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Sample records for cow milk productivity

  1. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  2. Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The marketing chain for the commodity is simple and crude. It starts from the raw cow milk processors ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  3. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough ...

  5. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  6. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  7. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  8. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  9. Considerations on Cattle Stock and Cow Fresh Milk Production in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the evolution of cattle stock and cow milk production in order to point out the main trends and differences between the EU-27 member states in the period 2004-2008. The data collected from FAO Stat, 2010 have been processed calculating the fixed basis index, average annual rhythm index and also the share of each EU state in cow milk production at the EU and world level.The main trends in the EU concerning cow milk sector are the continuous decrease in cattle stock, the increase of cow milk yield under the conditions of keeping a constant milk production and also milk production per capita. In 2008, the EU-27 was raising 90,478 thou cattle, and produced 149,388 thou tons cow fresh milk. The EU -27 is placed on the 5th position for number of cattle and on the 1st position for cow milk production, producing 25.8 % of world production. The largest milk producers in the EU-27 are Germany, France, United Kingdom, Poland, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Romania and Denmark, whose contribution to the EU productions is 82.82 %.

  10. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  11. Detection of relevant amounts of cow's milk protein in non-pre-packed bakery products sold as cow's milk-free.

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    Trendelenburg, V; Enzian, N; Bellach, J; Schnadt, S; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no mandatory labelling of allergens for non-pre-packed foods in the EU. Therefore, consumers with food allergy rely on voluntary information provided by the staff. The aim of this study was to characterize allergic reactions to non-pre-packed foods and to investigate whether staff in bakery shops were able to give advice regarding a safe product choice. Questionnaires were sent to 200 parents of children with a food allergy. Staff of 50 bakery shops were interviewed regarding selling non-pre-packed foods to food-allergic customers. Bakery products being recommended as 'cow's milk-free' were bought, and cow's milk protein levels were measured using ELISA. A total of 104 of 200 questionnaires were returned. 25% of the children experienced an allergic reaction due to a non-pre-packed food from bakery shops and 20% from ice cream parlours. Sixty percent of the bakery staff reported serving food-allergic customers at least once a month, 24% once a week. Eighty four percent of the staff felt able to advise food-allergic consumers regarding a safe product choice. Seventy three 'cow's milk-free' products were sold in 44 bakery shops. Cow's milk could be detected in 43% of the bakery products, 21% contained >3 mg cow's milk protein per serving. Staff in bakery shops felt confident about advising customers with food allergy. However, cow's milk was detectable in almost half of bakery products being sold as 'cow's milk-free'. Every fifth product contained quantities of cow's milk exceeding an amount where approximately 10% of cow's milk-allergic children will show clinical relevant symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  13. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  14. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  15. Growth and enterotoxin production of Bacillus cereus in cow, goat, and sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Necidová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare Bacillus cereus growth rates and diarrhoeal enterotoxin production in raw and pasteurized goat, sheep, and cow milk in terms of storage conditions. Milk samples were inoculated with B. cereus (CCM 2010, which produces diarrhoeal enterotoxins. Enterotoxin production was tested by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and the count of B. cereus was determined by the plate method. With raw cow milk, B. cereus growth and enterotoxin production can be completely suppressed; in raw goat and sheep milk, enterotoxin was produced at 22 °C. In pasteurized cow, goat, and sheep milk, the B. cereus count increased under all storage conditions, with more rapid growth being observed at 15 °C (sheep milk and 22 °C (cow and goat milk. Enterotoxin presence was detected at 15 °C and 22 °C, and with pasteurized cow milk also at 8 °C. Our model experiments have determined that B. cereus multiplication and subsequent enterotoxin production depend on storage temperature and milk type.

  16. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  17. Decreased antibiotic susceptibility and enhanced probiotic production potential of goat milk fermented curd in comparison with cow and buffalo milk

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    Jyoti Lakhanpal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to characterize and compare the production potential and antibiotic susceptibility of probiotics isolated from goat, cow and buffalo milk. The probiotics isolated from milk fermented curd were compared with regard to their number, morphology, gram staining, motility, bile salt tolerance, pH-resistance, catalase activity, oxidase production and antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that the probiotics isolated from milk fermented curd of all three species were gram positive, motile, catalase negative, and oxidase negative and were able to produce lactic acid. Further, we observed that buffalo milk is more potent in forming curd with the highest count of probiotics per ml (3.53 × 10!5 as compared to cow (5.8 × 10!6 and goat milk (7×10!7; moreover, goat milk bacterial isolates were more tolerant to acidic pH but were less bile-salt tolerant than cow milk. Also, probiotics isolated from goat milk curd were more resistant to antibiotics (resistant to 12 out of 15 screened antibiotics than those from cow and buffalo milk (resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. This report shows that goat milk fermented products possess the highest antibacterial potential and are highly acid-tolerant.

  18. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-25

    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  19. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  20. Dystocia in Friesian cows and its effects on postpartum reproductive performance and milk production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamiah, Sh. M.; El-Hamd, M. A. Abu; Shitta, A. A.; El-Din, M. A. Tag

    2010-01-01

    A total of 1,243 records for 585 dairy Friesian cows from 1997–2004 were used to study the factors affecting dystocia and its effects on reproductive performance and milk production. The overall incidence of dystocia was 6.9%. The percentage of dystocia decreased with increasing live body weight, age, and parity of cows (P dystocia was detected in winter season, but the least percentage was in summer season (P dystocia was significantly (P dystocia was significantly (P dystocia had adverse effects on reproductive performance and milk yield. The service interval, service period, days open, and calving interval were significantly (P dystocia compared to normal cows. The conception rate was lower (P dystocia compared to normal cows (60.5% vs. 73.0% and 3.4 vs. 2.7, respectively). Average daily milk yield was lower (P dystocia compared to normal cows. PMID:20835761

  1. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  2. THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHT ON MILK PRODUCTION IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 20 multiparous cows were utilized to investigate effect of supplemental light on milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=10: a 10- 13 hours of light and 14-11 hours of darkness/d natural light -NL group; b 17 hours of light (natural light + supplemental light -SL group. Supplemental lighting of 350 lx at eye level was provided by fluorescent lamps, controlled by an automatic timer. Multiparous cows in SL group produced more fat corected milk (FMC than multiparous cows in NL group. The efficiency of production in dairy cows can be enhanced by the photoperiod manipulation and thus provide another management tool for dairy producers to enhance productivity.

  3. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  4. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  5. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT OF PROTEIN UNDEGRADED SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF MILK IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Widyobroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of undegraded protein supplementation on nutrientsintake, production and milk composition in dairy cows. The purpose of this research was to provideinformation on the undegraded protein supplementation to increase milk production and composition indairy cows. The research was conducted for 3 months in Boyolali-Central Java. The study used 20lactation cows (<3 months of lactation, aged 3 to 3.5 years with body weight from 350 to 400 kg. Thecows were then randomly divided into 2 groups of ten based on their body weight, milk production,lactation period and age. The first group (control and the second group (treated, both were fed dietbased on NRC (1987. The second group was added undegraded protein (UDP of 30 g/l milk that mixedby concentrate. The observed variables were dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crudeprotein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, milk production and milk composition including fat, proteinand solid non fat (SNF. Data obtained were examined by t-test.The results showed that intake of DM, OM, and the NDF of treated and control groups were notdifferent (9.57; 8.49; 4.98 vs 9.44; 8.38; 5.40 kg/cow/d, respectively; however, protein intake of treatedgroup was higher (P<0.01 than that of the control group (1097 vs. 1210g/cow/d. Milk production ofcows receiving UDP supplementation tended to be higher than that in the control group (+ 1:45kg/cow/d. Although they tended to be lower in fat (4.13 vs. 3.88%, protein (2.45 vs. 2.27% and SNF(7.26 vs. 6.94%, but protein and fat production were higher for cows receiving UDP supplementation(366 each; 214 vs. 330; 196g/cow/d. It can be concluded that UDP supplementation increased milk, fatproduction and milk protein but it tended to reduce the level of fat, protein and SNF milk.

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites presence during the peripartum decreases total milk production in grazing dairy Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, A F; Mejía, M E; Licoff, N; Lazaro, L; Miglierina, M; Ornstein, A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-06-10

    Parasitism in cattle is known to impair growth and development. Recent findings suggest that productivity of adult animals is also affected, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms involved. Furthermore, development of nematode resistance to drugs makes imperative the search of management practices that avoid whole herd treatment. We undertook an epidemiological and endocrine study in a grass based dairy farm in Argentina to study the effect of parasites on milk production and the underlying mechanisms involved, and identify individual animals that would benefit from antiparasitic treatment. All the cows in the dairy were followed monthly for egg parasite output in feces. Samples were cultured for genera determination. Milk production and reproductive results were recorded and periodical bleedings for hormone determination were performed. Nematode egg output (EPG) was maximal in late Summer and Autumn and minimal in Spring in coincidence with the Ostertagia inhibition-disinhibition cycle as this genus had the highest prevalence in all the study. The highest proportion of positive samples was found in the high producing herd and maximal counts were found in the peripartal period. Milk production did not correlate with EPG mean values but, when cows were grouped by EPG positivity around parturition, a significant difference in total milk production between EPG null and positive cows was observed. Positive cows produced 7%, 12% or 15% less milk than null EPG cows, depending on the sampling month/s chosen for classification. The highest difference was seen when both prepartum and postpartum samples were taken into account. No difference in lactation length and a marginal effect on partum to first service interval were encountered. Endocrine studies revealed a decrease in serum growth hormone (GH), type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and prolactin during lactation in cows with positive EPG in the first postpartum sample with respect to null EPG cows

  8. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  9. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  10. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  11. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  12. Short communication: immediate and deferred milk production responses to concentrate supplements in cows grazing fresh pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Grala, T M; Sheahan, A J; White, H M; Phyn, C V C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the increase in milk production from supplementation that occurred after supplementation ceased. This portion of the total response (i.e., the deferred response), although accepted, is generally not accounted for in short-term component research projects, but it is important in determining the economic impact of supplementary feeding. Fifty-nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered a generous allowance of spring pasture [>45 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day) and were supplemented with 0, 3, or 6 kg (DM)/d of pelleted concentrate (half of the allowance at each milking event) in a complete randomized design. Treatments were imposed for the first 12 wk of lactation. Treatments were balanced for cow age (5.4 ± 1.68 yr), calving date (July 27 ± 26.0 d), and genetic merit for milk component yield. During the period of supplementation, milk yield and the yield of milk components increased (1.19 kg of milk, 0.032 kg of fat, 0.048 kg of protein, and 0.058 kg of lactose/kg of concentrate DM consumed), but neither body condition score nor body weight was affected. After concentrate supplementation ceased and cows returned to a common diet of fresh pasture, milk and milk component yields remained greater for 3 wk in the cows previously supplemented. During this 3-wk period, cows that previously received 3 and 6 kg of concentrate DM per day produced an additional 2.3 and 4.5 kg of milk/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of fat/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of protein/d, and 0.10 and 0.19 kg of lactose/d, respectively, relative to unsupplemented cows. This is equivalent to an additional 0.19 kg of milk, 0.006 kg of fat, 0.006 kg of protein, and 0.008 kg of lactose per 1 kg of concentrate DM previously consumed, which would not be accounted for in the immediate response. As a result of this deferred response to supplements, the total milk production benefit to concentrate supplements is between 7% (lactose yield) and 32% (fat yield) greater

  13. Productive, economic and risk assessment of grazing dairy systems with supplemented cows milked once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Lyons, N; Hendrikse, L; Baudracco, J

    2018-05-01

    Milking cows once a day (OAD) is a herd management practice that may help to reduce working effort and labour demand in dairy farms. However, a decrease in milk yield per cow occurs in OAD systems compared with twice a day (TAD) systems and this may affect profitability of dairy systems. The objective of this study was to assess productive and economic impact and risk of reducing milking frequency from TAD to OAD for grazing dairy systems, using a whole-farm model. Five scenarios were evaluated by deterministic and stochastic simulations: one scenario under TAD milking (TADAR) and four scenarios under OAD milking. The OAD scenarios assumed that milk yield per cow decreased by 30% (OAD30), 24% (OAD24), 19% (OAD19) and 10% (OAD10), compared with TADAR scenario, based on experimental and commercial farms data. Stocking rate (SR) was increased in all OAD scenarios compared to TADAR and two levels of reduction in labour cost were tested, namely 15% and 30%. Milk and concentrate feeds prices, and pasture and crop yields, were allowed to behave stochastically to account for market and climate variations, respectively, to perform risk analyses. Scenario OAD10 showed similar milk yield per ha compared with TADAR, as the increased SR compensated for the reduction in milk yield per cow. For scenarios OAD30, OAD24 and OAD19 the greater number of cows per ha partially compensated for the reduction of milk yield per cow and milk yield per ha decreased 21%, 15% and 10%, respectively, compared with TADAR. Farm operating profit per ha per year also decreased in all OAD scenarios compared with TADAR, and were US$684, US$161, US$ 303, US$424 and US$598 for TADAR, OAD30, OAD24, OAD19, OAD10, respectively, when labour cost was reduced 15% in OAD scenarios. When labour cost was reduced 30% in OAD scenarios, only OAD10 showed higher profit (US$706) than TADAR. Stochastic simulations showed that exposure to risk would be higher in OAD scenarios compared with TADAR. Results showed that OAD

  14. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  15. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  16. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  17. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  18. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  19. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK

  20. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  1. Energy balance in transition cows and its association with health, reproduction and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furken, C; Nakao, T; Hoedemaker, M

    2015-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations at different time periods of the transition period as well as lactation number on metabolism, health, reproduction and milk production in dairy cows. This trial was conducted in a single dairy herd located in Northern Germany. Of the herd, which comprised 330 lactating Holstein cows housed in a free stall barn and fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 83 primiparous and multiparous cows were randomly selected. Animals were checked for body condition score (BCS), locomotion score, calving data, quality of colostrum, reproductive measures, daily rectal temperature of the first 10 days post-partum (p. p.), health data and culling rates up to 200 days in milk (DIM) as well as milk production until 305 DIM. Three different time periods were considered: 3 and 1 week ante partum (a. p.); partus and 1 week p. p.; 3 weeks p. p. Animals with NEFA concentrations ≥ 0.4 mmol/l ante partum had a higher risk of no ovarian activity in week 5 p. p. and of subclinical ketosis post partum than cows with lower NEFA concentrations (p reproduction of dairy cows.

  2. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling, AI conception rate, and overall

  3. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  4. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  5. Milk production parameters in early lactiation: potential risk factors of cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate whether the incidence of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in dairy cows was related to milk production parameters (milk yield, milk fat and protein) in early lactation with special emphasis on the negative energy balance (NEB). The diagnosis of COD was made

  6. Effects of Different Production Systems on Quality, Quantity of Milk and Postpartum Oestrus of Friesian Dairy Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoka, A.I.; Muhuyi, B.W.; Mugo, B.; Ondabu, N.; Ondabu, F.; Inditie, W.D.; Ndagire, H.; Syomiti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Onset and establishment of lactation and estrus cycles are concomitant energy – competing processes.This is because metabolic events essential to milk secretion compete for available nutrients that support processes leading to the first postpartum estrus and subsequent fertility. Net energy deficits greater than 20 Mcal / day have been reported in high yielding dairy cows. The raw material from which milk constituent is derived and the energy for their synthesis in the mammary gland is supplied by the food intake. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the effect of production system on quality, quantity of milk, postpartum estrus and conception. Friesian cows that were seven months in – calf were enrolled for this study from three production systems: Zero grazing, roadside grazed Friesian milking dairy cows were enrolled for this study using random digits. Samples of the feeds were collected at the point of feeding and taken for analysis in a nutrition laboratory. Twenty milliliters of fresh milk was collected from each cow twice a day (Evening and Morning). Milk for progesterone was also collected and progesterone determined using radioimmunoassy to determine reproductive status postpartum. The samples were analyzed to determine milk component using ecomilk machine every morning. Production and reproduction detail of each cow was recorded. The data collected was subjected to GLM of SAS and the means were separated using studentised range test. Time of parturition , production system, age , season and sex of the calf affected the shape of the lactation curve. Cow that calved during drought took too long to cycle unlike the once that calved during the wet season for all the three production systems, the calves born during rainy season were more susceptible to diseases. There was significant variation (P<0.05) in milk production and Protein content within and across production systems. The zero grazed cows had produced most milk whereas the

  7. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk allergy is more common in children than in adults. CaSSim ... adverse reactions to cow's milk protein such as lactose intolerance. .... possible hormonal effects on the reproductive ... formula in humans – such studies are much.

  8. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  9. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  10. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pcows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  12. Genomic analysis of cow mortality and milk production using a threshold-linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, S; Lourenco, D A L; Misztal, I; Lawlor, T J

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genomic evaluation for cow mortality and milk production using a single-step methodology. Genomic relationships between cow mortality and milk production were also analyzed. Data included 883,887 (866,700) first-parity, 733,904 (711,211) second-parity, and 516,256 (492,026) third-parity records on cow mortality (305-d milk yields) of Holsteins from Northeast states in the United States. The pedigree consisted of up to 1,690,481 animals including 34,481 bulls genotyped with 36,951 SNP markers. Analyses were conducted with a bivariate threshold-linear model for each parity separately. Genomic information was incorporated as a genomic relationship matrix in the single-step BLUP. Traditional and genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were obtained with Gibbs sampling using fixed variances, whereas reliabilities were calculated from variances of GEBV samples. Genomic EBV were then converted into single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects. Those SNP effects were categorized according to values corresponding to 1 to 4 standard deviations. Moving averages and variances of SNP effects were calculated for windows of 30 adjacent SNP, and Manhattan plots were created for SNP variances with the same window size. Using Gibbs sampling, the reliability for genotyped bulls for cow mortality was 28 to 30% in EBV and 70 to 72% in GEBV. The reliability for genotyped bulls for 305-d milk yields was 53 to 65% to 81 to 85% in GEBV. Correlations of SNP effects between mortality and 305-d milk yields within categories were the highest with the largest SNP effects and reached >0.7 at 4 standard deviations. All SNP regions explained less than 0.6% of the genetic variance for both traits, except regions close to the DGAT1 gene, which explained up to 2.5% for cow mortality and 4% for 305-d milk yields. Reliability for GEBV with a moderate number of genotyped animals can be calculated by Gibbs samples. Genomic

  13. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  14. Yield and quality of brine-ripened cheeses, production from the milk of jersey and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.T. Chitchyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted in Lusadzor community of Tavoush province in Armenia to determine the processability of milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows for cheese manufacturing. The chemical composition as well as physical–chemical and technological parameters of the milk samples have been analyzed experimentally. In addition, the researchers estimated physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters as well as the yield of the cheese produced from the bulk milk collected from Jersey and Simmental cows. The results of the research proved that the milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows possess the necessary physical–chemical and technological properties and can be used as high-quality raw material for manufacturing brine-ripened (pickled cheese. The highest content of dry matter, observed in the milk collected from Jersey cows, stemmed from the high contents of fat, protein and minerals. The content of lactose (milk sugar and physical characteristics (density, freezing temperature did not vary significantly across the samples. The rennet clots formed in the milk collected from Jersey cows were characterized by higher structural–mechanical parameters and syneresis. Jersey milk possesses the qualitative characteristics that best contribute to high cheese yield, which allows for the most efficient cheese production. Cheese manufactured from Jersey milk is distinguished by less water content, higher fat and protein contents and higher organoleptic indicators, which all together improve the quality of cheese turning it into a highly competitive product.

  15. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  16. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  17. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...

  18. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  19. Milk production of dairy cows as affected by the length of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the duration of the dry period (DP) on the milk yield and milk composition during the following lactation. Milk performance records of 561 Holstein cows, with a previous DP from the Elsenburg Research Farm obtained from the National Milk Recording Scheme, were ...

  20. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists......The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach...

  2. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  3. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  4. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Schanler, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J

    2014-01-01

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (pmilk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants.

  5. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S R O; Chaves, A V; Deighton, M H; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Morris, G L; Wales, W J; Moate, P J

    2018-03-01

    Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition, and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT). All cows were offered 6.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of crushed corn, 2.0 kg of DM/d of cold-pressed canola, and 0.2 kg of DM/d of a mineral mix. In addition, cows fed the CON diet were offered 14.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes; cows fed the ALH diet were offered 10.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 4.0 kg of DM/d of almond hulls; and cows on the CIT diet were offered 11.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 3.0 kg of DM/d of ensiled citrus pulp. Milk yield was measured daily and milk composition was measured on 4 d of each week. Individual cow methane emissions were measured by a sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique on d 24 to 28 of the experiment. The mean milk yield of cows fed the CON diet (27.4 kg/d) was greater than the mean milk yield of cows fed the ALH diet (24.6 kg/cow per day), whereas the mean milk yield of cows fed the CIT diet (26.2 kg/cow per day) was not different from the mean milk yield from cows fed the other 2 diets. Dietary treatment did not influence the concentrations of milk fat, protein, and lactose or fat yields, but the mean protein yield from cows fed the CON diet (0.87 kg/d) was greater than that from cows fed the ALH diet (0.78 kg/d) but not different to those fed the CIT diet (0.85 kg/d). In general, we found no differences in the proportion of individual fatty acids in milk. The mean pH of ruminal fluid from cows offered the CON diet was not

  7. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    . Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...... of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content......Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties...

  8. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...... of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content...

  9. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  10. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  11. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  12. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Feed Supplementation in Friesien Holstein Crossbreed Cows at the First Quarter on the Production and Quality of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharyono; Hardani, S. N. W.; Sitoresmi, P. D.; Adiarto

    2018-02-01

    Nine heads of dairy cows were used in the study. The dairy cows were in 7-8 months pregnant condition, lactation II and were expected calving soon.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of feed supplementation to increase the production and quality of milk. The feeding treatment was divided into 3 groups, G1 (control) given the usual feed given by livestock owners, G11 was given GI+500 g UMMB/h/d and G111 was given GI + 500 g MFS/h/d. Variables observed were feed and nutritional consumption, average milk production, milk quality, cumulative milk production, average 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) production, peak milk production. The experimental design used a completely randomized design of direct pattern, continued by Duncan’s new multiple range test (DMRT) if there were a significant difference of variable values between treatments. The results showed that the addition of dietary supplement significantly affected the mean consumption of crude protein between GIII and G1 and G11, respectively 1.22 kg/d versus 0.99 and 0.33 kg/d. The average milk production was also influenced by the addition of dietary supplement that was between G1; G11 and G111, respectively 9.55; 10.69 and 11.85 l/d. Cumulative milk and 4% FCM production were also significantly different at P milk production.

  14. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  15. Relation of chemical composition of milk with the level of production stage of lactation and parity order cows crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Fernandes Cabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical composition of the raw milk of crossbred cows in different production levels and influence of parity order and stage of lactation on milk chemical composition of high producing cows. The search was conducted in the municipality of Rio Verde in southwestern Goiás, 784 samples were collected from raw milk of crossbred cows in experiment I and were divided into three levels of production. In the second experimental procedure, the samples resulted in 657 samples of raw milk, being divided into 4 stages of lactation stage of the cows and divided into eight parity order in which first-calf heifers corresponded to first order, and multiparous cows from the second until the eighth creates. For analysis of variance and mean comparison was used lineation all casualized and we used the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the software SISVAR. The different levels of production resulted in physico-chemical differences of the constituents of milk, thus the percentages found may be related not only the level but also at the stage of lactation and parity order of the animals.

  16. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  17. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP. Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH.

