WorldWideScience

Sample records for country-to-country cdm permit

  1. CDM Country Guide for Indonesia

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Indonesia

  2. CDM Country Guide for China

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on China

  3. CDM Country Guide for India

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on India

  4. CDM Country Guide for Thailand

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Thailand

  5. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia

  6. CDM Country Guides

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  7. CDM Country Guide for The Philippines

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on The Philippines

  8. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in

  9. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  10. Latin America-Alberta-Canada CDM Conference: Conference Summary

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Proposals for joint initiatives put forward by participants at the Clean Development Mechanisms Conference included (1) the development of regional guidelines to assist governments in setting regulatory framework for projects to qualify as CDMs, (2) development of regional baselines and regional performance indicators for social benefit and sustainable development, (3) a specific project in Mexico to test the CDM framework and eligibility criteria, (4) development of bilateral agreements between governments, (5) staff exchanges between associations and governments, (6) government recognition for private sector actions such as a letter affirming that certified emission reductions would be accepted for commitments, (7) sharing of information on websites, and (8) capacity building, training programs and workshops. The Conference also identified common ground and shared interest in CDM initiatives among participants, and readiness to explore joint ventures and technology transfer opportunities. There is wide-spread agreement on the need to resolve uncertainties of CDM, such as baseline and additionality; monitoring, reporting, certification; buyer/seller liability; adaptation levy for international emissions trading, joint implementation and clean development mechanism transactions. Significant consensus exists regarding benefits of 'learning by doing' and the need for minimizing transaction costs and risks. Baseline and Additionality are recognized as the critical issues, with social benefits, sustainable development aspects of projects, and the critical nature of integrity, technical expertise, and track record of both partners as close seconds. The importance of framework arrangements, host country approval, clear designation of responsibility and authority to approve projects, the need for specific guidelines and specific approval procedures, country-to-country agreements and national crediting arrangement are recognized by all participants. With regard to issues

  11. Why only few CDM projects?

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    CDM projects have large potentials but also face significant obstacles that have so far limited their applicability. Two serious problems that an effective contracting faces are the presence of private information and the lack of sufficiently precise output measures. In a principal-agent framewor...

  12. Primer on CDM programme of activities

    Hinostroza, M. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lescano, A.D. (A2G Carbon Partners (Peru)); Alvarez, J.M. (Ministerio del Ambiente del Peru (Peru)); Avendano, F.M. (EEA Fund Management Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    As an advanced modality introduced in 2005, the Programmatic CDM (POA) is expected to address asymmetries of participation, especially of very small-scale project activities in certain areas, key sectors and many countries with considerable potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions, not reached by the traditional single-project-based CDM. Latest experiences with POAs and the recently finalized official guidance governing the Programmatic CDM are the grassroots of this Primer, which has the purpose of supporting the fully understanding of rules and procedures of POAs by interpreting them and analyzing real POA cases. Professional and experts from the public and private entities have contributed to the development of this Primer, produced by the UNEP Risoe Centre, as part of knowledge support activities for the Capacity Development for the CDM (CD4CDM) project. The overall objective of the CD4CDM is to develop the capacities of host countries to identify, design, approve, finance, implement CDM projects and commercialize CERs in participating countries. The CDM4CDM is funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (author)

  13. Implementing CDM projects. A guidebook to host country legal issues; CDM - Clean Development Mechanism

    Curnow, P [Baker and McKenzie, London (United Kingdom); Hodes, G [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) continues to evolve organically, and many legal issues remain to be addressed in order to maximise its effectiveness. This Guidebook explains through case studies how domestic laws and regulatory frameworks in CDM Host Countries interact with international rules on carbon trading, and how the former can be enhanced to facilitate the implementation and financing of CDM projects. (author)

  14. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  15. Can the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) deliver?

    Subbarao, Srikanth; Lloyd, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol has played a significant role in the development of rural communities, specifically investigating uptake of small-scale renewable energy projects. The investigation involved an assessment of 500 registered small-scale CDM projects under the Kyoto Protocol in terms of their potential impact on the envisaged sustainable development goals for rural communities. Five case studies from the Indian subcontinent were also examined. The paper concludes that the CDM in its current state and design has typically failed to deliver the promised benefits with regard to development objectives in rural areas. Successful projects were found to have had good community involvement and such projects were typically managed by cooperative ventures rather than money making corporations. The paper puts forward a new framework for the assessment of such benefits in the hope that future projects can be better assessed in this regard. The key problem, however, remains on how to deal with the inherent contradiction between development and sustainability. - Research Highlights: → Role of CDM towards sustainable development of rural communities. → Assessment of 500 registered small-scale CDM projects. → CDM in its current state and design has typically failed to deliver. → A new framework for sustainable development assessment of small-scale CDM projects. → Inherent contradiction between development and sustainability.

  16. Dynamic CDM strategies in an EHR environment.

    Bieker, Michael; Bailey, Spencer

    2012-02-01

    A dynamic charge description master (CDM) integrates information from clinical ancillary systems into the charge-capture process, so an organization can reduce its reliance on the patient accounting system as the sole source of billing information. By leveraging the information from electronic ancillary systems, providers can eliminate the need for paper charge-capture forms and see increased accuracy and efficiency in the maintenance of billing information. Before embarking on a dynamic CDM strategy, organizations should first determine their goals for implementing an EHR system, include revenue cycle leaders on the EHR implementation team, and carefully weigh the pros and cons of CDM design decisions.

  17. Potential impacts of CCS on the CDM

    Bakker, S; Mikunda, T.; Rivera Tinoco, R.

    2011-02-01

    CO2 capture and storage can ensure that stringent climate change mitigation targets are achieved more cost-effectively. However, in order to ensure a substantial role for CCS, deployment of CCS is required on a significant global scale by 2020. Currently, the CDM is the only international instrument that could provide a financial incentive for CCS in developing countries. In December 2010 it was decided that CCS could in principle be eligible under the CDM, provided a number of issues are resolved, including non-permanence, liability, monitoring and potential perverse outcomes. The latter issue relates to the concern that that CCS projects could flood the CDM market, thereby crowding out other technologies that could be considered more sustainable. This report, therefore, aims to quantify the possible impact of CCS on the CDM market, in order to assess the relevance of the CDM market objection. However, the analysis in the report is also valid for the role of CCS in other types of international support mechanisms. The first result of this study is a marginal abatement cost curve (MAC) for CCS in developing countries for 2020. Based on existing MAC studies, the IEA CCS Roadmap and an overview of ongoing and planned CCS activities, we compiled three scenarios for CCS in the power, industry and upstream sector, as shown below. The major part of the potential below $30/tCO2eq (70 - 100 MtCO2/yr) is in the natural gas processing sector. Using the MACs for the CDM market, we estimate the economic potential for CCS projects to be 4-19% of the CDM credit supply in 2020. The potential impact inclusion of CCS in the CDM may have is assessed by using several possible CER supply and demand scenarios, as well as scenarios related to market price responsiveness and the role of CDM in the post-2012 carbon market. The impact is estimated to be between $0 and $4 per tonne of CO2-eq, with three out of four scenarios indicating the lower part of this range.

  18. CDM: Taking stock and looking forward

    Ellis, Jane; Winkler, Harald; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Gagnon-Lebrun, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) was established in 1997 with the dual purposes of assisting non-Annex I Parties in achieving sustainable development and assisting Annex I Parties in achieving compliance with their quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emission commitments. This paper looks at the development of the CDM portfolio as well as achievements of the CDM to date in the context of wider private and public flows of investment into developing countries. These achievements include the development of 325 (by May 2005) proposed CDM projects which are together expected to generate more than 79 Mt CO 2 -eq credits/year during 2008-2012, increasing awareness of climate change mitigation options among possible investors and others that may facilitate transactions (i.e. governments), and the strengthening of climate-relevant institutions within countries. The paper also draws lessons from this experience to date, and outlines what changes may be needed to transform the CDM concept to a broader scale after the end of the first commitment period in 2012

  19. Why the CDM can reduce carbon leakage

    Kallbekken, S.

    2006-04-01

    Carbon leakage is an important concern because it can reduce the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms allowed under the protocol, has the potential to reduce carbon leakage significantly because it reduces the relative competitive disadvantage to Annex B countries of restricting greenhouse gas emissions. The economic intuition behind this mechanism is explored in a theoretical analysis. It is then analyzed numerically using a CGE model. The results indicate that, assuming appropriate accounting for leakage and under realistic assumptions on CDM activity, the CDM has the potential to reduce the magnitude of carbon leakage by around three fifths

  20. Stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms: China CDM case study

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2017-01-01

    exists on how LSC is practised, and synergies between climate mechanisms are largely unexplored. This study explores how international LSC rules are practised at national and local levels. It aims to better shape future LSC in climate mechanisms by learning from the case of China. First, LSC policies...... in CDM, REDD +, and GCF are identified. Relevant rules in China’s local policies are analysed. To understand the interaction between CDM policies and China’s local LSC rules, a selection of Chinese CDM Projects Design Documents (PDDs) are analysed, providing an overall impression of the stakeholder...

  1. Understanding the CDM's contribution to technology transfer

    Schneider, Malte; Holzer, Andreas; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are increasingly contributing to global greenhouse gas emissions and, consequently, climate change as a result of their rapid economic growth. In order to reduce their impact, the private sector needs to be engaged in the transfer of low-carbon technology to those countries. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is currently the only market mechanism aimed at triggering changes in the pattern of emissions-intensive activities in developing countries and is likely to play a role in future negotiations. In this paper, we analyse how the CDM contributes to technology transfer. We first develop a framework from the literature that delineates the main factors which characterise technology transfer. Second, we apply this framework to the CDM by assessing existing empirical studies and drawing on additional expert interviews. We find that the CDM does contribute to technology transfer by lowering several technology-transfer barriers and by raising the transfer quality. On the basis of this analysis, we give preliminary policy recommendations

  2. GDINA and CDM Packages in R

    Rupp, André A.; van Rijn, Peter W.

    2018-01-01

    We review the GIDNA and CDM packages in R for fitting cognitive diagnosis/diagnostic classification models. We first provide a summary of their core capabilities and then use both simulated and real data to compare their functionalities in practice. We found that the most relevant routines in the two packages appear to be more similar than…

  3. Host country attractiveness for CDM non-sink projects

    Jung, Martina

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, CDM host countries are classified according to their attractiveness for CDM non-sink projects by using cluster analysis. The attractiveness of host countries for CDM non-sink projects is described by three indicators: mitigation potential, institutional CDM capacity and general investment climate. The results suggest that only a small proportion of potential host countries will attract most of the CDM investment. The CDM (non-sink) stars are China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa, Indonesia and Thailand. They are followed by attractive countries like Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, Mongolia, Panama, and Chile. While most of the promising CDM host countries are located in Latin America and Asia, the general attractiveness of African host countries is relatively low (with the exception of South Africa). Policy implications of this rather inequitable geographical distribution of CDM project activities are discussed briefly

  4. CDM sustainable development impacts developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'

    Olhoff, Anne; Markandya, Anil; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Taylor, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), an innovative cooperative mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, is designed with the dual aim of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development (SD) and of assisting industrialised countries in achieving compliance with their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments. The SD dimension is not merely a requirement of the CDM; it should be seen as a main driver for developing country interest in participating in CDM projects. This is so, since apart from GHG emission reductions CDM projects will have a number of impacts in the host countries, including impacts on economic and social development and on the local environment. Furthermore, the selecting of the SD criteria and the assessment of the SD impacts are sovereign matters of the host countries in the current operationalisation of the Kyoto Protocol. National authorities can thus use the SD dimension to evaluate key linkages between national development goals and CDM projects, with the aim of selecting and designing CDM projects so that they create and maximise synergies with local development goals. (au)

  5. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  6. Manufacturing of nuclear power components in CDM

    Krishnan, J.; Jawale, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the nuclear research programme in India, Dr. H.J. Bhabha, the architecture of the Indian Nuclear programme felt a need for proto-type development and precision manufacturing facility to fulfill the requirements of mechanical components in establishing the manufacturing capability for the successful and self sustained nuclear programme. Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM) hitherto known as CWS was established in 1964 to cater to the specific requirements of DAE and other associated units like ISRO, DRDO. Since then CDM has made multiple technological achievements and changes towards high quality products. The acquisition of up-to-date machines during High-Tech facility under VIII Plan project and Advance Precision Fabrication facility under IX Plan project has changed the capability of CDM towards CAD, CAM, CAE and CNC machining centres. Considering the rapid growth in the design and manufacturing, it was renamed as Centre for Design and Manufacture in March 2002, with the mission of quality output through group effort and team work

  7. Overview of UNEP's CDM activities. Enhancing a more equitable regional distribution of CDM project activities

    2007-12-15

    More than thirty months after the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, CDM transactions continue to gain momentum. By November 2007, 2,647 CDM projects are in the CDM pipeline. Of these, 827 are registered projects, and a further 154 are inthe registration process. The CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) has issued more than 82 million Certified Emissions Reductions (CER). In terms of number of projects by type of technology, renewables CDM projects are the leading type with 62% of the pipeline. However, N{sub 2}O, HFC and PFC projects have the biggest share (34%) of CERs expected to be generated by end of first commitment period. At the same time, more and more renewables and other non-industrial gases projects are going into the pipeline increasing their share of emissions reductions to be achieved. Geographically, the distribution of CDM projects has so far not been very equitable. A limited number of countries including China, India, Brazil and Mexico have captured the largest share of the global CDM project portfolio. Specific regions in the developing world, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, have been largely bypassed by the CDM market and are struggling to attract a decent number of CDM projects. In fact, of the total 2,647 projects, only 33 projects are in Sub-Saharan Africa where 21 of these are actually in South Africa, making the distribution even more skewed. (au)

  8. Potential of CDM in renewable projects in Malaysia

    Kannan, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a market-based tool introduced under the Kyoto Protocol to assist developing countries achieve their sustainable development objectives and at the same time provide opportunities for developed countries to meet their greenhouse gas targets cost-effectively. Projects based on renewable sources are eligible under the CDM. Such projects are also in line with the development of the fifth fuel option in Malaysia. The paper assesses the potential of CDM in renewable energy projects in particular the grid-connected biomass power projects under the Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Programme. The criteria (both national and international) that have to be met for the renewable energy projects to obtain approval as a CDM projects is outlined. The additional CDM activities are elaborated. The methodology for the determination of reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is provided. The paper further investigates the impact of CDM in the promotion of renewable energy projects in Malaysia

  9. Analysis of CDM projects’ potential benefits

    José Affonso dos Reis Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The main goal of this study is to identify and assess, within sustainability reports, information concerning potential carbon credits obtained through projects carried out under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM assumptions, as well as to assess CDM project experts’ perceptions of obstacles to entering carbon credit markets. Design/methodology/approach – exploratory, descriptive, bibliographical and documental research, and interviews. Theoretical basis - Research was based on the concepts of sustainability, especially as to environmental responsibility (CSR; cost-benefit analysis was also considered, since selling carbon credits can be a way of mitigating the trade off between immediate shareholder satisfaction and investment in CSR. Findings – The perceptions of representatives from carbon credit projects’ certifying companies was examined by means of a series of interviews – concluding that savings in costs, business marketing and certifications are even greater motivators than carbon credits themselves. We estimated that, through energy efficiency, the projects discussed in 2011 sustainability reports would be capable of saving approximately 538 million reais in costs. In addition, 40 million reais, considering the rate of the euro and of securities on December 31, 2014, would be gained through the sale of carbon credits. Practical implications – Thus, this research helps to demonstrate the significant potential for further financial gains that companies may obtain through energy efficiency and habitat restructuring, whether by taking advantage of CO2 reduction brought about by such projects, or by developing new projects that continue to benefit economy, society and the environment.

  10. A new recipe for Λ CDM

    Sahni, Varun; Sen, Anjan A.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field is able to describe either dark matter or dark energy but not both. We demonstrate that a non-canonical scalar field can describe both dark matter and dark energy within a unified setting. We consider the simplest extension of the canonical Lagrangian L ∝ X"α - V(φ) where α ≥ 1 and V is a sufficiently flat potential. In this case the kinetic term in the Lagrangian behaves just like a perfect fluid, whereas the potential term mimicks dark energy. For very large values, α >> 1, the equation of state of the kinetic term drops to zero and the universe expands as if filled with a mixture of dark matter and dark energy. The velocity of sound in this model and the associated gravitational clustering are sensitive to the value of α. For very large values of α the clustering properties of our model resemble those of cold dark matter (CDM). But for smaller values of α, gravitational clustering on small scales is suppressed, and our model has properties resembling those of warm dark matter (WDM). Therefore our non-canonical model has an interesting new property: its expansion history resembles Λ CDM, while its clustering properties are akin to those of either cold or warm dark matter. (orig.)

  11. A new recipe for Λ CDM

    Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); Sen, Anjan A. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India)

    2017-04-15

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field is able to describe either dark matter or dark energy but not both. We demonstrate that a non-canonical scalar field can describe both dark matter and dark energy within a unified setting. We consider the simplest extension of the canonical Lagrangian L ∝ X{sup α} - V(φ) where α ≥ 1 and V is a sufficiently flat potential. In this case the kinetic term in the Lagrangian behaves just like a perfect fluid, whereas the potential term mimicks dark energy. For very large values, α >> 1, the equation of state of the kinetic term drops to zero and the universe expands as if filled with a mixture of dark matter and dark energy. The velocity of sound in this model and the associated gravitational clustering are sensitive to the value of α. For very large values of α the clustering properties of our model resemble those of cold dark matter (CDM). But for smaller values of α, gravitational clustering on small scales is suppressed, and our model has properties resembling those of warm dark matter (WDM). Therefore our non-canonical model has an interesting new property: its expansion history resembles Λ CDM, while its clustering properties are akin to those of either cold or warm dark matter. (orig.)

  12. Can CDM bring technology transfer to China?-An empirical study of technology transfer in China's CDM projects

    Wang Bo

    2010-01-01

    China has undertaken the greatest number of projects and reported the largest emission reductions on the global clean development mechanism (CDM) market. As technology transfer (TT) was designed to play a key role for Annex II countries in achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions, this study examines various factors that have affected CDM and TT in China. The proportion of total income derived from the certified emissions reductions (CER) plays a key role in the project owners' decision to adopt foreign technology. Incompatibility of CDM procedures with Chinese domestic procedures, technology diffusion (TD) effects, Chinese government policy and the role of carbon traders and CDM project consultants all contribute to the different degrees and forms of TT. International carbon traders and CDM consultants could play a larger role in TT in China's CDM projects as investors and brokers in the future.

  13. Developed feedback from the Swedish CDM and JI program; Utvecklad aaterrapportering fraan det svenska CDM- och JI-programmet

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is responsible for the Swedish government program for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). CDM and JI is the Kyoto Protocol's two project-based flexible mechanisms. This program focuses on participation in individual CDM- and JI-projects and on participation in multilateral CDM- and JI- funds. In the report the Swedish Energy Agency, on behalf of the Government, presents a proposal for developed reporting for the CDM- and JI-program. Furthermore, issues related to how CDM and JI can assist in meeting the Swedish climate objective by 2020 are discussed. Also, the role for potential new flexible mechanisms under UN Climate Convention is mentioned.

  14. A viable CDM model for solar water heaters; CDM-Clean Development Mechanism

    2008-09-15

    It is a well known fact that solar water Heaters (SWH) replace fossil fuels and they do not represent business as usual scenario. Therefore use of this appliance can qualify to be considered as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. However a single solar water heater is a very small unit to be able to generate sufficient Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to pursue it as a CDM project. Even if the project is considered at the level of local venders or at the level of a company engaged in manufacturing SWH, the CERs still remain very small. The study examines the size of the project from the perspective of its viability as a CDM project and also explores other related issues such as additionality requirement, selection of methodology, baseline calculations, approach for stakeholders' comments, potential bundlers, monitoring and verification, and required policy interventions. Bank of Maharashtra (BOM), a commercial bank in India engaged in financing Solar Water Heaters (SWH), was considered as the base for the study. The CERs were calculated considering Electricity and LPG as the baseline. For the purpose of sensitivity analysis, various price bands for CERs (between US$ 15-25/CER) were considered. The analysis was carried out with bundling of SWH at BOM level, and at the Association of Banks (AOB) / Ministry level (in which case SWH financed by several banks are bundled). Recently approved Programme of Activities (PoA) approach was also considered in the analysis. The analysis clearly indicated that: 1) The CDM project with bundling at an individual bank level with about 8600 installations, though cash surplus, would generate the cash just to meet its own sustainability. But it is a very small project. 2) Bundling of installations by various banks, through an entity such as Association of Banks, would be a viable and sustainable CDM project due to benefits arising out of scale of economy. 3) The profitability of the CDM project would improve further if

  15. Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM

    Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de

    2012-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies

  16. CDM and JI in View of the Sustainability Debate

    Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and emissions trading are the three flexible instruments incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol. This paper presents a critical assessment of the sustainability of energy-related technology innovation and transfer in the context of CDM and JI.

