively small alteration in the salt content of the soil suggest the feasibility of using cowpea/corn crop rotation under conditions similar to this study.

  4. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  5. Assessment of average exposure to organochlorine pesticides in southern Togo from water, maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawussi, G; Sanda, K; Merlina, G; Pinelli, E

    2009-03-01

    Drinking water, cowpea and maize grains were sampled in some potentially exposed agro-ecological areas in Togo and analysed for their contamination by some common organochlorine pesticides. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides were investigated in ten subsamples of maize, ten subsamples of cowpea and nine subsamples of drinking water. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of pesticides were also determined. Pesticides residues in drinking water (0.04-0.40 microg l(-1)) were higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.03 microg l(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan levels (13.16-98.79 microg kg(-1)) in cowpea grains exceeded MRLs applied in France (10-50 microg kg(-1)). Contaminants' levels in maize grains (0.53-65.70 microg kg(-1)) were below the MRLs (20-100 microg kg(-1)) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the WHO. EDIs of the tested pesticides ranged from 0.02% to 162.07% of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Population exposure levels of dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide were higher than the FAO/WHO standards. A comprehensive national monitoring programme on organochlorine pesticides should be undertaken to include such other relevant sources like meat, fish, eggs and milk. PMID:19680908

  6. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens. PMID:26318004

  7. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens.

  8. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies. PMID:27294950

  9. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, Michael B; Heimbuch, Brian K; Brown, Teanne L; Wander, Joseph D; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are recommended for use as precautions against airborne pathogenic microorganisms; however, during pandemics demand for FFRs may far exceed availability. Reuse of FFRs following decontamination has been proposed but few reported studies have addressed the feasibility. Concerns regarding biocidal efficacy, respirator performance post decontamination, decontamination cost, and user safety have impeded adoption of reuse measures. This study examined the effectiveness of three energetic decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), microwave-generated steam, and moist heat] on two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 FFRs (3M models 1860s and 1870) contaminated with H5N1. An aerosol settling chamber was used to apply virus-laden droplets to FFRs in a method designed to simulate respiratory deposition of droplets onto surfaces. When FFRs were examined post decontamination by viral culture, all three decontamination methods were effective, reducing virus load by > 4 log median tissue culture infective dose. Analysis of treated FFRs using a quantitative molecular amplification assay (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) indicated that UVGI decontamination resulted in lower levels of detectable viral RNA than the other two methods. Filter performance was evaluated before and after decontamination using a 1% NaCl aerosol. As all FFRs displayed <5% penetration by 300-nm particles, no profound reduction in filtration performance was caused in the FFRs tested by exposure to virus and subsequent decontamination by the methods used. These findings indicate that, when properly implemented, these methods effectively decontaminate H5N1 on the two FFR models tested and do not drastically affect their filtering function; however, other considerations may influence decisions to reuse FFRs.

  10. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNAval Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies

  11. The effect of lipopolysaccharide-induced obesity and its chronic inflammation on influenza virus-related pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun-Young; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Park, Hye-Lim; Park, Yong-Wook; Kim, Hun; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Obese individuals show increased susceptibility to infection, low vaccine efficacy, and worse pathophysiology. However, it is unclear how obesity affects these events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity-triggered chronic inflammation on immune cells after influenza virus infection. Control and lipopolysaccharide mice, in which an osmotic pump continually released Tween saline or lipopolysaccharide, were prepared and 3 weeks later were infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus. In lipopolysaccharide mice, we found a reduction in macrophage activation markers in the steady state, and reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, in restimulated peritoneal macrophages. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide-triggered chronic inflammation exacerbated the severity of pathological symptoms in the lungs after challenge with influenza virus. Taken together, the increased severity of virus-induced symptoms in obese individuals with chronic inflammation may be, at least partially, caused by macrophage dysfunction.

  12. Effect of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection on Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Regulation of Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchida, Tomoko; Matsuse, Hiroto; Fukahori, Susumu; Kawano, Tetsuya; Tomari, Shinya; Fukushima, Chizu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can infect myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and regulate their function in the development of allergy. It has been widely reported that plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) play a critical role in antiviral innate immunity. In contrast, not much is known about the role of pDCs in the interaction between allergy and viral infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of RSV infection on pDC function in the regulation of allergic airway...

  13. Inhibitory effect of Newcastle disease virus on hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-lin LI

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the inhibitory effect of Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Methods Liver fibrosis model was reproduced in 30 Kunming mice by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4/peanut oil solution for 2 times a week, and the total treatment lasted for 8 weeks. Three days after last injection, NDV was injected through tail vein for 1 or 3 times (24h intervals). Twenty-four hours after NDV infusion, mice were sacrificed and the livers were removed for gro...