  18. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, S; Bovenhuis, H; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Visker, M H P W

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators of methane production based on milk fatty acids have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variation for predicted methane yields. The milk fat composition of 1,905 first-lactation Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows was used to investigate 3 different predicted methane yields (g/kg of DMI): Methane1, Methane2, and Methane3. Methane1 was based on the milk fat proportions of C17:0anteiso, C18:1 rans-10+11, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:1 cis-13 (R(2)=0.73). Methane2 was based on C4:0, C18:0, C18:1 trans-10+11, and C18:1 cis-11 (R(2)=0.70). Methane3 was based on C4:0, C6:0, and C18:1 trans-10+11 (R(2)=0.63). Predicted methane yields were demonstrated to be heritable traits, with heritabilities between 0.12 and 0.44. Breeding can, thus, be used to decrease methane production predicted based on milk fatty acids. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  20. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  1. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior and milk production of buffalo cows as affected by housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, G; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; Bilancione, A; Di Francia, A; Napolitano, F

    2009-03-01

    To verify the effect of 2 housing systems (with and without a pool and an ample outdoor lot) on behavior and milk yield, 45 lactating buffalo cows were group-housed in a free stall open-sided barn with concrete floor where they received 10 m(2)/head as space allowance (group NP); 43 cows were group-housed in a similar barn, but had access to an outdoor yard (36 m(2)/head) and a concrete pool of 208 m(2) (group WP). Animals were subjected to 8 sessions of instantaneous scan sampling at approximately 10-d intervals. Behavioral variables were expressed as proportions of subjects observed in each category of posture and activity. In addition, rapid behaviors such as agonistic, social, and reproductive interactions, social licking, and self-grooming were recorded continuously. These variables were expressed as number of interactions per animal. At the end of each hour of observation, temperature and relative humidity were recorded. In WP the proportion of animals observed wallowing was 0.476 +/- 0.034, whereas lower proportions were observed standing (0.389 +/- 0.029) or lying (0.141 +/- 0.021) outside the pool. In NP the proportions of animals observed standing and lying were 0.452 +/- 0.042 and 0.548 +/- 0.042, respectively. A significant relationship between mean temperatures recorded on observation days and proportion of animals in the pool was observed (r(s) = 0.41). Fewer animals from group WP were observed idling compared with buffaloes from group NP (0.44 +/- 0.024 vs. 0.509 +/- 0.024, respectively), whereas more WP animals were involved in investigative activities than NP cows (0.099 +/- 0.009 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.009, respectively). A greater number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling) and social lickings were observed in group WP than in group NP (0.120 +/- 0.010 vs. 0.067 +/- 0.010, and 0.151 +/- 0.018 vs. 0.090 +/- 0.018, respectively). The WP buffalo cows had a greater milk yield than NP cows (11.73 +/- 0.31 vs. 10.78 +/- 0.28 kg/d, respectively

  3. Production optimization of probiotic soft cheese made from goat's and cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Drgalić

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine optimal rennet share and fat content in milk for probiotic soft cheeseproduction made from goat's and cow's milk using DVS mixed probiotic culture ABT-4 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus, with desirable sensory properties, which will be acceptable by consumers. The best sensory scores had samples of probiotic soft cheese produced in laboratory conditions from milk with 1% of milk fat, pasteurized at 65°C/30 min., fermented at 38°C with 2% culture. To achieve characteristic consistency of traditional soft cheese, 0.01% of rennet was added to goat's milk. Probiotic soft cheese made from cow's and goat's milk, produced under optimal conditions, were 100% acceptable by the tested consumers.

  4. A model of milk production in lactating dairy cows in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I R; France, J; Cullen, B R

    2016-02-01

    A generic daily time-step model of a dairy cow, designed to be included in whole-system pasture simulation models, is described that includes growth, milk production, and lactation in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics. It is a development of a previously described animal growth and metabolism model that describes animal body composition in terms of protein, water, and fat, and energy dynamics in relation to growth requirements, resynthesis of degraded protein, and animal activity. This is further developed to include lactation and fetal growth. Intake is calculated in relation to stage of lactation, pasture availability, supplementary feed, and feed quality. Energy costs associated with urine N excretion and methane fermentation are accounted for. Milk production and fetal growth are then calculated in relation to the overall energy and nitrogen dynamics. The general behavior of the model is consistent with expected characteristics. Simulations using the model as part of a whole-system pasture simulation model (DairyMod) are compared with experimental data where good agreement between pasture, concentrate and forage intake, as well as milk production over 3 consecutive lactation cycles, is observed. The model is shown to be well suited for inclusion in large-scale system simulation models. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal......Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role...... in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW...

  6. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  7. Short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency during the first 21 days of lactation on production and reproductive performance in high-lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Cohen, M; Doekes, J J

    2017-01-01

    We examined short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency (HMF) for the first 21 days of lactation. The study included 122 Israeli Holstein cows - 32 pregnant heifers, 40 cows in second lactation and 50 cows in >second lactation. Heifers were paired according to predicted transmitting ability and cows according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, age, days in milk and expected calving date. Thin cows (body condition score second lactation cows relative to their control counterparts (-0.37%); ECM production was also higher in 6× milking first and second lactation (7.6% and 5%, respectively) but not for >second lactation cows. Furthermore, HMF had long-lasting effects, expressed as significantly higher milk production through the succeeding lactation in the previous first lactation cows (10%); a tendency toward significance in the second lactation cows relative to the controls (4.7%), but a deleterious effect on the >second lactation cows, reflected by lower milk production (-5.25%) than in controls; similar patterns were found for the ECM. For the entire 305 days of lactation, fat and protein yields were higher for first and second lactation cows, whereas protein yield for >second lactation cows was lower in the 6× milking v. Given that HMF during the first 21 days of first or second lactation increases milk and ECM yields throughout the concurrent and successive lactation with no adverse effect on energy balance, mastitis, metabolic diseases or reproduction, it seems to be economically beneficial. However, caution should be paid for >second lactation cows due to absence of significant effect in the entire of the first HMF applied lactation and the deleterious effect in the succeeding lactation.

  8. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  9. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  10. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly alloca...

  11. Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production in Finnish Ayrshire cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production traits were estimated from a field data set of 28362 Finnish Ayrshire cows, using REML methodology and animal model. Studied body weight traits included heifer and mature live weight, estimated based on

  12. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  13. Effect of feeding biotin on milk production and hoof health in lactating dairy cows: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, I J; Rabiee, A R

    2011-03-01

    Objectives of this study were to critically review randomized controlled trials, evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation with biotin on milk yield and composition and hoof health in lactating dairy cows, explore sources of heterogeneity among studies, and evaluate publication bias. Quantitative assessments can increase the statistical power with which we study the effect of treatments, such as biotin, on outcomes. A total of 9 papers, with 6 production and 3 hoof health studies, met the eligibility criteria for meta-analysis. Eight studies evaluated various hoof lesions in biotin-supplemented cows that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Eleven comparisons were made of milk production responses to biotin treatment. Data extracted included the number of cows in control and treatment groups, measures of variance of responses (standard error or standard deviation) and P-values. Other data obtained included the duration of treatment before and after calving, parity, breed of cow, type and dose of biotin, delivery method of supplementation, and types of diets. Biotin increased milk production by 1.29 kg per head per day (95% confidence interval=0.35 to 2.18 kg) with no evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)=0.0%). Treatment did not affect milk fat or protein percentages, and a trend to increase fat and protein yields was observed. Milk production and composition results were not influenced by duration of treatment before calving, parity, or diet type. Assessment of biotin supplementation on hoof health indicated that more studies had improved rather than negative or neutral outcomes. The effect of biotin treatment on milk production was relatively large and the effects on fat and protein yields, although not significant, were consistent in direction and magnitude with the milk response. The hoof health responses to biotin should encourage further studies to more effectively define the nature of these responses using consistent criteria for examination of hoof conditions

  14. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  15. Effect of inhibiting the lactogenic signal at calving on milk production and metabolic and immune perturbations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, N; Ollier, S; Beaudoin, F; Blouin, R; Lacasse, P

    2017-07-01

    During the periparturient period, the abrupt increase in energy demand for milk production often induces metabolic and immunological disturbances in dairy cows. Our previous work has shown that reducing milk output by milking once a day or incompletely in the first few days of lactation reduces these disturbances. The aim of this study was to reduce metabolic and immunological disturbances by limiting milk production during the first week of lactation by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin. Twenty-two fresh cows received 8 i.m. injections of the prolactin-release inhibitor quinagolide (QUIN; 2 mg) or water as a control (CTL). The first injection was given just after calving, and the subsequent 7 injections were given every 12 h. Milk production was measured until d 28 after calving. Blood samples were taken from d 1 (calving) to d 5 and then on d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 to measure concentrations of urea, phosphorus, calcium, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and prolactin. Other blood samples were taken on d 2, 5, 10, and 28 to analyze oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and the effect of the serum on the lymphoproliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donor cows. Blood prolactin concentration was lower from d 2 to 5 but higher from d 10 to 28 in the QUIN cows than in the CTL cows. Milk production was lower from d 2 to 6 in the QUIN cows than in the CTL cows (24.3 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/d on average, respectively). We observed no residual effect of quinagolide on milk production after d 6. During the first week of lactation, blood glucose and calcium concentrations were higher and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was lower in the QUIN cows than in the CTL cows. Blood NEFA, urea, and phosphorus concentrations were not affected by the treatment. At d 2 and 5, the phagocytosis ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was not affected by treatment; however, quinagolide injection enhanced the proportion of cells

  16. The effect of concentrate allocation on traffic and milk production of pasture-based cows milked by an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, F; Froidmont, E; Shortall, J; Hornick, J L; Dufrasne, I

    2017-11-01

    Increased economic, societal and environmental challenges facing agriculture are leading to a greater focus on effective way to combine grazing and automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the fundamental aspects of robotic milking is cows' traffic to the AMS. Numerous studies have identified feed provided, either as fresh grass or concentrate supplement, as the main incentive for cows to return to the robot. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentrate allocation on voluntary cow traffic from pasture to the robot during the grazing period, to highlight the interactions between grazed pasture and concentrate allocation in terms of substitution rate and the subsequent effect on average milk yield and composition. Thus, 29 grazing cows, milked by a mobile robot, were monitored for the grazing period (4 months). They were assigned to two groups: a low concentrate (LC) group (15 cows) and a high concentrate (HC) group (14 cows) receiving 2 and 4 kg concentrate/cow per day, respectively; two allocations per day of fresh pasture were provided at 0700 and 1600 h. The cows had to go through the AMS to receive the fresh pasture allocation. The effect of concentrate level on robot visitation was calculated by summing milkings, refusals and failed milkings/cow per day. The impact on average daily milk yield and composition was also determined. The interaction between lactation number and month was used as an indicator of pasture availability. Concentrate allocation increased significantly robot visitations in HC (3.60±0.07 visitations/cow per day in HC and 3.10±0.07 visitations/cow per day in LC; Pcow per day were similar in both groups (LC: 2.37±0.02/day and HC: 2.39±0.02/day; Ns). The average daily milk yield over the grazing period was enhanced in HC (22.39±0.22 kg/cow per day in HC and 21.33±0.22 kg/cow per day in LC; Pcows.

  17. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gratton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71 and HOMI (15.7 kg OM were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d, milk fat yield (742 g/d and milk protein yield (667 g/d were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  18. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-06-08

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  19. Strategic supplementation of cassava top silage to enhance rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Viennasay, Bounnaxay; Phesatcha, Burarat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2018-04-19

    High-quality protein roughage is an important feed for productive ruminants. This study examined the effects of strategic feeding of lactating cows with cassava (Manihot esculenta) top silage (CTS) on rumen fermentation, feed intake, milk yield, and quality. Four early lactating crossbred dairy cows (75% Holstein-Friesian and 25% Thai) with body weight (BW) 410 ± 30 kg and milk yield 12 ± 2 kg/day were randomly allotted in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to four different supplementation levels of CTS namely, 0, 0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 kg/day of dry matter (DM). Strategic supplementation of CTS significantly affected ruminal fermentation end-products, especially increased propionate production, decreased protozoal population and suppressed methane production (P < 0.05). Increasing the CTS supplementation level substantially enhanced milk yield and the 3.5% FCM from 12.7 to 14.0 kg/day and from 14.6 to 17.2 kg/day (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented group and for the 2.25 kg/day supplemented group, respectively. We conclude that high-quality protein roughage significantly enhances rumen fermentation end-products, milk yield, and quality in dairy cows.

  20. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  1. Milk production of dairy cows as affected by the length of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... Differences between means were obtained using the pair-wise comparison of ... Furthermore, cows produced less (P <0.05) milk with a high protein content when .... Effets de la reduction de la durée de la periode seche ou.

  2. Milk Production of Lactating Cows Fed Pangola Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant and Fresh Cut Pangola Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Buaphan, Sirirat; Boon-ek, Lertchatand; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Ten crossbred Holstein lactating cows of mid-lactation and similar body score condition were balanced across the 2 treatments containing Group 1: 5 cows given fresh cut Pangola grass and Group 2: 5 cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant, under Group Comparison Design. They were also provided with an exact amount of 1 kg meal concentrate to 1 kg of milk produced. Mineral supplement and water were supplied free choice. The results did show that the cows in Group 1 had significantly higher (P<0.05) roughage and total dry matter intake than did the cows in Group 2. However, milk production in Group 2 appeared to have a non-significant higher amount, the concentrations of Blood urea nitrogen, Blood glucose and Triiodothyronine were not significant different between groups. The body weight change increased in both groups. It can concluded that cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant seemed to have higher Digestibility Co-efficiency due to the high efficiency of silage innoculant fermentation. Then, silage quality would be improved by mean of silage innoculant application.

  3. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  4. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kovanlıkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1 received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2 received three drenches at calving, 24h after calving and 7 days after calving. The cows in treatment 3 (T3 were the control. Each drench contained 143g of calcium as calcium propionate (0.68kg. Parameters studied were serum calcium, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations, dry matter intake (DMI, BCS, milk production (MP, incidence of retained placenta (RP and metritis. Milk fever developed in 5 of 8 cows, in 3 of 8 cows and in 3 of 8 cows in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, at calving. There was no cow with milk fever in T1 and T2 at 4h after second drench (about 28h after calving but 3 of 8 cows in T3 had still milk fever at this time. The cows receiving two drenches recovered from milk fever in a shorter term as compared to the cows in T3. There were no differences among treatments for DMI, BCS, MP, RP, serum glucose and NEFA concentrations during the experimental period. There was no difference for metritis between T1 and T3 but incidence of metritis in T2 was significantly lower as compared to T3 (P<0.05. Two drenches of calcium propionate were beneficial in treating milk fever and three drenches of calcium propionate were considered to have had a preventive effect for metritis.

  5. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  6. Lactation Curve Pattern and Prediction of Milk Production Performance in Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jingar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data pertaining to 11728 test-day daily milk yields of normal and mastitis Karan Fries cows were collected from the institute herd and divided as mastitis and nonmastitis and parity-wise. The data of lactation curves of the normal and mastitis crossbred cows was analyzed using gamma type function. FTDMY in normal and mastitis cows showed an increasing trend from TD-1 to TD-4 and a gradual decrease (P<0.01 thereafter until the end of lactation (TD-21 in different parities. The FTDMY was maximum (peak yield in the fourth parity. Parity-wise lactation curve revealed a decrease in persistency, steeper decline in descending slope (c, and steeper increase in ascending slope (b from 1st to 5th and above parity. The higher coefficient of determination (R2 and lower root mean square error (RMSE indicated goodness and accuracy of the model for the prediction of milk prediction performance under field conditions. Clinical mastitis resulted in a significantly higher loss of milk yield (P<0.05. The FTDMY was maximum (P<0.05 in the fourth parity in comparison to the rest of parity. It is demonstrated that gamma type function can give the best fit lactation curve in normal and mastitis infected crossbred cows.

  7. Retrospective evaluation of milk production and culling risk following either surgical, toggle-pin suture or conservative treatment of left displaced abomasum in Chilean dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, P; Romero, C; Pithua, P; Marin, M P; Pinedo, P; Duchens, M

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To describe milk yield and culling risk in cows diagnosed with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) treated either conservatively, by right flank pyloric omentopexy, or rolling and toggling, compared with normal herdmates from four Chilean dairy herds. METHODS Historical records were obtained from four commercial dairy farms located in Central Chile for cows with a history of LDA between 2010 and 2012, and healthy herdmates. Cows with LDA were categorised into three groups: cows treated with right omentopexy (ST, n=58), cows treated by toggle suturing (TT, n=15) and cows treated conservatively (CT, n=56). Control cows (n=129) were selected from unaffected cows, matched by days in milk (DIM), parity and herd with affected cows. Groups were compared for risk of culling up to 300 DIM and for milk production up to 5 months of lactation using survival and Cox proportional hazard models and mixed models for repeated measures, respectively. RESULTS Compared with cows in the Control group, the risk of being culled up to 300 DIM was 9.1 (SE 0.62) times greater in ST cows, 10.4 (SE 0.68) times greater in TT cows, and 37.3 (SE 0.61) times greater in CT cows (pcows in the Control group, mean daily milk production was 23.3 (SE 1.5) kg less in ST cows, 15.3 (SE 1.6) kg less in TT cows, and 30.1 (SE 1.3) kg less in CT cows (pCows in four dairy herds in central Chile diagnosed and treated for LDA produced significantly less milk and had a higher risk of culling than healthy herdmates. Although cows treated surgically or with toggle suture never recovered to the extent of healthy cows, they produced more milk than cows treated conservatively. However, the retrospective nature of the data, the inclusion of only four herds and the non-random allocation to treatments means that these conclusions cannot be extrapolated to the overall dairy cattle population in Chile.

  8. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances.......Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of each...... elevated heart rate and significant loss of body weight and condition compared with the combination of 4X and bST. As a result, treatments were discontinued, on an individual cow basis, before completion of this 6-week phase. Time on experiment did not differ between HT and LT. The results do not support...

  9. Association of clinical signs after acute Schmallenberg virus infection with milk production and fertility in Swiss dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Isabel; Wüthrich, Marianne; Meylan, Mireille; van den Borne, Bart H P; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud

    2017-10-01

    Since its first occurrence in August 2011 in Germany and the Netherlands, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) spread rapidly across Europe, where it caused production losses and abortions in ruminants as well as congenital malformations in the offspring of affected animals. Several studies have investigated the impact of SBV on fertility and production parameters in dairy cows at herd level. However, the impact of clinical disease at the animal level remained undetermined. This study aimed at estimating the impact of clinical disease during and after an infection with SBV on production and fertility parameters in individual Swiss dairy cows. Sixty-seven case and twenty-four control herds were selected according to whether cows had been showing clinical signs indicative of SBV during the epidemic from July to December 2012 in Switzerland. Of these 91 farms, production and fertility data from 388 cows with clinical signs from case herds were collected over a time period of four years, and compared to data from 932 cows without clinical signs originating from case or control herds. Milk yield, somatic cell count, number of inseminations and non-return at day 56 were analysed by means of hierarchical multivariable regression analysis. A significant drop in milk yield was observed in all groups during the SBV epidemic compared to the time before the infection, which amounted to 1.9kg per test day for clinical animals, 1.1kg for non-clinical animals from case herds and 0.6kg for non-clinical animals from control herds. A prolonged effect on milk yield was observed in clinical cows for about one year, suggesting that animals with clinical disease might not return to their previous milk production level in the current lactation after an acute infection with SBV. Clinical animals showed a significantly higher somatic cell count during the epidemic compared to the time before the infection. The number of inseminations per cow and production cycle was higher for clinical animals

  10. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2018-01-01

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Milk production and composition, nitrogen utilization, and grazing behavior of late-lactation dairy cows as affected by time of allocation of a fresh strip of pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, R E; Tavendale, M; Otter, D; Schwendel, B H; Lowe, K; Gregorini, P; Pacheco, D

    2017-07-01

    Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89.5 vs. 88.9%), and water-soluble carbohydrate (10.9 vs. 7.6%) concentrations and lesser crude protein (20.5 vs. 22.2%) and neutral detergent fiber (48.8 vs. 50.4%) concentrations compared with a.m. herbage. Total fatty acids (FA), α-linolenic acid, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were greater in a.m. herbage, whereas monounsaturated FA were greater in p.m. herbage. Estimates of herbage DM intake did not differ among treatments. Daily milk yields and milk fat and milk protein concentrations were similar among treatments, whereas milk fat (684 vs. 627 g/cow), milk protein (545 vs. 505 g/cow), and milk solids (milk fat + milk protein) yields (1,228 vs. 1,132 g/cow) tended to be greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Rumenic acid and total PUFA in milk were greater for cows on a.m. herbage, whereas oleic acid was greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Estimates of urinary N excretion (g/d) did not differ among treatments, but urinary N concentrations were greater for cows on a.m. herbage (5.85 vs. 5.36 g/L). Initial herbage mass (HM) available (kg of DM/ha) and instantaneous HM disappearance rates (kg of DM/ha and kg of DM/h) did not differ, but fractional disappearance rates (0.56 vs. 0.74 per hour for a.m. vs. p.m., respectively) differed. Under the current conditions, timing of pasture strip allocation altered the herbage nutrient supply to cows; allocating a fresh strip of pasture later in the day resulted in moderate increases in milk and milk solids yields

  12. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 2. Cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L; Howard, D C

    2017-02-01

    Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) Programme, there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides from feed to animal products that are for human consumption. A description of the revised MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset is described in this paper. As previously reported for the MODARIA goat milk dataset, quality control has led to the discounting of some references used in IAEA's Technical Report Series (TRS) report 472 (IAEA, 2010). The number of Concentration Ratio (CR) values has been considerably increased by (i) the inclusion of more literature from agricultural studies which particularly enhanced the stable isotope data of both CR and F m and (ii) by estimating dry matter intake from assumed liveweight. In TRS 472, the data for cow milk were 714 transfer coefficient (F m ) values and 254 CR values describing 31 elements and 26 elements respectively. In the MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset, F m and CR values are now reported for 43 elements based upon 825 data values for F m and 824 for CR. The MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset F m values are within an order of magnitude of those reported in TRS 472. Slightly bigger changes are seen in the CR values, but the increase in size of the dataset creates greater confidence in them. Data gaps that still remain are identified for elements with isotopes relevant to radiation protection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of the Types of Milk (Cow, Goat, Soya and Enzymes (Rennet, Papain, Bromelain Toward Cheddar Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariestya Arlene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study the effects of different types of milk and enzymes toward the yield and quality (moisture, ash, protein, fat content, and texture of cheddar cheese and the interaction between those two variables during the process. The types of milk are cow, goat, and soya milk, while the types of enzymes are rennet, papain, and bromelain enzymes. Regarding the procedure, the milk is first pasteurized before CaCl2 and Lactobacillus lactis that acts as the acidifier starter as much as 0.2% (w/v and 0.5% of the milk volume are added respectively. The amount of enzyme added is appropriate for the determination of enzyme dose. The curd is separated from the whey and then 2.5 grams of salt is added to 100 grams of curd. Afterwards, the curd is pressed until the water content decreases (cheese, then ripened for 1 month. The analyses conducted are moisture, ash, protein, fat content, and texture (hardness. The conclusion is the goat milk and the rennet enzyme are the suitable raw material for cheddar cheese production. Furthermore, different types of milk and enzymes affect the yield. However, there is no interaction between the types of milk and enzymes to the yield.

  14. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  15. Direct effects of fermented cow's milk product with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 on human enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, L; Aitoro, R; Nocerino, R; Fierro, C; Bruno, C; Canani, R Berni

    2018-01-29

    Cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 (FM-CBAL74) exerts a preventive effect against infectious diseases in children. We evaluated if this effect is at least in part related to a direct modulation of non-immune and immune defence mechanisms in human enterocytes. Human enterocytes (Caco-2) were stimulated for 48 h with FM-CBAL74 at different concentrations. Cell growth was assessed by colorimetric assay; cell differentiation (assessed by lactase expression), tight junction proteins (zonula occludens1 and occludin), mucin 2, and toll-like receptor (TRL) pathways were analysed by real-time PCR; innate immunity peptide synthesis, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and cathelicidin (LL-37) were evaluated by ELISA. Mucus layer thickness was analysed by histochemistry. FMCBA L74 stimulated cell growth and differentiation, tight junction proteins and mucin 2 expression, and mucus layer thickness in a dose-dependent fashion. A significant stimulation of HBD-2 and LL-37 synthesis, associated with a modulation of TLR pathway, was also observed. FM-CBAL74 regulates non-immune and immune defence mechanisms through a direct interaction with the enterocytes. These effects could be involved in the preventive action against infectious diseases demonstrated by this fermented product in children.

  16. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which ...

  17. The association of plasma glucose, BHBA, and NEFA with postpartum uterine diseases, fertility, and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, M L S; Marques, E C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2017-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the metabolic indicators such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose during the transition period and the development of uterine diseases. In total, 181 Holstein dairy cows were enrolled in the study. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and BHBA concentrations were measured at -50, -6, 3, 7, and 14 days relative to parturition. All cows enrolled in the study were evaluated for retained placenta (RP), metritis, and endometritis. Metritis and RP were diagnosed and treated by trained farm personnel. Clinical endometritis was evaluated by a veterinarian at 35 days in milk using a Metricheck device. We found plasma glucose concentration to be associated with the occurrence of metritis and clinical endometritis. Moreover, cows with an increased calving-to-conception interval (>150 days) presented higher plasma glucose concentrations than cows that became pregnant within the first 150 days, whereas BHBA and NEFA were not associated with the occurrence of any uterine disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used in an attempt to determine the cow-level critical thresholds for the occurrence of metritis, and endometritis. In addition, pairwise comparisons of area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curves for the critical thresholds for glucose, BHBA, and NEFA predicting the same uterine disease were performed. Glucose at 3 days in milk was the best predictor for metritis and endometritis diagnosis, with AUC values of 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed and showed that cows with higher levels of glucose at Day 3 were at 6.6 times higher odds of being diagnosed with metritis, and 3.5 times higher odds of developing clinical endometritis, compared with cows with lower glucose levels. Finally, a simple linear regression analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between daily milk yield in the first and second weeks of

  18. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is primarily caused by dryness of the skin and is linked to hereditary factors. However ... in Table I. FPI disorders are typically cow's milk and soya protein induced3 but may also ... fish, chicken, turkey, corn and vegetables. FPI enteropathy ...