  17. Employment impacts of CDM projects in China's power sector

    Wang, Can; Zhang, Weishi; Cai, Wenjia; Xie, Xi

    2013-01-01

    There are continuous debates around the question of whether CDM really contributes to sustainable development (SD) in host countries. Employment impact is an essential indicator of SD. Based on an input-out approach this research builds a quantitative assessment model to evaluate the employment impacts of CDM. Both direct and indirect jobs creation and job losses of CDM projects in the power sector registered by the end of 2011 are calculated by project types and power grids where the project is located. Results of this study show that, although the above mentioned CDM projects causes about 99,000 net direct job losses, they also create about 3.08 million indirect jobs, resulting in the gross employment of CDM to be about 2.98 million. Thereof, hydro projects induce both direct and indirect job losses, which comes to approximately 0.89 million. Solar projects have the most potential since they own the highest indirect jobs created by one GWh generation, about 104 jobs/GWh. - Highlights: • An input–output model was built for assessment of CDM projects' employment impact; • CDM projects create direct and indirect jobs while cause some losses in short. • Significant indirect job gains of CDM projects were found; • Solar projects cause 104 jobs/GWh in average, ranking as the highest contributor

  18. Carbon quota price and CDM potentials after Marrakesh

    Wenying Chen

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets quantified GHG emission reduction commitments for Annex I Parties. But their emission reduction requirements related to BAU projections, one of the key factors to effect on future carbon market, are uncertain. Both the decisions made in Bonn and Marrakesh would have further consequences for how the future carbon market will take shape. This paper, with application of the carbon emission reduction trading model, evaluates future carbon quota price and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potentials under different BAU projections, and does sensitivity analysis on carry-over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, implementation rate, transaction cost, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, etc. to assess the impacts of relevant decisions of COP6-bis and COP7 on the carbon market. Under different BAU projections, future carbon quota price and CDM potentials could vary widely. Carry over of AAUs, CERs, ERUs, and holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties could raise both quota price and total CDM potentials considerably. Implementation rate could have big impacts on both carbon quota price and CDM potentials, especially for the cases formerly with relatively high CDM potentials, and it could also change the regional distribution of CDM potentials. Transaction cost's effect on the carbon market would be comparatively low, but would become unignorable in the market whose quota price is low. It would lead to a downward trend in price while upward in CDM potentials when increasing the implementation rate or lowering transaction cost. Withdrawal of USA would dramatically shrink carbon price and credit amount, and large numbers of hot air and sink credits would further greatly crowd out the CDM projects; carry over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, prompt start of CDM projects, etc., would, however, enhance the total CDM credits to ensure more investment and technology flow to developing countries to promote their sustainable development

  19. Carbon quota price and CDM potentials after Marrakesh

    Chen Wenying

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets quantified GHG emission reduction commitments for Annex I Parties. But their emission reduction requirements related to BAU projections, one of the key factors to effect on future carbon market, are uncertain. Both the decisions made in Bonn and Marrakesh would have further consequences for how the future carbon market will take shape. This paper, with application of the carbon emission reduction trading model, evaluates future carbon quota price and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potentials under different BAU projections, and does sensitivity analysis on carry-over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, implementation rate, transaction cost, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, etc. to assess the impacts of relevant decisions of COP6-bis and COP7 on the carbon market. Under different BAU projections, future carbon quota price and CDM potentials could vary widely. Carry over of AAUs, CERs, ERUs, and holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties could raise both quota price and total CDM potentials considerably. Implementation rate could have big impacts on both carbon quota price and CDM potentials, especially for the cases formerly with relatively high CDM potentials, and it could also change the regional distribution of CDM potentials. Transaction cost's effect on the carbon market would be comparatively low, but would become unignorable in the market whose quota price is low. It would lead to a downward trend in price while upward in CDM potentials when increasing the implementation rate or lowering transaction cost. Withdrawal of USA would dramatically shrink carbon price and credit amount, and large numbers of hot air and sink credits would further greatly crowd out the CDM projects; carry over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, prompt start of CDM projects, etc., would, however, enhance the total CDM credits to ensure more investment and technology flow to developing countries to promote their sustainable development

  20. Stakeholder preferences towards the sustainable development of CDM projects: Lessons from biomass (rice husk) CDM project in Thailand

    Parnphumeesup, Piya; Kerr, Sandy A.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate stakeholder preferences towards sustainable development (SD) priorities in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The CDM's contribution to SD is explored in the context of a biomass (rice husk) case study conducted in Thailand. Quantitative analysis ranks increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority, followed by employment and technology transfer. Air pollution (dust) is ranked as the most important problem. Preference weights expressed by experts and local resident are statistically different in the cases of: employment generation; emission reductions; dust; waste disposal; and noise. Qualitative results, suggest that rice husk CDM projects contribute significantly to SD in terms of employment generation, an increase in usage of renewable energy, and transfer of knowledge. However, rice husk biomass projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. In order to ensure the environmental sustainability of CDM projects, stakeholders suggest that Thailand should cancel an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) exemption for CDM projects with an installed capacity below 10 MW and apply it to all CDM projects. - Highlights: → Stakeholders rank increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority. → Biomass (rice husk) CDM projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. → Rice husk CDM projects cannot give an extra income to farmers. → Preference weights expressed by experts and local residents are statistically different.

  1. CDM. Information and guidebook - Developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'[Clean development nedianism

    Lee, M.K. (ed.)

    2003-12-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was defined at Conference of the Parties 3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international community another 4 years to reach the Marrakesh Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Even if more detailed rules, procedures and modalities have to be further developed a general framework to implement the CDM and other Kyoto mechanisms are now in place. This guidebook is produced to support the UNEP project 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism'. Focus is on the CDM project cycle, the Project Design Document (PDD), and related issues such as sustainable development goals, financing and market intelligence. The appendices present frequently asked questions and answers, a short overview of existing guidelines and a possible future list of eligible CDM projects categories. (BA)

  2. Experiences of project developers around CDM projects in South Africa

    Thurner, Thomas W.; Varughese, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process of evaluating and registering their CDM projects. In addition to other obstacles, we find that South African big businesses are rather reluctant to engage in any new business activities such as CDM projects and municipalities often lack the necessary flexibility. This offers opportunities for small-scale project developers who spot the opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome these difficulties. - Highlights: • First paper analysing the experience of small project developers in South Africa. • Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process. • South African big businesses are reluctant to engage in CDM projects. • Small-scale project developers spot opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome difficulties. • Also, we saw learning processes of South African administration in support of CDM projects

  3. CDM and JI in View of the Sustainability Debate

    Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and emissions trading are the three flexible instruments incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol. This paper presents a critical assessment of the sustainability of energy-related technology innovation and transfer in the context of CDM and JI. The rebound effect is discussed by comparing intended and unintended project and process outcomes. Attention is given to the role of nations and key actors like multinationals in achieving sustain...

  4. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  5. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  6. Long-term prospects of CDM and JI; Langfristige Perspektiven von CDM und JI

    Cames, Martin; Anger, Niels; Boehringer, Christoph; Harthan, Ralph O.; Schneider, Lambert [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This study analyses whether Germany should use the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol or whether it should continue to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets by dint of domestic policies and measures. It estimates the future potential of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms (CDM and JI) and the impacts of its use on the German and the global economy, using an integrated-assessment model. In a Delphi survey, the expectations of international experts on the future prospects of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms are assessed. The study finishes with an analysis of options for promoting the use of the flexible mechanisms in Germany and concludes that the Federal Government of Germany should establish a project-based mechanisms fund of 25 to 50 million Kyoto units to cover the compliance uncertainties due to unexpected temperature or business cycle variations. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie untersucht, ob Deutschland die flexiblen Mechanismen unter dem Kyoto-Protokoll nutzen sollte oder weiterhin seine Treibhausgasreduktionsziele durch inlaendische Politiken und Massnahmen erreichen sollte. Das kuenftige Potenzial der projektbezogenen Kyoto-Mechanismen (CDM und JI) wird untersucht und die Auswirkungen von deren Nutzung auf die deutsche und globale Wirtschaft werden mit einem Integrated-Assessment-Modell abgeschaetzt. In einer Delphi-Befragung werden die Erwartungen internationaler Experten in Hinblick auf die kuenftigen Perspektiven der projektbezogenen Kyoto- Mechanismen ermittelt. Abschliessend werden Moeglichkeiten zur Foerderung der Nutzung der flexiblen Mechanismen in Deutschland analysiert, mit der Schlussfolgerung, dass die Bundesregierung einen 25 bis 50 Millionen Kyoto-Einheiten umfassenden Fonds fuer projektbezogene Mechanismen einrichten sollte, um die Unsicherheiten bei der Erfuellung des Kyoto-Ziels infolge unerwarteter Temperaturschwankungen oder einer Aenderung der Konjunkturentwicklung abzudecken. (orig.)

  7. A Guide to Bundling Small-scale CDM Projects

    Mariyappan, J.; Bhardwaj, N.; De Coninck, H.; Van der Linden, N.

    2005-07-01

    Small-scale renewable energy and energy efficiency projects that fit the development needs of many developing countries, can potentially be supported via the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms for tackling climate change. However, there is concern that due to high transaction costs, as well as many existing barriers, very few investments will be made in small-scale projects, which are often the most suitable development option in countries such as India. In view of this, the 'bundling' together of appropriate small-scale projects on a regional basis has been proposed as a way in which funding can be leveraged from international sources and transaction costs reduced. IT Power, IT Power India and the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) are carrying out a 2-year project to establish the capacity within India to enable individual small scale projects to be bundled as a single CDM project. Overall objectives are to develop the necessary institutional capabilities to formulate and implement small scale CDM projects in India; to provide a guide on how to bundle small scale projects under the CDM in developing countries; and to raise the awareness of the potential for investment in small scale energy projects which can gain funding through the CDM

  8. A method of predicting the reliability of CDM coil insulation

    Kytasty, A.; Ogle, C.; Arrendale, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a method of predicting the reliability of the Collider Dipole Magnet (CDM) coil insulation design. The method proposes a probabilistic treatment of electrical test data, stress analysis, material properties variability and loading uncertainties to give the reliability estimate. The approach taken to predict reliability of design related failure modes of the CDM is to form analytical models of the various possible failure modes and their related mechanisms or causes, and then statistically assess the contributions of the various contributing variables. The probability of the failure mode occurring is interpreted as the number of times one would expect certain extreme situations to combine and randomly occur. One of the more complex failure modes of the CDM will be used to illustrate this methodology

  9. Options for utilizing the CDM for global emission reductions

    Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Castro, Paula; Harthan, Ralph O.; Hayashi, Daisuke; Healy, Sean; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Michaelowa, Axel; Okubo, Yuri; Schneider, Lambert; Storroe, Ingunn [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland); Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Perspectives GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Point Carbon A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The study describes and discusses in detail how four CDM reform alternatives, namely discounting of emission reductions, ambitious baselines, purchase and cancellation of CERs and reinvestment of CER levies, could be integrated in a Post-2012 climate regime. The study assesses these alternatives, according to their impacts on GHG emission reductions, contribution to sustainable development, cost-efficiency, technical feasibility, incentives and distributional effects as well as negotiability. The study shows that the introduction of discounting and ambitious baselines is technically feasible but politically a massive challenge. With the help of an economic model the study shows that the introduction of reform alternatives increases the amount of emission reductions but in comparison to the current CDM the impact is rather limited. But a CDM reform can in any case increase the credibility and improve the environmental integrity of the mechanism. (orig.)

  10. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J. [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  11. Soil carbon sequestration and the CDM. Opportunities and challenges for Africa

    Ringius, Lasse

    1999-12-17

    The agriculture sector dominates the economies of most sub-Saharan countries, contributing about one-third of the region's GDP, accounting for forty percent of the export, and employing about two-thirds of the economically active population. Moreover, some soils in sub-Saharan Africa could, by providing sinks for carbon sequestration, play an important role in managing global climate change. Improvements in agricultural techniques and land use practices could lead to higher agricultural productivity and accumulate soil carbon. Hence, soil carbon sequestration could produce local economic income as well as social and other benefits in Africa. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol is designed to give developed countries with high domestic abatement cost access to low-cost greenhouse gas abatement projects in developing countries, and to benefit developing countries selling projects to investors in developed countries. It is presently unclear whether the CDM will provide credit for sink enhancement and permit broader sink activities. Unfortunately, few cost estimates of soil carbon sequestration strategies presently exist. While these costs are uncertain and all input costs have not been estimated, manure-based projects in small-holdings in Kenya could increase maize yield significantly and sequester one ton of soil carbon for a net cost of -US$806. Clearly, such projects would be very attractive economically. There is presently an urgent need to launch useful long-term (>10 years) field experiments and demonstration projects in Africa. Existing data are not readily comparable, it is uncertain how large amount of carbon could be sequestered, findings are site-specific, and it is unclear how well the sites represent wider areas. To develop CDM projects, it is important that experimental trials generate reliable and comparable data. Finally, it will be important to estimate local environmental effects and economic benefits

  12. How to Improve the Likelihood of CDM Approval?

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    How can the likelihood of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) approval be improved in the face of institutional shortcomings? To answer this question, we focus on the three institutional shortcomings of income sharing, risk sharing and corruption prevention concerning afforestation/reforestation (A....../R). Furthermore, three main stakeholders are identified, namely investors, governments and agents in a principal-agent model regarding monitoring and enforcement capacity. Developing countries such as West Africa have, despite huge potentials, not been integrated in A/R CDM projects yet. Remote sensing, however...

  13. Annual Report 2011 for the Swedish CDM and JI program; Aarsredovisning 2011 foer Sveriges CDM och JI-program

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The report is an annual report of the Swedish CDM [Clean Development Mechanism] and JI [Joint Implementation]program for 2011. The report shows aims and goals of the business and the work of individual CDM and JI projects and multilateral funds which have been performed over the entire duration of life and especially during 2011. The report presents volume orders, deliveries of emission reduction units as well as the volumes expected to be needed for the fulfillment of the national target by 2020. The report also includes information about the average price for the emission reductions as well as alternative costs.

  14. How to attribute market leakage to CDM projects

    Vöhringer, F.; Kuosmanen, T.K.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Economic studies suggest that market leakage rates of greenhouse gas abatement can reach the two-digit percentage range. Although the Marrakesh Accords require Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects to account for leakage, most projects neglect market leakage. Insufficient leakage accounting is

  15. Local involvement in CDM biogas projects: Argentine experiences

    Serna Martín, A.; Dietz, T.

    2008-01-01

    Mitigating climate change and contributing to the sustainable development of host countries are the goals of the CDM. In order to achieve these goals, projects follow an implementation chain, which starts with the design and ends with the issuance of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). During the

  16. CDM using a Cross-Country Micro Moments Database

    Bartelsman, E.J.; van Leeuwen, G.; Polder, M.

    2017-01-01

    This note starts with a retrospective view of the CDM model [Crépon, Bruno, Emmanuel Duguet, and Jacques Mairesse. 1998. “Research, Innovation and Productivity: An Econometric Analysis at the Firm Level.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 7 (2): 115–158.] as an econometric framework for

  17. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Holm Olsen, K; Fenhann, J

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  18. Wind farm investment risks under uncertain CDM benefit in China

    Yang, Ming; Nguyen, Francois; T'Serclaes, Philippine de; Buchner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target to increase its wind power capacity by 35 GW from 2007 to 2020. The country's hunger for clean power provides great opportunities for wind energy investors. However, risks from China's uncertain electricity market regulation and an uncertain energy policy framework, mainly due to uncertain Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) benefits, prevent foreign investors from investing in China's wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) quantify wind energy investment risk premiums in an uncertain international energy policy context and (2) evaluate the impact of uncertain CDM benefits on the net present values of wind power projects. With four scenarios, this study simulates possible prices of certified emissions reductions (CERs) from wind power projects. Project net present values (NPVs) have been calculated. The project risk premiums are drawn from different and uncertain CER prices. Our key findings show that uncertain CDM benefits will significantly affect the project NPVs. This paper concludes that the Chinese government needs revising its tariff incentives, most likely by introducing fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs), and re-examining its CDM-granting policy and its wind project tax rates, to facilitate wind power development and enable China to achieve its wind energy target. (author)

  19. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  20. CDM: Teaching Discrete Mathematics to Computer Science Majors

    Sutner, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    CDM, for computational discrete mathematics, is a course that attempts to teach a number of topics in discrete mathematics to computer science majors. The course abandons the classical definition-theorem-proof model, and instead relies heavily on computation as a source of motivation and also for experimentation and illustration. The emphasis on…

  1. Addressing the need for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) specific project management strategy

    Lotz, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like...

  2. 78 FR 32250 - CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp; Transfer of Data

    2013-05-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0036; FRL-9387-5] CDM Smith and Dynamac Corp... the submitter, will be transferred to CDM Smith and its subcontractor, Dynamac Corp, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). CDM Smith and its subcontractor, Dynamac Corp, have been...

  3. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  4. CDM in sub-Saharan Africa and the prospects of the Nairobi Framework Initiative

    Byigero, Alfred D.; Clancy, Joy S.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    To what extent can capacity-building activities under the Nairobi Framework (NF) Initiative overcome barriers to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, the East African region? The level of CDM penetration into sub-Saharan Africa is compared with CDM market

  5. Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism and Tradable Permits

    Nielsen, L.; Rose Olsen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problems may be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyoto commitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concluding chapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues described in this main report are analysed in separate working papers. The working papers are collected in an appendix to the main report. (au)

  6. Joint Implementation, Clean Development Mechanism and Tradable Permits

    Nielsen, L; Rose Olsen, K

    2000-06-01

    This report deals with international environmental instruments aimed at a cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. More precisely the instruments mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol, namely Joint Implementation (JI), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Tradable Permits (TP). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problems may be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation of the instruments can be organised. The institutional frameworks for JI, CDM and TP are discussed. The report describes how the Kyoto instruments and the Kyoto commitments interact with other instruments and describe distributive effects between countries. It is analysed how the use of CDM may influence the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concluding chapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues described in this main report are analysed in separate working papers. The working papers are collected in an appendix to the main report. (au)

  7. Defining Investment Additionality for CDM projects - practical approaches

    Greiner, Sandra; Michaelowa, Axel

    2003-01-01

    The environmental integrity of the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol depends on the possibility to avoid giving emission credits to projects that would have happened anyway. Whether and how 'Investment Additionality' of CDM projects has to be determined is currently a part of climate negotiations. We discuss the rationale of companies to invest in projects and analyse possible criteria to determine Investment Additionality from a theoretical point of view. Differences in the type of investment call for the application of different criteria. Although some criteria are better than others, no single criterion can outweigh the others in all respects. We therefore suggest a scheme for additionality testing that aims at matching types of investment and criteria in a sensible way. Criteria are evaluated on the grounds of robustness to manipulation, degree of coverage and appropriateness for testing the investment decision under consideration

  8. Λ CDM is Consistent with SPARC Radial Acceleration Relation

    Keller, B. W.; Wadsley, J. W., E-mail: kellerbw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2017-01-20

    Recent analysis of the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curve (SPARC) galaxy sample found a surprisingly tight relation between the radial acceleration inferred from the rotation curves and the acceleration due to the baryonic components of the disk. It has been suggested that this relation may be evidence for new physics, beyond Λ CDM . In this Letter, we show that 32 galaxies from the MUGS2 match the SPARC acceleration relation. These cosmological simulations of star-forming, rotationally supported disks were simulated with a WMAP3 Λ CDM cosmology, and match the SPARC acceleration relation with less scatter than the observational data. These results show that this acceleration relation is a consequence of dissipative collapse of baryons, rather than being evidence for exotic dark-sector physics or new dynamical laws.