  14. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal

  15. How did hepatitis B virus effect the host genome in the last decade?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar; Ozkal-Baydin

    2014-01-01

    The principal reason of chronic liver disease,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is chronic viral hepatitis all over the world.Hepatitis B virus(HBV)has some mutagenic effects on the host genome.HBV may be exhibiting these mutagenic effects through integrating into the host genome,through its viral proteins or through some epigenetic mechanisms related with HBV proteins.This review aims to summarize the molecular mechanisms used by HBV for effecting host genome determined in the last decade.The focus will be on the effects of integration,HBV proteins,especially HBV X protein and epigenetic mechanisms on the host genome.These interactions between HBV and the host genome also forms the underlying mechanisms of the evolution of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu ZUO; Jinghui FAN; Huixia FAN; Tanqing LI; Xiaobo ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the causative agent of acute diarrhea of new-born piglets that provokes high mortality rates in affected farms. In this study, specific immunoglobulin from egg yolk against TGEV was produced by immunization of White leghorn hens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) test revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase on the tenth day post-immunization, reached its peak on the eighth week, and remained at a high level until the last week that we tested. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was investigated in piglets. IgY was found effective to increase piglets sur-vival rate significantly after challenge exposures in pro-phylactic efficacy analysis. The therapeutic effects test revealed that the mortality was dramatically reduced by orally administered IgY. All these results in our study indicated that IgY specific to TGEV could be an alterna-tive prophylactic method like colostral antibodies against TGEV in piglets.

  17. Effects of interferon-tau on cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Junko; Nishikura, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Tajima, Motoshi; Onuma, Misao

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the antiviral effects of bovine interferon-tau (boIFN-tau) on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were examined in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiments, the replication of cytopathic and non-cytopathic BVDV was inhibited in the bovine cells treated with boIFN-tau. The replication of BVDV was completely suppressed by boIFN-tau at a concentration higher than 10(2) U/ml. In order to examine the effect of boIFN-tau on virus propagation in cattle persistently infected (PI) with non-cytopathic BVDV, boIFN-tau was subcutaneously administered to PI cattle at 10(5) U/kg or 10(6) U/kg body weight 5 times per week for 2 weeks. No physical abnormality such as depression was observed in the cattle during the experiment. The mean BVDV titers in the serum of the PI cattle decreased slightly during the boIFN-tau administration period with the dose of 10(6) U/kg. However, the BVDV titers in the serum returned to the pre-administration level after the final boIFN-tau administration. These results suggest that boIFN-tau demonstrates an anti-BVDV effect, reducing the BVDV level in serum transiently when injected into PI cattle.

  18. Different effect of proteasome inhibition on vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Neznanov

    Full Text Available Proteasome activity is an important part of viral replication. In this study, we examined the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and poliovirus. We found that the proteasome inhibitors significantly suppressed VSV protein synthesis, virus accumulation, and protected infected cells from toxic effect of VSV replication. In contrast, poliovirus replication was delayed, but not diminished in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib. We also found that inhibition of proteasomes stimulated stress-related processes, such as accumulation of chaperone hsp70, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and overall inhibition of translation. VSV replication was sensitive to this stress with significant decline in replication process. Poliovirus growth was less sensitive with only delay in replication. Inhibition of proteasome activity suppressed cellular and VSV protein synthesis, but did not reduce poliovirus protein synthesis. Protein kinase GCN2 supported the ability of proteasome inhibitors to attenuate general translation and to suppress VSV replication. We propose that different mechanisms of translational initiation by VSV and poliovirus determine their sensitivity to stress induced by the inhibition of proteasomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study that connects the effect of stress induced by proteasome inhibition with the efficiency of viral infection.

  19. Effect of grazers and viruses on bacterial community structure and production in two contrasting trophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domaizon Isabelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years, extensive studies have revealed the crucial roles played by microbes in aquatic ecosystems. It has been shown that bacteria, viruses and protozoan grazers are dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. The frequent interactions between these microbiological compartments are responsible for strong trophic links from dissolved organic matter to higher trophic levels, via heterotrophic bacteria, which form the basis for the important biogeochemical roles of microbial food webs in aquatic ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of the interactions between bacteria, viruses and flagellates in lacustrine ecosystems, we investigated the effect of protistan bacterivory on bacterial abundance, production and structure [determined by 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE], and viral abundance and activity of two lakes of contrasting trophic status. Four experiments were conducted in the oligotrophic Lake Annecy and the mesotrophic Lake Bourget over two seasons (early spring vs. summer using a fractionation approach. In situ dark vs. light incubations were performed to consider the effects of the different treatments in the presence and absence of phototrophic activity. Results The presence of grazers (i.e. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of a synergistic effect, i.e. the positive influence of grazers on viral activities in sustaining (directly and indirectly bacterial production and affecting composition, in both oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes.

  20. Cowpea N rhizodeposition and its below-ground transfer to a co-existing and to a subsequent millet crop on a sandy soil of the Sudano-Sahelian eco-zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, Guillaume; Haussmann, Bettina I.G.; Ambus, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is potentially a large N source in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted to measure cowpea N rhizodeposition under the conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian zone using direct 15N labelling techniques...

  1. A hepatitis C virus infection model with time-varying drug effectiveness: solution and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Conway

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simple models of therapy for viral diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV or human immunodeficiency virus assume that, once therapy is started, the drug has a constant effectiveness. More realistic models have assumed either that the drug effectiveness depends on the drug concentration or that the effectiveness varies over time. Here a previously introduced varying-effectiveness (VE model is studied mathematically in the context of HCV infection. We show that while the model is linear, it has no closed-form solution due to the time-varying nature of the effectiveness. We then show that the model can be transformed into a Bessel equation and derive an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions, which are defined as infinite series, with time-varying arguments. Fitting the solution to data from HCV infected patients under therapy has yielded values for the parameters in the model. We show that for biologically realistic parameters, the predicted viral decay on therapy is generally biphasic and resembles that predicted by constant-effectiveness (CE models. We introduce a general method for determining the time at which the transition between decay phases occurs based on calculating the point of maximum curvature of the viral decay curve. For the parameter regimes of interest, we also find approximate solutions for the VE model and establish the asymptotic behavior of the system. We show that the rate of second phase decay is determined by the death rate of infected cells multiplied by the maximum effectiveness of therapy, whereas the rate of first phase decline depends on multiple parameters including the rate of increase of drug effectiveness with time.