  19. Use of radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of post-partum ovaric activity in high and low milk production in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, P.; Paneluisa, S.; Arcos, E.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determinate the post-partum ovarian activity in milking cows of high and low production in one farm of ecuadorian highland. For this experiment was necessary to use 48 animals between second and sith calving, the milk samples were collected according one pre-stablished protocol and the same was: one sample 5th or 6th days, twice a week until the cows were pregnacy and 180 days after parturitium if the cow is open. Additional data were compiled in each farm and both the results of the progesterone by RIA were used to determinate the diferents reproductive parameters in the post-partum of the cows. The most of reproductives parameters in the post-partum of the cows in the both group didn't have significance but the conception rate, services per conception, number of pregnacy cows and percentaje of non visibles heats had one high significance between the treatments

  20. Genetic parameters of blood β-hydroxybutyrate predicted from milk infrared spectra and clinical ketosis, and their associations with milk production traits in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, T K; Svendsen, M; Kowalski, Z M; Ådnøy, T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) predicted from milk spectra and for clinical ketosis (KET), and to examine genetic association of blood BHB with KET and milk production traits (milk, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents). Data on milk traits, KET, and milk spectra were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System with legal permission from TINE SA (Ås, Norway), the Norwegian Dairy Association that manages the central database. Data recorded up to 120 d after calving were considered. Blood BHB was predicted from milk spectra using a calibration model developed based on milk spectra and blood BHB measured in Polish dairy cows. The predicted blood BHB was grouped based on days in milk into 4 groups and each group was considered as a trait. The milk components for test-day milk samples were obtained by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometer with previously developed calibration equations from Foss (Hillerød, Denmark). Veterinarian-recorded KET data within 15 d before calving to 120 d after calving were used. Data were analyzed using univariate or bivariate linear animal models. Heritability estimates for predicted blood BHB at different stages of lactation were moderate, ranging from 0.250 to 0.365. Heritability estimate for KET from univariate analysis was 0.078, and the corresponding average estimate from bivariate analysis with BHB or milk production traits was 0.002. Genetic correlations between BHB traits were higher for adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Predicted blood BHB at first test day was moderately genetically correlated with KET (0.469) and milk traits (ranged from -0.367 with protein content to 0.277 with milk yield), except for milk fat content from across lactation stages that had near zero genetic correlation with BHB (0.033). These genetic correlations indicate that a lower BHB is genetically

  1. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  3. Achieving high milk production performance at grass with minimal concentrate supplementation with spring-calving dairy cows: actual performance compared to simulated performance

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, M.; Ruelle, Elodie; Coughlan, F.; Delaby, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of high-profitability grazing systems is to produce milk efficiency from grazed pasture. There is very limited information available on the milk production capacity of dairy cows offered a grass-only diet for the main part of her lactation. In this study, spring-calving dairy cows were managed to achieve high milk production levels throughout the grazing season without supplementation. The calving date of the herd was 12 April; the herd had access to grass as they calved a...

  4. Effect of reducing milk production using a prolactin-release inhibitor or a glucocorticoid on metabolism and immune functions in cows subjected to acute nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, S; Beaudoin, F; Vanacker, N; Lacasse, P

    2016-12-01

    When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows. A total of 23 cows in early/mid-lactation were fed for 5 d at 55.9% of their previous dry matter intake to subject them to acute nutritional stress. After 1 d of feed restriction and for 4 d afterward (d 2 to 5), cows received twice-daily i.m. injections of water (control group; n=8), 2mg of quinagolide (QN group; n=7), or water after a first injection of 20mg of dexamethasone (DEX group; n=8). Feed restriction decreased milk production, but the decrease was greater in the QN and DEX cows than in the control cows on d 2 and 3. As expected, feed restriction reduced the energy balance, but the reduction was lower in the QN cows than in the control cows. Feed restriction decreased plasma glucose concentration and increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations. The QN cows had higher glucose concentration and lower BHB concentration than the control cows. The NEFA concentration was also lower in the QN cows than in the control cows on d 2. Dexamethasone injection induced transient hyperglycemia concomitant with a reduction in milk lactose concentration; it also decreased BHB concentration and decreased NEFA initially but increased it later. Feed restriction and quinagolide injections did not affect the blood concentration or activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), whereas dexamethasone injection increased PMN blood concentration but decreased the proportion of PMN capable of inducing oxidative

  5. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  6. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  8. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  9. Effect of 2 herbal intramammary products on milk quantity and quality compared with conventional and no dry cow therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, K A E; Anderson, K L; Washburn, S P

    2014-01-01

    Dry cow therapy, administered at the end of lactation, is aimed at eliminating current and preventing future intramammary (IMM) bacterial infections and typically involves intramammary administration of antibiotics. Certified organic dairies in the United States are restricted from using antibiotics and must consider an alternative therapy or no dry cow therapy. The current study compared 2 herbal products to conventional dry cow therapy and no treatment for a total of 5 treatments over 2 trials. Trial 1 was conducted over 3 yr on 1 research farm and trial 2 included 4 commercial farms plus the research herd over 2 yr. Treatments included (1) a conventional IMM antibiotic and internal teat sealant (penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin and bismuth subnitrate; CON); (2) an herbal IMM product purported to act as a teat sealant (Cinnatube, New AgriTech Enterprises, Locke, NY; CIN); (3) an herbal IMM product (Phyto-Mast, Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA; P-M); (4) Phyto-Mast and Cinnatube (PC); or (5) no dry cow therapy (NT). Each treatment group was balanced by breed, lactation number, due date, herd, and year. However, the CON treatment was used only in the research herd because of the intent to avoid antibiotic usage on the other 4 farms. Comparisons among treatments included the difference between pre- and posttreatment 305-d mature equivalent milk production (trial 1), somatic cell score change from dry-off to freshening at the cow and quarter levels (trials 1 and 2), and milk microbiology change over the dry period (trial 2). We detected no significant differences among treatments for milk yield differences between the lactation following treatment and the lactation preceding treatment. Changes in somatic cell score from one lactation to the next also did not differ significantly among treatments in either trial. Cure rates were not significantly different among treatments; only 19.6% of all quarters were infected at dry off. The proportion of quarters with new

  10. Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Matteo; Bittante, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA. Compared with morning milk, evening milk had fewer de novo synthetised FA. The detailed FA profile of partially skimmed milk differed little from that of evening whole milk before skimming, but the cream obtained differed from partially skimmed milk and from fresh cheese in about half the FA, due mainly to higher contents of all de novo FA, and lower contents of n-3 and n-6 FA. Fresh cheese and whey had similar FA profiles. The ricotta manufacturing process affected the partition of FA between ricotta and scotta, the FA profile of the latter differing in terms of groups and individual FA from the former, whereas ricotta and fresh cheese had similar composition of FA. In general, there was an increase in medium-chain saturated FA, and a decrease in many polyunsaturated FA during the first 6 months of ripening, but not during the second 6 months. Two-dimensional GC yielded a very detailed and informative FA profile on all the 11 dairy products and by-products analysed.

  11. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  12. Research on Productive Performance and Quality of Milk Obtained from Simmnetal Cows Grown in Agricultural Conditions of Rupea, Brasov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Claudiu Jurco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focussed on the Romanian spotted breed-Simmental type was aimed to evaluating the productive potential and some reproductive indices in the period 2013-2015 in Sona farm from Brasov county. The main indicators taken into consideration to analyze the whole herd were the following: milk yield, milk quality, age of first calving, mammary repose and calving interval. Analyzing milk production, this was increasing from 5439 kg in 2013 to 7400 kg in 2015, with an average for the entire period of 6324.33 kg with 4.23% fat and 3.42% protein. Also the fat and protein content have increased over this period, from 4.13 % for fat and 3.25 % for protein in 2013, to 4.34 % and 3.56 respectively in 2015. Analyzing the main indicators of reproduction for a period of three years it was found that calving interval is on average of 401 days and mammary repose is around of 54 days. It is clearly observed that during this period the production is increasing, this shows that cows from the Sona farm records genetic progress regarding qualitative and quantitative milk production. The research has done much to show the productive potential and popularity of the Romanian spotted breed-Simmental type in Transylvania region.

  13. [Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, H K

    1982-01-01

    Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy (CMPSE) is characterized by the following items: 1. The great majority of affected infants have not been breast fed or only for a few days. Additional risks are immaturity, preceding enteritis, trisomy 21, and abdominal operation in the newborn. 2. Half of the patients become ill during the first two weeks after starting cow's milk formula. The main symptoms are watery, mucus containing diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distension, pallor and rapid weight loss. 3. In CMPSE the small intestinal mucosa shows varying degrees of inflammation and villous atrophy. Bloody stools refer to large bowel affection. 4. CMPSE is always transitory and usually persists for less than one year. Inadequate treatment leads to "severe protracted diarrhea" or "intractable diarrhea" syndrome. Soya-based formula should not be the diet of first choice, since secondary intolerance to soya proteins will frequently develop. Exclusive breast feeding during the first months of life is the best prophylaxis of CMPSE.

  14. Spatially explicit estimation of heat stress-related impacts of climate change on the milk production of dairy cows in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Moorby, Jon M.; Pásztor, László; Foyer, Christine H.

    2018-01-01

    Dairy farming is one the most important sectors of United Kingdom (UK) agriculture. It faces major challenges due to climate change, which will have direct impacts on dairy cows as a result of heat stress. In the absence of adaptations, this could potentially lead to considerable milk loss. Using an 11-member climate projection ensemble, as well as an ensemble of 18 milk loss estimation methods, temporal changes in milk production of UK dairy cows were estimated for the 21st century at a 25 km resolution in a spatially-explicit way. While increases in UK temperatures are projected to lead to relatively low average annual milk losses, even for southern UK regions (cow), the ‘hottest’ 25×25 km grid cell in the hottest year in the 2090s, showed an annual milk loss exceeding 1300 kg/cow. This figure represents approximately 17% of the potential milk production of today’s average cow. Despite the potential considerable inter-annual variability of annual milk loss, as well as the large differences between the climate projections, the variety of calculation methods is likely to introduce even greater uncertainty into milk loss estimations. To address this issue, a novel, more biologically-appropriate mechanism of estimating milk loss is proposed that provides more realistic future projections. We conclude that South West England is the region most vulnerable to climate change economically, because it is characterised by a high dairy herd density and therefore potentially high heat stress-related milk loss. In the absence of mitigation measures, estimated heat stress-related annual income loss for this region by the end of this century may reach £13.4M in average years and £33.8M in extreme years. PMID:29738581

  15. Spatially explicit estimation of heat stress-related impacts of climate change on the milk production of dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Fodor

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is one the most important sectors of United Kingdom (UK agriculture. It faces major challenges due to climate change, which will have direct impacts on dairy cows as a result of heat stress. In the absence of adaptations, this could potentially lead to considerable milk loss. Using an 11-member climate projection ensemble, as well as an ensemble of 18 milk loss estimation methods, temporal changes in milk production of UK dairy cows were estimated for the 21st century at a 25 km resolution in a spatially-explicit way. While increases in UK temperatures are projected to lead to relatively low average annual milk losses, even for southern UK regions (<180 kg/cow, the 'hottest' 25×25 km grid cell in the hottest year in the 2090s, showed an annual milk loss exceeding 1300 kg/cow. This figure represents approximately 17% of the potential milk production of today's average cow. Despite the potential considerable inter-annual variability of annual milk loss, as well as the large differences between the climate projections, the variety of calculation methods is likely to introduce even greater uncertainty into milk loss estimations. To address this issue, a novel, more biologically-appropriate mechanism of estimating milk loss is proposed that provides more realistic future projections. We conclude that South West England is the region most vulnerable to climate change economically, because it is characterised by a high dairy herd density and therefore potentially high heat stress-related milk loss. In the absence of mitigation measures, estimated heat stress-related annual income loss for this region by the end of this century may reach £13.4M in average years and £33.8M in extreme years.

  16. The effect of dietary supplementation with Aurantiochytrium limacinum on lactating dairy cows in terms of animal health, productivity and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, C A; Morlacchini, M; Keegan, J D; Fusconi, G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich microalgae, Aurantiochytrium limacinum (AURA), on a variety of health and productivity parameters in lactating cows. Twenty-four cows were blocked by parity and number of days in milk and then randomly assigned to a control (CON; n = 12) group with no algal supplementation, or a treatment group (AURA; n = 12) provided with 100 g AURA cow -1  day -1 or 16 g DHA cow -1  day -1 . A variety of health and productivity measurements were taken, and results indicated that supplementation had no negative effects on animal health in terms of somatic cell count, haematological and biochemical blood parameters, while body condition was marginally improved by algal supplementation. No differences were found for the various production parameters measured; however, a tendency towards increased milk production was observed for the AURA group during the final stage of the study (+4.5 kg cow -1  day -1 , day 78-84). The fatty acid profile of milk was improved by supplementation, with significantly lower saturated fatty acids, significantly higher omega-3 fatty acids and an improved omega-3/omega-6 ratio observed when compared to the control group. The amount of DHA in the milk of cows provided 105 g AURA head -1  day -1 was 4.7 mg/100 g milk with a peak transfer efficiency from feed to milk at day 49 of 8.3%. These results indicate that supplementation with 105 g AURA head -1  day -1 resulted in the successful enrichment of milk with DHA without negatively impacting the health or productivity of the animals. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  18. Clean copy association of production diseases with motor activity-sensing devices and milk progesterone concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Ntallaris, T; Routly, J E; Jones, D N; Cameron, J; Holman-Coates, A; Smith, R F; Humblot, P; Dobson, H

    2018-05-31

    We have previously established that the efficiency of identifying oestrus with activity-sensing devices can be compromised by common production diseases; the present study was undertaken to determine how these diseases may affect device readings. A total of 67 Holstein-Friesian cows, >20 days postpartum, were equipped with activity-sensing neck collars and pedometers, and simultaneous milk progesterone profiles were also monitored twice a week. The influences of common production stressors on maximum activity and progesterone values were analysed. Approximately 30% potential oestrus events (low progesterone value between two high values) remained unrecognised by both activity methods, and progesterone values in these animals were higher on the potential day of oestrus when both activity methods did not detect an event (0.043 ± 0.004 versus 0.029 ± 0.004 ng/mL; P = 0.03). Data from a subset of 45 cows (two events each) were subjected to mixed models and multiple regression modelling to investigate associations with production diseases. Cow motor activity was lower in lame cows. Maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus increased as time postpartum and body condition score (BCS) increased. There were also fewer days of low progesterone prior to oestrus associated with increases in BCS and maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus. In conclusion, lameness was associated with lower activity values, but this suppression was insufficient to account for lowered oestrus detection efficiency of either device. However, associations were identified between production diseases and progesterone profiles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Production and quality of milk from Mantiqueira dairy cows feeding on Mombasa grass pasture and receiving different sources of roughage supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Aurélio de Carvalho Peres

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Production and quality of milk from dairy cows grazing exclusively on Mombasa grass pasture, during the spring-summer period and fed roughage supplementations, during the autumn-winter, were evaluated in two consecutive years. The pasture of 11.4 ha was divided into 57 paddocks of 2,000 m² each, including three replications with 19 paddocks each. The pasture was managed with two occupation days and 36 resting days. During the spring-summer period, cows received only grass pasture. In the autumn-winter period, they had access to Mombasa grass pasture and received roughage supplementations (black oat pasture; sorghum silage or sugarcane + urea and pasture every 28 days, alternately. The animals had access to mineral mix and water and received 500 g of concentrated in each of the two milking times. The experimental design used was for response to continuous flow in rotational trial, similar to the Latin square model. In the spring-summer period, the average milk production was 12.2±2.2 and 14.0±3.8 kg/cow per day; for the autumn-winter period, the milk production was 13.5±2.9 and 12.1±2.5 kg/cow per day in the black oat pasture; 11.8±2.5 and 10.9±2.3 kg/cow per day in the sorghum silage and 11.3±1.8 and 8.4±1.5 kg/cow per day in the sugarcane + urea, for 1st and 2nd years evaluated, respectively. The black oat was the roughage supplementation that yielded the highest average daily milk production. There were no differences in the milk chemical composition between roughage supplementations.

  20. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Samuelsson, E G

    1988-01-01

    Five children aged 12-40 months with IgE-mediated adverse reactions to cow milk (immediate onset clinical pattern of cow milk allergy) were orally challenged double-blind in random order with three different milk preparations processed from the same batch of milk 1) raw untreated cow milk, 2......) pasteurized cow milk, 3) homogenized and pasteurized cow milk, and 4) Nutramigen (a commercial hypoallergenic infant formula based on hydrolysed casein) as placebo. Skin prick tests with the same preparations were also performed. On oral challenge the three different processed milk types provoked significant...... and similar allergic reactions in each child, and no adverse reactions followed the challenge with placebo (Nutramigen). Skin prick test with the same milk products were positive in all children and comparable to the results with an extract of purified raw cow milk protein (Soluprick), whereas Nutramigen did...

  2. Bone metabolism in cow milk allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusova, Lubica; Jesenak, Milos; Schudichova, Jela; Banovcin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Children with cow milk allergy are suspected to develop calcium metabolism disturbances. We observed increased markers of bone turnover in these children. Children with cow milk allergy are more prone to develop the disturbances of the bone mineralization even in the first year of life.

  3. Genetic aspects of milk coagulation properties in Italian Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the quota of national production of cow milk destined for cheese yield isabout 73% of total marketable milk (Osservatorio del latte, 2002. Hence, the improvement of renneting propertiesof milk is an important objective for the dairy sector. Favorable conditions of milk reactivity with rennet,curd formation rate and curd strength, as well as curd syneresis, have a positive effect on the wholecheese-making process and, later, on the ripening development of cheese.

  4. EFFECT OF THE PRODUCTION SEASON ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUITABILITY OF MILK OBTAINED FROM INTENSIVE (TMR AND TRADITIONAL FEEDING SYSTEM OF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Brodziak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variations in milk yield and its chemical composition arise mainly from changes in feeding of the cattle in different seasons of the year. A constant quantity of production and a similar quality of the raw material supply farms, where the feeding of cows is uniform throughout the year (TMR and PMR. The study included 1211 samples of milk obtained in the summer season (663 and in the winter season (548 from cows maintained in traditional and intensive (TMR system of production. Following parameters were determined: content of fat, protein, casein, lactose and dry matter; acidity (pH value; heat stability; rennet coagulation time; content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and fatty acid profiles. Cows fed in the TMR system produced significantly (P≤0.01 more milk and of a better chemical composition regardless of the season of production. Milk obtained from cows fed traditionally had the most profitable protein to fat ratio (0,90 and the shortest time of rennet coagulation (3:26 min. It contained significantly (P≤0.01 more whey proteins and had better fatty acid profiles for health. In addition the differences were usually larger in the summer season than in the winter season. It is possible to state that in summer season, when the animals are maintained on the pasture, milk obtained from cows fed traditionally is more suitable for processing and contains more biologically active substances. The daily milk yield and other important quality features of milk, significant interactions between season of production and system of feeding were revealed.

  5. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  6. True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility

  7. Summer "Stress" and Reproduction Indicators in the Cow for Milk Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ermal Yzeiraj; Vangjel Ceroni; Erinda Lika

    2018-01-01

    The cow breeding sector is evolving continuously in response to the rapid growth in demand for livestock products. Increased environment temperature in summer season affect the overall clinical indicators and displays negative consequences on the production and reproduction of animals. In condition of our country, the greatest impact of heat stress in summer affect in the overall clinical indicators. Animal temperature increase by 0.2 to 0.4 ° C, frequency of breathing increases by 3.2 to 4.3...

  8. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis......Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...

  9. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  10. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  11. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  12. Adaptive models for online estimation of individual milk yield response to concentrate intake and milking interval length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, G.; Engel, B.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Automated feeding and milking of dairy cows enables the application of individual cow settings for concentrate supply and milking frequency. Currently, general settings are used, based on knowledge about energy and nutrient requirements in relation to milk production at the group level. Individual

  13. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energ...... silage aNDFom digestibility improved daily milk yield with 82 g (P = 0.04) and daily weight gain with 12 g (P = 0.03). Therefore, aNDFom digestibility is an important trait in maize used as whole crop silage for dairy cows.......The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...

  14. Effects of different feeding time and frequency on metabolic conditions and milk production in heat-stressed dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L.; Petrera, F.; Stefanini, L.; Abeni, F.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-moderate HS. During the hotter days, cows receiving M treatment showed higher values of RT (38.97 °C vs 38.68 °C and 38.62 °C, in ME and E) and BR (71.44 vs 66.52 and 65.26 breaths min-1, in ME and E), a.m. plasma glucose was lower in M (3.69 vs 3.83 and 3.83 mmol L-1, in ME and E) and a.m. plasma urea was lower in E (4.82 vs 5.48 and 5.35 mmol L-1, in M and ME). Milk yield was unaffected by FM, as well as milk composition and cheese-making properties. Only milk protein content and yield were higher in M (3.42 vs 3.36 and 3.27 g 100 mL-1; and 1.11 vs 1.08 and 1.02 kg day-1, for ME and E). Our results on cow physiology indicate that M seems a less suitable FM to match cow welfare during the summer season.

  15. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  16. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    . The primiparous cows used the extra energy to grow and gain weight, but not to produce more milk. After the shift in diet, the treatment had little short-term carryover effect on milk yield or LW, but it affected the slopes of some curves. From 0 to 50 d from shift, milk fat content of the LD-LD cows decreased...... faster than that of the HD-LD cows whereas milk lactose increased. From 250 to 350 d from shift, the energy-corrected milk decreased faster for the HD-LD cows than for the LD-LD cows. The lactose content in milk decreased faster for the LD-LD cows than for the HD-LD cows, and the fat content in milk...

  17. Short communication. Behavioural activities of two dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian vs. Jersey x Holstein-Friesian in two milk production systems (grazing vs. confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Roca-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the behavioural activities of two cow genotypes, Holstein-Friesian (HF vs. Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (Jx, when managed within two production systems, a low inputs grazing (G system vs. a high inputs confinement (C system. Eighty spring calving cows (HF, n=40 and Jx, n=40, from AFBI Hillsborough (Northern Ireland experimental dairy cattle, were randomly assigned to one of two production systems (G, n=40 and C, n=40 in a block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of four treatments (HF-G, HF-C, Jx-G and Jx-C. Cow behavioural activities (feeding, lying, standing and ruminating were registered on three periods at 20-min intervals, between 16.00-22.00 h and 07.00-14.00 h. Average milk yields (kg cow-1 day-1 were higher (p<0.001 in the C system (27.0 than in the G system (20.1, with differences (p<0.001 between the two cow genotypes (HF, 25.1 vs. Jx, 22.0 kg cow-1 day-1. Milk production system showed an effect on cow behavioural activities. Animals on the G system spent more time (p<0.001 grazing (522 min than those on the C system spent feeding (173 min. Cows on the C system spent more time (p<0.001 lying (C, 411 vs. G, 212 min, standing (C, 236 vs. G, 85 min and ruminating (C, 244 vs. G, 141 min than those on the G system. There were differences between periods for time spent lying (p<0.001, feeding (p<0.05 and ruminating (p<0.001, while time spent standing did not differ between periods. Cow genotype had no effect on any of the behavioural activities.

  18. Direct duplex real-time loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for the simultaneous detection of cow and goat species origin of milk and yogurt products for field use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ju; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2018-04-25

    A multiple loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed to detect cow and goat milk in the field using a portable fluorescence device. For rapid on-site detection, this duplex LAMP assay was used in combination with direct amplification, without DNA extraction. The cow- and goat-specific LAMP primer sets were designed based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and showed specificity against 13 other animal species in the reactions. The sensitivity of the duplex LAMP assay for cow and goat was 0.1 and 1 pg, respectively. The detection limit for both target species in milk mixtures was 2%. This assay successfully amplified and identified the two target species in 24 samples of commercial milk and yogurt products, with 30 min sampling-to-result analysis time. Therefore, this direct duplex real-time LAMP assay is useful for on-site simultaneous detection of cow and goat milk in commercial products, a capability needed to confirm accurate labeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  20. The effect of feed rations containing high moisture crimped corn ensiled with microbial inoculant or chemical additive on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Könyves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of crimped corn preserved either with organic acids or with a microbial inoculant on a range of metabolic and production indicators of dairy cows. Two hundred and sixty in-calf, second and third parity cows were selected into pairs on basis of age, parity, milk production in previous lactation, days in milk and body condition score with the greatest possible conformity within pairs. Cow pairs were assigned into a 2-period crossover experiment (2 × 45 days and kept in separate groups within the same shed. Dietary treatments were TMR with crimped corn preserved with either organic acids (treatment K or microbial inoculant (treatment B. Ten superbly matched cow-pairs were selected to form nucleus pairs for metabolic studies. The preservatives had no effect on the nutrient content of crimped corn. Crimped corn preserved with the microbial inoculant were found mouldy, predominantly with Mucor sp. at a number high enough to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria, and had significantly higher pH and ammonium concentration compared to the chemical treatment. The milk yield of treatment K cows was significantly higher than that of treatment B cows with identical feed intake. Blood beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration was lower and blood aspartate amino transferase activity higher with treatment K compared to treatment B. Results of this study suggest the superiority of total mixed rations containing chemically preserved crimped corn in terms of ammonia and microbiological indicators of crimped corn, significantly higher milk yield, and balanced energy metabolism.