  9. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects.

    Couth, R; Trois, C

    2012-11-01

    Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology transfer to Africa: constraints for CDM operations

    Karani, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    It is practically difficult to design, implement and manage Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Africa without a provision for capacity building that will enable the application of modern technologies and techniques. Existing institutions need strengthening, human capacity needs to be developed and new markets need to be promoted. The author outlines institutional and market constraints in relation to technology transfer (e.g renewable energy technologies) and development in Africa. (Author)

  11. Addressing carbon Offsetters’ Paradox: Lessons from Chinese wind CDM

    He, Gang; Morse, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) has been a leading international carbon market and a driving force for sustainable development. But the eruption of controversy over offsets from Chinese wind power in 2009 exposed cracks at the core of how carbon credits are verified in the developing economies. The Chinese wind controversy therefore has direct implications for the design and negotiation of any successor to the Kyoto Protocol or future market-based carbon regimes. In order for carbon markets to avoid controversy and function effectively, the lessons from the Chinese wind controversy should be used to implement key reforms in current and future carbon policy design. The paper examines the application of additionality in the Chinese wind power market and draws implications for the design of effective global carbon offset policy. It demonstrates the causes of the wind power controversy, highlights underlying structural flaws, in how additionality is applied in China, the Offsetters' Paradox, and charts a reform path that can strengthen the credibility of global carbon markets. - Highlights: • We investigated 143 Chinese wind CDM projects by the eruption of the additionality controversy. • We examined the application of additionality in the Chinese wind power market. • We drew implications for the design of effective global carbon offset policy. • The underlying structural flaws of CDM, the Offsetters′ Paradox, was discussed. • We charted a reform path that can strengthen the credibility of global carbon markets

  12. Comparison of Cluster Lensing Profiles with Lambda CDM Predictions

    Broadhurst, Tom; /Tel Aviv U.; Umetsu, Keiichi; /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Medezinski, Elinor; /Tel Aviv U.; Oguri, Masamune; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rephaeli, Yoel; /Tel Aviv U. /San Diego, CASS

    2008-05-21

    We derive lens distortion and magnification profiles of four well known clusters observed with Subaru. Each cluster is very well fitted by the general form predicted for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) dominated halos, with good consistency found between the independent distortion and magnification measurements. The inferred level of mass concentration is surprisingly high, 8 < c{sub vir} < 15 ( = 10.39 {+-} 0.91), compared to the relatively shallow profiles predicted by the {Lambda}CDM model, c{sub vir} = 5.06 {+-} 1.10 (for = 1.25 x 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}}/h). This represents a 4{sigma} discrepancy, and includes the relatively modest effects of projection bias and profile evolution derived from N-body simulations, which oppose each other with little residual effect. In the context of CDM based cosmologies, this discrepancy implies some modification of the widely assumed spectrum of initial density perturbations, so clusters collapse earlier (z {ge} 1) than predicted (z < 0.5) when the Universe was correspondingly denser.

  13. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  14. The clean development mechanism (CDM) an international perspective and implications for the LAC region

    2004-08-01

    This paper addresses activity a) an analysis of international CDM experiences and its potential contribution to the LAC region. The paper begins with a section describing the basic principles of the CDM and retrieves the lessons learned from the first two years of the CDM operation. This is followed by a more detailed review in section 2 of the on-going baseline and monitoring methodology approval process. In section 3, the development value of the CDM is explored. Section 4 describes the current CDM markets, while section 5 reviews the response of host countries to the CDM outside the LAC region. Section 6 describes the various capacity building programs established by Annex 1 countries to support the CDM. In each of the first 6 sections, implications for the LAC region are identified. Section 7 brings these conclusions together into a concise summary. (The author)

  15. Extracting the resource rent from the CDM projects: Can the Chinese Government do better?

    Liu Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    The revenue generated from a CDM project in China will be shared by the government and the project owner, and is also subject to the corporate income tax. This paper studies the impacts of the revenue sharing policy and income tax on the CDM market. The economic model presented in this paper shows that higher-cost CDM projects will be more affected by the CDM policies than lower-cost projects. In addition, the majority of CERs will be generated from lower-cost projects. This kind of distribution of CERs across different types of CDM projects, which is in line with the current picture of the CDM market in China, is not consistent with the goal of sustainable development. A simulation shows that a type-by-type tax/fee scheme would be more effective in assisting sustainable development than the current CDM policies. The study also suggests the government use negative tax/fee with the type-by-type scheme to subsidize the CDM projects that generate large sustainability benefits but would otherwise not be developed due to high costs. If all of the revenue from the CDM is recycled, it is estimated that CERs generation will increase by 98.28 MtC, mainly from the CDM projects that have substantial sustainability benefits for the host country.

  16. Review of monitoring uncertainty requirements in the CDM

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the environmental integrity of carbon offset projects, emission reductions certified under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have to be 'real, measurable and additional', which is ensured through the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) process. MRV, however, comes at a cost that ranges from several cents to EUR1.20 and above per ton of CO 2 e depending on the project type. This article analyzes monitoring uncertainty requirements for carbon offset projects with a particular focus on the trade-off between monitoring stringency and cost. To this end, we review existing literature, scrutinize both overarching monitoring guidelines and the 10 most-used methodologies, and finally we analyze four case studies. We find that there is indeed a natural trade-off between the stringency and the cost of monitoring, which if not addressed properly may become a major barrier for the implementation of offset projects in some sectors. We demonstrate that this trade-off has not been systematically addressed in the overarching CDM guidelines and that there are only limited incentives to reduce monitoring uncertainty. Some methodologies and calculation tools as well as some other offset standards, however, do incorporate provisions for a trade-off between monitoring costs and stringency. These provisions may take the form of discounting emissions reductions based on the level of monitoring uncertainty - or more implicitly through allowing a project developer to choose between monitoring a given parameter and using a conservative default value. Our findings support the introduction of an uncertainty standard under the CDM for more comprehensive, yet cost-efficient, accounting for monitoring uncertainty in carbon offset projects. (authors)

  17. Distinguishing CDM dwarfs from SIDM dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex B.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the nearby Universe are the most dark-matter-dominated systems known. They are therefore natural probes of the nature of dark matter, which remains unknown. Our collaboration has performed several high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM, with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, in order to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark-matter-dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (at stellar masses of ~105 solar masses) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. At these low masses, our SIDM galaxies have a cored inner density profile, while their CDM counterparts have “cuspy” centers. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts. Future observations of ultra faint dwarfs with JWST and 30-m telescopes will be able to discern whether such alternate theories of dark matter are viable.

  18. ΛCDM model with dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter

    Gimenes, H. S.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Silva, R.

    2018-03-01

    Many models in cosmology typically assume the standard bulk viscosity. We study an alternative interpretation for the origin of the bulk viscosity. Using nonadditive statistics proposed by Tsallis, we propose a bulk viscosity component that can only exist by a nonextensive effect through the nonextensive/dissipative correspondence (NexDC). In this paper, we consider a ΛCDM model for a flat universe with a dissipative nonextensive viscous dark matter component, following the Eckart theory of bulk viscosity, without any perturbative approach. In order to analyze cosmological constraints, we use one of the most recent observations of Type Ia Supernova, baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background data.

  19. Gravitational wave memory in ΛCDM cosmology

    Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    We examine gravitational wave memory in the case where sources and detector are in a ΛCDM cosmology. We consider the case where the Universe can be highly inhomogeneous, but gravitational radiation is treated in the short wavelength approximation. We find results very similar to those of gravitational wave memory in an asymptotically flat spacetime; however, the overall magnitude of the memory effect is enhanced by a redshift-dependent factor. In addition, we find the memory can be affected by lensing. (paper)

  20. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    Del Rio, Pablo [Department of Economics and Business, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n., Toledo-45071 (Spain)]. E-mail: pablo.rio@uclm.es

    2006-11-15

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors.

  1. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    Del Rio, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors

  2. A nonlinear CDM based damage growth law for ductile materials

    Gautam, Abhinav; Priya Ajit, K.; Sarkar, Prabir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A nonlinear ductile damage growth criterion is proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The model is derived in the framework of thermodynamically consistent CDM assuming damage to be isotropic. In this study, the damage dissipation potential is also derived to be a function of varying strain hardening exponent in addition to damage strain energy release rate density. Uniaxial tensile tests and load-unload-cyclic tensile tests for AISI 1020 steel, AISI 1030 steel and Al 2024 aluminum alloy are considered for the determination of their respective damage variable D and other parameters required for the model(s). The experimental results are very closely predicted, with a deviation of 0%-3%, by the proposed model for each of the materials. The model is also tested with predictabilities of damage growth by other models in the literature. Present model detects the state of damage quantitatively at any level of plastic strain and uses simpler material tests to find the parameters of the model. So, it should be useful in metal forming industries to assess the damage growth for the desired deformation level a priori. The superiority of the new model is clarified by the deviations in the predictability of test results by other models.

  3. Consistency of ΛCDM with geometric and dynamical probes

    Perivolaropoulos, L

    2010-01-01

    The ΛCDM cosmological model assumes the existence of a small cosmological constant in order to explain the observed accelerating cosmic expansion. Despite the dramatic improvement of the quality of cosmological data during the last decade it remains the simplest model that fits remarkably well (almost) all cosmological observations. In this talk I review the increasingly successful fits provided by ΛCDM on recent geometric probe data of the cosmic expansion. I also briefly discuss some emerging shortcomings of the model in attempting to fit specific classes of data (eg cosmic velocity dipole flows and cluster halo profiles). Finally, I summarize recent results on the theoretically predicted matter overdensity (δ m =(δρ m )/ρ m ) evolution (a dynamical probe of the cosmic expansion), emphasizing its scale and gauge dependence on large cosmological scales in the context of general relativity. A new scale dependent parametrization which describes accurately the growth rate of perturbations even on scales larger than 100h -1 Mpc is shown to be a straightforward generalization of the well known scale independent parametrization f(a) = Ω m (a) γ valid on smaller cosmological scales.

  4. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects

    Couth, R. [CRECHE, Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE, Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a compendium on GHG reductions via improved waste strategies in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note provides a strategic framework for Local Authorities in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assists LAs to select Zero Waste scenarios and achieve sustained GHG reduction. - Abstract: Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector.

  5. Carbon market risks and rewards: Firm perceptions of CDM investment decisions in Brazil and India

    Hultman, Nathan E.; Pulver, Simone; Guimarães, Leticia; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Kane, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The carbon market experiences of Brazil and India represent policy success stories under several criteria. A careful evaluation, however, reveals challenges to market development that should be addressed in order to make the rollout of a post-2012 CDM more effective. We conducted firm-level interviews covering 82 CDM plants in the sugar and cement sectors in Brazil and India, focusing on how individual managers understood the potential benefits and risks of undertaking clean development mechanism (CDM) investments. Our results indicate that the CDM operates in a far more complex way in practice than that of simply adding a marginal increment to a project's internal rate of return. Our results indicate the following: first, although anticipated revenue played a central role in most managers' decisions to pursue CDM investments, there was no standard practice to account for financial benefits of CDM investments; second, some managers identified non-financial reputational factors as their primary motivation for pursuing CDM projects; and third, under fluctuating regulatory regimes with real immediate costs and uncertain CDM revenue, managers favored projects that often did not require carbon revenue to be viable. The post-2012 CDM architecture can benefit from incorporating these insights, and in particular reassess goals for strict additionality and mechanisms for achieving it.

  6. Waste management CDM projects barriers NVivo 10® qualitative dataset.

    Bufoni, André Luiz; de Sousa Ferreira, Aracéli Cristina; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2017-12-01

    This article contains one NVivo 10® file with the complete 432 projects design documents (PDD) of seven waste management sector industries registered as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol Initiative from 2004 to 2014. All data analyses and sample statistics made during the research remain in the file. We coded PDDs in 890 fragments of text, classified in five categories of barriers (nodes): technological, financial, human resources, regulatory, socio-political. The data supports the findings of author thesis [1] and other two indexed publication in Waste Management Journal: "The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism" and "The declared barriers of the large developing countries waste management projects: The STAR model" [2], [3]. The data allows any computer assisted qualitative content analysis (CAQCA) on the sector and it is available at Mendeley [4].

  7. Magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM inhomogeneities and the cosmic dark ages

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Exact solutions of the perturbations equations in the magnetized LambdaCDM scenario are presented. They apply during the dark ages and, more specifically, after the baryons are freed from the drag of the photons. The magnetized growth rate of matter perturbations is compared with the growth index obtained in the concordance paradigm and under the assumption that dark energy does not cluster for a redshift window ranging from the epoch of reionization to the stage of dark-energy dominance. The constraints derived from this analysis are shown to be qualitatively complementary and quantitatively competitive with the bounds stemming from the analysis of the distortion patterns induced by the magnetized adiabatic mode on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  8. Simulating cosmologies beyond ΛCDM with PINOCCHIO

    Rizzo, Luca A. [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite Paris-Saclay CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 5th Ave, New York, NY, 10010 (United States); Monaco, Pierluigi [Sezione di Astronomia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Munari, Emiliano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Borgani, Stefano [INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Castorina, Emanuele [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: luca.rizzo@cea.fr, E-mail: fvillaescusa@simonsfoundation.org, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: munari@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: ecastorina@berkeley.edu, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2017-01-01

    We present a method that extends the capabilities of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects (PINOCCHIO) code, allowing it to generate accurate dark matter halo mock catalogues in cosmological models where the linear growth factor and the growth rate depend on scale. Such cosmologies comprise, among others, models with massive neutrinos and some classes of modified gravity theories. We validate the code by comparing the halo properties from PINOCCHIO against N-body simulations, focusing on cosmologies with massive neutrinos: νΛCDM. We analyse the halo mass function, halo two-point correlation function and halo power spectrum, showing that PINOCCHIO reproduces the results from simulations with the same level of precision as the original code (∼ 5–10%). We demonstrate that the abundance of halos in cosmologies with massless and massive neutrinos from PINOCCHIO matches very well the outcome of simulations, and point out that PINOCCHIO can reproduce the Ω{sub ν}–σ{sub 8} degeneracy that affects the halo mass function. We finally show that the clustering properties of the halos from PINOCCHIO matches accurately those from simulations both in real and redshift-space, in the latter case up to k = 0.3 h Mpc{sup −1}. We emphasize that the computational time required by PINOCCHIO to generate mock halo catalogues is orders of magnitude lower than the one needed for N-body simulations. This makes this tool ideal for applications like covariance matrix studies within the standard ΛCDM model but also in cosmologies with massive neutrinos or some modified gravity theories.

  9. Implementing the Kyoto protocol : why JI and CDM show more promise than international emissions trading

    Woerdman, E.

    The Kyoto protocol allows developed countries to achieve cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions abroad by means of international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article argues that JI and CDM projects will be more

  10. Improving the attractiveness of CDM projects through allowing and incorporating options

    Carmichael, David G.; Ballouz, Joseph J.; Balatbat, Maria C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward a proposal that, within Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, investors be allowed to benefit from options; this will require a CDM rule change. Through the presence of options, the downside risk resulting from low carbon prices and/or low achieved emission reductions on projects can be limited, while any upside resulting from high carbon prices and/or high achieved emission reductions can be taken advantage of. It is demonstrated that the presence of options improves the financial attractiveness of CDM projects, and this is at no detriment to any stakeholder. The flow-on from the proposal is that more CDM projects should be realisable if options are available, and this in turn will lead to reduced global emissions and improved sustainability. The proposal is supported by the necessary theory and is demonstrated on two registered CDM projects, one on hydropower and one on wind power. - Highlights: • The paper proposes that options be allowed within CDM projects. • Introducing options will require a CDM rule change. • Options improve the financial attractiveness of CDM projects. • Allowing options comes at no cost or detriment to any party. • Allowing options is a win–win situation to both society and the project proponent.

  11. The implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) in the construction and built environment industry

    Mok, Ken L.; Han, Seung H.; Choi, Seokjin

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities are the main contributors to global climate change, a problem that should not be ignored. Through the clean development mechanism (CDM) introduced under the Kyoto Protocol, developing countries are able to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits through a myriad of emission reduction projects. This study aims to explore the potential of implementing CDM projects in the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry, which has been criticized for not only consuming an enormous amount of resources, but also for contributing to adverse environmental health. In this research, we limit the boundary of the C and BE industry to include the planning, procurement, construction, occupation and refurbishment/demolition phases of a project's life cycle. Surveys and in-depth follow-up interviews with experts have generated useful insights pertaining to CDM potential and its adaptation into the C and BE industry. From this foundation, this paper evaluates the current obstacles to CDM and presents feasible suggestions to increase CDM projects related to the C and BE industry. - Highlights: • We review the development and limitation of CDM relates to the construction and built environment (C and BE) industry. • We obtain experts' opinions on the feasibility of CDM in the C and BE industry. • Validation, monitoring, verification and additionality of CDM projects are crucial. • Experts agreed that most of our suggestions are feasible in principle

  12. EU-MENA energy technology transfer under the CDM: Israel as a frontrunner?

    Karakosta, Charikleia; Doukas, Haris; John, Psarras

    2010-01-01

    The majority of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries possess substantial potential for the implementation of CDM projects. Abatement of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions can mainly be achieved through utilizing the abundant Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the region and the implementation of Energy Efficiency (ENEF) measures. However, most of the MENA countries have a limited track record as regards CDM projects in the pipeline comparing to the major CDM-players, like Asia-Pacific regions and Latin America. In the above framework, this paper investigates the current status of CDM in the MENA region and the related perspectives for further diffusion of the CDM though the elaboration of a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis. Particular emphasis is laid on the case of Israel, which seems to make an exception to the rule, since it hosts most projects in the region and dominates among the MENA countries.