  2. Salt stress in cowpea plants on biofertilized soil = Estresse salino em plantas de feijão-caupi em solo com fertilizantes orgânicos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizer from animal waste can mitigate the harmful effects of salinity of irrigation water on the plants. This experiment was performed in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Weather Station (Estação Meteorológica, from September to November 2012, aiming at evaluate the response of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. to salinity levels and biofertilizer types in a greenhouse. The experimental design was that of completely randomized, 5x3 factorialwith five replications. The first factor consisted of electrical conductivity of irrigation water levels, as follows: 0.8 dS m-1; 1.5 dS m-1; 3.0 dS m-1; 4.5 dS m-1 and 6.0 dS m-1; and the second factor comprised three conditions: without biofertilizers (B0, with enriched crabbio fertilizer (B1 and with bovine common biofertilizer (B3. The evaluated variables were: photosynthesis, leaf temperature, transpiration, stomatal conductance, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and shoot dry mass. The crab enriched biofertilizer more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants with biofertilizer and biofertilizer bovine common. The biofertilizer of crab enriched more efficiently mitigates the salt stress on plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cowpea cultivar BRS ITAIM compared to plants without biofertilizer and bovine common biofertilizer. = O uso de fertilizantes orgânicos provenientes de resíduos de origem animal pode atenuar os efeitos danosos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre as plantas. Um experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Estação Agrometeorológica da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, no período de setembro a novembro de 2012, objetivando-se avaliar a

  3. Varietal Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. to Striga gesnerioides (Willd. Vatke Race SG5 Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste NOUBISSIE TCHIAGAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic plant Striga gesnerioides (Willd Vatke is becoming a serious threat to cowpea production in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 7 races of S. gesnerioides exhibiting specific virulence have been identified. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 spreads in northern Cameroon and to study the inheritance of the resistance. Twelve accessions of cowpea, IT98K-205-8, IT98K-503-1, IT98K-1092-1, IT99K-216-1-1, IT98K-494-6, IT99K-529-4, IT99K-573-1-1, IT99K-573-2-1, IT00K-1207, IT03K-378-4, IT04K-227-4 and VYA were assessed in field trials for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG5 in Maroua, northern Cameroon and the genetics of the resistance from two sources was elucidated in artificially infested pots. Data on resistant and susceptible cowpea plants were analyzed using the chi-square test to ascertain the goodness of fit to different genetic ratios. Tests of resistance using field screening techniques showed that among these varieties, four were susceptible, four tolerant, two partially resistant while IT99K-573-1-1 and IT98K-205-8 appeared completely resistant to Striga race SG5. On susceptible varieties, the mean number of emerged S. gesnerioides plants 9 weeks after sowing was 1.8 to 2.4 per cowpea plant, while completely resistant lines carried none. The cowpea genotypes showed significant differences for percentage of infected plants, the decimation rates and Striga height. On susceptible genotypes, the seeds yield losses due to Striga infestation varied from 28.4 to 36.6% while for the fodder yield these losses ranged between 23.63 to 41.03%. The analysis of F1 and F2 populations resulting from crossings between resistant varieties and the susceptible tester VYA demonstrated that resistance is was controlled by two factor inheritance with duplicate dominant genes (Rsg5a and Rsg5b for IT99K-573-1-1 and a single dominant gene (Rsg5 for IT98K-205-8. These two varieties provide newly

  4. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, David J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Turell, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Environmental temperature can affect the ability of mosquitoes to transmit an arbovirus. However, results of various studies indicate that these effects are not consistent among viruses or mosquito species, and there is no information available on the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of North American mosquito species to transmit West Nile (WN) virus. We evaluated the effect of incubation temperature (18, 20, 26, or 30 degrees C) on the ability of Culex pipiens L. derived from specimens collected during the outbreak in New York in 1999 to transmit a strain of WN virus obtained from a crow that died during this outbreak. Although mosquitoes fed on the same viremic chickens, infection rates were directly related to subsequent incubation temperatures. In mosquitoes held at 30 degrees C, virus was recovered from nearly all mosquitoes tested, disseminated infections were detected as early as 4 d after the infectious blood meal, and >90% of all mosquitoes had a disseminated infection 12 or more days after the infectious blood meal. In contrast, for mosquitoes held at 18 degrees C, disseminated infections were not detected until 25 d after the infectious blood meal, and even after 28 d, <30% contained a disseminated infection. Results for mosquitoes held at 20 and 26 degrees C were intermediate for both infection and dissemination rates. The effect of environmental temperature should to be considered when evaluating the vector competence of these mosquitoes and modeling risk of WN virus transmission in nature.