  1. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  2. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sami

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows.Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow.There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and protein percentages

  3. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and protein percentages. The results suggested

  4. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  5. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones ( in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05. In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05. Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution.

  6. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  7. Prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation cows from herds with high milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilie, R H; Hoblet, K H; Weiss, W P; Eastridge, M L; Rings, D M; Schnitkey, G L

    1996-05-01

    To determine prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation Holstein cows during early lactation and pregnant Holstein heifers during late gestation in herds with high milk production. Cross-sectional study. 203 cattle in 13 herbs. Cattle were placed in lateral recumbency to allow visual examination and photography of their hooves. Claws on a forelimb and hind limb were examined on all cattle. Observable categories of lesions considered to be associated with subclinical laminitis in our study included yellow waxy discoloration of the sole, hemorrhage of the sole, separation of the white line, and erosion of the heel. Lesions in at least 1 of the categories were found in all herds. Lesions in all categories were found in 11 of 13 herds. Among claws, hemorrhage of the sole was observed most frequently in the lateral claw of the hoof of the hind limb. When days in milk was treated as a covariate, significant (P < 0.01) differences were detected in the prevalence of lesions between herds. Because the prevalence of lesions differed significantly among herds, it is logical to believe that causative factors and corrective measures also may have differed among herds.

  8. Antibiotic resistance and molecular analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk and dairy products in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M; Luz, Isabelle S; Campos, Ana Paula F; Silva, Wellington M; Barros, Maria Paloma S; Medeiros, Elizabeth S; Freitas, Manuela F L; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sena, Maria J; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the clonal distribution among 94 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk, raw cheese, and a milking machine in 12 dairy farms in northeast Brazil, by analyzing different typing methods and detecting resistance and toxigenic profiles. For the first time, isolates of this region were assessed simultaneously by the polymorphism of the 3'-end coa gene and 16S-23S rDNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, and toxigenic arsenal. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns showed a wider variation (discriminatory index 0.83) than the PCR-based methods, the internal transcribed spacer-PCR proved to be a useful and inexpensive procedure for conducting epidemiological surveys of S. aureus on a regional scale. Each dairy farm had its own resistance profile, and in two herds, 63% of the strains were multiresistant, probably due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in bovine mastitis treatment. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were detected in this study; however, 93.6% of S. aureus strains harbored variable profiles of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei, and sej. Transcriptional analysis revealed that 53.3% of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes actually transcribed, pointing out the food poisoning risk of these dairy products to consumers in the region. Based on the detection of the most prevalent clones in a herd or region, appropriate antibiotic therapy and specific immunization can be used for the treatment and control of staphylococcal mastitis.

  9. Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for milk production of Guzerat cows using orthogonal Legendre polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare random regression models for the estimation of genetic parameters for Guzerat milk production, using orthogonal Legendre polynomials. Records (20,524 of test-day milk yield (TDMY from 2,816 first-lactation Guzerat cows were used. TDMY grouped into 10-monthly classes were analyzed for additive genetic effect and for environmental and residual permanent effects (random effects, whereas the contemporary group, calving age (linear and quadratic effects and mean lactation curve were analized as fixed effects. Trajectories for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled by means of a covariance function employing orthogonal Legendre polynomials ranging from the second to the fifth order. Residual variances were considered in one, four, six, or ten variance classes. The best model had six residual variance classes. The heritability estimates for the TDMY records varied from 0.19 to 0.32. The random regression model that used a second-order Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect, and a fifth-order polynomial for the permanent environmental effect is adequate for comparison by the main employed criteria. The model with a second-order Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect, and that with a fourth-order for the permanent environmental effect could also be employed in these analyses.

  10. Dairy production and sources of cellular variability of milk of cow's in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of milk, accompanied by an analysis , so some quantitative and qualitative milk parameters that a number of physiological and zootechnical factors of cellular evolution, was performed on two large cattle farms conducted in semi-arid coastal ...

  11. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  12. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Ercioglu, Elif; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-05-01

    This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk. SF spectra of cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded between 400-550 nm excitation range with Δλ of 10-100 nm, in steps of 10 nm. The data obtained for ∆λ = 10 nm were utilised to classify the samples using principal component analysis (PCA), and detect the adulteration level of buffalo milk with cow milk using partial least square (PLS) methods. Successful discrimination of samples and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with limit of detection value (LOD) of 6% are achieved with the models having root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2, 7, and 4%, respectively. The results reveal the potential of SF spectroscopy for rapid authentication of buffalo milk.

  14. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning ( P milk production during spring and summer ( P < 0.01).

  15. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 ) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistency of milk yield in Indonesian Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Putra, F. Y.; Nugroho, T.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Milk yield is an important trait in dairy industry; thus, information regarding this phenotype is essential to measure the productivity of a farm. Total milk yield in one lactation period was often predicted using information from samples collected within certain time intervals. The rate of change of milk production between two-time intervals is defined as persistency. This article aims to estimate the persistency of milk yield between lactation 1, 2 and 3 in Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH) cows. Data was collected from Limpakuwus stable, Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre, Central Java Indonesia. Records were obtained from cows which started lactating on 2013 until the end of third lactation around the beginning of 2016. Milk yield from the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) lactations of 21 cows were recorded in kilograms. Samples were collected in 30 days basis interval started from the 10th day of lactation up to the 10th month. In this population, the cows first calving was around February – April 2013; while the second and third calving occurred all over the relevant year. The mean of milk yield for L1, L2 and L3 were 17.77±3.70, 16.09±5.17 and 13.73±4.02 Kg respectively. The peak of milk yields was achieved at the second month of the lactation for L1, L2 and L3. The persistency from the second to the tenth test days were 97, 93 and 94% for L1, L2 and L3, respectively. Milk yield persistency is representing ability of cow in maintain milk production after peak during lactation period. The more persistent shows better performance of dairy cattle as well as farm management. For that, persistency value could be used as valuable information in evaluating the management in Indonesian dairy farms.

  17. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  18. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  19. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  20. Effects of dehydrated lucerne and soya bean meal on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion, and methane and nitrogen losses in dairy cows receiving two different forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau, M; Ferlay, A; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2014-03-01

    Dehydrated lucerne is used as a protein source in dairy cow rations, but little is known about the effects of lucerne on greenhouse gas production by animals. Eight Holstein dairy cows (average weight: 582 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received diets based on either maize silage (M) or grass silage (G) (45% of diet on dry matter (DM) basis), with either soya bean meal (15% of diet DM) completed with beet pulp (15% of diet DM) (SP) or dehydrated lucerne (L) (30% of diet DM) as protein sources; MSP, ML, GSP and GL diets were calculated to meet energy requirements for milk production by dairy cows and degradable protein for rumen microbes. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not differ among diets (18.0 kg/day DMI); milk production was higher with SP diets than with L diets (26.0 v. 24.1 kg/day), but milk production did not vary with forage type. Milk fatty-acid (FA) composition was modified by both forage and protein sources: L and G diets resulted in less saturated FA, less linoleic acid, more trans-monounsaturated FA, and more linolenic acid than SP and M diets, respectively. Enteric methane (CH4) production, measured by the SF6 tracer method, was higher for G diets than for M diets, but did not differ with protein source. The same effects were observed when CH4 was expressed per kg milk. Minor effects of diets on rumen fermentation pattern were observed. Manure CH4 emissions estimated from faecal organic matter were negatively related to diet digestibility and were thus higher for L than SP diets, and higher for M than G diets; the resulting difference in total CH4 production was small. Owing to diet formulation constraints, N intake was higher for SP than for L diets; interaction between forage type and protein source was significant for N intake. The same statistical effects were found for N in milk. Faecal and urinary N losses were determined from total faeces and urine collection. Faecal N output was lower for M than for G diets but

  1. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  2. Greater mortality and mordidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...

  3. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  4. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  5. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  6. An innovative approach: cow/oat milk based kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayil Dinkçi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of kefir production using cow-oat milk mixture. Therefore kefir samples with 20, 40 and 60 % of oat milk were produced. The effect of oat-milk ratio on physicochemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the kefir samples was studied during 21 days storage at refrigerated conditions. Increasing oat milk concentration affected the whey-off and apparent viscosity by higher whey off and lower viscosity results. Also the proteolytic activity of the samples was decreased by raising the oat milk concentrations. Increase of the oat milk concentration leaded to a decrease of pH of the samples. Statistical analysis showed that the lactococci and lactobacilli viable cell counts differed among the samples while the highest count was detected in sample with the highest amount of oat milk. The control sample (without oat milk had higher yeast count during the storage period. The final product with 20 % of oat-milk and without addition of flavour was found to be the most acceptable by the sensory panellists. The results indicate the possibility for a new cow/oat milk based kefir.

  7. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  8. Effect of molasses or cornmeal on milk production and nitrogen utilization of grazing organic dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture is rich in soluble nitrogen (N) which is rapidly converted to ammonia in the rumen reducing N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Sucrose is more quickly degraded in the rumen than starch, suggesting that feeding molasses (MOL) to balance the supplies of energy and rumen degradable protein...

  9. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Dijkstra, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators

  10. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-01-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99 Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99 Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133 Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95 Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95 Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude

  11. Recovery from Mastitis in Dairy Cows – Development of Behaviour, Milk Production and Inflammatory Markers in the Weeks during and after Naturally Occurring Clinical Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop

    2015-01-01

    of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period...... after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment...... stabilisation within these measures and 3) investigate a possible relationship between behaviour, milk production and inflammatory markers during naturally occurring bovine mastitis and its early recovery. Overall, the focus was on dairy cows housed in free stalls with automatic milking systems (AMS). This type...

  12. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  13. Effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive performance and milk production of dairy cows in hot wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongdee, S.; Chaiyabutr, N.; Hinch, G.; Markvichitr, K.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2006-05-01

    Fourteen animals of second and third lactation of Thai Friesian crossbred cows (87.5% Friesian × 12.5% Bos indicus) located at Sakol Nakhon Research and Breeding Centre, Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, were divided randomly into two groups of seven each to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive and physiological traits under hot, humid conditions. Results indicated that installation of evaporating cooling in the open shed gave a further improvement in ameliorating heat stress in dairy cows in hot-wet environments by utilising the low humidity conditions that naturally occur during the day. The cows housed in an evaporatively cooled environment had both a rectal temperature and respiration rate (39.09°C, 61.39 breaths/min, respectively) significantly lower than that of the non-cooled cows (41.21°C; 86.87 breaths/min). The former group also had higher milk yield and more efficient reproductive performance (pregnancy rate and reduced days open) than the latter group. It is suggested that the non-evaporatively cooled cows did not gain benefit from the naturally lower heat stress during night time.

  14. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  15. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  16. Jugular-infused methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids does not improve milk production in Holstein cows experiencing heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassube, K R; Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; McFadden, J W; Ríus, A G

    2017-12-01

    Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14. The basal diet was composed of ryegrass silage and hay, and a concentrate mix. This diet supplied 44 g of methionine, 125 g of lysine, 167 g of leucine, 98 g of isoleucine and 109 g of valine per day to the small intestine of THN cows. Temperature-humidity index was maintained below 66 for the THN environment, whereas the index was maintained above 68, peaking at 76, for 14 continuous h/day for the HS environment. Heat stress conditioning increased the udder temperature from 37.0°C to 39.6°C. Cows that received the ML+BCAA treatment had greater p.m. rectal and vaginal temperatures (0.50°C and 0.40°C, respectively), and respiration rate (8 breaths/min) compared with those on the NC treatment and exposed to a HS environment. However, neither NC nor ML+BCAA affected rectal or vaginal temperatures and respiration rates in the THN environment. Compared with THN, the HS environment reduced dry matter intake (1.48 kg/day), milk yield (2.82 kg/day) and milk protein yield (0.11 kg/day). However, compared with NC, the ML+BCAA treatment increased milk protein percent by 0.07 points. For the THN environment, the ML+BCAA treatment increased concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. For the HS environment, the ML

  17. Clinical practice. Diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda

    Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven

  18. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone

    2014-01-01

    rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage...... of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were...... taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg...

  19. Genetic Relationship between Culling, Milk Production, Fertility, and Health Traits in Norwegian Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtsmark, M; Heringstad, B; Madsen, P

    2008-01-01

    First-lactation records on 836,452 daughters of 3,064 Norwegian Red sires were used to examine associations between culling in first lactation and 305-d protein yield, susceptibility to clinical mastitis, lactation mean somatic cell score (SCS), nonreturn rate within 56 d in heifers and primiparous......, including functional traits such as health and fertility, most of the genetic variation in culling will probably be covered by other traits in the breeding goal. However, in populations where data on health and fertility is scarce or not available at all, selection against early culling may be useful...... cows, and interval from calving to first insemination. A Bayesian multivariate threshold-linear model was used for analysis. Posterior mean of heritability of liability to culling of primiparous cows was 0.04. The posterior means of the genetic correlations between culling and the other traits were -0...

  20. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine......) articles on cow's milk allergy (CMPA) for the years 1967 through 2001 was performed. In addition, references from other review articles have been included. This review represents a synthesis of these sources and the expert opinion of the author. STUDY SELECTION: The expert opinion of the author was used...... to select the relevant data for this review. RESULTS: The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP), ie, CMPA, has to be confirmed by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. The incidence of CMPA in infancy seems to be approximately 2 to 3% in developed countries...

  1. Effect of feeding long or short wheat hay v. wheat silage in the ration of lactating cows on intake, milk production and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaani, Y; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Ben-Meir, Y; Mizrahi, I; Miron, J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in lactating cows the effect of either chopping or ensiling of wheat roughage on: intake, digestibility, lactation performance and animal behavior. Three groups of 14 lactating cows each, were fed total mixed rations (TMRs) based on either long wheat hay (HL), short wheat hay (HS) or wheat silage (SI), as the sole roughage source (30% of TMR dry matter (DM)). Parameters examined: sorting behavior, DM intake, milk yield and composition, rumination, recumbence, average daily rumen pH, digesta passage rate, and in-vivo digestibility. Performance data was summarized by day and analyzed using a proc-mixed model. The content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was similar in the HL and SI and lower in the HS, resulting in similar differences among the three corresponding TMRs. In vitro DM digestibility of wheat silage was higher than that of the two hays (65.6% v. 62.8%) resulting in higher in vitro DM digestibility of the SI-TMR compared with the hay-based TMRs (79.3 v. 77.0%). HS-TMR was better than HL- or SI-TMRs at preventing feed sorting by cows after 12 or 24 h eating of the diets. Cows fed HS-TMR consumed more DM and NDF but less peNDF than the other two groups. Average daily rumen pH was similar in the three groups, but daily rumination time was highest in the cows fed HS-TMR. Rumen retention time was longest in cows fed HL-TMR. DM digestibility in cows fed SI-TMR was higher than that of HS and HL groups (65.2%, 61.8% and 62.4%, respectively), but NDF digestibility was similar in the three treatments. The highest intake of digestible DM was observed in cows fed SI-TMR, HS cows were intermediate and HL cows were the lowest. Consequently, cows fed SI-TMR had higher yields of milk, 4% fat corrected milk and energy-corrected milk (47.1, 42.9 and 43.2 kg/day, respectively) than cows fed HS-TMR (45.7, 41.0 and 41.0 kg/day, respectively) or HL-TMR (44.1, 40.3 and 40.3 kg/day, respectively). Net energy

  2. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  3. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  4. Measuring stress level of dairy cows during milking using by geometric indices of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    2013-05-01

    Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were investigated in cows (n=32, age: 3.86 years, milk production: 35±2.5 kg, DIM: 150±15 milked in a parallel milking parlour. Geometric parameters of HRV (SD1 and SD2 were calculated using Poincare graphs. HRV indices of resting 1 h after midday milking (reference period were compared to those measured during the different phases of the evening milking (driving; in the holding pen; udder preparation; milking; after milking in the milking stall. There was no difference between the reference period and the different phases of milking in animal welfare terms. During the reference period SD2 (198.5 ms was significantly higher (p<0.05 than every other measured period suggesting an increasing parasympathetic tone after milking. This parasympathetic predominance decreased with time of the day (1.5 h after milking. SD2 was significantly affected by parity, by the breeding bull (p<0.01 and by milk production (p<0.05. SD2 was notably higher (102.8 ms in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows (p<0.017; α=0.005 during resting and milking. Results suggested that a conventional milking process is not really stressful for cows. Primiparous cows were more susceptible of milking process than multiparous ones. SD2 is a good marker of vagus activity and affected by several independent factors.

  5. Age at first introduction of cow milk products and other food products in relation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Thijs, Carel; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Scientific evidence is scarce about timing of solid-food introduction and its association with the development of atopy. We aimed to evaluate any associations between the introduction of cow milk products/other solid food products and infant atopic manifestations in the second year of

  6. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  8. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...

  9. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  10. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, S.; Banos, G.; McCarthy, B.; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O'Neill, B.; O'Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  11. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  12. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Darshna B.; Kapadiya, Dharti B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT), rennet coagulation time (RCT), rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (pmilk had the highest specific gravity, followed by those found in cow and goat milk. The viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT), followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by

  13. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  14. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  15. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  16. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  17. Effect of the supply dose on the 15N enrichment level of cow's milk nitrogenous fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, O.; Laurent, F.; Vignon, B.; Antoine, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Production of cow milk 15 N-labelled proteins is necessary for the study of their digestion by man. An adequate enrichment is required for compatibility with utilization constraints (application dose, studied fractions...). A test was conducted with five cows in order to optimize the utilization of labelled ammonium sulphate in the cow diet for 15 N enrichment of the milk nitrogenous matter. Doses and supply timing of labelled compounds are discussed. 3 figs., 3 refs

  18. Modeling the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cows based on the responses of ruminal pH and milk fat production to composition of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Dijkstra, J; Tafaj, M; Steingass, H; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production performance to different variables including physical, chemical, and starch-degrading characteristics of the diet. Further, extensive data were used to model the magnitude of ruminal pH fluctuations and determine the threshold for the development of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Results of this study showed that to minimize the risk of SARA, the following events should be avoided: 1) a daily mean ruminal pH lower than 6.16, and 2) a time period in which ruminal pH is content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) or the ratio between peNDF and rumen-degradable starch from grains in the diet increased up to 31.2 +/- 1.6% [dry matter (DM) basis] or 1.45 +/- 0.22, respectively, so did the daily mean ruminal pH, for which a asymptotic plateau was reached at a pH of 6.20 to 6.27. This study also showed that digestibility of fiber in the total tract depends on ruminal pH and outflow rate of digesta from reticulorumen; thereby both variables explained 62% of the variation of fiber digestibility. Feeding diets with peNDF content up to 31.9 +/- 1.97% (DM basis) slightly decreased DM intake and actual milk yield; however, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were increased, resulting in greater milk energy efficiency. In conclusion, a level of about 30 to 33% peNDF in the diet may be considered generally optimal for minimizing the risk of SARA without impairing important production responses in high-yielding dairy cows. In terms of improvement of the accuracy to assessing dietary fiber adequacy, it is suggested that the content of peNDF required to stabilize ruminal pH and maintain milk fat content without compromising milk energy efficiency can be arranged based

  19. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  20. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  1. Selenium sources in the diet of dairy cows and their effects on milk production and quality, on udder health and on physiological indicators of heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Oltramari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four dairy cows, with daily average milk production of 18.1 kg, were fed diets containing different selenium (Se sources. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of such diets on milk production and quality, on the occurrence of mastitis, and on physiological variables. During the experimental period (124 days, all the cows received the same diet: a total mixed feed with 0.278 mg.kg- 1 DM of selenium. In the inorganic Se treatment, the selenium source was sodium selenite and in the organic Se treatment the source was selenium yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3060. There were no significant differences in milk yield or in Se concentration in the milk. No significant differences between the treatments were observed in protein, lactose, solids-not-fat andpercentage of total solids. The animals subjected to the organic Se treatment presented higher (P=0.013 percentage of milk fat and lower (P=0.014 somatic cell count (SCC than those subjected to the inorganic Se treatment. There was no significant difference in subclinical mastitisas determined by the California Mastitis Test (CMT between the treatments. However, both Se sources reduced the incidence of mastitis (subclinical positive mastitis and strongly positive mastitis between the pre-experimental and experimental phases. There was no significant difference in rectal temperature (RT between the treatments. Respiratory frequency (RF was lower (P=0.027 in the inorganic treatment than in the organic one, whereas haircoat temperature (HT was lower (P=0.007 in the organic treatment than in the inorganic one.

  2. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  3. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Effect of high-oleic-acid soybeans on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and enteric methane emission in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J C; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Smith, L; Ortega-Perez, A M; Harper, S A; Melgar, A; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20.2% ether extract). The study involved 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The inclusion rate of the soybean sources in the diet was (dry matter basis) 17.1, 17.1, and 7.4% for ESBM, EPSBM, and WPSB, respectively, which resulted in ether extract concentration of the diets of 3.99, 3.94, and 4.18%, respectively. Compared with ESBM, the Plenish diets tended to increase dry matter intake and decreased feed efficiency (but had no effect on energy-corrected milk feed efficiency). The Plenish diets increased milk fat concentration on average by 5.6% and tended to increase milk fat yield, compared with ESBM. The WPSB diet tended to increased milk true protein compared with the extruded soybean meal diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation and enteric methane or carbon dioxide emissions, except pH was higher for WPSB versus EPSBM. The Plenish diets decreased the prevalence of Ruminococcus and increased that of Eubacterium and Treponema in whole ruminal contents. Total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were decreased by WPSB compared with ESBM and EPSBM. Compared with the other treatments, urinary N excretion was increased by EPSBM and fecal N excretion was greater for WPSB. Treatments had marked effects on milk fatty acid profile. Generally, the Plenish diets increased mono

  5. Índice de previsão de produção de leite para vacas Jersey Index for predicting milk production in Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Laloni

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o uso de vários modelos de criação intensiva e semi-extensiva desfavorece a adoção generalizada de métodos de manejo do gado bovino, principalmente do gado leiteiro. Mesmo assim, a produção leiteira pode ser melhorada a partir do uso de tecnologias que possam garantir o manejo adequado do rebanho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um índice de previsão de produção de leite para vacas Jersey em lactação, de genética de alta produtividade, em regime semi-estabulado, nas condições tropicais. Para a obtenção do índice, consideraram-se a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ambiente e a velocidade do ar, assim como valores de precipitação pluviométrica, temperatura do solo do pasto e a radiação solar como agentes estressores, os quais podem alterar a produção de leite. O experimento considerou dois tratamentos: A - as vacas permaneceram em sala de espera guarnecida com chuveiro e ventiladores, por um período 30 min antes da ordenha; B - as vacas não tiveram acesso a essa sala de espera (controle. Fora do período de ordenha, as vacas tiveram acesso ao pasto. Observou-se que as diferenças de médias de produção entre os tratamentos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Foram procedidas as análises para efeito de elaboração do modelo e chegou-se a um modelo factível, considerando a relação entre produção e a precipitação, assim como a temperatura máxima do solo do pasto.In Brazil the adoption of several models of cattle confinement leads to special conditions for management methods in dairy production, which can be improved by the use of technology that assures better herd management. Indexes relating environmental variables to production are applied for the prediction of milk production. The values of temperature and relative humidity, rain index, solar radiation and pasture soil temperature are generally considered potential stress agents for cows. The objective of this research was

  6. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  8. Application of Wilmink’s Exponential Function in Genetic Analysis of 305-d Milk Production and Lactation Persistency in Holstein Cows of Razavi Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Izadkhah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To estimate heritability and genetic trend for 305-d milk production and lactation persistency, a total of 130,668 monthly test day milk yields belonging to 15,183 first lactation Holstein cows in 131 herds and calved from 2000 to 2009 were used. To calculate 305-d milk yield as well as lactation persistency, estimated parameters of Wilmink’s exponential function were applied. The parameters of the function were estimated by SAS software. Genetic and environmental variance components and heritability of the traits were estimated by single trait animal model using DMU software. Genetic trend was estimated based upon weighted simple linear regression of average breeding values on calving year. Heritability estimate of 305-d milk yield and lactation persistency were found to be 0.184 and 0.05, respectively. A positive significant phenotypic trend (166.11 kg per year was observed for 305-d milk yield while a non-significant genetic trend (-2.0107 was revealed for the trait. For the lactation persistency, there were no significant phenotypic (0.054 % per year and genetic (0.003 % per year trends over the period of time.

  9. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshna B. Prajapati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU, Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT, rennet coagulation time (RCT, rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p0.05 than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT, followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by those found in cow and buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest electrical conductivity, followed by those found in buffalo and cow milk. The

  10. dairy production and sources of cellular variability of milk of cow's in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Y. M’Sadak and I. Hamed

    1 mai 2017 ... en santé et de production d'un lait d'excellente qualité [8]. ... respectivement du type lactoduc en ligne haute simple rangée sans ... Pour éviter la coagulation du lait depuis le moment du prélèvement de l'échantillon jusqu'à.