  13. On the contribution of labelled Certified Emission Reductions to sustainable development: A multi-criteria evaluation of CDM projects

    Nussbaumer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a twofold objective, to offset greenhouse gas emissions and to contribute to sustainable development in the host country. The contribution to the latter objective seems marginal in most CDM activities. Also, CDM activities are unevenly spread among developing countries. In response to these concerns, initiatives with the objective of promoting CDM projects with broad local sustainable development dividends have been launched, such as the Gold Standard and the Community Development Carbon Fund. The Gold Standard label rewards best-practice CDM projects while the Community Development Carbon Fund focuses on promoting CDM activities in underprivileged communities. Using a multi-criteria method, the potential contribution to local sustainable development of those CDM projects with particular attributes is compared with ordinary ones. This evaluation suggests that labelled CDM activities tend to slightly outperform comparable projects, although not unequivocally

  14. The role of absorptive capactiy in technological learning in CDM projects : evidences from survey in Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Doranova, A.; Costa, I.; Duysters, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technology transfer in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects of the Kyoto Protocol has acquired increasing attention of policy makers and academia. This study is an effort to investigate CDM projects' related technology transfer process from the organisational learning and technological

  15. The role of absorptive capacity in technological learning in CDM projects : Evidences from survey in Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Doranova, A.; Costa, I.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technology transfer in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects of the Kyoto Protocol has acquired increasing attention of policy makers and academia. This study is an effort to investigate CDM projects' related technology transfer process from the organisational learning and technological

  16. Ci PERMIT

    Relations with the Host States Service

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations at Geneva recalls that only the spouses and children of members of personnel resident in Switzerland and in possession of a legitimation card of types 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are entitled to benefit from a Ci Permit.The 'demande d'attestation de permis Ci' (request for a Ci permit attestation) can be sent to the Mission only through Personnel Division (Administrative Services, Office 33/1-025).Additional information on access by family members of CERN officials to the Swiss labour market are available to you on the Web site of the Relations with the Host States Service (cf. document entitled 'Employment in Switzerland for spouses and children of CERN officials' dated March 1996).Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  17. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  18. Modelling the impacts of CDM incentives for the Thai electricity sector

    Weiss, Philipp; Lefevre, Thierry; Moest, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    The CDM Executive Board recently took a positive decision on programmatic CDM, also known as a CDM Programme of Activities. This prompts the author to present a new tool that has been developed recently for the Thai electricity market. The Renewable Energy Development (RED) Model, initially developed in the framework of the DANIDA funded project: Promotion of Renewable Energy in Thailand (PRET), at the Ministry of Energy of Thailand, was designed for the modelling of different incentive schemes and their effects on the Thai power system for the promotion of renewable energy technologies (RETs). Within this article, an extension of the existing RED model, including the CDM as additional incentive measure, is presented (RED-CDM). Along with the project-based approach, also a sectoral and programmatic approach is included as well. Several scenarios developed with the RED-CDM model show the influence of different incentive mechanisms on the Thai power market and their potentials for reaching the policy targets stated in the Energy Strategy of Thailand for Competitiveness. The main results show that reaching the policy targets is possible, while the price can be extremely high if the targets are to be achieved on schedule. Another important result is that a sectoral CDM approach could help financing about 20% of the incentives needed for a shift towards a more sustainable power grid, if the certified emission reductions (CERs) are sold at a price of 15 Euro/ton

  19. Trojan horse or horn of plenty? Reflections on allowing CCS in the CDM

    Coninck, Heleen de

    2008-01-01

    The discussion around allowing CO 2 capture and geological storage (CCS) into the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is important, as the CDM is currently the only structural incentive for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the developing world. Without the potential incentives given by the CDM, CCS in developing countries will only take place sporadically in niche sectors. The debate around CCS in the CDM has developed into a highly polarised discussion, with a deep divide between proponents and opponents and no view on reconciliation between the various perspectives. Environmental organisations and several developing-country parties in the climate negotiations are increasingly vehemently opposed against CCS in the CDM, and industrialised countries, several large fossil-fuel-dependent developing countries and industry view CCS as a natural option under the CDM, provided some surmountable technical and procedural barriers are taken care of. This paper argues that the efforts of those trying to bring the discussion to a close by solving technical and procedural issues around CCS in the CDM will not lead to agreement because of underlying convictions of all stakeholders. Six convictions are identified and discussed. Based on the discussion of the convictions of both opponents and proponents, research needs and a potential negotiation package are suggested. The research needs are primarily in the field of the CDM market impacts of CCS, the issue of enhanced oil emission accounting, and sustainable development aspects, and particularly whether developing countries could actually benefit from technological leadership in the field of CCS, or whether they will be worse off. Devoting attention to the identified convictions could provide information for a more acceptable negotiation package on CCS in the CDM. (author)

  20. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research on the possibility of promoting CDM project through technology transfer with plant exports; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Plant yushutsugata gijutsu iten wo tsujita CDM project suishin kanosei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Study was made on promotion of CDM (clean development mechanism) project through technology transfer with plant exports. Although CDM system was provided in COP3 on climate change held in Kyoto in 1997, its detailed rules including project approval are yet undecided, and only the schedule to provide the detailed rules until COP6 in 2000 was decided in COP4 in 1998. The common recognition that the CDM project with plant exports produces various merits for both Japan and the partner country is increasing. However, from the viewpoint of forming concrete CDM projects, most Japanese enterprises are passive in approach to the CDM project because of no detailed design of CDM, uncertain profitability and procedures, and avoidance of additional burdens. Plant export is also difficult because of the fact that assessment of a new project is difficult. Enterprises' deeper recognition on the CDM project, and a governmental integrated support system are desirable. (NEDO)

  1. Etude Climat no. 37 '10 lessons from 10 years of the CDM'

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the first and by far the largest carbon offset instrument in the world. To date, it is the only market based on an environmental commodity which managed to attract several billions of euros of private capital on an annual basis. Being the first-of-a-kind climate change mitigation instrument, the CDM followed a 'learning by doing' pattern undergoing numerous reforms throughout its more than 10-year history. Although the post-2012 fate of the mechanism remains uncertain, one should not 'throw out the baby with the bath water' as the lessons from the CDM experience may be useful not only for the CDM reform but also for new market instruments

  2. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2002-01-01

    and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana,Egypt is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between......The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment anddevelopment - that is, baseline development......, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, andrecommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application...

  3. CDM criticisms: don't throw the baby out with the bathwater

    Buen, Joerund

    2012-07-01

    CDM has delivered greater offset volumes than anticipated, mainly with money from the private sector in host countries (underlying project investment) and investor countries (carbon offset purchasing) and has built considerable institutional capacity. Criticisms have focused on high transaction costs and lack of scalability; additionality challenges and lack of net mitigation impact; preventing more ambitious targets and changes in emissions paths in developed and developing countries alike; excessive rents and perverse incentives; unbalanced regional distribution; low local sustainable development benefits; corruption and lack of transparency; and lack of technology transfer. While some of these criticisms are justified, others are outdated. Transaction costs have been drastically reduced. Excessive rents and perverse incentives in the CDM will be substantially reduced post-2012. Unbalanced regional distribution will be reduced by new rules; moreover, this is probably less of a problem than commonly thought. Some criticisms are erroneously founded. There is no evidence of CDM preventing more ambitious targets in developing countries while it could prevent changes in emissions paths in developed countries. Few CDM projects have serious known problems as regards sustainable development. Corruption and fraud seem limited; and technology transfer has never been a core CDM concern. Ironically, critics often neglect the elements that need to be improved. To ensure additionality, CDM rules must be tightened to exclude common practice projects and prevent host countries from changing their policies to cater for CDM projects. CDM's scalability and additionality challenges could be substantially reduced by discounting emission reductions. There could still be some non-additional projects, but the volume of the overall portfolio of projects would be additional.(Author)

  4. Financing Structures for CDM Projects in India and Capacity Building Options for EU-Indo Collaboration

    Krey, Matthias; Michaelowa, Axel; Deodhar, Vinay

    2003-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) enables industrialized countries to meet a part of their emission reduction requirements through purchase of emission reduction credits from projects in developing countries. Various studies have concluded that India is likely to be one of the major countries supplying such projects. However, in order that a large number of high-quality CDM projects is developed and result ...

  5. The H II galaxy Hubble diagram strongly favours Rh = ct over ΛCDM

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-12-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use H II galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic H II regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat ΛCDM model, the best fit is obtained with Ω _m= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favour Rh = ct over the standard model with a likelihood of ≈94.8-98.8 per cent versus only ≈1.2-5.2 per cent. For wCDM (the version of ΛCDM with a dark-energy equation of state wde ≡ pde/ρde rather than wde = wΛ = -1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Ω _m=0.22_{-0.14}^{+0.16} and w_de= -0.51_{-0.25}^{+0.15} which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than Rh = ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that Rh = ct is strongly favoured over wCDM with a likelihood of ≈92.9-99.6 per cent versus only 0.4-7.1 per cent. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ΛCDM/wCDM in favour of Rh = ct at a confidence level approaching 3σ.

  6. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No. 18A-10, Edificio Ip, Bogotá (Colombia); Foex, G.; Motta, V. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2360102 (Chile); Verdugo, T., E-mail: jfernandez@obs-besancon.fr, E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  7. The Hubble Constant to 1%: Physics beyond LambdaCDM

    Riess, Adam

    2017-08-01

    By steadily advancing the precision and accuracy of the Hubble constant, we now see 3.4-sigma evidence for a deviation from the standard LambdaCDM model and thus the exciting chance of discovering new fundamental physics such as exotic dark energy, a new relativistic particle, dark matter interactions, or a small curvature, to name a few possibilities. We propose a coordinated program to accomplish three goals with one set of observations: (1) improve the precision of the best route to H_0 with HST observations of Cepheids in the hosts of 11 SNe Ia, lowering the uncertainty to 1.3% to reach the discovery threshold of 5-sigma and begin resolving the underlying source of the deviation; (2) continue testing the quality of Cepheid distances, so far the most accurate and reliable indicators in the near Universe, using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB); and (3) use oxygen-rich Miras to confirm the present tension with the CMB and establish a future route available to JWST. We can achieve all three goals with one dataset and take the penultimate step to reach 1% precision in H_0 after Gaia. With its long-pass filter and NIR capability, we can collect these data with WFC3 many times faster than previously possible while overcoming the extinction and metallicity effects that challenged the first generation of H_0 measurements. Our results will complement the leverage available at high redshift from other cosmological tools such as BAO, the CMB, and SNe Ia, and will provide a 40% improvement on the WFIRST measurements of dark energy. Reaching this precision will be a fitting legacy for the telescope charged to resolve decades of uncertainty regarding the Hubble constant.

  8. Point Climat no. 20 'CDM Policy Dialogue: a traditional 'treatment' coupled with new 'prescriptions' '

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: As the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) reached the milestone billionth CER issued and the secondary CER price tipped below 2 euros, the recommendations of the High Level Panel on the CDM Policy Dialogue published on 11 September 2012 could not be timelier. By focusing on the current supply-demand disequilibrium that threatens the very survival of the CDM, the Panel extended its recommendations beyond the traditional scope of CDM reform. The Panel's ambition to pro-actively engage with other climate initiatives such as the Green Fund and regional markets is also innovative. Indeed, the CDM toolbox enriched by 10-years of experience stands to apply to or be partly recycled through new mechanisms. Along the 51 recommendations from the Policy Dialogue, there are calls for further standardization and streamlining, together with both old and new ideas on governance and contribution of the CDM to sustainable development

  9. Joint implementation, clean development mechanism and tradable permits. International regulation of greenhouse gases

    Nielsen, L.; Olsen, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    ). The report describes the background for the international co-operation on reducing the greenhouse gases and the background for the instruments. How the instruments work in theory and what the practical problemsmay be. What agents' incentives are when they engage in JI or CDM, and how the initiation...... the developing countries incentives to participate in the coalition of committed countries. In the concludingchapter some recommendations on the use of JI, TP and CDM are given. The recommendations are a kind of dialog with especially the Norwegian and Swedish reports on tradable permits. Some of the issues...

  10. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N., E-mail: pavlidou@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  11. Future restrictions for sinks in the CDM. How about a cap on supply?

    Forner, C.; Jotzo, F.

    2002-01-01

    The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is expected to result in only a small role for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), including afforestation and reforestation projects. Wide ranging concerns regarding sinks in the CDM have been reflected in the Marrakech Accords capping the total amount of emission offsets from sinks projects to be used by Annex I countries. Decisions about the second commitment period and beyond are likely to be of far greater importance for these projects. This paper contributes to the discussion on how caps on sinks under the CDM could be used to obtain overall improved outcomes for developing countries. We examine two distinctive ways in which quantitative caps on sinks in the CDM can be implemented: one, restricting the use of sinks CERs to meet targets, as under the Marrakech Accords (a cap on demand); and two, restricting supply of sink CERs using a quota system. We argue in favour of a supply side cap, if Parties are to preserve the idea of limiting sinks in the CDM. Limiting the supply of credits could lead to better financial outcomes for developing countries as a whole, make higher-cost projects viable which may have better sustainability impacts, and provide an alternative to deal with equity concerns between developing countries

  12. Trends in renewable energy strategy development and the role of CDM in Bangladesh

    Noim Uddin, Sk; Taplin, Ros

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses trends in renewable energy strategy development in Bangladesh and the prospective role of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol. Use of renewables for electricity generation results in less greenhouse gas emissions compared with fossil fuel energy systems and often offers additional synergistic benefits. Despite the large potential for development of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh, currently their contribution to electricity generation remains insignificant. Existing policies and programs on renewable energy in Bangladesh are reviewed in relation to the specific requirements needed for CDM. A number of barriers are identified that impede the implementation of the CDM mechanism. Overall, it is recommended that more appropriate energy strategies, including a new national renewable energy strategy, need to be formulated and implemented and more suitable institutional settings need to be provided to promote energy sustainability for Bangladesh. Also, the suggestion is made that incorporation of objectives for CDM promotion in the new national renewable energy strategy to tie in with Bangladesh's CDM strategy should assist in advancement of renewables

  13. Consistency of the Planck CMB data and ΛCDM cosmology

    Shafieloo, Arman [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar, E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: dhiraj.kumar.hazra@apc.univ-paris7.fr [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC)/Paris Centre for Cosmological Physics, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, Paris Cedex 13, 75205 France (France)

    2017-04-01

    We test the consistency between Planck temperature and polarization power spectra and the concordance model of Λ Cold Dark Matter cosmology (ΛCDM) within the framework of Crossing statistics. We find that Planck TT best fit ΛCDM power spectrum is completely consistent with EE power spectrum data while EE best fit ΛCDM power spectrum is not consistent with TT data. However, this does not point to any systematic or model-data discrepancy since in the Planck EE data, uncertainties are much larger compared to the TT data. We also investigate the possibility of any deviation from ΛCDM model analyzing the Planck 2015 data. Results from TT, TE and EE data analysis indicate that no deviation is required beyond the flexibility of the concordance ΛCDM model. Our analysis thus rules out any strong evidence for beyond the concordance model in the Planck spectra data. We also report a mild amplitude difference comparing temperature and polarization data, where temperature data seems to have slightly lower amplitude than expected (consistently at all multiples), as we assume both temperature and polarization data are realizations of the same underlying cosmology.

  14. Moving from the CDM to 'various approaches'

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2014-03-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) facilitated the emergence and deployment of low-cost greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technologies such as destruction of industrial gases and capturing methane from landfills and coal mines. Some of these technologies are now ripe to 'graduate' from the CDM into other, more mainstream, economic tools. The first such step was taken in September 2013 when the G20 leaders agreed to phase out HFCs - highly potent greenhouse gases - including HFC-23 that was the focus of 19 CDM projects. A potential HFC-23 abatement fund under the Montreal Protocol could reduce up to 1.8 Gt CO 2 e by 2020 at a cost of under US$0.2 per ton of CO 2 e, i.e. much cheaper than the price paid to CDM projects through carbon crediting. The next potential candidate technology to 'graduate' from the CDM is the abatement of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions in the chemical industry, which have already been placed on the agenda of the Montreal Protocol. (authors)

  15. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T. N.

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c2)1/3, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  16. Design and Real Time Implementation of CDM-PI Control System in a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process

    P. K. Bhaba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the design and real time implementation of Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM based PI (CDM-PI control system for a Conical Tank Liquid Level Process (CTLLP which exhibits severe static non-linear characteristics. By taking this static non-linearity into account, a Wiener Model (WM based CDM-PI control system is developed and implemented in real time operations. The performance of this control system for set point tracking and load disturbance rejection is studied. In addition, the performance is compared with other WM based PI controllers. Real time results clearly show that WM based CDM-PI control system outperforms over the others.

  17. Assessing Usefulness. Do Stakeholders Regard the CDM's SD Tool as Practicial?

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Hinostroza, Miriam L.

    implementation of this requirement. The independent High-Level Panel on the CDM Policy Dialogue has also considered the need for improvement. Subsequently the Conference of the Parties serving as the meetings of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) 7 at Durban called on the CDM Executive Board to develop...... criteria, superficial examinations and difficult stakeholder consultations. Such new approaches include scoring of indicators, priority sectors, checklists as well as improved documentation requirements for verification, municipal approval or on-site visits by DNA staff. When developing the Sustainable...... contributions, and project developers. Host countries of different size and various levels of experience with CDM and sustainability assessment and project developers with expertise for various types of projects were interviewed in a survey about their experiences. Subjects were the sustainability assessment...

  18. ESD full chip simulation: HBM and CDM requirements and simulation approach

    E. Franell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Verification of ESD safety on full chip level is a major challenge for IC design. Especially phenomena with their origin in the overall product setup are posing a hurdle on the way to ESD safe products. For stress according to the Charged Device Model (CDM, a stumbling stone for a simulation based analysis is the complex current distribution among a huge number of internal nodes leading to hardly predictable voltage drops inside the circuits.

    This paper describes an methodology for Human Body Model (HBM simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation. This enables a highly efficient DC simulation clearly marking CDM relevant design weaknesses allowing for application of this software both during product development and for product verification.

  19. CLUMP-3D: Testing ΛCDM with Galaxy Cluster Shapes

    Sereno, Mauro; Umetsu, Keiichi; Ettori, Stefano; Sayers, Jack; Chiu, I.-Non; Meneghetti, Massimo; Vega-Ferrero, Jesús; Zitrin, Adi

    2018-06-01

    The ΛCDM model of structure formation makes strong predictions on the concentration and shape of dark matter (DM) halos, which are determined by mass accretion processes. Comparison between predicted shapes and observations provides a geometric test of the ΛCDM model. Accurate and precise measurements needs a full three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the cluster mass distribution. We accomplish this with a multi-probe 3D analysis of the X-ray regular Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) clusters combining strong and weak lensing, X-ray photometry and spectroscopy, and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect (SZe). The cluster shapes and concentrations are consistent with ΛCDM predictions. The CLASH clusters are randomly oriented, as expected given the sample selection criteria. Shapes agree with numerical results for DM-only halos, which hints at baryonic physics being less effective in making halos rounder.

  20. Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons, T$\\Lambda$CDM paradigm and the stiff ages

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Absent any indirect tests on the thermal history of the Universe prior to the formation of light nuclear elements, it is legitimate to investigate situations where, before nucleosyntheis, the sound speed of the plasma was larger than $c/\\sqrt{3}$, at most equalling the speed of light $c$. In this plausible extension of the current cosmological paradigm, hereby dubbed Tensor-$\\Lambda$CDM (i.e. T$\\Lambda$CDM) scenario, high-frequency gravitons are copiously produced. Without conflicting with the bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio stemming from the combined analysis of the three standard cosmological data sets (i.e. cosmic microwave background anisotropies, large-scale structure and supenovae), the spectral energy density of the relic gravitons in the T$\\Lambda$CDM scenario can be potentially observable by wide-band interferometers (in their advanced version) operating in a frequency window which ranges between few Hz and few kHz.

  1. Establishing a National Authority (NA) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The Costa Rican Experience

    Manso, P.

    2003-01-01

    The challenge of climate change is now a global issue and part of the international agenda. The Kyoto Protocol (KP) and its provisions for flexible mechanisms have provided a framework for an effective and equitable global response. Among these instruments, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) using the market as its driven force has the potential to not only contribute to the ultimate objective of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), but also encourage developing countries to move their economic growth under a less carbon-intensive development path. A flexible mechanism such as the CDM, the surprise on the KP menu, has never been attempted before and it is a clear case where lessons can only be learned by doing and every mistake is a valuable lesson learned. One lesson already learned is that host countries that established national oversight entities during the pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) were remarkably more successful in accessing its benefits than countries that had not. Now, setting-up a National Authority (NA) is a compulsory requirement for all developing countries wishing to participate in the CDM. The scope of this paper is to present a guide for those developing countries willing to develop its institutional capacity needed to participate in the CDM. Required framework conditions for CDM projects, roles of the NA in the CDM project cycle, possible structures of and tasks to be performed by the NA, steps in creating a NA and challenges of its institutionalisation, are considered from the perspective of a developing country

  2. Simultaneous falsification of ΛCDM and quintessence with massive, distant clusters

    Mortonson, Michael J.; Hu, Wayne; Huterer, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Observation of even a single massive cluster, especially at high redshift, can falsify the standard cosmological framework consisting of a cosmological constant and cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with Gaussian initial conditions by exposing an inconsistency between the well-measured expansion history and the growth of structure it predicts. Through a likelihood analysis of current cosmological data that constrain the expansion history, we show that the ΛCDM upper limits on the expected number of massive, distant clusters are nearly identical to limits predicted by all quintessence models where dark energy is a minimally coupled scalar field with a canonical kinetic term. We provide convenient fitting formulas for the confidence level at which the observation of a cluster of mass M at redshift z can falsify ΛCDM and quintessence given cosmological parameter uncertainties and sample variance, as well as for the expected number of such clusters in the light cone and the Eddington bias factor that must be applied to observed masses. By our conservative confidence criteria, which equivalently require masses 3 times larger than typically expected in surveys of a few hundred square degrees, none of the presently known clusters falsify these models. Various systematic errors, including uncertainties in the form of the mass function and differences between supernova light curve fitters, typically shift the exclusion curves by less than 10% in mass, making current statistical and systematic uncertainties in cluster mass determination the most critical factor in assessing falsification of ΛCDM and quintessence.

  3. A quantitative analysis of the cost-effectiveness of project types in the CDM pipeline

    Green, Gavin A.