  5. Alternativas Microbiológicas para Mejorar el Crecimiento del Caupí / Microbiological Alternatives for the Improvement of Cowpea Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La baja disponibilidad de fósforo (P en el suelo, laineficiencia que presenta su absorción y el costo de la fertilización fosfórica son limitantes para la productividad agrícola. Una alternativa biotecnológica para manejar este problema es mediante el uso de microorganismos del suelo, capaces de mejorar la disponibilidad y la absorción de P y la eficiencia de la fertilización con fertilizantes más económicos como la Roca Fosfórica (RP. En este trabajo se evaluó bajo condiciones de casa de malla, el efecto de un hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA (Glomus fasciculatum y un microorganismo solubilizador de  (MSP (Mortierella sp. sobre la toma de P y el crecimiento deplantas de caupí (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., con adición detres niveles de RP (0, 100 y 300 mg de P kg-1 suelo. Los resultadosmostraron un incremento significativo (PLa adición de RP y la inoculación con MSP, no tuvo un efectoestadísticamente significativo (P>0,05 sobre las variables decrecimiento evaluadas. Sin embargo, en todos los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el MSP, se incrementó significativamente el P soluble. Con base en lo encontrado en este trabajo, se puede plantear que el hongo micorrízico arbuscular evaluado (HMA,mejora la eficiencia de absorción de P y el crecimiento del caupí bajo las condiciones evaluadas. / The low phosphorus (P availability in soil, absorption inefficiency and high costs of phosphate fertilization are limiting factors for agricultural productivity. A biotechnological alternative is the use of soil microorganisms, capable of improving Pdisponibility, absorption and the use of fertilizer cheaper as rock phosphate fertilization (PR. This experiment was performed under screen house conditions aiming to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus (HMA (Glomus fasciculatum and a P solubilizing fungus (MSP (Mortierella sp. on P uptake and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. growth, planted with three concentrations (0, 100

  6. Comportamento hídrico e crescimento do feijão vigna cultivado em solos salinizados Hydric behaviour and growth of cowpea cultivated in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. M. Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos reduz a capacidade das plantas de absorver água o que, em geral, provoca diminuição na sua taxa de crescimento. As respostas das plantas ao estresse salino são melhor correlacionadas com o potencial osmótico do que com a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, evapotranspiração e potencial osmótico foliar do feijoeiro vigna [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Recife, PE, Brasil. Os tratamentos constaram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 composto de duas texturas de solo e quatro níveis de salinidade do solo (4, 8 e 12 dS m-1 a 25 ºC além da testemunha sem a adição de sais com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a salinidade do solo causa redução no consumo de água, no potencial osmótico foliar, na altura das plantas, no número de folhas e na biomassa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro vigna.Soil salinization reduces the capacity of plants to absorb water, and in general causes decrease in plant growth. Plant responses to salt stress are better correlated with osmotic potential compared to electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract. In order to evaluate the effect of salt stress on growth, water use and leaf osmotic potential of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.], an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (Recife-PE, Brazil. The Treatments were in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4, comprising of two soil textures and four levels of soil salinity (4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 at 25 °C, and the control without salt addition with five replications. It was concluded that soil salinity causes reduction in water consumption, leaf osmotic potential, plant height, number of leaves and dry biomass of shoot of cowpea.

  7. Influenza virus H1N1 induced apoptosis of mouse astrocytes and the effect on protein expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Dong Pei; Yu-Feng Zhai; Huai-Hong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of influenzaA virusH1N1 infection on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse astrocytes cells and its protein expression.Methods:After mouse astrocytes was infected with purified influenzaA virusH1N1 in vitro, viral integration and replication status of the cells were detected byRT-PCR assay, cell proliferation and apoptosis was determined by MTT method and flow cytometry, respectively.Associated protein expression was detected by Western blotting.Results:Agarose gel electrophoresis showedH1N1 virus can infect astrocytes and can be copied.MTT staining showedH1N1 virus infection can inhibit the proliferation of mouse astrocytes, which makes cell viability decreased significantly.Flow cytometry showed that the proportion ofAnneinV staining positive vascular endothelial cells in the influenzaA virus group was significantly higher than that in the control group.Western blot analysis showed after 24 h and32 h of infection, there were cells caspase-3 protein and the expression of its active form (lysed caspase-3 protein) increased.The proportion ofBax/Bcl-2 also increased.Conclusions:InfluenzaA virus can infect human vascular endothelial cells and proliferation and it can induce apoptosis of endothelial cells.

  8. Effective Binding of a Phosphatidylserine-Targeting Antibody to Ebola Virus Infected Cells and Purified Virions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, S. D.; Graham, V. A.; Corbin-Lickfett, K.; Empig, C.; Schlunegger, K.; Bruce, C. B.; Easterbrook, L.; Hewson, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is responsible for causing severe hemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, no antiviral or vaccine is licensed against Ebola virus. A phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody (PGN401, bavituximab) has previously been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, we demonstrate that PGN401 specifically binds to Ebola virus and recognizes infected cells. Our study provides the first evidence of phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody reactivity against Ebola virus. PMID:25815346

  9. Effective Binding of a Phosphatidylserine-Targeting Antibody to Ebola Virus Infected Cells and Purified Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Dowall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is responsible for causing severe hemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, no antiviral or vaccine is licensed against Ebola virus. A phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody (PGN401, bavituximab has previously been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, we demonstrate that PGN401 specifically binds to Ebola virus and recognizes infected cells. Our study provides the first evidence of phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody reactivity against Ebola virus.