  11. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  12. [Consensus document: nutritional and metabolic importance of cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Elena; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo; Martínez Suárez, Venancio; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Collado Yurrita, Luis Rodolfo; Hernández Cabria, Marta; Morán Rey, Francisco Javier

    2014-10-25

    Cow's milk is a staple food for human consumption at all stages of life. Industrial processing has allowed widespread access to its consumption by the population, which has helped to significantly improve their health. From its composition point of view, milk is a complete and balanced food that provides high nutrient content in relation to its calorie content, so its consumption should be considered necessary from childhood to elderly. The benefits of cow's milk are not limited to its nutritional value, but extend beyond and are a factor of prevention in certain non communicable pathologies as cardiovascular disease, some cancers, high blood pressure or bone or dental pathology. It can also help in the fight against childhood overweight and obesity. In recent years we have seen a worrying decline in milk consumption among the Spanish population, at least in part influenced by misconceptions about its consumption and of other dairy products. This consensus document aims to review the current state of the topic regarding the effects of milk consumption on health, while making a call to the institutions and scientific societies to develop programs and information campaigns about the benefits of milk and dairy products consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Desempenho de pais de crianças em dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca na identificação de alimentos industrializados com e sem leite vaca The performance of parents of children receiving cow's milk free diets at indentification of commercial food products with and without cows's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabata Koester Weber

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho de pais de crianças em dieta isenta da proteína do leite de vaca no reconhecimento de expressões e alimentos que contenham ou não proteínas do leite de vaca. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 24 pais de crianças em dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca e derivados e 23 sem necessidade de nenhum tipo de dieta de exclusão. Foi questionado se reconheciam 12 expressões relacionadas ao leite de vaca. A seguir, foi solicitado que classificassem 10 produtos industrializados quanto ao conteúdo ou não de proteínas do leite de vaca. RESULTADOS:Termos iniciados com a palavra leite foram os mais reconhecidos pelos dois grupos. Os responsáveis por crianças em dieta de exclusão reconheceram mais freqüentemente as palavras proteína do leite de vaca, traços do leite e formulação ou preparação láctea (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate how well the parents of children on cow's milk free diets perform at recognizing whether or not expressions describe and foods contain cow's milk proteins. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 24 parents of children on cow's milk and by-products exclusion diets and 23 parents of children with no need for any type of exclusion diet. They were asked if they recognized 12 expressions relating to cow's milk. They were then asked to classify 10 commercial food products in terms of whether or not they contained cow's milk proteins. RESULTS: Terms that included the word milk were more often recognized by both groups of parents. The parents of children on exclusion diets recognized the terms cow's milk protein, traces of milk and milk formulation or preparation most frequently (p < 0.05. Less than 25.0% of those interviewed recognized casein, caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoglobulin. Both groups correctly identified more of the commercial products containing cow's milk than those free from milk. The median number of products containing cow's milk (total = 5 correctly identified by the parents

  14. Cow's milk and immune function in the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Perdijk, Olaf; Splunter, van, Marloes; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Brugman, Sylvia; Neerven, van, Joost

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow's milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow's milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these f...

  15. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov. pasture (pasture or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation. Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages.

  17. The economics of feeding concentrate to partially-milked Sanga cows in the dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karikari, P.K.; Asare, K.; Okantah, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried for 120 days during the dry season of 1998/99, to assess the sustainability of dry season feed supplementation in an emerging peri-urban dairy production system in the Kumasi district of Ghana. Fifty three Sanga cows were divided into four treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, and were fed 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg respectively, of a home-made concentrate supplement containing 18% crude protein. The treatment groups contained 12, 14, 12 and 15 cows, respectively. The cows were milked once a day in the mornings and allowed to suckle during the day. Daily partial milk yield was 1.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 2.7 L for cows supplemented with 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg concentrate, respectively. Cows fed 1.5 kg concentrate generated the highest net income from milk sales. They produced 53% more milk and 16% more milk revenue than the control cows. Their-daily partial milk yield was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of cows fed 2 kg concentrate supplement, but was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that from other groups. It was found that feeding 2 kg concentrate supplement a day to Sanga cows in the Kumasi district may not be economical even though milk yield may be increased. It is suggested that given the large variability observed in individual cow performance, selection of more productive cows or culling of less productive ones could be used in conjunction with feed supplementation to improve the productivity of Sanga cows in less endowed environments. (author)

  18. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  19. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  20. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  1. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  2. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  3. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  4. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  5. The natural history of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Jacobsen, H P; Halken, S

    1995-01-01

    In prospective studies th incidence of cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) in infancy in western industrialized countries has been estimated to be about 2-3% based on strict diagnostic criteria. A significant association between early neonatal exposure to cow's milk formula...... feeding and subsequent development of CMPA/CMPI has been documented. The small amounts of 'foreign' protein in human milk may rather induce tolerance than allergic sensitization. The findings of specific IgE to individual cow's milk proteins in cord blood of the majority of infants who later develop CMPA...... with an early increased IgE response to cow's milk protein have an increased risk of persisting CMPA, development of persistent adverse reactions to other foods and development of allergy against environmental inhalant allergens. Cow's milk protein/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), meaning reproducible adverse reactions...

  6. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3???3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30?g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3?weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration...

  7. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  8. Ingestão de nutrientes e estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados Nutrient intake and nutritional status of children following a diet free from cow's milk and cow's milk by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian C. S. Medeiros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 26 crianças, na primeira consulta realizada em ambulatório de gastroenterologia pediátrica, que vinham recebendo dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados (média de idade = 19,1 meses e 30 crianças com dieta normal, isto é, sem nenhum tipo de restrição alimentar (média de idade = 16,8 meses. Empregou-se o método do dia alimentar habitual para a obtenção dos dados sobre consumo alimentar. A ingestão alimentar foi comparada entre os grupos e em relação às Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. O estado nutricional foi avaliado com base nos escores z de peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura. RESULTADOS: O grupo em dieta isenta de leite de vaca apresentou menor ingestão de energia (p = 0,005, proteínas (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the food intake and the nutritional status of children on a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet. METHODS: Twenty-six children receiving a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet were assessed during their first visit to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic (mean age = 19.1 months. Thirty children with no food restriction (mean age = 16.8 months were also assessed. The usual daily food intake method was used to make the dietary assessment. The food intake was compared between the groups and in relation to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. The z-scores for weight/age, height/age and weight/height were used to evaluate the nutritional status. RESULTS: The cow's milk free diet group presented lower energy (p = 0.005, protein (p < 0.001, lipid (p < 0.001, calcium (p < 0.001 and phosphorous (p < 0.001 intake when compared to the control group. The number of children who had energy, calcium and phosphorous intake below the DRIs was higher in the cow's milk free diet group than in the control group. The z-score means for the cow's milk free diet and

  9. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  10. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    lying behavior, core body temperature, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, and plasma blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and insulin concentration of dairy cows, but has no effect on daily DMI and milk production. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of feeding level pre- and post-puberty and body weight at first calving on growth, milk production, and fertility in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2005-09-01

    greater calving BW, as BW-corrected milk yield declined in both breeds with increasing prepubertal feed allowance. Growth rate during period 2 was positively correlated with first lactation milk production. Milk yield increased 7% in first lactation heifers on the high feed allowance, which resulted in higher growth rate during period 2. Milk production during subsequent lactations was not affected. Results suggest that accelerated prepubertal growth may reduce mammary development in grazing dairy cows, but this does not affect milk production in early lactations because of superior size. Body weight at calving and postpubertal growth rate management are important in first lactation milk production, but do not affect milk production in subsequent lactations.

  12. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  13. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  15. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  16. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  17. Effect of udder massage at the end of milking on residual milk and mastitis occurrence in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Agustini Carneiro da Silveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Residual milk (RM after milking is an important factor that can predispose cows to mastitis. In this study, the hypothesis that udder massage at the end of milking may reduce RM and the incidence of mastitis was tested in two experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted on an experimental farm with ten lactating cows (6,200kg/lactation and experiment 2 was carried out on a commercial farm with 52 lactating cows (4,480kg/lactation. In both experiments the cows were paired by parity, stage of lactation and productivity, and they were randomly assigned to one of the treatments: massage or no massage of the udder at the end of milking, in two periods in a crossover design. The individual milk production of each cow was measured. Residual milk was collected and measured 2min after an oxitocin application. California Mastitis Test was used to detect the occurrence (experiment 1 p > 0.41, n = 10 and experiment 2 p > 0.46, n = 12, on RM (experiment 1, 1.78 ± 0.45kg, n = 10; experiment 2, 2.42 ± 0.32kg, n = 12, or on mastitis incidence (experiment 2, chi-square; DF = 1; p > 0.68, n = 26. We conclude that udder massage at the end of milking has no effect on RM and does not affect mastitis incidence, at least under the conditions used in these experiments.

  18. Fluoride Concentration in Water, Cow Milk and Cow Urine from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kiambu- Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikunju, J.K.; Maitho, T.E.; Kyule, M.N.; Mitema, E.S.; Mugera, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Kiambu district is situated in central part of Kenya. most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence farmers and they are involve in a variety of livestock activities e.g. dairy production, pig production and others in combination or as separate operations. excessive fluoride ingestion can cause specific dental and skeletal lesions and in severe cases adversely influence the health and productivity performance of domestic animals.therefore a study was designed to investigate the levels of flouride in urine, milk and water samples from small scale dairy farms in Kiambu. Water, cow urine and milk samples were collected in clean plastic containers from 84 small scale farms belonging to 6 dairy farmers co-operative societies (DFCs). The DFCs in this study were Kiambaa, Lari, Nderi, Kikuyu, Chania and Limuru. The fluoride concentration in water milk and urine were analysed using the potentiometric method of fluoride ion specific electrode. overall urine contained the highest fluoride concentration while milk contained the lowest fluoride levels. Fluoride levels in water, milk and urine were significantly different, (P>0.05). The mean fluoride concentration in water from all societies was 0.29 ppm while the mean fluoride concentration in milk 0.05 ppm. urine samples had the highest fluoride concentration, (1.5 ppm). The cooperative specific mean fluoride concentrations arranged in descending order were as follow: Nderi (2.8 ppm), Kikuyu (2.4 ppm), Kiambaa(1.9 ppm), Chania (1.6 ppm), Limuru (1.3 ppm) and Lari (1.0 ppm). The maximum fluoride concentration encountered in water in this study was 3.4 ppm, however adverse productivity has been reported in dairy animals consuming as low as 2.15 ppm in drinking water. The mean milk production in in kilograms per day per cow ranged from 2.5 to 6.9 when all six dairy co-operative societies were taken into consideration. this is far below the expected production

  19. The Effects of Herbs on Milk Yield and Milk Quality of Mastitis Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M

    2011-01-01

    This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

  20. Omega-3 supplementation, milk quality and cow immune-competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bragaglio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of a dietary supplementation rich in n-3 fatty acids from algae (Schizochytrium sp. on cow immune-competence and milk quality. Twenty-one lactating Italian Friesian cows (at 220±20 days of lactation were equally allocated to 3 treatments: group C received no supplementation, group D was offered 136 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA per day and group E was supplemented with 136 g of DHA + 2000 U.I. of vitamin E per day. Individual milk production was recorded weekly and samples were collected for analysis of milk composition and fatty acid profile. At the end of the trial and 2 weeks later animals were subcutaneously injected with 5 mg of keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH, whereas at the end of the trial and 8 weeks later skinfold thickness was measured after intradermal injection with 500 mg phytohaemagglutinin. Dietary treatment showed no effect on milk production. Concentrations of DHA were higher (P<0.05 in milk fat from D and E groups, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be higher (P<0.10. When DHA and DHA + vitamin E were supplemented to the animals, milk sensory properties were significantly modified as samples from groups D and E could be discriminated from the control using the triangle test (P<0.001. Both supplemented groups showed evidence of increased antibody response 4 to 8 weeks after the first KLH administration (P<0.05. In the two skin tests the treated groups showed a higher skin thickening in comparison with control animals (P<0.05. Although provided in a late stage of lactation, an n-3 fatty acid enriched diet favourably changed milk fatty acid profile and promoted animal healthiness by enhancing cellular and humoral immune response.

  1. Evaluation of Cow Milk Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gavan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of subclinical mastitis diagnosis using an electrical conductivity (EC meter was evaluated in the dairy farm of Agricultural Research and Development Station ( ARDS Simnic Craiova. The results were compared with those obtained by using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the Somatic Cell Count (SCC.The milk quarter samples ( 1176 from Holstein Friesian cows were analyzed between September and December 2015. The EC evaluation with  the EC meter  ,showed a high proportion of results differing from SCC and CMT results. The CMT still shows to be the most accessible and efficient test in comparison to the EC meter tested.

  2. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus.

  3. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  4. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  5. ANTIGENICITY OF COW'S MILK PROTEINS IN TWO ANIMAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neyestani; M. Djalali M. I'ezeshki

    2000-01-01

    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow'...

  6. Effects of Management and Genetics on Udder Health and Milk Composition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Beerda, B.; Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Milk production per cow has increased significantly as a result of breeding, feeding, and other management factors. This study aims to address concerns about udder health risks for low- and high-producing dairy cows. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 100) of low or high

  7. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  8. Interlaboratory evaluation of a cow's milk allergy mouse model to assess the allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, B.C.A.M. van; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Jeurink, P.V.; Garssen, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes two phases of a multi-phase project aiming to validate a mouse model for cow's milk allergy to assess the potential allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas (claim support EC-directive 2006/141/E). The transferability and the discriminatory power of this

  9. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (pcows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in

  10. From swill milk to certified milk: progress in cow's milk quality in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization jeopardized infant nutrition during the 19th century. Cow's milk was produced in the cities or transported long distances under suspect conditions. Milk was contaminated with bacteria or adulterated with water, flour, chalk and other substances. When distilleries proliferated in the metropoles, their waste slop was fed to cows which then produced thin and contaminated swill milk. Following a press campaign in the USA, the sale of swill milk was prohibited by law in 1861. Bacterial counts became available in 1881 and helped to improve the quality of milk. Debates on pasteurization remained controversial; legislation varied from country to country. Disposal of the wastewater of millions of inhabitants and the manure of thousands of cows was environmentally hazardous. It was not until 1860 and after several pandemics of Asiatic cholera that effective sewage systems were built in the metropoles. Milk depots were established in the USA by Koplik for sterilized and by Coit for certified milk. In France, Budin and Dufour created consultation services named goutte de lait, which distributed sterilized milk and educated mothers in infant care. Multiple efforts to improve milk quality culminated in the International gouttes de lait Congresses for the Study and Prevention of Infantile Mortality.

  11. Therapeutic modalities for cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Ernest G; Singer, Sanford

    2003-06-01

    To discuss current therapeutic modalities for cow's milk allergy and its prevention. The sources of data include original clinical studies carried out at Ste. Justine Hospital, as well as a systematic search of the published English and French language scientific literature restricted to human subjects using computerized searches (National Public Library of Medicine, Cochrane Database Systems Review) from 1997 to 2002. Search terms for article retrieval included food allergy, milk allergy, therapy, and prevention. The therapy of food allergies depends upon an accurate diagnosis, which remains a challenge in non--IgE-mediated cases. Dietary exclusion remains the mainstay of therapy, with medications reserved for exceptional patients. Preliminary evidence suggests that pancreatic enzyme supplementation may be of benefit for cases with multiple food allergies and severe eczema. Hydrolysate formula use is currently recommended for dietary allergy prevention in infants at an increased risk when maternal milk is insufficient or unavailable. The use of partially hydrolyzed formulas to prevent allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, is supported by clinical studies, but cannot be used in the already sensitized, milk-allergic child. Probiotics show enormous potential in preventing food allergic disorders as well.

  12. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial inoculation of alfalfa haylage: ensiling characteristics and milk production response when fed to early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, B A; Arambel, M J; Winsryg, M D; Walters, J L

    1989-09-01

    Third-cutting alfalfa hay harvested at bud stage and wilted to approximately 65% moisture was treated with a live bacterial inoculant at the rate of 300,000 cfu/g fresh alfalfa. Treated alfalfa was packed in polyethylene bags. Samples were taken at time of ensiling and d 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 28 postensiling. Mean pH was lower in the treated haylage (5.09 and 5.71 for treatment and control, respectively). Mean temperatures were higher in the treated haylage (30.0 and 28.0 degrees C for treatment and control, respectively). Mold count, water-soluble carbohydrate, alpha amino nitrogen, CP, and ADF were not affected by treatment. Regardless of treatment, pH, mold counts, and water-soluble carbohydrates declined with time. There was no significant difference between treatments for DM intake, milk production, and milk composition.

  14. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  15. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  16. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  17. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  18. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  20. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  1. High-quality forage can replace concentrate when cows enter the deposition phase without negative consequences for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Alstrup, Lene; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    on LCFR than on HCFR and higher on LP than on RP, resulting in overall higher DMI on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. Crude protein intakes were higher on RP than on LP and starch intakes were higher on HCFR than on LCFR. Intakes of neutral detergent fiber tended to be higher on LCFR than on HCFR. Intakes...... on LCFR than on HCFR and no interaction with breed or parity was found. The N efficiency was higher on LP than RP, but with an interaction with breed due to lower N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein cows on HCFR-RP but higher N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein on LCFR-LP. In dairy production...

  2. Identification of QTL on chromosome 18 associated with non-coagulating milk in Swedish Red cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchemin, Sandrine I.; Glantz, Maria; Koning, De Dirk Jan; Paulsson, Marie; Fikse, Willem F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-coagulating (NC) milk, defined as milk not coagulating within 40 min after rennet-addition, can have a negative influence on cheese production. Its prevalence is estimated at 18% in the Swedish Red (SR) cow population. Our study aimed at identifying genomic regions and causal variants

  3. Yield of acid curd cheese produced from cow's milk from different lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa; Młynek, Krzysztof; Guliński, Piotr; Zawadzka, Wiesława

    2017-01-01

    Milk production intensification has led in many countries, including Poland, to increased milk yields per cow. A higher milk yield resulted in changes in cow productivity, including extended lactations. There is a paucity of information on the quality of milk harvested during the last months of lactations exceed- ing 10 months. Production capacity cheese (“cheese expenditure”) is an important parameter of providing   a recovery as much as the possible components of the milk processed are dry substances, which in turn af- fects the economics of production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the lactation period (from standard lactation; extended lactation phase) on the performance of the acid curd cheese. the relation- ship between total protein content and acidity of fresh milk collected in two separate periods of lactation on the yield of acid cheese was also evaluated. The study included 1384 samples of milk collected from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, the Black-White variety. The basic chemical composition of fresh milk and acid-curd cheese produced in the laboratory were analyzed. The cheese milk yield was evaluated on the basis of the quantity of the re- sulting curd mass. According to our estimates, under laboratory conditions an average of 100 kg of milk per cow in population produced an estimated 20.1 kg of curd cheese. The basic chemical composition of raw milk, which was diverse in terms of the period of lactation, showed a higher dry matter, fat and protein content in milk acquired during the extension phase of lactation compared to the milk of standard lactation. It has been found that the lower titratable acidity of fresh milk appeared with a higher yield of cheese curd. This difference was between 1.76 kg (with milk from cows milked during the extended lactation phase) to 2.72 kg from 100 kg of cheese milk (milk with the standard lactation). Thus, the optimum level of titratable acidity of milk for cheese yield is 6.0–7.5

  4. CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN RAW AND ULTRA HEAT TREATED COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáčová Anetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential presence of toxic metals in food is being recognized as a priority by standards organizations and constitutes an analytical challenge. The toxic metal content of milk and dairy products is due to several factors: environmental conditions, the manufacturing process and the possible contamination during several steps of the manufacturing processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained at randomly from animal farms in around Nitra, western Slovakia region and ultra – heat treated cow milk (UHT with fat contents 1.5% commercially available from local market in Nitra. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. UHT milk showed higher levels of cadmium, nickel and iron. Higher levels of zinc, copper were detected in raw milk. Significant differences in the concentration of copper between raw and UHT cow milk were found.

  5. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  6. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Materials and Methods Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. Results There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and

  7. Milk amyloid A and selected serum proteins in cows suffering from mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kováč

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis on the concentrations of mammary associated isotype of serum amyloid A (M-SAA in milk samples, as well as on the concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA, and some other biochemical variables in blood serum of dairy cows (n = 41. The concentrations of aforementioned variables were measured in 4 groups of cows divided according to the results of the clinical examination of the udder and to the results of California Mastitis Test (CMT: group 1 – cows without clinical changes on the mammary gland and with negative CMT, group 2 – cows without clinical changes on the mammary gland and with weakly positive CMT, group 3 – cows without clinical changes on the mammary gland and with strongly positive CMT and group 4 – cows with clinical changes on the mammary gland and changes in milk appearance. The concentrations of M-SAA were analyzed also in 145 quarter’s milk samples which were categorized according to the same criteria as cows used in the study. By the evaluation of M-SAA concentrations in composite milk samples we found significantly the highest mean value in cows with clinical signs of mastitis. Similar findings were recorded in the M-SAA concentrations in quarter’s milk samples. Moreover, higher concentrations of M-SAA were found also in samples from mammary quarters without clinical changes and positive CMT. The analyses of Hp and SAA concentrations showed a trend of higher values in cows with clinical mastitis. The lowest mean concentration of albumin we found in cows with clinical signs of mastitis. Our results indicate elevated production of M-SAA in cows with clinical changes on mammary gland, and suggest the usefulness of this indicator also in the diagnosing of sub-clinical mastitis.

  8. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  9. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  10. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  11. Effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and its isopropyl ester on milk production and composition by Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, N R; Sylvester, J T

    2005-07-01

    The esterification of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) to isopropanol (HMBi) decreases the rate and extent of its ruminal breakdown. The modes of action of HMB and HMBi appear to be different. The quantification of the production response to HMBi has not been done. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the lactation response to HMB, (2) to determine the lactation response to HMBi, and (3) to evaluate whether the response to HMBi is affected by HMB in the diet. Sixty-one Holstein cows (24 primiparous, 37 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments 21 to 28 d after calving. The base diet consisted of [on a dry matter (DM) basis] 32.5% corn silage, 17.5% alfalfa hay, 10% whole cottonseed, and 40% of a pelleted concentrate made primarily of ground corn, soybean meal, and blood meal, and was fed for 16 wk as a control diet. To prepare the dietary treatments, the base diet was supplemented with 0.1% of diet DM with HMB (treatment 2), with 0.15% HMBi (treatment 3), or with 0.045% HMB and 0.15% HMBi (treatment 4). Results showed a significant increase in milk yield (2.9 kg/d), protein content (0.15%), protein yield (115 g/d), fat yield (165 g/d), and lactose yield (182 g/d) from HMBi. Supplementation of HMB had small and nonsignificant effects on milk yield and composition. There were no significant interaction effects of HMB with HMBi on any of the production traits measured in this experiment. Plasma free Met as a proportion of essential amino acids was increased by HMBi, but not by HMB. Dietary supplementation of HMBi increased gross N efficiency expressed as the proportion of ingested N secreted in milk. Consequently, HMBi significantly improved N efficiency.

  12. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MS ALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MS ALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MS ALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a comparative analysis of

  13. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  14. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  15. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  16. Lipolytic Changes in the Milk Fat of Raw Milk and Their Effects on the Quality of Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kirst, E.

    1986-01-01

    Lipolytic changes in milk rat affect sensory attributes and techno logicaI properties of milk and milk products. They are affectcd by physiologal, thermal . and biochemical factors as well as by the mechanics of fluids Lipolytic processes in milk are intensified by modern processing methods. In this review. special attention has been paid to runinant- related feeding of dairy cows. foaming of milk. mechanical and thermal influences and the growth of psycllrotrophic bacteria. Feeds defic...

  17. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  18. Milking performance and udder health of cows milked with two different liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten D.; Frimer, Erik S.; Kaartinen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of milking cows with two different liners were measured for a period of 8 months with 115 Danish Holstein cows divided into two groups. G-roup H and L animals were milked with liners with mouthpiece cavity]heights of 30 and 18 mm respectively (other dimensions also differed between...... the two liners). Aver age teat lengths of first lactation cows were 45 and 40 mm for front and rear teats. Older cows had teats similar to 10 min longer. There was no difference in milk yield or milk flow rates between the two groups. Average machine-on time was shorter for group L, and first lactation...... cows of group L were less restive. The frequency of red and blue discoloured teats immediately after milking was higher for group H, and teat length increased on average 5 mm during lactation with no increase for group L. The small overall differences in udder health between the two groups were...