    2008-09-15

    The flexibility of the CDM is intended to reduce the cost of compliance for Annex 1 countries and contribute to cost-effective reductions. This paper provides a framework for defining cost-effective payments for CDM carbon reductions. The projects in the CDM pipeline are categorised into project types. The data provided in the Project Design Documents is quantitatively assessed to calculate the median cost and range of costs for producing a CER from the project categories. These are measured against the range of prices in the market in order to estimate the level of cost-effectiveness. Global warming potential and size of the project were shown to be key factors in the cost of producing a CER. The results show that although prices for CERs are difficult to define in the primary CER market, many of the project categories generated CERs at a cost well below the lowest market price. The difference in these two values is defined as a loss in cost-effectiveness. The CDM is shown to be successful at developing the 'lowest hanging fruit' but the mechanism could be improved to fulfil the goal of cost-effectiveness by linking the price per CER to the cost of generating a CER. (au)

  4. How to falsify the GR+ΛCDM model with galaxy redshift surveys

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of models describing modifications to general relativity have been proposed, but no fundamental parameter set exists to describe them. Similarly, no fundamental theory exists for dark energy to parametrize its potential deviation from a cosmological constant. This motivates a model-independent search for deviations from the concordance GR+ΛCDM cosmological model in large galaxy redshift surveys. We describe two model-independent tests of the growth of cosmological structure, in the form of quantities that must equal one if GR+ΛCDM is correct. The first, ε, was introduced previously as a scale-independent consistency check between the expansion history and structure growth. The second, υ, is introduced here as a test of scale-dependence in the linear evolution of matter density perturbations. We show that the ongoing and near-future galaxy redshift surveys WiggleZ, BOSS, and HETDEX will constrain these quantities at the 5-10% level, representing a stringent test of concordance cosmology at different redshifts. When redshift space distortions are used to probe the growth of cosmological structure, galaxies at higher redshift with lower bias are found to be most powerful in detecting the presence of deviations from the GR+ΛCDM model. However, because many dark energy or modified gravity models predict consistency with GR+ΛCDM at high redshift, it is desirable to apply this approach to surveys covering a wide range of redshifts and spatial scales.

  5. Transaction costs of unilateral CDM projects in India-results from an empirical survey

    Krey, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Recently, transaction costs in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) gained considerable attention as they were generally perceived to be significantly higher than for the other Kyoto Mechanisms. However, empirical evidence on the amount of transaction costs of CDM projects is very scarce. This paper presents the results from an empirical survey designed to quantify transaction costs of potential non-sink CDM projects in India. The definition of transaction costs of CDM projects was derived from recent literature and observations made in the current market for Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). During the survey, parts of transaction costs of 15 projects were quantified. An assessment of the results showed that specific transaction costs depend, to a large extent, on economies of scale in terms of total amount of CERs generated over the crediting period. Total transaction costs were quantified for seven projects. The costs range from 0.07 to 0.47 dollar/t CO 2 . As the projects have an emission reduction between 0.24 Mt CO 2 and 5.00 Mt CO 2 over the crediting period, the results support the assumption of Michaelowa et al. (Climate Policy 3 (2003) 273) that projects with emission reductions smaller than 0.20 Mt CO 2 are not economically viable at current CER prices

  6. Assessment of CO2 emission reduction and identification of CDM potential in a township

    Misra, R.; Aseri, Tarun Kumar; Jamuwa, Doraj Karnal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Bansal, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Mahila Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the theoretical investigation of CDM opportunity in a township at Jaipur, India. The purpose of study is to identify and analyze the various opportunities viz., installation of solar water heater, energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners, and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers and thus achieve a considerable (65.7 %) reduction in GHG emissions. Out of the various opportunities considered, the retrofitting with solar water heater can be recommended for CDM. Though, the retrofitting with energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers claimed CO2 emission reduction of 104.84, 25.92, and 36.94 tons per annum, respectively, but the only opportunity which got through CDM was retrofitting with solar water heater claiming 115.70 tCO2 (100 %) emission reductions per annum which could result into net earnings of 115.70 CERs. The simple and discounted payback period for all four project activities are also calculated with and without CDM and tax benefits.

  7. Reheating via Gravitational Particle Production in Simple Models of Quintessence or ΛCDM Inflation

    Jaume de Haro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tested some simple Λ CDM (the same test is also valid for quintessence inflation models, imposing that they match with the recent observational data provided by the BICEP and Planck’s team and leading to a reheating temperature, which is obtained via gravitational particle production after inflation, supporting the nucleosynthesis success.

  8. Frictions in Project-Based Supply of Permits

    Liski, M.; Virrankoski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Emissions trading in climate change can entail large overall cost savings and transfers between developed and developing countries. However, the search for acceptable JI or CDM projects implies a deviation from the perfect market framework used in previous estimations. Our model combines the search market for projects with a frictionless permit market to quantify the supply-side frictions in the CO2 market. We also decompose the effects of frictions into the effects of search friction, bargaining, and bilateralism. A calibration using previous cost estimates of CO2 reductions illustrate changes in cost savings and allocative implications

  9. Co-benefits of including CCS projects in the CDM in India's power sector

    Eto, R.; Murata, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Okajima, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the inclusion of the co-benefits on the potential installed capacity of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) projects with a linear programming model by the clean development mechanism (CDM) in India's power sector. It is investigated how different marginal damage costs of air pollutants affect the potential installed capacity of CCS projects in the CDM with a scenario analysis. Three results are found from this analysis. First, large quantity of IGCC with CCS becomes realizable when the certified emission reduction (CER) prices are above US$56/tCO 2 in the integrated Northern, Eastern, Western, and North-Eastern regional grids (NEWNE) and above US $49/tCO 2 in the Southern grid. Second, including co-benefits contributes to decrease CO 2 emissions and air pollutants with introduction of IGCC with CCS in the CDM at lower CER prices. Third, the effects of the co-benefits are limited in the case of CCS because CCS reduces larger amount of CO 2 emissions than that of air pollutants. Total marginal damage costs of air pollutants of US$250/t and US$200/t lead to CER prices of US$1/tCO 2 reduction in the NEWNE grid and the Southern grid. - Highlights: • We estimate effects of co-benefits on installed capacity of CCS projects in the CDM. • We develop a linear programming (LP) model of two grids of India. • Including co-benefits contributes to introduce IGCC with CCS in the CDM at lower CER prices

  10. Analysis of CDM experience in Morocco and lessons learnt for West African Economic and Monetary Union. Case study: Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo

    Satoguina, Honorat

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the CDM potential in Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo. Morocco has been used as an example, as it is quite advanced in developing an impressive CDM project portfolio. The study focuses not only on the absolute greenhouse gas abatement potential of these countries, but also assesses the comparative CDM endowment on the basis of an holistic analysis of each country, thereby highlighting the relative position of Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo in the global CDM market....

  11. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and substainability analysis[CDM=Clean Development Mechanism

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment and development - that is, baseline development, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, and recommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana, Egypt- is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between the lowest (0.5496 tCO2/MWh) and the highest emission rate (0.6868 tCO{sub 2}/MWh) estimated in accordance with these three standardized approaches to baseline development according to the Marrakesh Accord. This difference in emission factors comes about partly as a result of including hydroelectric power in the baseline scenario. Hydroelectric resources constitute around 21% of the generation capacity in Egypt, and, if excluding hydropower, the difference between the lowest and the highest baseline is reduced to 18%. Furthermore, since the two variations of the 'historical' baseline option examined result in the highest and the lowest baselines, by disregarding this baseline option altogether the difference between the lowest and the highest is reduced to 16%. The ES3-model, which the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory has developed, makes it possible for this report to explore the project-specific approach to baseline development in some detail. Based on quite disaggregated data on the Egyptian electricity system, including the wind

  12. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  13. Small-scale CDM projects in a competitive electricity industry: How good is a simplified baseline methodology?

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Abeygunawardana, A.M.A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Setting baseline emissions is one of the principal tasks involved in awarding credits for greenhouse gas emission (GHG) mitigation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An emission baseline has to be project-specific in order to be accurate. However, project-specific baseline calculations are subject to high transaction costs, which disadvantage small-scale projects. For this reason, the CDM-Executive Board (CDM-EB) has approved simplified baseline methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project categories. While the simplified methods help reduce the transaction cost, they may also result in inaccuracies in the estimation of emission reductions from CDM projects. The purpose of this paper is to present a rigorous economic scheduling method for calculating the GHG emission reduction in a hypothetical competitive electricity industry due to the operation of a renewable energy-based power plant under CDM and compare the GHG emission reduction derived from the rigorous method with that obtained from the use of a simplified (i.e., standardized) method approved by the CDM-EB. A key finding of the paper is that depending upon the level of power demand, prices of electricity and input fuels, the simplified method can lead to either significant overestimation or substantial underestimation of emission reduction due to the operation of renewable energy-based power projects in a competitive electricity industry

  14. Technology choice and CDM projects in China: case study of a small steel company in Shandong Province

    Kaneko, Shinji; Yonamine, Asaka; Jung, Tae Yong

    2006-01-01

    Corporate motives and strategies of both investing and hosting country affect the outcomes of a clean development mechanism (CDM) project-who introduces what technology to whom-and result in large differences in economic viability and the CO 2 emission reductions. This is particularly true for steel industry in which steel making consists of many detailed and complex processes, a given strategy could produce cumulative effects of the individual technologies used, leading to large energy savings overall. The objective of this study is to demonstrate some analytical methods that can be used to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of technology selection on the profit performance of CDM projects. Specifically, in this study we analyze a CDM project to introduce energy saving technology from Japan to a small steel manufacturer in China's Shandong Province, and conduct a simulation of the quantitative relationships between various technology options and profitability. Based on these results, we examine the environmental and economic significance of technology selection for CDM projects. To take this further, we then reconsider the profitability of a project as typical FDI activity (i.e., without the CDM), and by comparing this outcome with the CDM case, we clarify the significance and potential of the CDM

  15. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  16. A non-parametric consistency test of the ΛCDM model with Planck CMB data

    Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Hamann, Jan, E-mail: amir@aghamousa.com, E-mail: jan.hamann@unsw.edu.au, E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2017-09-01

    Non-parametric reconstruction methods, such as Gaussian process (GP) regression, provide a model-independent way of estimating an underlying function and its uncertainty from noisy data. We demonstrate how GP-reconstruction can be used as a consistency test between a given data set and a specific model by looking for structures in the residuals of the data with respect to the model's best-fit. Applying this formalism to the Planck temperature and polarisation power spectrum measurements, we test their global consistency with the predictions of the base ΛCDM model. Our results do not show any serious inconsistencies, lending further support to the interpretation of the base ΛCDM model as cosmology's gold standard.

  17. LULUCF-based CDM. Too much ado for a small carbon market

    Bernoux, M.; Feller, C.; Eschenbrenner, V.; Cerri, C.C.; Melillo, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Bonn agreement reached in July at the sixth conference of the parties (COP) to the FCCC states 'that for the first commitment period, the total of additions to and subtractions from the assigned amount of a party resulting from eligible LULUCF activities under Article 12 (i.e. CDM), shall not exceed 1% of base-year emissions of that party, times five'. The most probable size of this LULUCF-CDM (land use, land-use change and forestry - clean development mechanism) market is analyzed in light of each Annex I party's actual and projected emissions and policies. Results show that the market size would be only about 110 Mt CO2 eq. for 2000-2012, representing a maximum global market value of about US$ 876 million

  18. When the Forest was Ours: : Ownership and Partnership in a CDM Forestry Project in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Gashaw, Aynalem Getachew

    2012-01-01

    An Afforestation and Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism (A/R CDM) project is a forest conservation project that involves global, national and local actors. The interests and expectations of these actors are different. They have different levels of knowledge and financial as well as technological capacities influencing the project outcomes. There is a clear power asymmetry among these partners and this will have an impact on planning and implementation. The purpose of this study i...

  19. Climate Change Policy Measures in Japan: NEDO's Activities to Promote CDM/JI

    Fukasawa, Kazunori; Seki, Kazuhiko; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, which obliges developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), was adopted at the third session of the conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Kyoto, Japan, on I I December 1997. Japan subsequently ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and is required thereunder to reduce GHG emissions by 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Japan, having already tackled development and promotion of energy conservation technologies after the second oil crisis, emits the lowest level of CO 2 of developed countries approximately 9.4 tons per capita in the year 2000. Consequently, Japan is able to contribute to CO 2 emissions reduction in developing economies as well as in economies in transition by application of Japan's energy conservation technologies. Because the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint implementation (JI) of the Kyoto Mechanisms are efficient tools, the Japanese government's policy towards emission reduction makes active use of CDM/JI, thereby supporting domestic efforts in realizing Japan's reduction commitment. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan is one of the key ministries to administer Governmental policy making on climate change, and is undertaking establishment of a system to facilitate the Kyoto Mechanisms. The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), under the jurisdiction of METI, supports CDM and JI project activities implemented by Japanese private sector enterprises. In this report, the authors briefly introduce climate change policy measures in Japan and NEDO's activities to promote CDM/Jl. (Author)

  20. Global climate change policies. An analysis of CDM policies with an adapted GTAP model

    Wang, Shunli

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the relationships between spatial-economic interaction and global warming just discussed, this study aims to analyze the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) policies from an economic point of view. The research question of this study is formulated as follows: What will be the impacts of clirnate change policies, in particular CDM policies, on the economic performance of (groups of) countries in our global economic system, taking spatial interaction and general equilibrium effects into account? The purpose of addressing the issue of economic performance for (groups of) countries in the economic system is not just to identify winners and losers from international treaties. Rather, winning or losing may even determine the implementation and willingness of individual countries to participate in international environmental treaties, as illustrated by the recent withdrawal of the US from the Kyoto Protocol. By analyzing the economic impacts of an international environmental treaty for individual (groups of) countries, the framework that will be used to analyze this research question may be useful to determine the attractiveness of some global environmental policies, both for the world as a whole and for individual (groups of) countries. The research question will be answered by dividing it into six subquestions: (1) What is the position of CDM policies in the broad context of climate policy regimes?; (2) How should the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment be ideally modeled from an economic perspective? (3) How should the spatial dimension be incorporated in this framework of interaction between the economic and ecological system?; (4) How can climate change issues be incorporated in general equilibrium models in general, and in GTAP-E (extension of the Global Trade Analysis Project) in particular?; (5) How can CDM policies be implemented in the GTAP-E model?; and (6) What are the impacts of these climate change policies on

  1. Conformal coupling associated with the Noether symmetry and its connection with the ΛCDM dynamics

    De Souza, Rudinei C; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate a non-minimally coupled scalar field model through the Noether symmetry approach, with the radiation, matter and cosmological constant eras being analyzed. The Noether symmetry condition allows a conformal coupling and by means of a change of coordinates in the configuration space the field equations can be reduced to a single equation, which is of the form of the Friedmann equation for the ΛCDM model. In this way, it is formally shown that the dynamical system can furnish solutions with the same form as those of the ΛCDM model, although the theory here considered is physically different from the former. The conserved quantity associated with the Noether symmetry can be related to the kinetic term of the scalar field and could constrain the possible deviations of the model from the ΛCDM picture. Observational constraints on the variation of the gravitational constant can be imposed on the model through the initial condition of the scalar field. (paper)

  2. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ΛCDM cosmic history

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ΛCDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ΛCDM (the radiation ere with ω{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ω{sub eff} = 0 and ω{sub eff} = −1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with Ω{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when Ω{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ΛCDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  3. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Parnphumeesup, Piya; Kerr, Sandy A.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: → The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. → The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. → Governments tend to be members of the premium market. → 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  4. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) opportunities for the oil and gas sector

    Franco, Joana Chiavari [FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy). Eni/Agip Group

    2004-07-01

    Due to the broad impact of legislation limiting greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing public awareness concerning the environment, the oil industry has been currently incorporating climate change considerations in its corporate strategy. However, compliance in the carbon constrained economy does not merely represent a cost issue; it also represents an opportunity. Projects developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in particular represent an incentive both for companies and governments to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries and earn carbon credits, while promoting sustainable development. The oil industry is characterized by a high emission reduction potential and is able to deliver to the market an amount of credits which is by far higher than the amount that most projects developers are able to offer. However some critical issues, such as the current interpretation of the additionally concept, may represent a barrier for the full utilization of such mechanism, particularly regarding petroleum-sector projects, thus reducing the benefits the CDM can actually produce. Considering that a very large number of CDM projects may be needed for the implementation of a successful climate policy, the engagement of the oil industry on the Kyoto mechanisms is very important and auspicial. (author)

  5. Classifying carbon credit buyers according to their attitudes towards and involvement in CDM sustainability labels

    Parnphumeesup, Piya, E-mail: pp66@hw.ac.uk [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kerr, Sandy A. [International Centre for Island Technology (ICIT), Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon markets are increasingly conscious of the social and environmental 'quality' of credits delivered by CDM projects. Consequently carbon credits are no longer viewed as a homogenous good and buyers now differentiate between credits supplied by different types of CDM project. The objective of this paper is to classify CER buyers according to their attitudes towards and preferences for CDM sustainability labels. K-means clustering was used to segment a sample of buyers into two clusters. The results indicate that two clear clusters exist with distinct profile patterns. Moreover, the results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the two-cluster solution was valid. Finally, the results of the chi-square analysis and a cross-tabulation showed that these two clusters were significantly different in: organization type; level of paid up capital; perception of sustainable development benefits; perception of return on investment; perception of image of the sustainability labeling; participation in the voluntary market; the project priority; knowledge in the sustainability label; attitude towards the host country's duty; and their willingness to pay. - Highlights: > The K-means clustering was used to classify CER buyers in the primary market. > The carbon market is divided into two: the premium market; and the normal market. > Governments tend to be members of the premium market. > 82% of members in the premium market are willing to pay a price premium for CERs.

  6. Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto protocol: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    Rogner, H.-H.

    2000-01-01

    At the 43rd regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Member States requested the IAEA to help countries in assessing nuclear power's role in light of global environmental challenges and energy needs. Such assistance should include support for implementing national case studies, and facilitating access to relevant information about nuclear power's role in achieving sustainable development in developing countries and in mitigating GHG emissions. The dissemination of information on CDM is of particular importance to developing countries, so as to enable Member States interested in the mechanism to take an active and informed role in the debate regarding the Kyoto Protocol and eligible CDM technologies. Therefore, the Secretariat organized a series of information seminars, workshops and training courses for Member States on the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading with particular emphasis on the potential role of nuclear power for GHG mitigation. On request, the Secretariat also provided training and assistance to several Member States in the preparation of national case studies that explore the potential role of nuclear power as a CDM technology. These case studies will be presented by the respective national study teams during this side event at the 44th IAEA General Conference. Within the general criteria included in the Kyoto Protocol, the decision on which technologies are eligible for GHG mitigation under the flexibility mechanisms is a sovereign decision of each country

  7. US Clean Development Mechanism: benefits of the CDM for developing countries

    Pearce, D.; Day, B.; Newcombe, J.; Brunello, T.; Bello, T.

    1998-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change enables countries with mandatory greenhouse gas reduction commitments to offset some of their domestic emissions by reductions in emissions and enhancement of carbon sinks in other countries. One of three types of offsets in the Protocol is the Clean Development Mechanism, a form of joint implementation between Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries which stresses the development gains to developing countries (Article 12). This report focuses on the provision of Article 12 and aims to establish a framework for determining the net benefits of such offsets or trades to developing countries. It looks at some estimates of the likely size of the CDM market, addresses the issue of risks, and takes a brief look at the issue of sharing credits between hosts and investors. It addresses how CDM projects might be screened for their contribution to sustainable development in developing countries and introduces the framework for assessing that contribution and then applies that framework to evaluate different types of potential CDM projects (in the energy, transport, forests and agricultural sectors). 63 refs., 8 figs., 387 tabs., 7 apps.

  8. The Clean Development Mechanism: benefits of the CDM for developing countries. Executive summary

    Pearce, D.; Day, B.; Newcombe, J.; Brunello, T.; Bello, T.

    1998-11-01

    This report is a summarized version of a 169 page report under the same title and authorship. The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change enables countries with mandatory greenhouse gas reduction commitments to offset some of their domestic emissions by reductions in emissions and enhancement of carbon sinks in other countries. One of three types of offsets in the Protocol is the Clean Development Mechanism, a form of joint implementation between Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries which stresses the development gains to developing countries (Article 12). This report focuses on the provision of Article 12 and aims to establish a framework for determining the net benefits of such offsets or trades to developing countries. It looks at some estimates of the likely size of the CDM market, addresses the issue of risks, and takes a brief look at the issue of sharing credits between hosts and investors. It addresses how CDM projects might be screened for their contribution to sustainable development in developing countries and introduces the framework for assessing that contribution and then applies that framework to evaluate different types of potential CDM projects (in the energy, transport, forests and agricultural sectors). 10 tabs.