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  11. Oncolytic Effect of Newcastle Disease Virus AF2240 Strain on the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Othman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the oncolytic effect of the Newcastledisease virus (NDV strain AF2240 on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.Materials and Methods: The NDV-AF2240 was propagated in 11 days old embryonatedchicken eggs for 72 hours. The virus in the allantoic fluid was harvested andpurified. The haemagglutination (HA test was conducted on the purified virus to determinethe virus titre which was 16384 haemagglutination units (HAUs. The microculturetetrazolium assay (MTA was carried out via two methods-the monolayer and co-culturetechniques- to determine the inhibitory concentration (IC50 of NDV-AF2240 against theMCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was carried out onpolyclonal chicken antibody and fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC conjugated goat antichickenantibody to observe virus localization in the cells. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL assay was conducted to quantifythe percentage of apoptotic cells.Results: IC50 value of NDV-AF2240 was two HAUs in both the monolayer and co-cultures.Virus particles were detected in the cytoplasm of MCF-7 breast cancer cell lineafter 24 and 48 hours post treatment. Virus budding was detected 72 hours post treatment.The number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased (p<0.05 72 hours postNDV-AF2240 treatment.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that NDV-AF2240 has an oncolytic effectagainst the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Further studies are needed to understand theanti cancer mechanism of this virus.

  12. THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS ON COXSACKIE B-3 VIRUS RNA REPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭天庆; 杨英珍; HelgaRiesemann; ReinhardKandolf

    1995-01-01

    Using mice infected with coxsackie B-3 virus (CVB3) as a viral myocarditis model,we observed the inhibitory effect of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) on CVB3-RNA replication in myocardial tissue of mice by RNA-RNA in situ hybridization with negative-strand RNA probes labelled with 35S and quantitative imaging analysis of positive signals.The mechanism of its effect on CVB3-RNA replication has been inves-tigated by detection of beta-interferon (β-IFN) as well.Results showed that the copy numbers of CVB3-RNA as well as the histologic scores (necrosis) in myocardial tissues of infected-AM treated mice were sig-nificantly lower than those in infected and normal saline treated mice,suggesting that AM could inhibit the replication of CVB3-RNA,but its effect on CVB3-RNA replication had no correlation with induction of β-IFN.

  13. Characterization of the Rana grylio virus 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and its novel role in suppressing virus-induced cytopathic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) isoenzymes play a key role in cellular steroid hormone synthesis. Here, a 3β-HSD gene homolog was cloned from Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of family Iridoviridae. RGV 3β-HSD gene has 1068 bp, encoding a 355 aa predicted protein. Transcription analyses showed that RGV 3β-HSD gene was transcribed immediate-early during infection from an initiation site 19 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site. Confocal microscopy revealed that the 3β-HSD-EGFP fusion protein was exclusively colocalized with the mitochondria marker (pDsRed2-Mito) in EPC cells. Upon morphological observation and MTT assay, it was revealed that overexpression of RGV 3β-HSD in EPC cells could apparently suppress RGV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). The present studies indicate that the RGV immediate-early 3β-HSD gene encodes a mitochondria-localized protein, which has a novel role in suppressing virus-induced CPE. All these suggest that RGV 3β-HSD might be a protein involved in host-virus interaction

  14. Effect of a plant polyphenol-rich extract on the lung protease activities of influenza-virus-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkedjieva, Julia; Toshkova, Reneta; Antonova-Nikolova, Stefka; Stefanova, Tsvetanka; Teodosieva, Ani; Ivanova, Iskra

    2007-01-01

    Influenza infection was induced in white mice by intranasal inoculation of the virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2). The lung protease and the protease-inhibitory activities were followed for 9 days after infection. The intranasal application of a polyphenol-rich extract (PC) isolated from Geranium sanguineum L. induced a continuous rise in the anti-protease activity but did not cause substantial changes in the lung protease activity of healthy mice. Influenza virus infection triggered a slight reduction in protease activity in the lungs at 5 and 48 h post infection (p.i.) and a marked increase at 24 h and 6 day p.i.. Protease inhibition in the lungs was reduced at 24 and 48 h p.i. and an increase was observed at 5 h and 6 and 9 days p.i.. PC treatment brought both activities to normal levels. The restoration of the examined parameters was consistent with a prolongation of mean survival time and reduction of mortality rate, infectious virus titre and lung consolidation. PC reinstated superoxide production by alveolar macrophages and increased their number in virus-infected mice. The favourable effect on the protease and the protease-inhibitory activities in the lungs of influenza-virus-infected mice apparently contributes to the overall protective effect of PC in the murine experimental influenza A/Aichi infection. The antiviral effect of the individual constituents was evaluated. PMID:17542152

  15. Sofosbuvir Inhibits Hepatitis E Virus Replication In Vitro and Results in an Additive Effect When Combined With Ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao Thi, Viet Loan; Debing, Yannick; Wu, Xianfang; Rice, Charles M; Neyts, Johan; Moradpour, Darius; Gouttenoire, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 may result in chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. Reduction of immunosuppression or treatment with ribavirin or pegylated interferon-α can result in viral clearance. However, safer and more effective treatment options are needed. Here, we show that sofosbuvir inhibits the replication of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 both in subgenomic replicon systems as well as a full-length infectious clone. Moreover, the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin results in an additive antiviral effect. Sofosbuvir may be considered as an add-on therapy to ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis E in immunocompromised patients.