  19. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  20. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  1. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  2. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw

  3. Research And Practice: Quantification Of Raw And Heat-Treated Cow Milk in Sheep Milk, Cheese And Bryndza By ELISA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zeleňáková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the reliability of commercial ELISA tests (RC-bovino within raw and heat treated cow milk detection in sheep milk and cheese in order to obtain a high-quality, reliable and economically beneficial method suitable for routine application in practice. These tests were subsequently used for quantification of cow milk in commercial "Bryndza". Raw sheep milk, cow milk and heat-treated cow milk (pasteurisation at 72 °C for 15 sec or at 85 °C for 3 sec were mixed in precisely defined proportions (0 - 100% cow milk in sheep milk. The milk mixtures were sampled to detect adulteration and subsequently cheese was made. By ELISA tests was possible to determine these amounts of raw cow milk in sheep milk: 0.5% (0.2%, 5 % (4.81%, 50% (42.08% and 75% (56.52%. The pasteurized samples in different combinations gave lower optical density responses than those prepared from raw milk (by approximately 60%. In context with the above mentioned, the relationship between the real and detected amount of cow milk (% in different production stages (milk, cheese using a regression analysis was examined. However, a lower reliability of the detection was indicated by R2 values, which ranged from 0.4058 (cheese to 0.5175 (milk. In practice this means that although individual percentage (% of cow milk in the sample can be detected, but in the unknown sample it can not be clearly confirm whether the cow milk was raw or heat-treated. In this context, the results can be inaccurate and may not correspond to the real situation. Within monitoring phase of this research, 9 samples of bryndza were analysed with the results of detected cow milk ranged from 11.56% to 14.3%. The obtained results confirm that the appropriate selection of ELISA tests can become an important factor in the setting of analytical capabilities for the detection of milk and cheese adulteration.

  4. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brogna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05 were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001; moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1 of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA percentage (P<0.05.

  5. The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract on the oxidative stability of lipids in cow and soy milk enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2018-01-01

    in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation...... stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product...

  6. Manufacturing of Camembert type cheese made from goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Tonković

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of goat's and cow's milk and their mixtures on the quality of the Camembert type cheese within 30 days of its preservation. Cheeses were made of a mixture of goat's and cow's milk in the following ratios: 0:100, 30:70, 50:50, 80:20 and 100:0. They were analysed on the twelfth and thirtieth day of the cheese production. The chemical analysis of milk for cheese production, as well as the chemical composition, pH and sensorial evaluation of cheeses have been determined. It has been proven that the chemical content and type of milk influencesm sensorial evaluation of cheeses and their shelf life. The analysed cheeses, after 12th day of processing, obtained better sensorial scores than those after the 30th day. Cheeses made of goat's milk have obtained the best sensorial evaluation, although their shelf life was shorter than the rest of the cheese samples made of cow's milk and mixtures of goat's and cow's milk. The chosen storage temperature (10-11 ºC was not adequate for Camembert cheeses. Therefore, in order to prolong the shelf life above the 30-day-period and to preserve sensorial properties of the cheeses, the temperature should be lower, i.e. 5 ºC.

  7. Transfer of 137Cs to cows' milk in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solheim Hansen, H.; Andersson, I.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the transfer of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs cows' milk in the different Nordic countries. A compilation is given of data on 137 Cs levels in both dairy milk and milk from individual farms. In 1986 and 1987 the levels of 137 Cs were higest in Finland and Norway, intermediate in Sweden, the Faroe Islands and Iceland ( 137 Cs from global fallout only) and lowest in Denmark. The aggregated transfer coefficient (T a g) to cows' milk was 2-10 times higher in the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway compared to that in Denmark, Finland and Sweden for all years after 1986. The effective ecological half-life (T 1/2ecol ) for dairy cows' milk ranged from 1-2.3 y for all countries, except Iceland where the T 1/2ecol was 18.4 y (global fallout). It was therefore concluded that cows' milk production in the Faroe Islands and Norway was most sensitive to the Chernobyl 137 Cs fallout. Though milk production systems and management systems change over time and could alter the sensitivity to 137 Cs fallout, it is concluded that the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway would be most susceptible to future 137 Cs fallout. (orig.)

  8. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium and maximum air temperatures around the milk cowsheds were measured and these empirical data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under varying thermal conditions. We found out that artificial neural networks were an effective tool supporting the process of short-term ...

  9. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  10. Microbiological quality and antibiotic residues in informally marketed raw cow milk within the coastal savannah zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, K K; Mensah, G I; Aning, K G; Nartey, N; Nipah, G K; Bonsu, C; Akyeh, M L; Smits, H L

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the microbiological quality and the presence of antibiotic residues in raw cow milk and in some indigenous milk products produced and marketed by the informal sector in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. Milk samples were aseptically collected from 224 kraals and samples of 26 indigenous milk products were purchased from processors and retailers. Total plate counts, total coliform counts and the presence of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 were determined in all 250 samples. Milk samples were also tested for antibiotic residues. Total plate counts exceeded 10⁵ CFU/ml in 45.2% of the samples while coliforms exceeded 10³ CFU/ml in 66.0% and E. coli was detected in 11.2%. E. coli was present in raw cow milk but not in the indigenous products and all E. coli isolates were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Antibiotic residues were detected in 3.1% of the raw cow milk samples. Bulk milk contains unacceptable levels of hygiene indicators and antibiotic residues and is a potential source of milk-borne infections. The detection of E. coli and antibiotic residues raises public health concerns about the safety of fresh unpasteurized cow milk in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and calls for improved farm hygiene, the need for milk pasteurization and the sensible use of antibiotics in the milk industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Association of changes among body condition score during the transition period with NEFA and BHBA concentrations, milk production, fertility, and health of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Maturana Filho, M; Carvalho, P D; Del Valle, T A; Netto, A S; Rennó, F P; Mingoti, R D; Gandra, J R; Mourão, G B; Fricke, P M; Sartori, R; Madureira, E H; Wiltbank, M C

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations. All cows received a timed artificial insemination (TAI) at 65 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) following a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with a progesterone implant during the Ovsynch protocol. Cows were grouped based on BCS change after calving as to whether they: 1) lost (L), 2) maintained (M), or 3) gained (G) BCS. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with GLIMMIX and ANOVA with repeated measures using the MIXED procedures of SAS. Both NEFA and BHBA concentrations after calving differed (P fertility, and occurrence of health problems during the lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Mustafa, A. F.; Seguin, P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of forage soybean silage (SS) for dairy cows relative to a fourth-cut alfalfa silage (AS). Forage soybean was harvested at full pod stage. Two iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated with a 48:52 foragerconcentrate ratio. Soybean silage...

  13. Effects of cornmeal or molasses supplemented with different protein sources on milk production and nitrogen utilization of organic dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen lactating organic Jersey cows were assigned to four replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare the effects of feeding cornmeal (CM) or molasses (MOL) with either flaxseed meal (Flax) or a protein mix [(PM = 11% soybean meal (SB) + 5% sunflower ...

  14. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  15. Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows : Milking frequency and effects on behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.; Ipema, A.H.; Ouwerkerk, van E.N.J.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) enable cows to be milked without human interference. Such systems are more acceptable to consumers and from the animal welfare point of view if they can be combined with grazing in the summer season. In this study, grazing was combined with fully automatic milking for

  16. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  17. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  18. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  19. Characteristic of cow milk dadih using starter of probiotic of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Usmiati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dadih is an original dairy product from West Sumatera processed traditionally. It is a spontaneous fermentation of buffalo milk at room temperature for 48 hours in a bamboo tube, has no standard of processing and quality. Dadih is potentially to be develop into probiotic products (functional food that can be enjoyed by the public widely. Development of cow's milk dadih is necessary since buffalo milk is available only in certain area. Product and characteristic information of cow milk dadih using probiotic of lactic acid bacteria starter has not been known. The research objective was to determine the characteristics of cow milk dadih that used starter of probiotic lactic acid bacteria during storage at room temperature (27oC and cold temperature (4oC. The study was designed using a factorial randomized block design pattern 12x3 at room temperature and 12X4 at cold temperatures, with the number of repeatation of 3 times. Treatment consisted of: (i starter formula (A using a single bacterium or a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, and (ii storage time (B. Observed parameters included pH value, titrable acidity, the total plate count, and in-vitro probiotic testing (bacterial resistance to bile salts and low pH of cow milk dadih. The results showed that L. acidophilus early exponential phase was at the hour 3rd, L. casei at the hour 4th and B. longum on the 3rd of which is used as the optimum time of mixing two or more bacteria in the manufacture of cow milk dadih. The volume of starter used was 3% with time fermentation of 48 hours at room temperature (27-30oC. Cow milk dadih that was stored for 7 days at room temperature (27-30oC and for 21 days at cold temperatures (4-10oC was able to maintain viability of bacteria to bile salts and low pH at 1010-1012 cfu/ml with percentage resistance varied. The cow milk dadih using a combination starter of B. longum with other probiotics on the

  20. New functions to estimate 305-days milk production of Gir cows : Novas Funções para Estimar a Produção de Leite, em 305 Dias de Lactação, de Vacas da Raça Gir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reboucas, G.F.; Moraes Goncalves, de T.; Martines, M.L.; Azevedo Junior, J.; Koops, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to calculate new accumulated and daily functions based on the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the 305-days production of Gir cows using test day milk yields. Data consisted of 7,412 lactation records of 3,416 Gir cows (Bos indicus) collected from 1987 to 2004 in 51 herds

  1. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.

  2. Diseases, reproductive performance, and changes in milk production associated with subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: a meta-analysis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Mounié, M; Maigné, E

    2014-12-01

    milk losses associated with SCK were 251 ± 73 kg after adjusting for abomasal displacement, clinical ketosis, metritis, and placental retention. The OR (95% confidence interval) for first service calving risk in cases of SCK was 0.67 (0.53-0.83). The calving-to-first-service interval was 8 d longer and the calving-to-conception interval was 16 to 22 d longer in cows with SCK. The relationships among the different reproductive indicators were quantified in only 1 or 2 trials. The present work highlights the need to conduct further studies on the associations between SCK and the risks of diseases, changes in milk production, and reproductive parameters. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of 54 Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed

  4. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  5. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  6. The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract on the oxidative stability of lipids in cow and soy milk enriched with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2018-10-15

    Lipid oxidation of fish oil enriched cow milk and soy milk supplemented with rosemary extract stored at 2 °C was studied. Both peroxide value and volatile secondary lipid oxidation products were determined to monitor the progress of lipid oxidation. Rosemary extract inhibited lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product during storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Raw Cow Milk Quality in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Pemba Island Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gwandu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality depends on the physicochemical characteristics, hygienic standards, and nutritional quality; however, animal husbandry practices, unhygienic harvesting and processing, may affect its quality. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2010 and July 2011 to assess the hygiene of cow milk production environment, raw cow milk physicochemical characteristics, and microbial quality and estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial residues using standard methods in Pemba Island. A total of 98 raw cow milk samples from selected smallholder dairy farms were analyzed, and the judgement on the quality used the East African Standards. Generally, the milk production chain was done under the unhygienic condition, and dirty plastic containers were used for collection and storage of milk under room temperature. Some milk samples had abnormal colour (2.1%, abnormal smell (7.1%, and pH below normal (35.7%, clotted on alcohol test (9.2%, and had the specific gravity below normal (13.3%. All the milk samples had mineral contents within the recommended range. Milk samples with butterfat below normal were 29.6%, while 14.3% had total solids below recommended values. The mean total viable count (TVC of milk container surfaces was 9.7±10.5 log CFU/100 cm2, while total coliform count (TCC was 7.8±8.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Up to 55.1% of milk had TVC beyond the recommended levels. The milk mean TVC was 11.02±11.6 log CFU/ml and TCC was 6.7±7.3 log CFU/ml. Up to 26.5% of milk samples had the TCC beyond levels. Results on physicochemical characteristics and nutritional analysis show that the raw cow milk in Pemba Island is of inferior quality. Microbiological results of this study imply heavy contaminations of milk. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 83% of the samples and most of them were from Wete District. Unhygienic milk production chain accelerates microbial contaminations, and antimicrobial residues in milk are a big

  8. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  9. Use of radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of post-partum ovaric activity in high and low milk production in dairy cows. Actividad ovarica post-parto en vacas de alta y baja produccion lechera usando la tecnica de radioimmunoanalisis (RIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, P [Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Quito (Ecuador); Paneluisa, S; Arcos, E [Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Central del (Ecuador)

    1993-07-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determinate the post-partum ovarian activity in milking cows of high and low production in one farm of ecuadorian highland. For this experiment was necessary to use 48 animals between second and sith calving, the milk samples were collected according one pre-stablished protocol and the same was: one sample 5th or 6th days, twice a week until the cows were pregnacy and 180 days after parturitium if the cow is open. Additional data were compiled in each farm and both the results of the progesterone by RIA were used to determinate the diferents reproductive parameters in the post-partum of the cows. The most of reproductives parameters in the post-partum of the cows in the both group didn't have significance but the conception rate, services per conception, number of pregnacy cows and percentaje of non visibles heats had one high significance between the treatments.

  10. Prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 genes are associated with milk production, body condition score and fertility traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, M P; Lynch, C O; Waters, S M; Howard, D J; O'Boyle, P; Kenny, D A; Buckley, F; Horan, B; Diskin, M G

    2011-08-26

    The somatotrophic axis (GH-IGF) is a key regulator of animal growth and development, affecting performance traits that include milk production, growth rate, body composition, and fertility. The aim of this study was to quantify the association of previously identified SNPs in bovine growth hormone (GH1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes with direct performance trait measurements of lactation and fertility in Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows. Sixteen SNPs in both IGF-1 and GH1 were genotyped across 610 cows and association analyses were carried out with traits of economic importance including calving interval, pregnancy rate to first service and 305-day milk production, using animal linear mixed models accounting for additive genetic effects. Two IGF-1 SNPs, IGF1i1 and IGF1i2, were significantly associated with body condition score at calving, while a single IGF-1 SNP, IGF1i3, was significantly associated with milk production, including milk yield (means ± SEM; 751.3 ± 262.0 kg), fat yield (21.3 ± 10.2 kg) and protein yield (16.5 ± 8.0 kg) per lactation. Only one GH1 SNP, GH33, was significantly associated with milk protein yield in the second lactation (allele substitution effect of 9.8 ± 5.0 kg). Several GH1 SNPs were significantly associated with fertility, including GH32, GH35 and GH38 with calving to third parity (22.4 ± 11.3 days) (GH32 and GH38 only), pregnancy rate to first service (0.1%) and overall pregnancy rate (0.05%). The results of this study demonstrate the effects of variants of the somatotrophic axis on milk production and fertility traits in commercial dairy cattle.

  12. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2017-07-01

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  13. The milk-mucus belief: sensory analysis comparing cow's milk and a soy placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Arney, W K

    1993-02-01

    A questionnaire designed to measure the "milk mucus effect" was based on sensations and symptoms after drinking milk reported in interviews with 169 individuals, 70 of whom held the belief that milk produces mucus. This was used to measure responses in a randomized, double-blind trial of a flavoured UHT cow's milk drink, compared with a similarly flavoured and constituted UHT soy milk drink. The soy placebo was indistinguishable from cow's milk in a pretest of 185 individuals. Of 14 milk-mucus effect indicator variables, three showed significant increases after consumption of 300 ml of the test drink. These were "coating/lining over the mouth, throat or tongue" (39% increase), "need to swallow a lot" (31% increase) and "saliva thicker, harder to swallow than before" (42% increase). However, these increases occurred in both milk and placebo groups. It is concluded that the effect measured is not specific to cow's milk, but can be duplicated by a non-cow's milk drink with similar sensory characteristics.

  14. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klijnstra, Mirjam D; Driehuis, Frank; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) was processed using laboratory scale heating systems with industrial settings. Pasteurised and sterilised (UHT) milk were produced, as well as set-type yoghurt and cheese. Samples were analysed for 29 PAs using LC-MS/MS, of which 11 PAs were detected above LOQ in the samples (0.1 µg l -1 ). Alterations in the PA concentration and composition between the standardised milk and the corresponding end-product(s) were evaluated. The heat treatments applied for pasteurisation and UHT sterilisation to prepare semi-skimmed consumption milk did not affect the PA levels in the end-products. In yoghurt, after fermentation of standardised milk (6 h, pH 4.4), 73% of total PAs were recovered. The PA concentration, specifically dehydrojacoline, was decreased, although not quantifiable, during cheese production. A further decrease of 38% during 6 weeks of ripening was observed. The results show that the PA concentration of natural contaminated cow's milk is not affected by heat treatment applied for pasteurised and sterilised milk, but that microbial fermentation of the milk leads to a lowered PA concentration in yoghurt and cheese. This is probably due to microbiological degradation, since PAs are fairly stable under acidic conditions.

  16. Dairy Cows Produce Less Milk and Modify Their Behaviour during the Transition between Tie-Stall to Free-Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broucek, Jan; Uhrincat, Michal; Mihina, Stefan; Soch, Miloslav; Mrekajova, Andrea; Hanus, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of moving cows from the barn with stanchion-stall housing to free-stall housing on their behaviour and production. Cows lay down up to ten hours after removing. The cows in their second lactation and open cows tended to lie sooner after removing than cows in their first lactation and pregnant cows. The times of total lying and rumination were increasing from the first day to the tenth day after removing. Cows produced 23.3% less milk at the first day following the transfer than at the last day prior to moving (23.76 ± 7.20 kg vs. 30.97 ± 7.26 kg, p cows achieved maximum production. The difference was found in milk losses due to the shift between cows in first and second lactation. Abstract Transfer of cattle to an unknown barn may result in a reduction in its welfare. Housing and management practices can result in signs of stress that include a long-term suppression of milk efficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of moving cows from the stanchion-stall housing to free-stall housing on their behaviour and production. The Holstein cows were moved into the new facility with free-stall housing from the old barn with stanchion-stall housing. Cows lay down up to ten hours (596.3 ± 282.7 min) after removing. The cows in their second lactation and open cows tended to lie sooner after removing than cows in their first lactation and pregnant cows. The times of total lying and rumination were increasing from the first day to the tenth day after removing (23.76 ± 7.20 kg vs. 30.97 ± 7.26 kg, p Cows produced 23.3% less milk at the first day following the transfer than at the last day prior to moving (p cows on the first and second lactation (p cows’ milk production. However, when the cows are moved to a better environment, they rapidly adapt to the change. PMID:28273810

  17. Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity of Cow Milk Kefir and Goat Milk Kefir Against Bacteria Bacillus Cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartanti, Dwi; Septian, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Kefir is fermented milk and comes from the Caucasus. Kefir is made by inoculating cow milk, goat or sheep with kefir grain. Kefir contains 0.5–1.0% alcohol and 0.9 to 1.1% lactic acid. This product is very popular in the Soviet Union, where the consumption of kefir reach 4.5 kg per capita per year. Kefir made from pasteurized milk and fermented with kefir grain, kefir grain is white seeds from bacteria colony, such as Streptococcus sp., Lactobacilli and some types of yeast/yeast a...

  18. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    to production and reproductive outcomes, but surprisingly, metabolizable energy balance was not. The hazard of pregnancy in the first 150 d of lactation was 28% lower in cows producing milk with the lowest quartile of protein percentage compared with cows with milk in the upper 3 quartiles. Milk CN percentage was positively associated with improved pregnancy at first service. This study demonstrates the importance of protein metabolism to reproductive performance of the dairy cow. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of cellular immunity in cow's milk allergy : pathogenesis, tolerance induction, and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Juandy; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Leon; Sandalova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow's milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow's milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow's milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first

  20. Radiological Findings in Two Patients with Cow's Milk Allergic Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Masumoto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergic enterocolitis is a common paediatric gastrointestinal disease. However, radiological findings from contrast studies have rarely been reported. We report two Japanese neonate patients with cow's milk allergic enterocolitis with vomiting, bloody stool and unique findings on upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed folds of the small intestine to be thickened, such as in spasm, or ribbonlike cords in both cases. There was also poor passage from the duodenum to the jejunum in one case. In addition, there were spastic findings on lower gastrointestinal contrast study in part of the large colon in one case. Clinicians, including paediatric surgeons, treating neonates with bloody stool and/or vomiting should thus be aware that unique findings on upper and lower gastrointestinal contrast studies may be useful in suspecting cases with cow's milk allergic enterocolitis.

  1. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILKING LIVESTOCK AND MILK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milking livestock and milk production in Romania during the period 20072-012 and to establish the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat. The methods used in this study were: the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. While the number of dairy cows declined by 30 %, accounting for 1,265 thou heads in 2012, the number of female sheep and goats increased by 45 % reaching 8,726 thou heads. The farm size is very small, 1-2 cows/farm for 59 % holdings, 3-9 cows/farm for 38 % holdings and over 10 cows for only 3 % farms and the extensive technology is the most practiced one. Milk production declined by 20 %, accounting for 44,172 thou hl in 2012, of which 86 % is produced by cows. Milk production value contributes by 32 % to agricultural production value. Cow milk yield is small, only 3,417 kg/cow in 2012 and in decline. Only about 22 % of milk is delivered to dairies and the remaining is consumed on farm and directly sold in the market because of the low milk farm gate price and milk quality. The producer's price is the lowest in the EU, accounting for Euro 29.84/100 milk kg. As a conclusion, to rehabilitate the sector of milk producing, the farmers' associative forms are required to join the capital and financial resources, to apply for EU funding to modernize the farms, to produce a higher production and assure a high profitability and competitiveness.

  2. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation...... and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows...... and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated...

  3. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...

  4. Estimating the Lactation Curve on a.m./p.m. Milkings in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was conducted in order to assess the effect of a.m./p.m. milkings on the shape of the lactation curve during a normal lactation. Data from a.m. and p.m. milkings from 86 Romanian Spotted cows were used. Cows calved during January, February and March 2011 and concluded their lactations by the end of February 2012. Results showed that there was a difference between morning and evening milkings regarding the shape of the lactation curve. The shape of the lactation curve for morning milking was more resembling to the shape of the lactation curve for total daily milk. Modelling the lactation curve with gamma incomplete function led to a milk production estimate very close to the real production, although the model overestimated the yield in early lactation and underestimated it in middle lactation. If alternative milkings are going to use for milk yield estimation it is preferable to measure the evening milking at the beginning.

  5. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  6. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, J.; Løkke, M.M.; Larsen, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial...... properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were...

  7. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  8. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  9. Evaluation of increased milking frequency as an additional treatment for cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, Volker; Zinke, Claudia; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Klocke, Doris; Reimann, Anette; Eller, Georg

    2010-02-01

    This field study focused on the possible effects of increased milking frequency (milking four times a day in comparison with milking twice a day) on clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical, antibiotically treated mastitis cases. Parameters tested were clinical, microbiological and full (cytomicrobiological) cure as well as the development of milk yield after the clinical mastitis episode. Cows from a large dairy herd meeting the study criteria (n=93) were assigned to two treatment groups by a systematic randomization scheme (blocked by body temperature 39.5 degrees C). Both groups were randomly divided by experimental treatments: a) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 2-times a day; b) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 4-times a day. Treatments were initiated before the culture results were known. Cows were surveyed and evaluated on days 1-6, 24 and 31. No significant differences between treatment and control groups regarding clinical cure, microbiological cure, full cure and milk production could be established. Applying a 4-times a day milking regime did not lead to any significant effect, either positive or negative. Therefore, the results suggest that milking 4-times a day as a supporting therapy for mild, moderate and severe antimicrobially treated mastitis cases cannot be recommended.

  10. Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows: I. Genotype and diet effect on milk and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolver, E S; Roche, J R; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Aspin, P W

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of extended lactations in pastoral systems by using divergent dairy cow genotypes [New Zealand (NZ) or North American (NA) Holstein-Friesian (HF)] and levels of nutrition (0, 3, or 6 kg/d of concentrate dry matter). Mean calving date was July 28, 2003, and all cows were dried off by May 6, 2005. Of the 56 cows studied, 52 (93%) were milking at 500 d in milk (DIM) and 10 (18%) were milking at 650 DIM. Dietary treatments did not affect DIM (605 +/- 8.3; mean +/- SEM). Genotype by diet interactions were found for total yield of milk, protein, and milk solids (fat + protein), expressed per cow and as a percentage of body weight. Differences between genotypes were greatest at the highest level of supplementation. Compared with NZ HF, NA HF produced 35% more milk, 24% more milk fat, 25% more milk protein, and at drying off had 1.9 units less body condition score (1 to 10 scale). Annualized milk solids production, defined as production achieved during the 24-mo calving interval divided by 2 yr, was 79% of that produced in a normal 12-mo calving interval by NZ HF, compared with 94% for NA HF. Compared with NZ HF, NA HF had a similar 21-d submission rate (85%) to artificial insemination, a lower 42-d pregnancy rate (56 vs. 79%), and a higher final nonpregnancy rate (30 vs. 3%) when mated at 451 d after calving. These results show that productive lactations of up to 650 d are possible on a range of pasture-based diets, with the highest milk yields produced by NA HF supplemented with concentrates. Based on the genetics represented, milking cows for 2 yr consecutively, with calving and mating occurring every second year, may exploit the superior lactation persistency of high-yielding cows while improving reproductive performance.