  9. Technology transfer by CDM projects: A comparison of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Glachant, Matthieu; Meniere, Yann

    2009-01-01

    In a companion paper [Dechezlepretre, A., Glachant, M., Meniere, Y., 2008. The Clean Development Mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: An empirical study, Energy Policy 36, 1273-1283], we gave a general description of technology transfers by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and we analyzed their drivers. In this paper, we use the same data and similar econometric models to explain inter-country differences. We focus on 4 countries gathering about 75% of the CDM projects: Brazil, China, India and Mexico. Sixty eight percent of Mexican projects include an international transfer of technology. The rates are, respectively, 12%, 40% and 59% for India, Brazil and China. Our results show that transfers to Mexico and Brazil are mainly related to the strong involvement of foreign partners and good technological capabilities. Besides a relative advantage with respect to these factors, the higher rate of international transfers in Mexico seems to be due to a sector-composition effect. The involvement of foreign partners is less frequent in India and China, where investment opportunities generated by fast growing economies seem to play a more important role in facilitating international technology transfers through the CDM. International transfers are also related to strong technology capabilities in China. In contrast, the lower rate of international transfer (12%) in India may be due to a better capability to diffuse domestic technologies

  10. The economics of the CDM levy: Revenue potential, tax incidence and distortionary effects

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Martin, Nat

    2010-01-01

    A levy on the Clean Development Mechanism and other carbon trading schemes is a potential source of finance for climate change adaptation. An adaptation levy of 2% is currently imposed on all CDM transactions which could raise around $500 million between now and 2012. This paper analyses the scope for raising further adaptation finance from the CDM, the economic costs (deadweight loss) of such a measure and the incidence of the levy, that is, the economic burden the levy would impose on the buyers and sellers of credits. We find that a levy of 2% could raise up to $2 billion a year in 2020 if there are no restrictions on demand. This could rise to $10 billion for a 10% tax. Restrictions on credit demand (called supplementarity limits, the requirement that most emission abatement should happen domestically) curtail trade volumes and consequently tax revenues. They also alter the economic impact of the CDM levy. Without supplementarity restrictions sellers (developing countries) bear two-thirds of the cost of the tax. If there are supplementarity limits they can pass on the tax burden to buyers (developed countries) more or less in full. Without supplementarity restrictions the distortionary effect of the levy (its deadweight loss) rises sharply with the tax rate. With them the deadweight loss is close to zero.

  11. Small Scale Problems of the ΛCDM Model: A Short Review

    Antonino Del Popolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ΛCDM model, or concordance cosmology, as it is often called, is a paradigm at its maturity. It is clearly able to describe the universe at large scale, even if some issues remain open, such as the cosmological constant problem, the small-scale problems in galaxy formation, or the unexplained anomalies in the CMB. ΛCDM clearly shows difficulty at small scales, which could be related to our scant understanding, from the nature of dark matter to that of gravity; or to the role of baryon physics, which is not well understood and implemented in simulation codes or in semi-analytic models. At this stage, it is of fundamental importance to understand whether the problems encountered by the ΛDCM model are a sign of its limits or a sign of our failures in getting the finer details right. In the present paper, we will review the small-scale problems of the ΛCDM model, and we will discuss the proposed solutions and to what extent they are able to give us a theory accurately describing the phenomena in the complete range of scale of the observed universe.

  12. The Most Massive Galaxies and Black Holes Allowed by ΛCDM

    Behroozi, Peter; Silk, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    Given a galaxy's stellar mass, its host halo mass has a lower limit from the cosmic baryon fraction and known baryonic physics. At z > 4, galaxy stellar mass functions place lower limits on halo number densities that approach expected ΛCDM halo mass functions. High-redshift galaxy stellar mass functions can thus place interesting limits on number densities of massive haloes, which are otherwise very difficult to measure. Although halo mass functions at z function of redshift given expected halo number densities from ΛCDM. We apply similar arguments to black holes. If their virial mass estimates are accurate, number density constraints alone suggest that the quasars SDSS J1044-0125 and SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 likely have black hole mass — stellar mass ratios higher than the median z = 0 relation, confirming the expectation from Lauer bias. Finally, we present a public code to evaluate the probability of an apparently ΛCDM-inconsistent high-mass halo being detected given the combined effects of multiple surveys and observational errors.

  13. Scoping paper on new CDM baseline methodology for cross-border power trade

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poeyry has been sub-contracted by Carbon Limits, under the African Development Bank CDM Support Programme, to prepare a new CDM baseline methodology for cross border trade, based on a transmission line from Ethiopia to Kenya. The first step in that process is to review the response of the UNFCCC, particularly the Methodologies Panel ('Meth Panel') of the CDM Executive Board, to the various proposals on cross-border trade and interconnection of grids. This report reviews the Methodology Panel and Executive Board decisions on 4 requests for revisions of ACM2 'Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources', and 5 proposed new baseline methodologies (NM255, NM269, NM272, NM318, NM342), all of which were rejected. We analyse the reasons the methodologies were rejected, and whether the proposed draft Approved Methodology (AM) that the Methodology Panel created in response to NM269 and NM272 is a suitable basis for a new methodology proposal.(auth)

  14. Permit.LOA table

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  15. State Licenses & Permits

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  16. Constraints on Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy with the observational Hubble parameter data

    Zhai, Zhong-Xu; Liu, Wen-Biao [Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Zhang, Tong-Jie, E-mail: zzx@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: tjzhang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: wbliu@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2011-08-01

    The newly released observational H(z) data (OHD) is used to constrain Λ(t)CDM models as holographic and agegraphic dark energy. By the use of the length scale and time scale as the IR cut-off including Hubble horizon (HH), future event horizon (FEH), age of the universe (AU), and conformal time (CT), we achieve four different Λ(t)CDM models which can describe the present cosmological acceleration respectively. In order to get a comparison between such Λ(t)CDM models and standard ΛCDM model, we use the information criteria (IC), Om(z) diagnostic, and statefinder diagnostic to measure the deviations. Furthermore, by simulating a larger Hubble parameter data sample in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 2.0, we get the improved constraints and more sufficient comparison. We show that OHD is not only able to play almost the same role in constraining cosmological parameters as SNe Ia does but also provides the effective measurement of the deviation of the DE models from standard ΛCDM model. In the holographic and agegraphic scenarios, the results indicate that the FEH is more preferable than HH scenario. However, both two time scenarios show better approximations to ΛCDM model than the length scenarios.

  17. A real option-based model to valuate CDM projects under uncertain energy policies for emission trading

    Park, Taeil; Kim, Changyoon; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A real option-based model for the valuation of CDM projects is proposed. • This study investigates the impact of energy policies on the value of CDM projects. • Level of target emission and its schedule should be carefully designed. • Government subsidy facilitates the implementation of CDM projects. • Period for free emission allowance prevents promoting CDM projects. - Abstract: Emission trading has been considered a primary policy tool for emission reduction. Governments establish national targets for emission reduction and assign emission reduction goals to private entities to accomplish the targets. To attain the goal, private entities should perform offset projects that can produce emission credits or buy emission credits from the market. However, it is not easy for private entities to decide to implement the projects because energy policies associated with emission trading keep changing; thus, the future benefits of the offset projects are quite uncertain. This study presents a real option-based model to investigate how uncertain energy policies affect the financial viability of an offset project. A case study showed that the establishment of a target emission was attractive to the government because it could make the CDM project financially viable with a small amount of government subsidy. In addition, the level of the government subsidy could determine the investment timing for the CDM project. In this context, governments should be cautious in designing energy policies, because even the same energy policies could have different impacts on private entities. Overall, this study is expected to assist private entities in establishing proper investment strategies for CDM projects under uncertain energy policies

  18. Gamma-ray bursts as cosmological probes: ΛCDM vs. conformal gravity

    Diaferio, Antonaldo; Ostorero, Luisa; Cardone, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    ΛCDM, for the currently preferred cosmological density Ω 0 and cosmological constant Ω Λ , predicts that the Universe expansion decelerates from early times to redshift z ≈ 0.9 and accelerates at later times. On the contrary, the cosmological model based on conformal gravity predicts that the cosmic expansion has always been accelerating. To distinguish between these two very different cosmologies, we resort to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have been suggested to probe the Universe expansion history at z > 1, where identified type Ia supernovae (SNe) are rare. We use the full Bayesian approach to infer the cosmological parameters and the additional parameters required to describe the GRB data available in the literature. For the first time, we use GRBs as cosmological probes without any prior information from other data. In addition, when we combine the GRB samples with SNe, our approach neatly avoids all the inconsistencies of most numerous previous methods that are plagued by the so-called circularity problem. In fact, when analyzed properly, current data are consistent with distance moduli of GRBs and SNe that can respectively be, in a variant of conformal gravity, ∼ 15 and ∼ 3 magnitudes fainter than in ΛCDM. Our results indicate that the currently available SN and GRB samples are accommodated equally well by both ΛCDM and conformal gravity and do not exclude a continuous accelerated expansion. We conclude that GRBs are currently far from being effective cosmological probes, as they are unable to distinguish between these two very different expansion histories

  19. The governance of clean energy in India: The clean development mechanism (CDM) and domestic energy politics

    Phillips, Jon; Newell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which clean energy is being governed in India. It does so in order to improve our understanding of the potential and limitations of carbon finance in supporting lower carbon energy transitions, and to strengthen our appreciation of the role of politics in enabling or frustrating such endeavors. In particular we emphasize the importance of politics and the nature of India's political economy in understanding the development of energy sources and technologies defined as ‘clean’ both by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and leading international actors. By considering the broad range of institutions that exert formal and informal political influence over how the benefits and costs of the CDM are distributed, the paper highlights shortcomings in the narrow way in which CDM governance has been conceptualized to date. This approach goes beyond analysis of technocratic aspects of governance – often reduced to a set of institutional design issues – in order to appreciate the political nature of the trade-offs that characterize debates about India's energy future and the relations of power which will determine how, and on whose terms, they are resolved. - Highlights: • Clean energy governance in practice is shaped by political power and influence. • Governance of clean energy requires strong institutions from local to global levels. • Un-governed areas of energy policy are often as revealing of the exercise of power as areas where there explicit policy is in place. • Climate and carbon finance interventions need to better understand the landscape of political power which characterises India’s energy sector

  20. Tradeable carbon permits

    Koutstaal, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The research project on tradeable carbon permits has focused on three elements. First of all, the practical implications of designing a system of tradeable emission permits for reducing CO2 has been studied. In the second part, the consequences of introducing a system of tradeable carbon permits for entry barriers have been considered. Finally, the institutional requirements and welfare effects of coordination of CO2 abatement in a second-best world have been examined

  1. Wind power projects in the CDM: Methodologies and tools for baselines, carbon financing and sustainability analysis

    Ringius, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H.; Olivier, A.L.; Painuly, J.; Villavicencio, A.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended to be a guidance document for project developers, investors, lenders, and CDM host countries involved in wind power projects in the CDM. The report explores in particular those issues that are important in CDM project assessment and development - that is, baseline development, carbon financing, and environmental sustainability. It does not deal in detail with those issues that are routinely covered in a standard wind power project assessment. The report tests, compares, and recommends methodologies for and approaches to baseline development. To present the application and implications of the various methodologies and approaches in a concrete context, Africa's largest wind farm-namely the 60 MW wind farm located in Zafarana, Egypt- is examined as a hypothetical CDM wind power project The report shows that for the present case example there is a difference of about 25% between the lowest (0.5496 tCO2/MWh) and the highest emission rate (0.6868 tCO 2 /MWh) estimated in accordance with these three standardized approaches to baseline development according to the Marrakesh Accord. This difference in emission factors comes about partly as a result of including hydroelectric power in the baseline scenario. Hydroelectric resources constitute around 21% of the generation capacity in Egypt, and, if excluding hydropower, the difference between the lowest and the highest baseline is reduced to 18%. Furthermore, since the two variations of the 'historical' baseline option examined result in the highest and the lowest baselines, by disregarding this baseline option altogether the difference between the lowest and the highest is reduced to 16%. The ES3-model, which the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory has developed, makes it possible for this report to explore the project-specific approach to baseline development in some detail. Based on quite disaggregated data on the Egyptian electricity system, including the wind power production

  2. f(R,T,RμνTμν) gravity phenomenology and ΛCDM universe

    Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We propose general f(R,T,R μν T μν ) theory as generalization of covariant Hořava-like gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. FRLW cosmological dynamics for several versions of such theory is considered. The reconstruction of the above action is explicitly done, including the numerical reconstruction for the occurrence of ΛCDM universe. De Sitter universe solutions in the presence of non-constant fluid are also presented. The problem of matter instability in f(R,T,R μν T μν ) gravity is discussed

  3. Separating expansion from contraction: generalized TOV condition, LTB models with pressure and $\\Lambda$CDM

    Delliou, Morgan Le; Mimoso, José Pedro

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the existence of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions in spherically symmetric solutions with pressure. We obtain gauge invariant conditions relating not only the intrinsic spatial curvature of the shells to the ADM mass, but also a function of the pressure which we introduce that generalises the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition, in the framework of a 3+1 spacetime splitting. We consider the particular case of a Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dust models with a cosmological constant (a $\\Lambda$-CDM model) as an example of our results.

  4. Technology and knowledge transfer from Annex 1 countries to non Annex 2 countries under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An empirical case study of CDM projects implemented in Malaysia

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2008-10-15

    The CDM constitutes a central element in political discussions on climate change concerning means to facilitate transfer of technology and knowledge, regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies, from Annex 1 countries to Non Annex 1 countries. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to answer the question of what role the CDM plays in relation to transfer of technology and knowledge. The thesis relies on multiple sources of qualitative data and is conducted as a multiple case study of thirteen CDM projects implemented in Malaysia. It focuses on the companies involved in implementation of specific technologies in these projects and the channels that can facilitate the transfer process. The aim of the thesis is therefore to provide insights into the dynamics of technology transfer at the micro-level. An analytical framework is put forward on which it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the thirteen projects examined. The thesis may contribute to provide a background on which future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM, and/or other mechanisms that involve GHG mitigation activities in Non Annex 1 countries. (au)

  5. Rethinking the Role of Development Banks in Climate Finance: Panama’s Barro Blanco CDM Project and Human Rights

    Beatriz Felipe Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Development banks are key actors in climate finance. During the last decades, they have increased the funding of climate change related projects, especially those under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the CDM aims at contributing to climate change mitigation while assisting in achieving sustainable development. However, many CDM projects have caused environmental damage and human rights abuses that especially affect the most vulnerable people. Located in Panama, the Barro Blanco hydro-power dam exemplifies the complex interrelationship of climate financing, development policies, the political and economic national context and human rights. Through the analysis of the role of development banks in climate finance, especially in the context of CDM projects, this paper aims (1 to clarify the role of development banks in climate finance, (2 to shed light on the vulnerable situation of the people affected by these projects, (3 to highlight the gaps in both the CDM rules and the development banks’ safeguard policies concerning the protection of human rights and the prevention of environmental abuses, and (4 to give a current example of this complex situation through the Barro Blanco case study. This paper argues that the manifold and often competing national and international legal and political layers of climate change mitigation projects repeatedly leave project affected people vulnerable to human rights violations without adequate safeguards and mechanisms to effectively articulate their interests, protect their rights and promote access to justice.

  6. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  7. Topology in two dimensions. IV - CDM models with non-Gaussian initial conditions

    Coles, Peter; Moscardini, Lauro; Plionis, Manolis; Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Messina, Antonio

    1993-02-01

    The results of N-body simulations with both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions are used here to generate projected galaxy catalogs with the same selection criteria as the Shane-Wirtanen counts of galaxies. The Euler-Poincare characteristic is used to compare the statistical nature of the projected galaxy clustering in these simulated data sets with that of the observed galaxy catalog. All the models produce a topology dominated by a meatball shift when normalized to the known small-scale clustering properties of galaxies. Models characterized by a positive skewness of the distribution of primordial density perturbations are inconsistent with the Lick data, suggesting problems in reconciling models based on cosmic textures with observations. Gaussian CDM models fit the distribution of cell counts only if they have a rather high normalization but possess too low a coherence length compared with the Lick counts. This suggests that a CDM model with extra large scale power would probably fit the available data.

  8. Team-based organization for Collider Dipole Magnet (CDM) development and production

    Packer, M.D.; Page, L.R.; Winters, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The most influential factor in developing a magnet design and the manufacturing processing capable of mass producing Collider Dipole Magnets (CDMs) for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the work system or organization design. It is essential that design of the organization balances the demanding quality, schedule and cost aspects of the SSC program with the extraordinary technological challenges of the CDMs. The organization approach taken by the General Dynamics team is based on high employee involvement. This approach entails more widely distributed access to information, coordination and control of work, decision-making and rewards for overall performance. Implementation of this approach will apply team-based organizational concepts and proven methodologies such as concurrent engineering, work teams, skill-based pay and gainsharing. This paper focuses on the structural facets of the General Dynamics organization design to accomplish the CDM Program. Why this management approach is being taken, how it was developed and tuned for the CDM Program and how it will be incorporated in personnel staffing is described in this paper along with general operational characteristics. The issues of pay and gainsharing, while recognized as vital constituents of the overall design and effectiveness, are not discussed in this paper

  9. La abundancia de galaxias y halos de materia oscura en el universo CDM

    Abadi, M. G.; Benítez-Llambay, A.; Ferrero, I.

    A long-standing puzzle of CDM cosmological model concerns to the different shape of the galaxy stellar mass function and the halo mass function on dwarf galaxy scales. Dwarf galaxies are much less numerous than halos massive enough to host them; suggesting a complex non-linear relation between the mass of a galaxy and the mass of its surrounding halo. Usually; this is reconciled by appealing to baryonic processes that can reduce the efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass halos. Recent work applying the abundance matching technique require that virtually no dwarf galaxies form in halos with virial mass below . We use rotation curves of dwarf galaxies compiled from the literature to explore whether their total enclosed mass is consistent with these constraints. Almost one-half of the dwarfs in our sample are at odds with this restriction; they are in halos with masses substantially below . Using a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of galaxies we found that ram-pressure stripping against the cosmic web removes baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. This mechanism may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Λ(t)CDM model as a unified origin of holographic and agegraphic dark energy models

    Chen Yun; Zhu Zonghong; Xu Lixin; Alcaniz, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that any nonzero Λ can introduce a length scale or a time scale into Einstein's theory, r Λ =ct Λ =√(3/|Λ|). Conversely, any cosmological length scale or time scale can introduce a Λ(t), Λ(t)=3/r Λ 2 (t)=3/(c 2 t Λ 2 (t)). In this Letter, we investigate the time varying Λ(t) corresponding to the length scales, including the Hubble horizon, the particle horizon and the future event horizon, and the time scales, including the age of the universe and the conformal time. It is found out that, in this scenario, the Λ(t)CDM model can be taken as the unified origin of the holographic and agegraphic dark energy models with interaction between the matter and the dark energy, where the interacting term is determined by Q=-ρ . Λ . We place observational constraints on the Λ(t)CDM models originating from different cosmological length scales and time scales with the recently compiled 'Union2 compilation' which consists of 557 Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) covering a redshift range 0.015≤z≤1.4. In conclusion, an accelerating expansion universe can be derived in the cases taking the Hubble horizon, the future event horizon, the age of the universe and the conformal time as the length scale or the time scale.

  11. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  12. Confronting dark energy models mimicking ΛCDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to ΛCDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from ΛCDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as ΛCDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  13. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  14. BCDC Minor Permits

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  15. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Current asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  16. Floodplain District Permit

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  17. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  18. Disruptive Technologies in Workmanship: pH-neutral Flux, CDM ESD Events, HDI PCBs

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes what it calls "disruptive technologies", i.e., "Low-end disruption" occurs when the rate at which products improve exceeds the rate at which customers can adopt the new performance. Therefore, at some point the performance of the product overshoots the needs of certain customer segments. At this point, a disruptive technology may enter the market and provide a product which has lower performance than the incumbent but which exceeds the requirements of certain segments, thereby gaining a foothold in the market. This concept is viewed in impacting incumbent technologies Rosin Flux, with a pH-neutral water soluble Flux; electrostatic discharge models being disrupted by the charge device model (CDM) concept; and High Density Interconnect Printed Circuit Boards (HDI PCB).