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  19. Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, G; Miyashiro, H; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kakiuchi, N; Shimotohno, K

    2000-11-01

    One hundred fifty-two methanol and water extracts of different parts of 71 plants commonly used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease (PR) using in vitro assay methods. Thirty-four extracts showed significant inhibitory activity (>/=60% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Of these, eight extracts, methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica, Boswellia carterii, Embelia schimperi, Quercus infectoria, Trachyspermum ammi and water extracts of Piper cubeba, Q. infectoria and Syzygium aromaticum, were the most active (>/=90% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). From the E. schimperi extract, two benzoquinones, embelin (I) and 5-O-methylembelin (II), were isolated and found as potent HCV-PR inhibitors with IC(50) values of 21 and 46 microM, respectively. Inhibitory activities of derivatives of I against HCV-PR as well as their effects on other serine proteases were also investigated. PMID:11054840

  20. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture.

  1. Glycyrrhizin exerts antioxidative effects in H5N1 influenza A virus-infected cells and inhibits virus replication and pro-inflammatory gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Michaelis

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizin is known to exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation (Stronger Neo-Minophafen C were investigated on highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced apoptosis, and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial (A549 cells. Therapeutic glycyrrhizin concentrations substantially inhibited H5N1-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules CXCL10, interleukin 6, CCL2, and CCL5 (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 25 to 50 µg/ml but interfered with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 100 µg/ml or higher. Glycyrrhizin also diminished monocyte migration towards supernatants of H5N1-infected A549 cells. The mechanism by which glycyrrhizin interferes with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression includes inhibition of H5N1-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and (in turn reduced activation of NFκB, JNK, and p38, redox-sensitive signalling events known to be relevant for influenza A virus replication. Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.

  2. Efficient cleavage of p220 by poliovirus 2Apro expression in mammalian cells: effects on vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, R; Feduchi, E; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-10-24

    Poliovirus protease 2A cleaves p220, a component of initiation factor eIF-4F. Polyclonal antibodies that recognize p220 and the cleaved products from different species have been raised. Transfection of several cell lines with poliovirus 2Apro cloned in different plasmids leads to efficient cleavage of p220 upon infection with VT7, a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the T7 RNA polymerase. Under these conditions vaccinia virus protein synthesis is severely inhibited, while expression of poliovirus protein 2C from a similar plasmid has no effect. These results show by the first time the effects of p220 cleavage on vaccinia virus translation in the infected cells.

  3. Effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on the fertility of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Gulay, Mehmet Sukru; Yapici, Orhan; Bulut, Oya; Ata, Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the possible relationship between bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus infection and the appearance of cervical mucous discharge (CMD) and the reproductive performance of cows in oestrus. For this purpose, CMD from 97 Holstein cows in oestrus was evaluated visually before artificial insemination (AI). Cows in oestrus were inseminated with frozen semen free from BVD virus (BVDV). Blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) of BVDV. The presence of the BVDV genome in cervical mucus samples was tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of BVDV Ab, Ag or genome was not associated with abnormal cervical mucous discharge (A-CMD). However, the presence of BVDV Ag (but not of the BVDV Ab) in blood samples was associated with a lower first service conception rate (FSCR; 27.8 vs. 70.9%; P < 0.01), indicating that BVDV viraemia at the time of AI has a negative effect on the fertility of cows. PMID:23661395

  4. Differential effects of viroporin inhibitors against feline infectious peritonitis virus serotypes I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Nakano, Kenta; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV), a feline coronavirus of the family Coronaviridae, causes a fatal disease called FIP in wild and domestic cat species. The genome of coronaviruses encodes a hydrophobic transmembrane protein, the envelope (E) protein. The E protein possesses ion channel activity. Viral proteins with ion channel activity are collectively termed "viroporins". Hexamethylene amiloride (HMA), a viroporin inhibitor, can inhibit the ion channel activity of the E protein and replication of several coronaviruses. However, it is not clear whether HMA and other viroporin inhibitors affect replication of FIPV. We examined the effect of HMA and other viroporin inhibitors (DIDS [4,4'-disothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulphonic acid] and amantadine) on infection by FIPV serotypes I and II. HMA treatment drastically decreased the titers of FIPV serotype I strains Black and KU-2 in a dose-dependent manner, but it only slightly decreased the titer of FIPV serotype II strain 79-1146. In contrast, DIDS treatment decreased the titer of FIPV serotype II strain 79-1146 in dose-dependent manner, but it only slightly decreased the titers of FIPV serotype I strains Black and KU-2. We investigated whether there is a difference in ion channel activity of the E protein between viral serotypes using E. coli cells expressing the E protein of FIPV serotypes I and II. No difference was observed, suggesting that a viroporin other than the E protein influences the differences in the actions of HMA and DIDS on FIPV serotypes I and II.