  11. Identification of QTL on chromosome 18 associated with non-coagulating milk in Swedish Red cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine I. Duchemin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-coagulating (NC milk, defined as milk not coagulating within 40 min after rennet-addition, can have a negative influence on cheese production. Its prevalence is estimated at 18% in the Swedish Red (SR cow population. Our study aimed at identifying genomic regions and causal variants associated with NC milk in SR cows, by doing a GWAS using 777k SNP genotypes and using imputed sequences to fine map the most promising genomic region. Phenotypes were available from 382 SR cows belonging to 21 herds in the south of Sweden, from which individual morning milk was sampled. NC milk was treated as a binary trait, receiving a score of one in case of non-coagulation within 40 minutes. For all 382 SR cows, 777k SNP genotypes were available as well as the combined genotypes of the genetic variants of αs1-β-κ-caseins. In addition, whole–genome sequences from the 1000Bull Genome Consortium (Run 3 were available for 429 animals of 15 different breeds. From these sequences, 33 sequences belonged to SR and Finish Ayrshire bulls with a large impact in the SR cow population. Single-marker analyses were run in ASReml using an animal model. After fitting the casein loci, 14 associations at –Log10(Pvalue > 6 identified a promising region located on BTA18. We imputed sequences to the 382 genotyped SR cows using Beagle 4 for half of BTA18, and ran a region-wide association study with imputed sequences. In a 7 mega base-pairs region on BTA18, our strongest association with NC milk explained almost 34% of the genetic variation in NC milk. Since it is possible that multiple QTL are in strong LD in this region, 59 haplotypes were built, genetically differentiated by means of a phylogenetic tree, and tested in phenotype-genotype association studies. Haplotype analyses support the existence of one QTL underlying NC milk in SR cows. A candidate gene of interest is the VPS35 gene, for which one of our strongest association is an intron SNP in this gene. The VPS35

  12. Cow?s milk allergy: evidence-based diagnosis and management for the practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Lifschitz, Carlos; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current evidence and recommendations regarding cow?s milk allergy (CMA), the most common food allergy in young children, for the primary and secondary care providers. The diagnostic approach includes performing a medical history, physical examination, diagnostic elimination diets, skin prick tests, specific IgE measurements, and oral food challenges. Strict avoidance of the offending allergen is the only therapeutic option. Oral immunotherapy is being studied, but it is...

  13. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat composition are discussed.

  14. Impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cattle producers' reports of milking labour management, milk production and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J; Rushen, J; Pajor, E A

    2018-04-04

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person. In total, 530 AMS farms were contacted between May 2014 and the end of June 2015. A total of 217 AMS producers participated in the General Survey (Part 1), resulting in a 41% response rate, and 69 of the respondents completed the more detailed follow-up questions (Part 2). On average, after adopting AMS, the number of employees (full- and part-time non-family labour combined) decreased from 2.5 to 2.0, whereas time devoted to milking-related activities decreased by 62% (from 5.2 to 2.0 h/day). Median milking frequency was 3.0 milkings/day and robots were occupied on average 77% of the day. Producers went to fetch cows a median of 2 times/day, with a median of 3 fetch cows or 4% of the herd per robot/day. Farms had a median of 2.5 failed or incomplete milkings/robot per day. Producers reported an increase in milk yield, but little effect on milk quality. Mean milk yield on AMS farms was 32.6 kg/cow day. Median bulk tank somatic cell count was 180 000 cells/ml. Median milk fat on AMS farms was 4.0% and median milk protein was 3.3%. At the time of the survey, 67% of producers were current participants of a DHI programme. Half of the producers who were not DHI participants had stopped participation after adopting AMS. Overall, this study characterized impacts of adopting AMS and may be a useful guide for making this transition.

  15. Determination of trace elements in fresh cow's milk in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Elamin Mohammed Abd Allah

    2017-01-01

    Milk and its products are basic foodstuffs and constitute and important source of some vitamins and a lot of minerals. However, increasing or decreasing intake of theses minerals can be harmful. The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of macro and trace elements in fresh cow's milk namely, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb and Sr. A total of 40 samples of fresh cow's milk were collected from different dairy farms located around farms located around Khartoum state, 20 of them collected from cows drink ground water, while the other 20 samples their cows drink river water. Samples were then dried by freeze drying, and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system. A certified reference sample, obtained from International Atomic Energy Agency was used for quality control analysis, to ensure the reliability of the device. The results obtained were expressed as (mean±uncertainty). The obtained results revealed that some elements i, e, Cl, K, Ca showed clear variation in the levels of their concentrations, compared to the relevant previous studies, which sometime found to be higher and lower than the reported values. While the trace element such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br showed higher levels. It was observed that the milk samples of cows drink ground water had significantly higher concentration of Marco elements (Cl, K, Ca) than the milk of cows drink river water (at probability level of p-value<0.05). The elements concentration in the milk of cows drink ground water had also higher concentration of Cu and Br, and lower concentration of Fe, Zn, Pb, Rb and Sr than the milk of cows drink river water. However it is not statistically significant. Some elements such as: Cr, Mn and Ni present in high concentration in the milk of cows drink ground water, while they were not detected in the milk of cows drink river water. The statistical test one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (at probability level of p-value<0.05) showed

  16. Cow's milk allergy in Dutch children: an epigenetic pilot survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, Nicole C. M.; Henneman, Peter; Venema, Andrea; Mul, Adri; van Sinderen, Femke; Haagmans, Martin; Mook, Olaf; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Sprikkelman, Aline B.; Mannens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a common disease in infancy. Early environmental factors are likely to contribute to CMA. It is known that epigenetic gene regulation can be altered by environmental factors. We have set up a proof of concept study, aiming to detect epigenetic associations

  17. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzone Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal, enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  18. Cow's milk and immune function in the respiratory tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdijk, Olaf; Splunter, van Marloes; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Brugman, Sylvia; Neerven, van Joost

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw

  19. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    thermal conditions. We found out that artificial neural networks were an effective tool supporting the ... The purpose of the paper was to investigate the possibility of using artificial ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the quantity of ... parameters and the neural network training methods. The tool was.

  20. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... 59 cows and 7100 kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively. Based on cow data, 22 herd variables were defined. A factor analysis identified 10 first-order factors and 5 second-order factors. The latter factors were valid indicators of replacement intensity, variability of milk production, potential...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...

  1. Effect of altering the type of dietary carbohydrate early postpartum on reproductive performance and milk production in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Leane, S; Butler, S T; Roche, J R; Burke, C R

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of increasing dietary starch for approximately 30 d postpartum on reproduction outcomes in pasture-grazed, seasonal-calving dairy cows. Cows (n = 948) from 3 commercial herds were blocked by age (2, 3, and >3 yr), breed, and expected calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 postpartum treatment groups: high starch (34.7 ± 1.9% nonstructural carbohydrate; mean ± SD) or low starch (22.5 ± 0.4% nonstructural carbohydrate). The high-starch group in all 3 farms received 4.0 to 4.5 kg/d of a 75:25 cracked corn:barley grain mixture in the dairy parlor, split evenly between the morning and afternoon milkings. The low-starch cows received 5.0 to 5.5 kg/d of a 50:50 mixture of palm kernel meal:soy hulls (herds 1 and 3) fed in the parlor; low-starch cows in the remaining herd (herd 2) did not receive a concentrate feed. Cows were cograzed on ryegrass-white clover dominant pastures and were offered corn silage (herds 1 and 3) and canola, corn distillers grain, and palm kernel meal (herd 1) throughout the study. At 1 mo before the start of the seasonal breeding period, the high-starch supplement was removed, and within each herd treatment groups were managed similarly through breeding. Presence of purulent vaginal discharge was assessed at 28 DIM, and tail paint was assessed weekly from 2 to 6 wk postpartum for signs of estrus. The interval to first observed estrus was unaffected by treatment (32.7 vs. 33.5 ± 2 d for high and low starch, respectively), but there were tendencies for a herd × treatment interaction for proportion of cows pregnant to first service and for pregnancy within 6 wk. This interaction was significant for the proportion of cows finally pregnant; a lower proportion of high-starch cows were pregnant to first service, pregnant by 6 wk, and pregnant by the end of the seasonal breeding period in herd 1, but diet did not affect these outcomes in the other herds. Our results do not support a positive

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...... animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture......-negative on intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism....

  3. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    implies that this isomer is subjected to greater biohydrogenation with increasing supply than 18:2t10c12. The fact that unprotected 18:2t10c12 escaped biohydrogenation in sufficient amounts to affect milk fat synthesis reveals opportunities to develop feeding strategies where reduced milk fat production is desirable or required by the metabolic state of the cow.

  4. Detection of cow's milk proteins and minor components in human milk using proteomics techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Bertino, E

    2012-10-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are the best characterized food allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, and other minor protein components by proteomics techniques, more sensitive than other techniques used in the past. Sixty-two term and 11 preterm colostrum samples were collected, subjected to a treatment able to increase the concentration of the most diluted proteins and simultaneously to reduce the concentration of the proteins present at high concentration (Proteominer Treatment), and subsequently subjected to the steps of proteomic techniques. The most relevant finding in this study was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in human colostrum, then bovine alpha-1-casein could be considered the cow's milk allergen that is readily secreted in human milk and could be a cause of sensitization to cow's milk in exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. Another interesting result was the detection, at very low concentrations, of proteins previously not described in human milk (galectin-7, the different isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein and the serum amyloid P-component), probably involved in the regulation of the normal cell growth, in the pro-apoptotic function and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.

  5. Modeling the Adequacy of Dietary Fiber in Dairy Cows Based on the Responses of Ruminal pH and Milk Fat Production to Composition of the Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebeli, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Tafaj, M.; Steingass, H.; Ametaj, B.N.; Drochner, W.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production

  6. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  7. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  8. Reproductive and productive performance of crossbred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossbred cows are the main type of cattle used for milk production on smallholder and medium farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro Municipality. A study was undertaken on four medium-scale and forty five smallholder farms to investigate the reproductive and productive performance of crossbred maintained ...

  9. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 1.34 and 1.59 kg/d, respectively; milk production did not differ (0.02 kg per milking) between the 2 groups on farm D. These results show the positive effects of oral PG administration in fresh cows with SCK by helping to resolve SCK and preventing clinical ketosis. In addition, oral PG improves milk yield during early lactation in cows diagnosed with SCK. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  11. Beef cow-calf production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  12. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  13. Rapid, Sensitive, Enzyme-Immunodotting Assay for Detecting Cow Milk Adulteration in Sheep Milk: A Modern Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A.; Razquín, Pedro; Lampreave, Fermín; Alava, María A.; Calvo, Miguel

    1998-12-01

    Specificity, sensitivity, and experimental simplicity make the immunoenzymatic assay suitable for a variety of laboratories dedicated to diverse activities such as research, quality control in food analysis, or clinical biochemistry. In these assays, the antibody that specifically recognizes the antigen is covalently attached to an enzyme. Once the antigen-antibody immunocomplex is formed, the enzymatic reaction gives a colored product that allows the detection of the initial antigen. The aim of this work was the design of a new laboratory project appropriate for use in courses of biochemistry, immunochemistry, or analytical chemistry. The assay described here detects the presence of cow milk in milk of other species. The main application is the detection of cow milk in sheep milk and cheese. Specific proteins, immunoglobulins (IgG) of the fraudulent bovine milk, are specifically recognized and retained by antibodies immobilized on a membrane. The binding of a second antibody covalently attached to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) allows the development of a visible signal. Thus, students can rapidly detect milk adulterations using a specific, sensitive, and safe experimental approach. The experiment allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, resulting in a stimulating experience of solving a real problem during a 4-hour laboratory period.

  14. Investigation of the radioactivity of cow milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadchikov, S; Andreeva, O

    1957-01-01

    The highest concentration of radioactive /sup 131/I in milk was found in the fat. /sup 131/I of milk varied, however, from 1.5 x 10/sup -8/ c./1. and was from 13.8 to approximate 20.0 per cent of that emitted by the Pyatigorsk mineral waters.

  15. Altering allergenicity of cow's milk by food processing for applications in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Abdolkhalegh; Milani, Jafar M; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2018-04-16

    Cow's milk-based infant formulas have a long tradition in infant nutrition, although some infants are unable to use them due to presence of several known allergens. Various processing methods have been identified capable of reducing cow's milk protein allergenicity including thermal and non-thermal methods and their combinations. Heat treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have been in production of hypoallergenic infant formulas. However, modulation of allergenic epitopes depends on the extent of heat treatment applied, which consequently may also reduce a nutritional value of these proteins. In addition, enzymatic hydrolysis may not target allergenic epitopes thus allergenicity may persist; however released peptides may have detrimental impact on taste and functional properties of final products. Modulation of allergenicity of milk proteins appears to require a concerted effort to minimize detrimental effects as clinical studies conducted on commercial hypoallergenic formulas demonstrated persistence of allergic symptoms. This article covers traditional and novel processing methods and their impact on reduction of cow's milk allergenicity in milk-based infant formulas.

  16. Cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking in loose housing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this study of cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking, the emphasis was on implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) in cubicle houses in a way that suits cows and farmer. The starting points of the research were that the cows would visit the AMS voluntarily

  17. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying

  18. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  19. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  20. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  1. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Olena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic...... analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated...... that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs...

  2. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  3. Transcobalamin from cow milk: isolation and physico-chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of endogenous cobalamin (Cbl) in cow milk was 3.3 nM while the Cbl-binding capacity was 0.05 nM. Both endogenous and newly added Cbl showed similar quantitative distribution between a 280 kDa protein complex (45%) and a 43 kDa Cbl-binder (55%). Long time incubation, as well...... as urea treatment, was accompanied by a slow release of the 43 kDa Cbl-binder from the 280 kDa fraction. No other Cbl-binding proteins appeared after these procedures. The 43 kDa binder from cow milk, depleted of the ligand by urea treatment, reacted with Cbl even in the presence of a B12 analogue...... was significantly suppressed at pH 2.0. The N-terminal sequence of the purified 43 kDa Cbl-binder revealed homology with TC from human and rabbit plasma. In conclusion we have shown that TC is the main Cbl-binding protein in cow milk. This is surprising, since previous studies on human and rat milk have shown...

  4. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the unsaponifiable matter components of cows, buffaloes and goats milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk were treated with gamma-irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at safe doses (250, 500 and 750 krad) in addition to raw milk of the same types. Results indicate that total hydrocarbon was much lower in unsaponifiable matter (unsap. m) of goat's raw milk fat than that of cow's and buffalo's. Unsap. m of cow's milk fat consisted of ten hydrocarbon compounds, while it consisted of eight hydrocarbon compounds in both buffaloes and goats ones. Moreover, the unsap. m of goat's milk had the highest total sterols followed by buffalo's and cow's, respectively. Cholesterol represents the predominant sterol compound of the unsap. m in all kinds of raw milk fat. The application of ascendent doses of gamma irradiation increased total hydrocarbons and decreased total sterols (particularly cholesterol compounds) of unsap. m of both buffalo's and goat's milk fats, while the reverse trend occurred with cow's milk fat

  6. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  7. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  8. Comparison of the cariogenicity of cola, honey, cow milk, human milk, and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William H; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cariogenicity of various fluids that are frequently fed to infants and toddlers. We chose to examine sucrose, cola drink, honey, human milk, cow milk, and water because some of these have been associated with development of early childhood caries, although direct experimental evidence is lacking. We used our desalivated rat model because the approach mimics the situation found in infants, whereby the flow of saliva is interrupted through mechanical effects of a nipple. The animals received basic nutrition by gavage, and the fluids being tested were available ad libitum. Thus, the only substances that came in contact with teeth were the test fluids. The investigation continued for 14 days. Cola, sucrose, and honey were by far the most cariogenic. In addition, cola and honey induced considerable erosion. Human milk was significantly more cariogenic than cow milk probably because of its lower mineral content and higher level of lactose. Our data show that the use of honey, cola, and sucrose water in nursing bottles should be discouraged. Although human milk is more cariogenic than cow milk, it is no more cariogenic than are common infant formulas. Protracted exposure to human milk or formula through allowing an infant to sleep on the nipple should be discouraged, and the need for oral hygiene after tooth eruption should be emphasized.

  9. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  10. Environmental and genetic factors influence the vitamin D content of cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R R; Strain, J J; Johnston, M; Lowis, C; Fearon, A M; Stewart, S; Pourshahidi, L K

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D is obtained by cattle from the diet and from skin production via UVB exposure from sunlight. The vitamin D status of the cow impacts the vitamin D content of the milk produced, much like human breast milk, with seasonal variation in the vitamin D content of milk well documented. Factors such as changes in husbandry practices therefore have the potential to impact the vitamin D content of milk. For example, a shift to year-round housing from traditional practices of cattle being out to graze during the summer months and housed during the winter only, minimises exposure to the sun and has been shown to negatively influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced. Other practices such as changing dietary sources of vitamin D may also influence the vitamin D content of milk, and evidence exists to suggest genetic factors such as breed can cause variation in the concentrations of vitamin D in the milk produced. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced by dairy cattle. A number of environmental and genetic factors have previously been identified as having influence on the nutritional content of the milk produced. The present review highlights a need for further research to fully elucidate how farmers could manipulate the factors identified to their advantage with respect to increasing the vitamin D content of milk and standardising it across the year.

  11. Effect of humates in diet of dairy cows on the raw milk main components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Potůčková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplemental humic substances (HS on the main milk components was investigated. A total of 10 dairy cows (Czech pied cattle, crossbred Czech pied cattle ´ Ayrshire and crossbred Czech pied cattle ´ Red Holstein were tested. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups, control (C and experimental (E. Animals fed the same feed mixture and group E was additionally supplemented with HS (200 mg.kg-1 of product Humafit prepared from the Sakhalin Leonardite. The experimental period took 3 months. Cows were milked twice a day. The milk composition (lactose, fat, crude protein, pure protein and casein of every cow was monitored on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 of the experiment. Pure protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, other components were analysed using an infrared analyserMilkoScan FT 120. It was found that the crude protein, pure protein and casein content in milk of group E significantly (p <0.05 increased from the 56th day of the experimental period. Differences of the protein fraction contents in group C and of the dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactose and fat content in both groups were non-significant (p <0.05.Higher protein and especially casein content in milk could be very important for the cheesemaking as it could increase the cheese yield. Normal 0 21 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Milk composition as an indicator of the metabolism of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚRBA, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Milk presents good marker metabolic levels in dairy cows. Subscribe milk in moreover to cow does not stressful. Each month has a breeder in the yield control available basic data on milk composition (fat, protein, lactose). This basic data can be expanded to include other parameters (milk urea, ketones and citric acid). Based on these milk parameters can then correct interpretation preventively diagnose metabolic diseases in the herd. In this work, based on yield controlling diagnosed with hi...

  13. A chain model for dioxins: from emission to cow's milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W; Klepper O; van Jaarsveld JA

    1993-01-01

    A chain model for dioxins is discussed relating dioxin levels in cow's milk to emissions. It was used to explain the elevated dioxin concentrations found in cow's milk at various MSW incinerators. It also served as an aid in the selection of locations for milk analyses in still

  14. Digestibility of cow's tritiated milk powder by calf and pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Hoek, J. van den

    1976-01-01

    Milk obtained from a lactating cow, maintained in a byre and fed on tritiated drinking water (266 μCi/1), was used in these experiments. Tritium moves into the different metabolic pathways that eventually produce milk. After administration of this continuous oral dose of tritiated water, the tritium content of the whole milk and of the dry matter reaches a plateau 10 days after the beginning of the ingestion of THO. Analysis of the radioactivity in the several milk constituents indicated that tritium was incorporated to different extents in different components. This in vivo tritiated milk powder was fed to two calves and three pigs in their rations. Daily samples of faeces were taken. For determining the digestibility and the incorporation of this milk powder the animals were slaughtered and several organs examined. The tritium activity was determined in the dry matter of the organs and the faeces. The data obtained in these experiments indicate that the milk powder is better absorbed by the calf if the digestibility coefficient is taken into consideration, but the milk powder is better incorporated in the organic matter of the muscle and liver of the pig. (author)

  15. APPLICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR PRE-MILKING TREATMENT OF COW UDDER AND DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICATION FOR POST-MILKING TREATMENT OF DUGS OF COW UDDER

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov V. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the present article the main research results of investigation of the means of pre-milking and postmilking treatment of cow udder and dugs are presented. The treatment of cow udder dugs produces great effect on the milk quality, the incidence level of mastitis of cows in the herd, extension and pathogenic agents transmission from sick to healthy animals; and also udder treatment provides hygienic protection of udder dugs. Tree concentrations of detergent of chloride dioxide were tested. Wh...

  16. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Budri, Paulo E; Silva, Nathalia CC; Bonsaglia, Erika CR; Fernandes Júnior, Ary; Araújo Júnior, Joao P; Doyama, Julio T; Gonçalves, Juliano L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Rall, Vera LM

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syz...

  17. Productive and reproductive performance of Friesian cows at Kitulo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total lactation milk yield was significantly (P 0.05) effect on the average number of services per conception. It is concluded that reproductive and productive performance of Friesian dairy cows in the present study were low to moderate so it is ...

  18. Patent gastrointestinal nematode infections in organically and conventionally pastured dairy cows and their impact on individual milk and fertility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; König, Sven; Strube, Christina

    2017-10-15

    Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can lead to production losses and impacts on product quality in affected cows, which has mainly been demonstrated during deworming experiments or via herd-level measurements. Here, a field study was carried out to explore the association between GIN infection status and milk production as well as fertility parameters in individual dairy cows. Different selection lines of Black and White cows were included in the study, which were distributed among 17 small and medium-sized organic and conventional German grassland farms. Faecal samples of 1166 dairy cows were examined twice, in July and September 2015. Nematode eggs were found in the faeces of 473 (40.6%) cows. As expected, strongylid eggs (Trichostrongylidae or Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum spp., respectively) were the predominant morphotype, followed by Strongyloides papillosus and Capillaria spp. eggs. In July, cows kept under organic conditions had a significantly lower GIN prevalence in comparison to cows kept on conventional farms. Faecal egg counts were generally low, with the highest value in September and an arithmetic mean of 11.3 eggs per gram faeces (EPG) for all observations. The relationships between GIN infection status and milk yield (kg milk/cow/day), milk protein content (%) and milk fat content (%) for each first test-day record after parasitological assessment were estimated by using linear mixed models. Milk protein content was estimated 0.05% lower in GIN positive compared to GIN negative cows, whereas no significant effect on milk yield or milk fat content was observed. The impact of GIN infection status on success in first insemination (SFI) was estimated by using a threshold model. No significant association was demonstrated between GIN infection status and SFI. Unexpectedly, the fertility parameter days from calving-to-first-service (CTFS) showed a significantly shorter average interval in GIN positive cows. However, these data on

  19. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  20. Chosen biotic factors influencing raw cow milk freezing point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk freezing point depression (FPD is important physical property. FPD is influenced by milk composition especially by components with osmotic pressure activity and by other physiological factors. There is possible to indicate a foreign (extraneous water addition into milk by FPD. This is necessary to have a good estimated legislative FPD discrimination limit (FPD–L for purpose of milk quality control. This paper was aimed at obtaining information to improve such estimation. Impacts factors as season variations, estimated state of dairy cow nutrition and some milk components and properties on milk FPD and their relations to FPD were quantified (n 11 540 – 72 607 bulk raw cow milk samples. The highest FPD was in Spring (−0.52097 ± 0.004877 °C, the lowest in Autumn (−0.52516 ± 0.005725 °C; P < 0.001. Correlation between FPD and lactose was 0.35 (P < 0.001. 12% and 5.4% of FPD variability is explainable by lactose and casein variability. Relationship between FPD and urea (U was 0.26 (P < 0.001 in March. The worst FPD was in group with presupposed (according to milk urea and protein combination nitrogen matter (NM and energy (E insufficiency (−0.51855 ± 0.007288 °C. The best FPD was in group with presupposed NM and E surplus in feeding ration (−0.52536 ± 0.004785 °C; P < 0.001. The FPD was worse in suspicion on E deficiency (on the basis of fat/crude protein ratio as compared to presumption for balanced E nourishment of dairy herds (−0.52105 ± 0.006436 °C > −0.52244 ± 0.005367 °C; P < 0.001. Results can improve the estimation of objective FPD–L.