  19. Non-Gaussian initial conditions in ΛCDM: Newtonian, relativistic, and primordial contributions

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ΛCDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f NL

  20. Testing ΛCDM at the lowest redshifts with SN Ia and galaxy velocities

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scolnic, Daniel M. [University of Chicago, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dshafer2@jhu.edu, E-mail: dscolnic@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Peculiar velocities of objects in the nearby universe are correlated due to the gravitational pull of large-scale structure. By measuring these velocities, we have a unique opportunity to test the cosmological model at the lowest redshifts. We perform this test, using current data to constrain the amplitude of the ''signal'' covariance matrix describing the velocities and their correlations. We consider a new, well-calibrated ''Supercal'' set of low-redshift SNe Ia as well as a set of distances derived from the fundamental plane relation of 6dFGS galaxies. Analyzing the SN and galaxy data separately, both results are consistent with the peculiar velocity signal of our fiducial ΛCDM model, ruling out the noise-only model with zero peculiar velocities at greater than 7σ (SNe) and 8σ (galaxies). When the two data sets are combined appropriately, the precision of the test increases slightly, resulting in a constraint on the signal amplitude of A = 1.05{sub −0.21}{sup +0.25}, where A = 1 corresponds to our fiducial model. Equivalently, we report an 11% measurement of the product of the growth rate and amplitude of mass fluctuations evaluated at z {sub eff} = 0.02, f σ{sub 8} = 0.428{sub −0.045}{sup +0.048}, valid for our fiducial ΛCDM model. We explore the robustness of the results to a number of conceivable variations in the analysis and find that individual variations shift the preferred signal amplitude by less than ∼0.5σ. We briefly discuss our Supercal SN Ia results in comparison with our previous results using the JLA compilation.

  1. Is LambdaCDM consistent with the Tully-Fisher relation?

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Gunn, J. E.; Mandelbaum, R.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the question of the origin of the Tully-Fisher relation in LambdaCDM cosmology. Reproducing the observed tight relation between stellar masses and rotation velocities of disk galaxies presents a challenge for semi-analytical models and hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. Here, our goal is to construct a suite of galaxy mass models that is fully consistent with observations, and that also reproduces the observed Tully-Fisher relation. We take advantage of a well-defined sample of disk galaxies in SDSS with measured rotation velocities (from long-slit spectroscopy of H-alpha), stellar bulge and disk profiles (from fits to SDSS images), and average dark matter halo masses (from stacked weak lensing of a larger, similarly-selected sample). The primary remaining freedom in the mass models come from the final dark matter halo profile (after contraction from baryon infall and, possibly, feedback) and the stellar IMF. We find that the observed velocities are reproduced by models with Kroupa IMF and NFW (i.e., unmodified) dark matter haloes for galaxies with stellar masses 10^9-10^10 M_sun. For higher stellar masses, models with contracted NFW haloes are favored. A scenario in which the amount of halo contraction varies with stellar mass is able to reproduce the observed Tully-Fisher relation over the full stellar mass range of our sample from 10^9 to 10^11 M_sun. We present this as a proof-of-concept for consistency between LambdaCDM and the Tully-Fisher relation.

  2. Linear perturbation theory for tidal streams and the small-scale CDM power spectrum

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.

    2017-04-01

    Tidal streams in the Milky Way are sensitive probes of the population of low-mass dark matter subhaloes predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a new calculus for computing the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. The heart of this calculus is a line-of-parallel-angle approach that calculates the perturbed distribution function of a stream segment by undoing the effect of all relevant impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 105 M⊙, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. We study the statistical properties of density and track fluctuations with large suites of simulations of the effect of subhalo fly-bys. The one-dimensional density and track power spectra along the stream trace the subhalo mass function, with higher mass subhaloes producing power only on large scales, while lower mass subhaloes cause structure on smaller scales. We also find significant density and track bispectra that are observationally accessible. We further demonstrate that different projections of the track all reflect the same pattern of perturbations, facilitating their observational measurement. We apply this formalism to data for the Pal 5 stream and make a first rigorous determination of 10^{+11}_{-6} dark matter subhaloes with masses between 106.5 and 109 M⊙ within 20 kpc from the Galactic centre [corresponding to 1.4^{+1.6}_{-0.9} times the number predicted by CDM-only simulations or to fsub(r matter is clumpy on the smallest scales relevant for galaxy formation.

  3. Study on the influence of package parasitics and substrate resistance on the Charged Device Model(CDM) failure levels - possible protection methodology

    Sowariraj, M.S.B.; Smedes, Theo; Salm, Cora; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    Charged Device Model (CDM) type of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) stress events are becoming the major reason for field returns in the Integrated Circuit (IC) industry especially with downscaling of device dimensions and increased usage of automated handlers. In the case of CDM stress, the IC is both

  4. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  5. Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory contains measured and estimated nationwide statistical data, consisting of counts of permitted sources, types of permits...

  6. Permit application modifications

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  7. Permit application modifications

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  8. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  9. Testing ΛCDM cosmology at turnaround: where to look for violations of the bound?

    Tanoglidis, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N.

    2015-01-01

    In ΛCDM cosmology, structure formation is halted shortly after dark energy dominates the mass/energy budget of the Universe. A manifestation of this effect is that in such a cosmology the turnaround radius—the non-expanding mass shell furthest away from the center of a structure— has an upper bound. Recently, a new, local, test for the existence of dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant was proposed based on this turnaround bound. Before designing an experiment that, through high-precision determination of masses and —independently— turnaround radii, will challenge ΛCDM cosmology, we have to answer two important questions: first, when turnaround-scale structures are predicted to be close enough to their maximum size, so that a possible violation of the bound may be observable. Second, which is the best mass scale to target for possible violations of the bound. These are the questions we address in the present work. Using the Press-Schechter formalism, we find that turnaround structures have in practice already stopped forming, and consequently, the turnaround radius of structures must be very close to the maximum value today. We also find that the mass scale of ∼ 10 13  M ⊙ characterizes the turnaround structures that start to form in a statistically important number density today —and even at an infinite time in the future, since structure formation has almost stopped. This mass scale also separates turnaround structures with qualitatively different cosmological evolution: smaller structures are no longer readjusting their mass distribution inside the turnaround scale, they asymptotically approach their ultimate abundance from higher values, and they are common enough to have, at some epoch, experienced major mergers with structures of comparable mass; larger structures exhibit the opposite behavior. We call this mass scale the transitional mass scale and we argue that it is the optimal for the purpose outlined above. As a corollary

  10. The promotion of sustainable development in China through the optimization of a tax/subsidy plan among HFC and power generation CDM projects

    Resnier, Martin; Wang, Can; Du, Pengfei; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is expected to reach record growth by 2020 in the energy sector by at least doubling its electricity generation capacity. In order to protect the environment and foster economic development, China will greatly benefit from transfers of state-of-the-art power generation technologies through international agreements such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). However, a buyer-driven carbon market and a highly competitive environment due to more cost-effective projects attribute to China's need to achieve a balance between sustainability and profitability for CDM projects implemented in China. In the CDM Tax/Subsidy Optimization Model (CDMTSO Model) here developed, a sustainable development assessment method evaluates the CDM projects' economic and environmental benefits and an optimization program returns tax/subsidy rates at which the greatest number of CDM technologies becomes viable and where 'better' CDM projects can be the most profitable, bringing China's development on a more sustainable path. The results show that the CDMTSO Model brings the sustainable CDM projects' Internal Rate of Return closed to 10%. If a discount rate of 9% is considered, it allows three clean energy technologies (natural gas combined cycle, wind energy, and hydropower) to become economically viable and the environmental costs avoided are increased by 37%

  11. On a Search for Hidden Photon CDM by a Multicathode Counter

    Petukhov, V. V.; Kopylov, A. V.; Orekhov, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new technique of a multicathode counter (MCC) developed to search for hidden photon (HP) cold dark matter (CDM) with a mass from 5 to 500 eV. The method is suggested in the assumption that HP-photon mixing causes emission of single electrons from a metal cathode if the mass of hidden photon m_γ_"′ is greater than a work function of the metal φ_W. The measured effect from HP should be dependent on φ_W and on the structure of electronic shells of the metal used as a cathode. Potentially this can be used for a verification of the results obtained. Some preliminary results for the upper limit for mixing parameter χ have been obtained for HP with a mass from 5 eV to 10 keV as a pure illustration of the potential of this technique. The efforts are continued to refine the procedure of data treatment and to improve the work of MCC. A new detector with a more developed design is under construction.

  12. Is the continuous matter creation cosmology an alternative to ΛCDM?

    Fabris, J.C.; Pacheco, J.A. de Freitas; Piattella, O.F.

    2014-01-01

    The matter creation cosmology is revisited, including the evolution of baryons and dark matter particles. The creation process affects only dark matter and not baryons. The dynamics of the ΛCDM model can be reproduced only if two conditions are satisfied: 1) the entropy density production rate and the particle density variation rate are equal and 2) the (negative) pressure associated to the creation process is constant. However, the matter creation model predicts a present dark matter-to-baryon ratio much larger than that observed in massive X-ray clusters of galaxies, representing a potential difficulty for the model. In the linear regime, a fully relativistic treatment indicates that baryons are not affected by the creation process but this is not the case for dark matter. Both components evolve together at early phases but lately the dark matter density contrast decreases since the background tends to a constant value. This behaviour produces a negative growth factor, in disagreement with observations, being a further problem for this cosmology

  13. Around the Way: Testing ΛCDM with Milky Way Stellar Stream Constraints

    Dai, Biwei; Robertson, Brant E.; Madau, Piero

    2018-05-01

    Recent analyses of the Pal 5 and GD-1 tidal streams suggest that the inner dark matter halo of the Milky Way is close to spherical, in tension with predictions from collisionless N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation. We use the Eris simulation to test whether the combination of dissipative physics and hierarchical structure formation can produce Milky Way–like galaxies whose dark matter halos match the tidal stream constraints from the GD-1 and Pal 5 clusters. We use a dynamical model of the simulated Eris galaxy to generate many realizations of the GD-1 and Pal 5 tidal streams, marginalize over observational uncertainties in the cluster galactocentric positions and velocities, and compare with the observational constraints. We find that the total density and potential of Eris contributed by baryons and dark matter satisfies constraints from the existing Milky Way stellar stream data, as the baryons both round and redistribute the dark matter during the dissipative formation of the galaxy, and provide a centrally concentrated mass distribution that rounds the inner potential. The Eris dark matter halo or a spherical Navarro–Frenk–White dark matter work comparably well in modeling the stream data. In contrast, the equivalent dark matter–only ErisDark simulation produces a prolate halo that cannot reproduce the observed stream data. The ongoing Gaia mission will provide decisive tests of the consistency between {{Λ }}{CDM} and Milky Way streams, and should distinguish between models like Eris and more spherical halos.

  14. CDM Potential in Palm Solid Waste Cogeneration as an Alternative Energy in Aceh Province

    Mahidin Mahidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as a solid waste in Crude Palm Oil (CPO industry does not utilized yet as an alternative energy source to generate electricity. It is well known that use of solid wate (biomass as an energy source is part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM scheme due to direct reduction of Green House Gases (GHGs emission and provide a direct contribution to sustainable development. Utilization of EFB as a source of energy is very potential to be implemented in Aceh since this province has 25 CPO Mills at the moment which actively produce about 870,000 ton EFB per year. This study is subjected to evaluate the potency of electricity  from EFB theoretically by using primary data (survey data and secondary data. Potency of EFB and number of electricity produced from that EFB are estimated using primary data and direct combustion scenario, respectively. Calculation methods for emission reduction acieved are done by AMS-I.D: Renewable electricity generation to the grid and AMS-III.E: Methane emissions avoided from dumping at a solid waste disposal site. The result of this investigation shows that energy consumption in 25 CPO Mills is 45 GW(eh per year. Evidently, the number of energy/electricity which is potential to be produced by using 75% EFB is 1,047 GWh per year; so that the GHGs emission reduction up to 171,232.21 tCO2e per year.

  15. Waste management CDM projects barriers NVivo 10® qualitative dataset

    André Luiz Bufoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains one NVivo 10® file with the complete 432 projects design documents (PDD of seven waste management sector industries registered as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol Initiative from 2004 to 2014. All data analyses and sample statistics made during the research remain in the file. We coded PDDs in 890 fragments of text, classified in five categories of barriers (nodes: technological, financial, human resources, regulatory, socio-political. The data supports the findings of author thesis [1] and other two indexed publication in Waste Management Journal: “The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism” and “The declared barriers of the large developing countries waste management projects: The STAR model” [2,3]. The data allows any computer assisted qualitative content analysis (CAQCA on the sector and it is available at Mendeley [4

  16. CDM pilot project to stimulate market for family-hydro for low-income households

    2004-01-01

    Over 100,000 low-income households living in rural, rice-farming regions of Vietnam and China rely upon family-hydro (between 100 and 200W) as the only affordable means of obtaining electricity. These systems are used for domestic lighting, radio and, in some cases, televisions. The units are small, cheap and are usually installed and owned by a single family. Funding from the CDM could be utilised in order to reduce the cost of good quality equipment to provide low-income households living in isolated off-grid locations with an affordable and sustainable electricity supply which can meet their needs for lighting, educational, productive and recreational uses. Therefore research was needed to determine the level of carbon emission reductions resulting from their use. The successful acceptance by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) of the methodology of establishing the benchmark developed during this project could then be used as a precedent by other project developers in the future, thus being of long-term support to the emerging family-hydro industry. (author)

  17. Permitting issues in Virginia

    Kennel, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    As background, LG and E Development Corporation (formerly Hadson) has successfully put 16 Qualifying Facilities in the ground over the past 9 years in California, Maine, Virginia, and North Carolina. Each of these qualifying facilities has had some environmental innovative first, so there is no apology for the authors' environmental credentials. In Virginia, there are four identical 60 MW stoker coal cogeneration projects in Southampton County, Altavista, Hopewell, and -lastly-Buena Vista. The Buena Vista cogeneration project becomes the exception that proves the permitting rules. It has been in the permitting process for over 4 years; and despite being the cleanest coal project ever considered east of the Mississippi (design at 0.1 lbs/MMBtu for both So 2 and NO x ), it has suffered serous consequences from permitting delays and BACT ratcheting. As a simple comparison of importance, the Virginia Power Mt. Storm coal power facility emits approximately 150,000 tons of So 2 per year, while the Buena Vista project will actually emit approximately 150 tons of SO 2 per year (not including 1,500' tons of purchased SO 2 offsets). Both are similar distances from the Shenandoah National Park which has been the primary environmental point of concern in Virginia

  18. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on Activities Implemented Jointly in China and promotion of transfer to CDM; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo oyobi CDM eno iko suishin chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    It is purposed to promote the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) intended of reducing carbon dioxide emission amount in China. Investigations have been performed on China's environment and energy problems, CDM assignments and transfer means, and project candidates. China emits a great amount of CO2 due to coal combustion, and the CO2 emission is anticipated to increase from the coal burning thermal power generation that may continue into the future. Countermeasures for the thermal power department as the object are required. Since 1997, China has been performing the AIJ project with Norway, Japan, and America, wherein such projects have been implemented with Japan as the dry coke fire extinguishing facility model project, the energy saving model project using alloy iron electric furnaces, and the model project to utilize effectively the refuse combustion waste heat. China is one of the countries in which the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing project can be performed at a minimum cost, who will be the important party in the CDM performed by the developed countries to achieve their obligation to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission. (NEDO)

  19. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  20. CDM (Clean development mechanism) like instrument for sustainable development?; MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) como instrumento para o desenvolvimento sustentavel?

    Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar Silva; Varella, Fabiana Karla de Oliveira; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduaco em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: kamyla@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The intensification of the greenhouse effect, caused mainly by the anthropogenic activities, such as the intensive use of fossil fuels, reveals itself as a challenge to governments and international organizations. The institution of an international legal framework, resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is allowing the development of some mitigation instruments, such as the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article's purpose is to assess the social and economic aspects that are leading to the climate change process and to analyze the instruments foreseen in the international legal system to face this global concern, in special, the CDM as a tool to achieve sustainable development practices. In this way, the authors aims to demonstrate the connection and interdependence between those instruments and the sustainable development. (author)

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE Rh=ct UNIVERSE

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R h = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R h = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R h = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R h = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R h = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely

  2. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  3. Country-to-country transfer of patients and the risk of multi-resistant bacterial infection.

    Rogers, Benjamin A; Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Paterson, David L

    2011-07-01

    Management of patients with a history of healthcare contact in multiple countries is now a reality for many clinicians. Leisure tourism, the burgeoning industry of medical tourism, military conflict, natural disasters, and changing patterns of human migration may all contribute to this emerging epidemiological trend. Such individuals may be both vectors and victims of healthcare-associated infection with multiresistant bacteria. Current literature describes intercountry transfer of multiresistant Acinetobacter spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae (including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase- and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and hypervirulent Clostridium difficile. Introduction of such organisms to new locations has led to their dissemination within hospitals. Healthcare institutions should have sound infection prevention strategies to mitigate the risk of dissemination of multiresistant organisms from patients who have been admitted to hospitals in other countries. Clinicians may also need to individualize empiric prescribing patterns to reflect the risk of multiresistant organisms in these patients. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  5. Pacific Islands Region Fishing Permits

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sustainable Fisheries Division Permits Program issues around 300 permits annually for pelagic longline and troll & handline, bottomfish, crustacean (lobster...

  6. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  7. Assessment of GHG mitigation and CDM technology in urban transport sector of Chandigarh, India.

    Bhargava, Nitin; Gurjar, Bhola Ram; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2018-01-01

    The increase in number of vehicles in metropolitan cities has resulted in increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban environment. In this study, emission load of GHGs (CO, N 2 O, CO 2 ) from Chandigarh road transport sector has been estimated using Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory (VAPI) model, which uses emission factors prevalent in Indian cities. Contribution of 2-wheelers (2-w), 3-wheelers (3-w), cars, buses, and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) to CO, N 2 O, CO 2 , and total GHG emissions was calculated. Potential for GHG mitigation through clean development mechanism (CDM) in transport sector of Chandigarh under two scenarios, i.e., business as usual (BAU) and best estimate scenario (BES) using VAPI model, has been explored. A major contribution of GHG load (~ 50%) in Chandigarh was from four-wheelers until 2011; however, it shows a declining trend after 2011 until 2020. The estimated GHG emission from motor vehicles in Chandigarh has increased more than two times from 1065 Gg in 2005 to 2486 Gg by 2011 and is expected to increase to 4014 Gg by 2020 under BAU scenario. Under BES scenario, 30% of private transport has been transformed to public transport; GHG load was possibly reduced by 520 Gg. An increase of 173 Gg in GHGs load is projected from additional scenario (ADS) in Chandigarh city if all the diesel buses are transformed to CNG buses by 2020. Current study also offers potential for other cities to plan better GHG reduction strategies in transport sector to reduce their climate change impacts.