  5. Fabrication of Photofunctional Nanoporous Membrane and Its Photoinactivation Effect of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kyun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication and photophysical study of photofunctional nanoporous alumina membrane (PNAM were performed, and its application of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT was investigated. Nanoporous alumina membrane (NAM was fabricated by two-step aluminium anodic oxidation process. Surface of the fabricated NAM was modified with organo-silane agent to induce covalent bonding between NAM and a photosensitizer (PtCP: [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl-porphyrin] platinum. PtCP was covalently bonded to the surface of the modified NAM by nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction process. The morphology and the photophysical properties of the fabricated PNAM were confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, steady-state spectroscopies, and nanosecond laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy. For the efficacy study of PNAM in PACT, an enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, was utilized as a target organism. Antiviral effect of the PNAM-PACT was measured by the extent of suppression of plaque-forming units (PFU after the light irradiation. In the cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, the suppression of PFU was prominent, which demonstrates that PNAM is a potential bio clean-up tool.

  6. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  7. The effect of dietary bovine colostrum on respiratory syncytial virus infection and immune responses following the infection in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Wi, Ga Ram; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of respiratory tract infection among young children because of immature T cell immunity of them against hRSV. CD8 T cells play a pivotal role in clearing hRSV and preventing subsequent infection. We examined the effects of dietary bovine colostrum on virus infection and CD8 T cell responses following hRSV infection in the mouse model. Mice received bovine colostrum for 14 days prior to hRSV challenge, and lung indexes (severity of symptom) and lung virus titers were analyzed. In addition, the activation of CD8 T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) of mice receiving bovine colostrum were compared with those in the BALFs of mice receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ribavirin, post virus challenge. The severity of infection and lung virus titers were reduced in the mice receiving bovine colostrum, compared to those receiving PBS. Moreover CD8 T cell responses were selectively enhanced in the former. Our results suggest that dietary bovine colostrum exerts the effects to inhibit hRSV and ameliorate the symptom by hRSV infection, and enhances the CD8 T cell response during the hRSV infection. PMID:26310306

  8. Assessment of Rhizospheric Microorganisms of Transgenic Populus tomentosa with Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To have a preliminary insight into biosafety of genetically transformed hybrid triploid poplars (Populus tomentosa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa with the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) gene, two layers of rhizospheric soil (from 0 to 20 cm deep and from 20 to 40 cm deep, respectively) were collected for microorganism culture, counting assay and PCR analysis to assess the potential impact of transgenic poplars on non-target microorganism population and transgene dispersal. When the same soil layer of suspension stock solution was diluted at both 1:1 000 and 1:10 000 rates, there were no significant differences in bacterium colony numbers between the inoculation plates of both transgenic and non-transgenic poplars. The uniform results were revealed for both soil layer suspension solutions of identical poplars at both dilution rates except for non-transgenic poplars at 1:10 000 dilution rates from the same type of soil. No significant variation in morphology of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was observed under the microscope. The potential transgene dispersal from root exudates or fallen leaves to non-target microbes was repudiated by PCR analysis, in which no CpTI gene specific DNA band was amplified for 15 sites of transgenic rhizospheric soil samples. It can be concluded that transgenic poplar with the CpTI gene has no severe impact on rhizospheric microorganisms and is tentatively safe to surrounding soil micro-ecosystem.

  9. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. PMID:25466917

  10. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  11. Macronutrientes em caupi cultivado sob duas doses de fósforo em diferentes épocas de plantio Macronutrients in cowpea cultivated under two doses of phosphorus and different planting times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Parry

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de aprimorar o efeito do sistema de preparo do solo sobre a nutrição do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. diante de alterações ambientais causadas por diferentes épocas de semeadura. O estudo foi conduzido em campo experimental em Igarapé-Açu, PA, no qual se testaram quatro épocas de semeadura e duas adubações em blocos ao acaso e parcelas subdivididas. A avaliação do estado nutricional das plantas de caupi se deu na própria colheita, quando então se determinaram as concentrações de macronutrientes nas plantas (folhas e ramos, vagens e grãos; nas plantas e nas vagens, as maiores concentrações observadas foram de K, N e Ca e, nos grãos, de N, K e P; por outro lado, as concentrações dos nutrientes foram afetadas pelas épocas de semeadura sem que este fato impedisse a observação de concentrações consideradas adequadas nas plantas e grãos de caupi para a maioria dos nutrientes avaliados. A adubação com maior quantidade de P aumentou as concentrações da maioria dos nutrientes nas diferentes partes da planta.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the soil preparation system on the nutrition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. due to environmental alterations caused by different planting times. The study was conducted in an experimental field in Igarapé-Açu, Pará. Four planting times and two fertilizations were tested, in randomized blocks and subdivided plots. The evaluation of the nutritional state of the cowpea crop was accomplished at the harvest. The macronutrient concentrations in the plants, green beans and in the grains were determined. In the plants and in the green beans, the largest observed concentrations were of K, N and Ca, while in the grains they were of N, K and P. The concentrations of the nutrients were affected significantly by the planting times, but this did not impede the observation of concentrations considered appropriate in

  12. Genetic and physical mapping of candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum race 3 in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marti Pottorff

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant x 24-125B-1 (susceptible. Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding

  13. Effects of Climate and Sewer Condition on Virus Transport to Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkowitz, Madeline B; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Borchardt, Mark A; Zhu, Jun; Spencer, Susan K