  1. Shifts in bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows under milk fat-depressing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Stevenson, D M; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis) supplied as corn silage, a slowly fermented starch (SFS treatment, period 1), then switched to a TMR containing 27% starch, much of it supplied as ground high-moisture corn, a rapidly fermented starch (RFS treatment, period 2). In period 3, the RFS diet was amended with 13.6 mg of monensin/kg of DM (RFS/Mon treatment), and in period 4, the cows were returned to the RFS diet without monensin (RFS/Post treatment). Effect of both starch source and monensin on milk fat percentage varied by cow, and cluster analysis identified 4 pairs of cows having distinct milk fat patterns. Archived ruminal liquors and solids from the 4 pairs were processed to isolate bacterial DNA, which was subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis followed by correspondence analysis to visualize bacterial community composition (BCC). One pair of cows (S-responsive) showed MFD on RFS feeding, but displayed no additional MFD upon monensin feeding and a fat rebound upon monensin withdrawal. The second pair of cows (M-responsive) showed no MFD upon switch from the SFS diet to the RFS diet, but displayed strong MFD upon monensin feeding and no recovery after monensin withdrawal. Both groups displayed major shifts in BCC upon dietary shifts, including dietary shifts that both did and did not change milk fat production. The third pair of cows (SM-responsive) displayed reduction of milk fat on both RFS and RFS/Mon diets, and fat returned to the levels on the RFS diet upon monensin withdrawal; these cows showed a more gradual shift in BCC in response to both starch source and monensin. The fourth pair of cows (nonresponsive) did not display changes in milk fat percentage with dietary treatment and showed only minor

  2. Isolation and purification of beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Aich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to standardize a convenient method for isolation and purification of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg from cow milk keeping its antigenicity intact, so that the purified β-lg can be used for detection of cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI. Materials and Methods: Raw milk was collected from Gir breed of cattle reared in Haringhata Farm, West Bengal. Milk was then converted to skimmed milk by removing fat globules and casein protein was removed by acidification to pH 4.6 by adding 3 M HCl. β-lg was isolated by gel filtration chromatography using Sephacryl S-200 from the supernatant whey protein fraction. Further, β-lg was purified by anion-exchange chromatography in diethylaminoethyl-sepharose. Molecular weight of the purified cattle β-lg was determined by 15 percent one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was analyzed by gel documentation system using standard molecular weight marker. Results: The molecular weight of the purified cattle β-lg was detected as 17.44 kDa. The isolated β-lg was almost in pure form as the molecular weight of purified β-lg monomer is 18kDa. Conclusion: The study revealed a simple and suitable method for isolation of β-lg from whey protein in pure form which may be used for detection of CMPI.

  3. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet. PMID:22253982

  4. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were

  5. Effect of mastitis treatment and somatic cell counts on milk yield in Danish organic dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennedsgaard, T W; Enevoldsen, C; Thamsborg, S M; Vaarst, M

    2003-10-01

    Production and disease data from 17,488 lactations in 48 Danish organic dairy herds from 1997 to 2001 were analyzed to obtain estimates on the effect of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis treatment on milk production. A multilevel three-parameter piecewise random coefficients linear model with energy-corrected milk (ECM) as dependent variable and herd, lactation, and test days as levels, was used to model the lactation curve. Covariates related to production, SCC, veterinary treatments, and reproductive performance in the previous lactation as well as information on other diseases in the current lactation were included to describe the production capacity of the individual cow. The average daily milk production at herd level was 20.8, 24.2, and 25.8 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation. The estimates for production losses were on average 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation with each twofold increase in SCC between 100,000 and 1,500,000 cells/ml. The effect varied with the stage of lactation and was nonsignificant around 60 d postpartum and highest at the end of the lactation. The production losses in cows treated for mastitis varied with parity and stage of lactation and were modified by the SCC after treatment. For a cow in third lactation with a SCC below 100,000 cells/ ml before treatment at days in milk = 15, the predicted loss was 435 kg of ECM, including a loss of 135 kg of ECM because of higher SCC compared with the level before treatment. Most of the variation in production related to SCC and mastitis was at the lactation level, and no significant differences were found between herds grouped according to milk production level, SCC, or prevalence of mastitis treatment.

  6. Comparison of the impact of six heat-load management strategies on thermal responses and milk production of feed-pad and pasture fed dairy cows in a subtropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, T. M.; Jonsson, N. N.; Mayer, D. G.; Gaughan, J. B.; Ehrlich, W. K.; McGowan, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP) ); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK). Sprinklers for CID + SP and NSD + SP cycled 2 min on, 12 min off when ambient temperature >26°C. The highest milk yields were in the CID + SP and CID treatments (23.9 L cow-1 day-1), intermediate for NSD + SP, SCD and SCP + WLK (22.4 L cow-1 day-1), and lowest for NSD + WSP (21.3 L cow-1 day-1) ( P cows in CID + SP showed no decline in MY out to a THI break point value of 83.2, whereas the pooled MY of the other treatments declined when THI >80.7. A combination of iron roof shade plus water sprinkling throughout the day provided the most effective control of heat load.

  7. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ecological farming is increasingly spread in the European Union. The aim of this relatively young farming method is a friendly approach to agricultural production with an emphasis to deliver healthy raw materials and food to final consumer. Selenium is included in an essential trace micronutrients which are necessary for the proper process of physiological reactions. It is a part of glutathione peroxidase, which is a powerful antioxidant. At present,  selenium-deficiency can occur in feed and food in central Europe. Selenium deficiency is one cause of the higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study whether the addition of selenium to the diet of dairy cows in ecological farming can increase its concentration in milk and affect quantitative (milk yield and quality (content of protein, fat, lactose, somatic cells and urea milk indicators. The experiment included twenty cows of Holstein breed. The first experimental group of cows (n = 10 was fed with selenium in an amount of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (as selenomethionine in the feed dose. The control group (n = 10 was not fed with the increased selenium in the feed dose. The basic feed dose contained 0.17 mg of Se/kg in the diet. For dairy cows, daily intake was of 20.5 kg of dry matter feed. The duration of the experiment was set at 45 days. The selenium concentration in milk was measured from 0.13 to 0.15 µg.mL-1 in the experimental group of cows during the evaluation. The control group of cows without the addition of selenium to the diet showed a selenium concentration below the detection limit. During the experiment, milk yield, lactose, fat and protein were not affected. A significant decrease (p <0.05 of somatic cells by 58% occurred in milk in the experimental group. The amount of urea was significantly lower in both groups in the experimental (by 52%; p <0.05 and control (50%; p <0.05. These results show that the addition of selenium may increase

  8. The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: II. Effects on lactation performance, including clinical mastitis recurrence, somatic cell count, milk production, and cow survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Godden, S M; Bey, R; Ruegg, P L; Leslie, K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this multi-state, multi-herd clinical trial was to report on the efficacy of using an on-farm culture system to guide strategic treatment decisions in cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted in 8 commercial dairy farms ranging in size from 144 to 1,795 cows from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Ontario, Canada. A total of 422 cows affected with mild or moderate clinical mastitis in 449 quarters were randomly assigned to either (1) a positive-control treatment program or (2) an on-farm culture-based treatment program. Quarter cases assigned to the positive-control group received immediate on-label intramammary treatment with cephapirin sodium. Quarters assigned to the culture-based treatment program were not treated until the results of on-farm culture were determined after 18 to 24h of incubation. Quarters in the culture-based treatment program that had gram-positive growth or a mixed infection were treated according to label instruction using intramammary cephapirin sodium. Quarters assigned to the culture-based treatment program that had gram-negative or no-growth did not receive intramammary therapy. It was already reported in a companion paper that the selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results decreases antibiotic use by half and tends to decrease milk withholding time without affecting short-term clinical and bacteriological outcomes. The present article reports on long-term outcomes of the aforementioned study. No statistically significant differences existed between cases assigned to the positive-control program and cases assigned to the culture-based treatment program in risk and days for recurrence of clinical mastitis in the same quarter (35% and 78 d vs. 43% and 82 d), linear somatic cell count (4.2 vs. 4.4), daily milk production (30.0 vs. 30.7 kg), and risk and days for culling or death events (28% and 160 d vs. 32% and 137 d) for the rest of the lactation after enrollment of the clinical mastitis

  9. Effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen of native cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, N R; Huque, K S; Asaduzzaman, M. [Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)], E-mail: nathusarker@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    al. Concentration of MUN in milk was calculated from the standard curve shown. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein of a cow after feeding the diets using heparinised tubes. Immediately after collection, samples were placed on ice and refrigerated for 1.0 h. followed by centrifugation. Plasma was removed and serum samples were analyzed for urea content (BSU) using a colorimetric method described by Patton and Crouch. Daily feed intake was measured by deducting the amount of feed remained in the manger in each day from the total feed supplied. The feed samples were collected daily, composited and analyzed for nutrient composition using methods described by AOAC. Data were analyzed by using General Linear Model Procedures of SPSS in the computer to determine treatment effects. Duncan multiple range test was used to test significant differences in treatments. production. Feeding urea and molasses in meals or mix (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} ) did not affect significantly (P > 0.05) BSU and MUN contents. It indicates that feeding urea and molasses in two meals a day either as a single mix of the two or as a mix of the two with concentrates significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the concentration of BSU or MUN without having any change in milk protein (%) of the cows. Dry matter (DM) intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T{sub 1} treatment group followed by T{sub 4}, T{sub 0}, T{sub 3} and T{sub 2}, respectively. Similarly, CP intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} treatment groups followed by T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} treatment groups. The values of CP intake were 490, 770, 760, 630 and 580 g/day for treatment groups T{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, T{sub 3}, and T{sub 4}, respectively. Feedings urea and molasses as meals (T{sub 3}) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the fat content in milk compared to other treatment groups. Similar to T{sub 3}, UMS feeding also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fat content in milk compared to Matikalai hay and

  10. Conhecimento da rotulagem de produtos industrializados por familiares de pacientes com alergia a leite de vaca Knowledge of industrialized dairy products labels by parents of patients allergic to cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Lima Binsfeld

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade de identificação dos termos relacionados ao leite de vaca em rótulos de produtos industrializados por familiares de pacientes com alergia à bebida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo, baseado em entrevista com familiares de pacientes. Inicialmente, aplicou-se um questionário sobre o hábito de leitura de rótulos e identificação de termos relacionados ao leite e, posteriormente, apresentaram-se rótulos de 12 produtos industrializados para que os familiares decidissem sobre a sua exclusão da dieta do paciente. RESULTADOS: Dos 52 entrevistados, 80,8% eram mães e 79,0% apresentavam nível médio ou superior de escolaridade. A mediana do tempo em seguimento já com orientação para dieta de exclusão era de dois anos e sete meses (três meses a 17 anos e seis meses. A leitura habitual de rótulos de alimentos, medicamentos e cosméticos foi relatada por 57,7%, 59,6% e 46,2% dos familiares, respectivamente. Entre as reações alérgicas ocorridas no seguimento, 39,5% foram relacionadas a erros na leitura de rótulos. Lactose, caseína e caseinato foram os termos identificados por 92,3%, 38,5% e 23,1% dos familiares, respectivamente. Lactato foi interpretado como presença de leite de vaca por 51,9% dos entrevistados. Na segunda etapa, os familiares identificaram a lactose (55,8%, a caseína (26,9% e o caseinato (5,8% como substâncias relacionadas ao leite. CONCLUSÕES: Constatou-se deficiente compreensão e identificação, por parte dos pais, dos termos relacionados ao leite apesar das orientações recebidas. É fundamental a adequação da rotulagem e a adoção de novas estratégias para orientação da leitura de rótulos, possibilitando a busca e a identificação de produtos que contenham leite de vaca.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of relatives of patients with cow's milk allergy to identify terms related to cow's milk on labels of manufactured products. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive

  11. Histopathologic findings in children diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Pedrero-Olivares, I; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Murillo-Márquez, P; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Montijo-Barrios, E; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common cause of food allergy. The challenge test, either open or doubled-blind with a placebo control, is regarded as the criterion standard. Endoscopy and histologic findings are considered a method that can aid in the diagnosis of this entity. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathologic findings in children suspected of cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at our hospital. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on 116 children clinically suspected of presenting with cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. Upper endoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsies were performed and the findings were described. Of the 116 patients, 64 (55.17%) were girls and 52 (44.83%) were boys. The rectum was the site with the greatest presence of eosinophils per field in both groups, followed by the duodenum. In general, more than 15 eosinophils were found in 46% of the patients. Between 40 and 45% of the cases had the histologic criterion of more than 15 to 20 eosinophils per field and the rectosigmoid colon was the most affected site. Therefore, panendoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsy and eosinophil count are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from clinically affected cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...... animals. In milk from five cows (all faeces culture positive), we cultivated a few colonies of M. paratuberculosis (culture positive, and one cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture negative on intestinal...... mucosa, but culture positive in milk, and two cows were negative in culture and PCR from both faeces and milk. In conclusion, the presence of M. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR, but cultivation of milk was more sensitive. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Cow&s milk protein allergy with gastrointestinal manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA is the leading cause of food allergy in children under three years of age, although its gastrointestinal manifestations may occur in all age groups. In the suspicion of CMPA based on the anamnesis and physical examination, an elimination diet should be initiated for a variable length of time according to the clinical picture, followed by an oral food challenge (OFC confi rming or excluding the diagnosis. Complementary exams such as skin prick tests and specifi c IgE may be necessary. Treatment is based on an elimination diet and demands nutritional counselling and growth monitoring. Usually an OFC is repeated after three to 12 months of elimination diet. Tolerance is achieved at three years of age in more than 80% of the children. The aim of this work is to make a brief review and update on CMPA in pediatric age, proposing a management approach based on recent international recommendations.

  14. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  15. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  16. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control; ii ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen; iii ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08 and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11 of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  18. Presence of Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuffs and cow milk sampled from Croatian farms during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Pleadin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins may contaminate food of animal origin due to the carry-over effect and represent a potential risk to human health. The problem of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination becomes an issue especially during rainy years characterised by substantial temperature changes. The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN, deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisins (FUM in maize silage (n=21, concentrated dairy cattle feeds (n=56 and cow milk samples (n=105, taken during 2015 from households located in four Croatian regions. The presence of mycotoxins was determined using validated ELISA methods. A high level of feedstuffs’ contamination was evidenced, especially with ZEN, with values higher than recommended observed in 9.5 % of maize silage samples. Fourteen point three percent (14.3 % of milk samples were DON positive, with the toxin concentrations ranging from 5.4 to 67.3 μg/L. ZEN was determined in 94.3 % of milk samples, ranging from 0.3 to 88.6 μg/L. FUM were not detected in any of the analysed milk samples. Given the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs defined for these mycotoxins, human health risks arising from the consumption of cow milk can generally be considered low, even in times characterised by weather conditions that facilitate the production of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals subsequently used as dairy cattle feed. The exception represents particular milk samples in which high ZEN concentrations were found.

  19. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated.

  20. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Banos, G; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E; Coffey, M P; O'Neill, B; O'Donovan, M; Wall, E; Berry, D P

    2012-12-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk and maintenance (maintenance was predicted using body weight). Body energy content was calculated from (change in) body weight and body condition score. Following editing, 2,992 morning, 2,742 midday, and 2,989 evening milk MIR records from 564 lactations on 337 Scottish cows, managed in a confinement system on 1 of 2 diets, were available. An additional 844 morning and 820 evening milk spectral records from 338 lactations on 244 Irish cows offered a predominantly grazed grass diet were also available. Equations were developed to predict body energy status using the milk spectral data and milk yield as predictor variables. Several different approaches were used to test the robustness of the equations calibrated in one data set and validated in another. The analyses clearly showed that the variation in the validation data set must be represented in the calibration data set. The accuracy (i.e., square root of the coefficient of multiple determinations) of predicting, from MIR, direct energy balance, body energy content, and energy intake was 0.47 to 0.69, 0.51 to 0.56, and 0.76 to 0.80, respectively. This highlights the ability of milk MIR to predict body energy balance, energy content, and energy intake with reasonable accuracy. Very high accuracy, however, was not expected, given the likely random errors in the calculation of these energy status traits using field data. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  2. Effects of dietary betaine supplementation subjected to heat stress on milk performances and physiology indices in dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Ying, S J; An, W J; Lian, H; Zhou, G B; Han, Z Y

    2014-09-12

    This study aimed to determine whether feeding betaine to cows elevates their production performance during summer heat stress. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, which received a total mixed ration (TMR), and 3 experimental groups that received TMR blended with 10 g/day (group I), 15 g/day (group II), and 20 g/day (group III) betaine for 8 weeks. Milk and blood were sampled throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were 28.3 and 24.1°C, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index was 78.6 units. The results showed that feeding betaine to cows increased feed intake, milk yield, milk lactose, milk protein, plasma cortisol, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde levels (Pcows increases their milk performance and improves their antioxidant capacity; these processes help relieve the cow from heat stress. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with 15 g/day betaine generated the most positive influence on performance and productivity, and hence caused the greatest reduction in heat stress.

  3. Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Evelyn Flores-Flores

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL. This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out.

  4. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  5. Arsenic in the light ashes and cow milk in Ostrava region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, J; Hais, K; Medek, T; Svobodova, R

    1965-09-01

    The authors found that the more a region-supplying fodder for cattle is polluted by arsenic exhalations, the more of it is eliminated by cow milk. In a region with an average of 33.0 kg. of arsenic deposition per 1 km/sup 2/ in the course of a year, an average concentration of 12.52 gamma % of arsenic is reported to be present in the dried cow milk, but in a region with an average of 10.0 kg of arsenic dust fall per 1 km/sup 2/ in the course of a year, an average concentration of 7.69 gamma % of arsenic was found. In the control region no arsenic either in dust fall or milk was found. These results suggest that in a region with arsenic emissions, the content of this element is accumulated in all agricultural products, in fodder and in the cow milk. The authors emphasize the necessity for factories to take appropriate measures to improve the atmosphere by preventing all waste substances which threaten man's and animal's health conditions.

  6. Molecular changes during chemical acidification of the buffalo and cow milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaucheron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Composition and physico-chemical properties of buffalo and cow milks were compared at their initial pH and during chemical acidification. As compare to cow milk, buffalo milk was richer in caseins and minerals such as Ca, Mg and Pi. Along with these differences, the capacity of buffalo milk to be acidified named buffering capacity was also higher than cow milk. The pH decrease induced aggregation of caseins at their isoelectric pH and solubilisations of Ca and Pi were significant for both milks. For both species, these molecular changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. These differences suggested that the acidification process in dairy technology which is well established for cow milk can not be directly extrapolated to buffalo milk and some adaptations are necessary.

  7. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  8. Effect of dietary starch source on milk production and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four sources of starch on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites of lactating Holstein cows. Four multiparous Holstein cows (708 ± 70 kg of body weight; 83 ± 9 days in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods.

  9. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  10. Depletion of [14C]clorsulon in cows' milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Taub, R.; Green, M.; Halley, B.A.; Bodden, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive residue levels were determined in milk and plasma of Holstein cows dosed once with an oral suspension of 14 C-labeled clorsulon at 7 mg/kg of body weight. Average milk residue levels decreased from 0.54 ppm at 0.9 day postdose to 0.004 ppm at 6.9 days postdose with a half-life of 0.81 day. The drug residue was isolated by a batch adsorption method on an affinity agarose gel of carbonic anhydrase-Sepharose 4B and analyzed by HPCL-reverse isotope dilution assay (RIDA). This novel method greatly simplified the extraction of drug residue from milk and provided pure drug residue isolates. RIDA results of the isolates indicated that the unchanged drug was the major residue component in milk at 0-4 days postdose accounting for 56-99% of the total radioactive residue. Depletion half-life of the parent drug was 0.82 day, in close agreement with that of the total residue in milk. About 0.7% of the dose was recovered in the milk during the 6.9-day period

  11. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  12. Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    1994-01-01

    Reproducible clinically abnormal reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP) may be due to the interaction between one or more milk proteins and one or more immune mechanisms, possibly any of the four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions. At present, evidence for type I, III and IV reactions against...... CMP has been demonstrated. Immunologically mediated reactions, mainly immediate IgE-mediated reactions are defined as cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Non immunologically reactions against CMP are defined as cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Many studies on "cow's milk allergy'" have...... with CMPA/CMPI develop symptoms before one month of age, often within one week after introduction of cow's milk based formula. The majority have > or = 2 symptoms and symptoms from > or = 2 organ systems. About 50%-70% have cutaneous symptoms, 50-60% gastrointestinal symptoms, and about 20-30% respiratory...

  13. Infants and children with cow milk allergy/intolerance. Investigation of the uptake of cow milk protein and activation of the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Høst, A; Teisner, B

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen children with challenge-verified cow milk allergy/intolerance (CMAI), age 3-78 months, median 12 months, were re-challenged with cow milk in increasing doses. All subjects developed symptoms, such as bronchospasm, rhinitis, diarrhoea, erythema or eczema. Blood samples were taken before...... and up to 24 h after the start of the challenge. The cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was determined in serum with ELISA (lower detection limit 0.3 micrograms/l). BLG was detectable in five children at low levels (below 2 micrograms/l). Analysis of the size distribution of the BLG by size...

  14. New guidelines for managing cow's milk allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased markedly over the last 50 years. Food allergy usually manifests in early childhood as part of the so-called atopic march and most commonly includes one or more of the following foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts and tree nuts, wheat, sesame seed, kiwi fruit and seafood. In the UK about 2% of infants develop cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA), but as many as 15% of infants present with symptoms suggestive of an adverse reaction to cow's milk protein. The diagnosis of CMPA is based on one or more of the following: a detailed clinical history, allergy test results (skin prick testing [SPT] and/or specific immunoglobulin E [IgE]) and, if required, supervised incremental milk challenges. The majority of UK primary care centres do not have access to these tests and may also be unfamiliar with the interpretation or results. In addition, they do not have the facilities for supervised food challenges. Empirical treatment is often required pending confirmation of allergy or referral to a specialist centre, but requires clear guidelines. No consensus guidelines currently exist for the diagnosis and management of CMPA in the UK. An international task force has recently published proposed guidelines for the management of CMPA. These provide separate algorithms covering the diagnosis and management of CMPA for both breast-fed and formula-fed infants and discuss the use of hypoallergenic formulae, elimination diets and diagnostic tests. Revisions and adaptations for the UK market are required and are discussed in this article.

  15. Why human milk is more nutritious than cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhoeve, Niels; Allan, Douglas C.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Phillips, J. C.

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of milk, the key infant nutrient, is analyzed using a novel thermodynamic molecular method. The method is general, and it has many advantages compared to conventional molecular dynamics simulations. It is much simpler, and it connects amino acid sequences directly to function, often without knowing detailed "folded" globular structures. It emphasizes synchronized critical fluctuations due to long-range correlations in globular curvatures. The titled question has not been answered, or even discussed successfully, by other molecular methods.

  16. PRESENCE OF ENTEROCOCCI IN COW MILK AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent an important part of contaminate microflora in raw milk and dairy products. They constitute significant part of nosocomial pathogens with a remarkable capacity of expressing resistance to several antimicrobial  agents. We aimed to assess occurrence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci in the raw milk samples and pasteurized milk samples. In this study total bacterial count, psychrotrophic count and count of enterococci were determine in raw milk cistern samples, storage tank milk samples and milk samples after pasteurization. A collection of 46 enterococcal isolates were identified and screened for their antibiotic resistance. Isolates of E. faecalis were dominant in raw milk samples (56.5 %. Sensitive to teicoplanine (30 mcg/disk were 97.9 % of enterococcal isolates and 15.2 % isolates were resistant to vankomycin (30 mcg/disk.  

  17. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  18. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  19. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Biswal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ, crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test, milk (Ross test, and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760 entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0% in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8% in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6% in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management

  20. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Sangram; Nayak, Dhruba Charan; Sardar, Kautuk Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ), crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF) cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test), milk (Ross test), and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L) in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760) entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0%) in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8%) in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6%) in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management, and control

  1. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kliem, K. E.; Humphries, D. J.; Reynolds, C. K.; Morgan, R.; Givens, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further s...

  2. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, D; Ball, H; Makwana, N; Green, M R; Bravin, K; Nasser, S M; Clark, A T

    2014-01-01

    This guideline advises on the management of patients with cow's milk allergy. Cow's milk allergy presents in the first year of life with estimated population prevalence between 2% and 3%. The clinical manifestations of cow's milk allergy are very variable in type and severity making it the most difficult food allergy to diagnose. A careful age- and disease-specific history with relevant allergy tests including detection of milk-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay), diagnostic elimination diet, and oral challenge will aid in diagnosis in most cases. Treatment is advice on cow's milk avoidance and suitable substitute milks. Cow's milk allergy often resolves. Reintroduction can be achieved by the graded exposure, either at home or supervised in hospital depending on severity, using a milk ladder. Where cow's milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral tolerance induction, although most authors do not currently recommend it for routine clinical practice. Cow's milk allergy must be distinguished from primary lactose intolerance. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for clinicians in secondary and tertiary care. The recommendations are evidence based, but where evidence is lacking the panel of experts in the committee reached consensus. Grades of recommendation are shown throughout. The document encompasses epidemiology, natural history, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  4. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  5. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETICAL FACTORS ON UREA CONTENT IN HOLSTEIN BREED COWS MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženko Budimir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to determine to which extent the environmental factors (order and stadium of lactation, age with the first calving, calving season, region and herd have the influence on the content of urea in milk, and connection of urea content in milk with other features of milk production with cows. The largest share of urea content in milk was recorded in the first lactation, in the period between 110 and 140 days, when it was around 23.6 mg/100 ml. In the end of the first lactation the average urea content in