    2016-08-16

    Pathogen contamination from leaky sanitary sewers poses a threat to groundwater quality in urban areas, yet the spatial and temporal dimensions of this contamination are not well understood. In this study, 16 monitoring wells and six municipal wells were repeatedly sampled for human enteric viruses. Viruses were detected infrequently, in 17 of 455 samples, compared to previous sampling at these wells. Thirteen of the 22 wells sampled were virus-positive at least once. While the highest virus concentrations occurred in shallower wells, shallow and deep wells were virus-positive at similar rates. Virus presence in groundwater was temporally coincident, with 16 of 17 virus-positive samples collected in a six-month period. Detections were associated with precipitation and occurred infrequently during a prolonged drought. The study purposely included sites with sewers of differing age and material. The rates of virus detections in groundwater were similar at all study sites during this study. However, a relationship between sewer age and virus detections emerged when compared to data from an earlier study, conducted during high precipitation conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that sewer condition and climate affect urban groundwater contamination by human enteric viruses. PMID:27434550

  14. Effects of disinfectants against norovirus virus-like particles predict norovirus inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Miki, Motohiro; Kubota, Hiromi; Hitomi, Jun; Tokuda, Hajime; Todaka-Takai, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Public and personal hygiene is one of the most important countermeasures for preventing spread of NoV infection. However, no a practicable cell culture system for NoV had been developed, initial tests of the virucidal effectiveness of anti-NoV disinfectants and sanitizers have been performed using surrogate viruses. In this study, NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) were used as a new surrogate for NoVs and a method for evaluating NoV inactivation using them developed. This method is based on morphological changes in VLPs after treatment with sodium hypochlorite. VLP specimens were found to become deformed and degraded in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these results, the effects of sodium hypochlorite on VLPs were classified into four phases according to morphological changes and number of particles. Using the criteria thus established, the efficacy of ethanol, carbonates and alkali solutions against VLPs was evaluated. Deformation and aggregation of VLPs were observed after treatment with these disinfectants under specific conditions. To determine the degradation mechanism(s), VLPs were examined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting after treatment with sodium hypochlorite and ethanol. The band corresponding to the major capsid protein, VP1, was not detected after treatment with sodium hypochlorite at concentrations greater than 500 ppm, but remained after treatment with ethanol. These results suggest that VLPs have excellent potential as a surrogate marker for NoVs and can be used in initial virucidal effectiveness tests to determine the mechanism(s) of chemical agents on NoVs. PMID:27554301

  15. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  16. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  17. Effects of RNA sequence specificity in the electrostatic stabilization of viruses

    CERN Document Server

    Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; van der Schoot, Paul; Podgornik, Rudolf; Zandi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Many single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses self assemble from capsid protein subunits and the nucleic acid to form an infectious virion. It is believed that the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged RNA and the positively charged viral capsid proteins drive the encapsidation, although there is growing evidence that the sequence of the viral RNA also plays a role in packaging. In particular the sequence will determine the possible secondary structures that the ssRNA will take in solution. In this work, we use a mean field theory to investigate how the secondary structure of the RNA combined with electrostatic interactions affects the efficiency of assembly and stability of the assembled virions. We show that the secondary structure of RNA may result in negative osmotic pressures while a linear polymer causes positive osmotic pressures for the same conditions. This may suggest that the branched structure makes the RNA more effectively packaged and the virion more stable.

  18. Divergent antiviral effects of bioflavonoids on the hepatitis C virus life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatoorian, Ronik, E-mail: RnKhch@ucla.edu [Molecular Biology Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program (MBIDP), Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja, E-mail: VArumugaswami@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Department of Surgery, Regenerative Medicine Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Raychaudhuri, Santanu, E-mail: SRaychau@ucla.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Yeh, George K., E-mail: GgYeh@ucla.edu [Molecular Biology Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program (MBIDP), Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Maloney, Eden M., E-mail: EMaloney@ucla.edu [Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); Wang, Julie, E-mail: JulieW1521@ucla.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California, CA (United States); and others

    2012-11-25

    We have previously demonstrated that quercetin, a bioflavonoid, blocks hepatitis C virus (HCV) proliferation by inhibiting NS5A-driven internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of the viral genome. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of antiviral activity of quercetin and six additional bioflavonoids. We demonstrate that catechin, naringenin, and quercetin possess significant antiviral activity, with no associated cytotoxicity. Infectious virion secretion was not significantly altered by these bioflavonoids. Catechin and naringenin demonstrated stronger inhibition of infectious virion assembly compared to quercetin. Quercetin markedly blocked viral translation whereas catechin and naringenin demonstrated mild activity. Similarly quercetin completely blocked NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation in an IRES reporter assay, whereas catechin and naringenin had only a mild effect. Moreover, quercetin differentially inhibited HSP70 induction compared to catechin and naringenin. Thus, the antiviral activity of these bioflavonoids is mediated through different mechanisms. Therefore combination of these bioflavonoids may act synergistically against HCV.

  19. Effect of PTPRD rs2279776 gene and interaction with hepatitis B virus mutations on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of rs2279776 at the PTPRD and its interactions on hepatitis B virus(HBV)mutations as well as related risk on hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).Methods A total of 3023 individ-uals,including 1012 healthy controls,990 HCC-free HBV-infected subjects,and 1021 HBV-caused hepatocellular carcinoma patients(HCC)

  20. Effects of long term feeding of raw soya bean flour on virus- induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kiril, A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a diet enriched with 25% raw soya bean flour (RSF) on the pancreas and on the avian retrovirus Pts 56-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl were studied. It has been shown that prolonged RSF feeding of new-hatched virus-infected and uninfected guinea fowl-poults induced enl