  8. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  9. Angular momentum-large-scale structure alignments in ΛCDM models and the SDSS

    Paz, Dante J.; Stasyszyn, Federico; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2008-09-01

    We study the alignments between the angular momentum of individual objects and the large-scale structure in cosmological numerical simulations and real data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6 (SDSS-DR6). To this end, we measure anisotropies in the two point cross-correlation function around simulated haloes and observed galaxies, studying separately the one- and two-halo regimes. The alignment of the angular momentum of dark-matter haloes in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations is found to be dependent on scale and halo mass. At large distances (two-halo regime), the spins of high-mass haloes are preferentially oriented in the direction perpendicular to the distribution of matter; lower mass systems show a weaker trend that may even reverse to show an angular momentum in the plane of the matter distribution. In the one-halo term regime, the angular momentum is aligned in the direction perpendicular to the matter distribution; the effect is stronger than for the one-halo term and increases for higher mass systems. On the observational side, we focus our study on galaxies in the SDSS-DR6 with elongated apparent shapes, and study alignments with respect to the major semi-axis. We study five samples of edge-on galaxies; the full SDSS-DR6 edge-on sample, bright galaxies, faint galaxies, red galaxies and blue galaxies (the latter two consisting mainly of ellipticals and spirals, respectively). Using the two-halo term of the projected correlation function, we find an excess of structure in the direction of the major semi-axis for all samples; the red sample shows the highest alignment (2.7 +/- 0.8per cent) and indicates that the angular momentum of flattened spheroidals tends to be perpendicular to the large-scale structure. These results are in qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation results indicating that the angular momentum of galaxies could be built up as in the Tidal Torque scenario. The one-halo term only shows a significant alignment

  10. Does the Gold Standard label hold its promise in delivering higher Sustainable Development benefits? A multi-criteria comparison of CDM projects

    Drupp, Moritz A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has a twin objective: to help developed countries reduce GHG emissions, and to support developing countries in achieving Sustainable Development (SD). As a response to the widespread criticism of the CDM's unsatisfactory SD record, initiatives have developed premium labels like the Gold Standard, which applies two additional 'screens' to filter CDM projects for higher SD benefits. In order to determine whether Gold Standard projects can be associated with higher local SD benefits, this paper evaluates the potential benefits of 48 CDM projects using a multi-criteria method and building on existing work. The 18 evaluated Gold Standard projects are compared to a 'representative portfolio' of 30 unlabeled CDM projects in order to capture the 'full' effect of the additional Gold Standard requirements, which is further decomposed into the two 'screen' effects. The results suggest that Gold Standard Certified Emission Reductions can be associated with higher potential local SD benefits when compared to the 'representative portfolio' of unlabeled CDM projects, while the comparison of projects of the same type remains inconclusive. The results support previous findings showing that renewable energy projects may deliver comparatively high SD benefits. - Research highlights: → This study evaluates and compares the potential contribution of unlabeled- and Gold Standard labeled CDM projects to Sustainable Development (SD), extending the previously assessed projects as well as the methodological approach. → Gold Standard labeled Certified Emission Reductions (CER) can be associated with higher potential SD benefits compared to unlabeled projects. → A decomposition analysis shows that the Gold Standard s SD surplus must be primarily attributed to the favorable contribution of renewable energy projects to SD. → Policy makers might thus shift incentives towards renewable energy projects and buyers of CERs may shift their offset

  11. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  12. THE VELOCITY FUNCTION IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT FROM ΛCDM AND ΛWDM CONSTRAINED SIMULATIONS

    Zavala, J.; Jing, Y. P.; Faltenbacher, A.; Yepes, G.; Hoffman, Y.; Gottloeber, S.; Catinella, B.

    2009-01-01

    Using constrained simulations of the local universe for generic cold dark matter (CDM) and for 1 keV warm dark matter (WDM), we investigate the difference in the abundance of dark matter halos in the local environment. We find that the mass function (MF) within 20 h -1 Mpc of the Local Group is ∼2 times larger than the universal MF in the 10 9 -10 13 h -1 M sun mass range. Imposing the field of view of the ongoing H I blind survey Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) in our simulations, we predict that the velocity function (VF) in the Virgo-direction region (VdR) exceeds the universal VF by a factor of 3. Furthermore, employing a scheme to translate the halo VF into a galaxy VF, we compare the simulation results with a sample of galaxies from the early catalog release of ALFALFA. We find that our simulations are able to reproduce the VF in the 80-300 km s -1 velocity range, having a value ∼10 times larger than the universal VF in the VdR. In the low-velocity regime, 35-80 km s -1 , the WDM simulation reproduces the observed flattening of the VF. In contrast, the simulation with CDM predicts a steep rise in the VF toward lower velocities; for V max = 35 km s -1 , it forecasts ∼10 times more sources than the ones observed. If confirmed by the complete ALFALFA survey, our results indicate a potential problem for the CDM paradigm or for the conventional assumptions about energetic feedback in dwarf galaxies.

  13. Sustainable Development Impacts of NAMAs: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the CDM

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    to assess the SD impacts of NAMAs. This paper argues for a new integrated approach to asses NAMAs' SD impacts that consists of SD indicators, procedures for stakeholder involvement and safeguards against negative impacts. The argument is based on a review of experience with the CDM’s contribution to SD...... and a comparison of similarities and differences between NAMAs and CDM. Five elements of a new approach towards assessment of NAMAs SD impacts are suggested based on emerging approaches and methodologies for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas reductions and SD impacts of NAMAs....

  14. On the emergence of the ΛCDM model from self-interacting Brans-Dicke theory in d = 5

    Reyes, Luz Marina [CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales, Guadalajara (Mexico); Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago Esteban [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    We investigate whether a self-interacting Brans-Dicke theory in d = 5 without matter and with a time-dependent metric can describe, after dimensional reduction to d = 4, the FLRW model with accelerated expansion and non-relativistic matter. By rewriting the effective 4-dimensional theory as an autonomous 3-dimensional dynamical system and studying its critical points, we show that the ΛCDM cosmology cannot emerge from such a model. This result suggests that a richer structure in d = 5 may be needed to obtain the accelerated expansion as well as the matter content of the 4-dimensional universe. (orig.)

  15. On the emergence of the ΛCDM model from self-interacting Brans-Dicke theory in d= 5

    Reyes, Luz Marina; Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago Esteban

    2018-01-01

    We investigate whether a self-interacting Brans-Dicke theory in d=5 without matter and with a time-dependent metric can describe, after dimensional reduction to d=4, the FLRW model with accelerated expansion and non-relativistic matter. By rewriting the effective 4-dimensional theory as an autonomous 3-dimensional dynamical system and studying its critical points, we show that the ΛCDM cosmology cannot emerge from such a model. This result suggests that a richer structure in d=5 may be needed to obtain the accelerated expansion as well as the matter content of the 4-dimensional universe.

  16. Tendances Carbone no. 75 'The CDM: let's not discard a tool that raised over US$ 200 billion'

    Shishlov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: Everyone wonders which miraculous instrument will enable the Green Climate Fund to mobilize the pledged US$100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020. Developing countries are now asking for interim targets to quench their mounting skepticism that this level of commitment can be reached. In the meantime paradoxically, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - a tool that managed to leverage over US$200 billion of mostly private investment for climate change mitigation - is left dying without much regret

  17. Cosmological model-independent test of ΛCDM with two-point diagnostic by the observational Hubble parameter data

    Cao, Shu-Lei; Duan, Xiao-Wei; Meng, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at exploring the nature of dark energy (DE), we use forty-three observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) in the redshift range 0 measurements. The binning methods turn out to be promising and considered to be robust. By applying the two-point diagnostic to the binned data, we find that although the best-fit values of Omh^2 fluctuate as the continuous redshift intervals change, on average, they are continuous with being constant within 1 σ confidence interval. Therefore, we conclude that the ΛCDM model cannot be ruled out.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  19. Local stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms – case study of a small scale hydropower project in China

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm; Filzmoser, Eva

    2014-01-01

    and China’s stakeholder participation policies in environment impact assessment at project level, the PDD of this project and similar projects were analyzed providing an overall impression of the stakeholder participations process and results in such projects. Afterwards, we focused on a single case, where...... that the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board should collect information on practices for local stakeholder consultation in collaboration with the Designated National Authorities (DNA) Forum and provide technical assistance for the development of guidelines for local stakeholder participation......, if a country requests assistance. Learning from a case study of how local stakeholder participation is practiced in CDM in a small scale hydropower project in China, this paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses of how the concept is applied in practice. To understand the execution of both CDM policies...

  20. Energy efficiency and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism): an attractive combination?; Eficiencia energetica e MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): uma combinacao atrativa?

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Silva, Pedro Paulo [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    The agreements that defined associated practices to the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) include energy efficiency in end users as a possible candidate to CDM eligibility. Worldwide, the experience of using 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions in end users, as consequence of increased energy efficiency in processes, is limited. The paper presents preliminary conclusions of case studies developed by GERBI, evaluating the emissions reduction potential achieved by energy efficiency improvements in industrial processes, as well as financial impacts due to emissions reduction certificates traded. The paper considers a simplified methodology for feasibility analysis, but with necessary information to demonstrate how CDM and Energy Efficiency combination can support the decision for project implementation. (author)

  1. 2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...

  2. Noncooperative models of permit markets

    Godal, Odd

    2011-07-15

    The applicability of some popular and basic permit market theories has been questioned. Drawing on noncooperative equilibrium theory for pure exchange economies, this article adapts several well-established alternative models to permit exchange. Some qualitative properties of the associated equilibria are provided, including two games with equilibria that in a sense coincide. Nevertheless, as there exist quite a few models potentially applicable to emissions trading, with equilibria that range from autarky to Pareto optimality, it seems that economics lacks a broadly accepted basic theory for permit markets. (Author)

  3. Carbon intensity of electricity generation and CDM baseline: case studies of three Chinese provinces

    Zhang Chi; Heller, T.C.; May, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    A difficult and persistent issue in the discussion of Clean Development Mechanism is estimating a carbon emissions baseline, against which tradable permits may be certified. This paper examines the proposition of adopting sectoral, as opposed to project level, baselines by conducting case studies of the electricity industry in three Chinese provinces. We find that complicated central planning, financial and institutional factors have been behind the declining trend of carbon intensity in electricity generation and its provincial variations. Government planned electricity development which incorporates many of these factors and the associated industry carbon intensity may serve as a second best baseline. However, the limitation of the baseline we examine in this study plus difficulties numerous studies have revealed in baseline setting suggests that using baselines based on counterfactuals of what would happen will in the end either miss good emission reduction opportunities, or compromise the integrity of the regime

  4. Permit trading and credit trading

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  5. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  6. The National Solar Permitting Database

    2014-08-31

    "The soft costs of solar — costs not associated with hardware — remain stubbornly high. Among the biggest soft costs are those associated with inefficiencies in local permitting and inspection. A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory estimates that these costs add an average of $0.22/W per residential installation. This project helps reduce non-hardware/balance of system (BOS) costs by creating and maintaining a free and available site of permitting requirements and solar system verification software that installers can use to reduce time, capital, and resource investments in tracking permitting requirements. Software tools to identify best permitting practices can enable government stakeholders to optimize their permitting process and remove superfluous costs and requirements. Like ""a Wikipedia for solar permitting"", users can add, edit, delete, and update information for a given jurisdiction. We incentivize this crowdsourcing approach by recognizing users for their contributions in the form of SEO benefits to their company or organization by linking back to users' websites."

  7. Jeans that fit: weighing the mass of the Milky Way analogues in the ΛCDM universe

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Driver, Simon P.

    2018-04-01

    The spherical Jeans equation is a widely used tool for dynamical study of gravitating systems in astronomy. Here, we test its efficacy in robustly weighing the mass of Milky Way analogues, given they need not be in equilibrium or even spherical. Utilizing Milky Way stellar haloes simulated in accordance with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology by Bullock and Johnston and analysing them under the Jeans formalism, we recover the underlying mass distribution of the parent galaxy, within distance r/kpc ∈ [10, 100], with a bias of ˜ 12 per cent and a dispersion of ˜ 14 per cent. Additionally, the mass profiles of triaxial dark matter haloes taken from the SURFS simulation, within scaled radius 0.2 < r/rmax < 3, are measured with a bias of ˜ - 2.4 per cent and a dispersion of ˜ 10 per cent. The obtained dispersion is not because of Poisson noise due to small particle numbers as it is twice the later. We interpret the dispersion to be due to the inherent nature of the ΛCDM haloes, for example being aspherical and out-of-equilibrium. Hence, the dispersion obtained for stellar haloes sets a limit of about 12 per cent (after adjusting for random uncertainty) on the accuracy with which the mass profiles of the Milky Way-like galaxies can be reconstructed using the spherical Jeans equation. This limit is independent of the quantity and quality of the observational data. The reason for a non-zero bias is not clear, hence its interpretation is not obvious at this stage.

  8. Using velocity dispersion to estimate halo mass: Is the Local Group in tension with ΛCDM?

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Power, Chris; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Poulton, Rhys; Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2018-06-01

    Satellite galaxies are commonly used as tracers to measure the line-of-sight (LOS)velocity dispersion (σLOS) of the dark matter halo associated with their central galaxy, and thereby to estimate the halo's mass. Recent observational dispersion estimates of the Local Group, including the Milky Way and M31, suggest σ ˜50 km s-1, which is surprisingly low when compared to the theoretical expectation of σ ˜100 km s-1 for systems of their mass. Does this pose a problem for Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM)? We explore this tension using the SURFS suite of N-body simulations, containing over 10000 (sub)haloes with well tracked orbits. We test how well a central galaxy's host halo velocity dispersion can be recovered by sampling σLOS of subhaloes and surrounding haloes. Our results demonstrate that σLOS is biased mass proxy. We define an optimal window in vLOS and projected distance (Dp) - 0.5 ≲ Dp/Rvir ≲ 1.0 and vLOS ≲ 0.5Vesc, where Rvir is the virial radius and Vesc is the escape velocity - such that the scatter in LOS to halo dispersion is minimized - σLOS = (0.5 ± 0.1)σv, H. We argue that this window should be used to measure LOS dispersions as a proxy for mass, as it minimises scatter in the σLOS-Mvir relation. This bias also naturally explains the results from McConnachie (2012), who used similar cuts when estimating σLOS, LG, producing a bias of σLG = (0.44 ± 0.14)σv, H. We conclude that the Local Group's velocity dispersion does not pose a problem for ΛCDM and has a mass of log M_{LG, vir}/M_{⊙}=12.0^{+0.8}_{-2.0}.

  9. 50 CFR 679.4 - Permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... this section, with the exception that an IFQ hired master permit or a CDQ hired master permit need not... program permit or card type is: Permit is in effect from issue date through the end of: For more... section (C) Halibut & sablefish hired master permits Specified fishing year Paragraph (d)(2) of this...

  10. Diagnosis of social and environmental evaluation of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) projects; Diagnostico da sustentabilidade socioambiental nas atividades de projetos candidatos ao MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Ziliotto, Marco Aurelio B.; Villa, Alessandra T.; Padilha, Simone L. Vieira; Canaverde, Patricia Margue [Instituto Ecoplan, PR (Brazil); Sanqueta, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contributes to sustainability and to sustainable development in those countries where CDM projects are developed and helps the countries from Annex I to achieve their reduction targets to Greenhouse Gases. This paper presents a proposal of a social and environmental sustainability diagnosis making use of a tool called Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix - MADSA{sup R}. Its purpose is to establish and measure appropriate sustainable indicators to evaluate projects to ensure development benefits of CDM projects in host countries in consistency with Annex I countries developmental goals. MADSA{sup R} methodology allows a definition of a social and environmental baseline to MDL projects, and provides information to any interested group of people, from stockholders to local community; showing its results. It allows a greater clients', stockholders' and investor's trust as it measures the development so it makes possible the diagnosis and the comparison between all phases of the project. It also contributes to a continuous improvement through the participation of benefit groups in the diagnosis. Besides being an evaluation method and a management tool, this proposal looks for being a reference as an indicator pattern that evaluates the sustainable social and environmental development of CDM projects. (author)

  11. New Arenas of Engagement at the Water Governance-Climate Finance Nexus? An Analysis of the Boom and Bust of Hydropower CDM Projects in Vietnam

    Smits, M.; Middleton, C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether new arenas of engagement for water governance have been created and utilised following the implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in large hydropower projects in Vietnam. Initial optimism for climate finance – in particular amongst Northern aid

  12. The ATLAS3D project - VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within ΛCDM

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed via λR. Within

  13. Conversion of National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) Database into Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership-Common Data Model (OMOP-CDM).

    You, Seng Chan; Lee, Seongwon; Cho, Soo-Yeon; Park, Hojun; Jung, Sungjae; Cho, Jaehyeong; Yoon, Dukyong; Park, Rae Woong

    2017-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary to generate medical evidence applicable to Asian people compared to those in Western countries. Observational Health Data Sciences a Informatics (OHDSI) is an international collaborative which aims to facilitate generating high-quality evidence via creating and applying open-source data analytic solutions to a large network of health databases across countries. We aimed to incorporate Korean nationwide cohort data into the OHDSI network by converting the national sample cohort into Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership-Common Data Model (OMOP-CDM). The data of 1.13 million subjects was converted to OMOP-CDM, resulting in average 99.1% conversion rate. The ACHILLES, open-source OMOP-CDM-based data profiling tool, was conducted on the converted database to visualize data-driven characterization and access the quality of data. The OMOP-CDM version of National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) can be a valuable tool for multiple aspects of medical research by incorporation into the OHDSI research network.

  14. The ATLAS(3D) project : VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within lambda CDM

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed

  15. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  16. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit ...

    2017-08-28

    The Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of Massachusetts was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (see 74 Fed. Reg. No. 233, pages 64074 - 64075).

  17. 50 CFR 660.25 - Permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... change and the reasons for the request. If the permit requested to be changed to the base permit is..., vessel owner, or permit owner for any reason. The sablefish at-sea processing exemption will expire upon... ownership. (G) For a request to change a permit's ownership that is necessitated by divorce, the individual...

  18. 10 CFR 50.23 - Construction permits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction permits. 50.23 Section 50.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Description of Licenses § 50.23 Construction permits. A construction permit for the construction of a... part 52 of this chapter, the construction permit and operating license are deemed to be combined in a...

  19. Assessing the potentials of agricultural residues for energy: What the CDM experience of India tells us about their availability

    Milhau, Antoine; Fallot, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The potential of agricultural residues has been assessed worldwide and at different scales. Interpreting results so as to determine the possible role of this biomass feedstock in energy supplies, requires a clearer understanding of the conditions in which residues can effectively be mobilized for energy production. The experience of India with hundreds of projects where agricultural residues are transformed to heat and power partially sold to the grid, is analyzed and checked against the residue potentials that have been assessed in this country. We find that, in the absence of technological improvements in biomass conversion, the apparent success of Indian bioenergy projects is not sustainable in the long run due to rapid exhaustion effects on residue availability, coupled with the increasing costs that would be difficult to compensate by higher electricity tariffs. We also identify there is a serious agricultural issue which needs to be addressed in regard to degraded soils; this could lead to the reallocation of all primary residues, as well as part of secondary residues to soil and livestock needs. Such perspectives are considered within three contrasted scenario storylines. - Highlights: • India generates 572.10 6 t crop residues, 15–25% are potentially available. • Registered CDM projects for electricity generation use 17% of this energy source. • Some residues will be exhausted before the implementation of planned projects. • Residue scarcity translates to new markets with rising prices. • Increased tariffs will be necessary to compensate biomass cost increase

  20. NPDES permits and water analyses

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by P. L. 92-500, including an explanation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and EPA's criteria for the analysis of pollutants are discussed. The need for a revision of current restrictive variance procedures is pointed out. References for the comparison of analytical methods for water pollutants under permits, including radioactive parameters, are tabulated. (U.S.)

  1. Reconciling Dwarf Galaxies with ΛCDM Cosmology: Simulating A Realistic Population of Satellites Around a Milky Way-Mass Galaxy

    Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    � 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group (LG) of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on Feedback in Realistic Environments (FI...

  2. Analysis of CDM Projects' Portfolio in West African Economic and Monetary Union - Regional Baseline Assessment in Energy Sector. Case Study: Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo

    Satoguina, Honorat

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses current energy projects in Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo. Based on the size of these projects, the study shows that currently, only small scale CDM projects can be developed in these countries in energy sectors. Moreover, baseline emissions factors are assessed for the different electricity grids. These baselines are very low in interconnected grids in cities, while they are relatively high for isolated and non-connected utilities in remote areas. Consequently, count...

  3. Viability of biofuel use in CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) projects; Viabilidade do uso do biodiesel para projetos de MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Fortes, Julio; Lima, Luciana Santana de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel, renewable energy source, has been adopted by several countries as a possible substitute for fossil fuels. Brazil, by its own, included oil and fat derived biofuel in its energetic matrix through National Politics for Biofuel Use and Production (NPBUP), issue in Law n. 11.097 of 01/13/2005. Many studies demonstrate the contribution of biofuel for Greenhouse Gases reduction, what turns projects using it into possible candidates for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), instrument described in Kyoto Protocol. With purpose of studying the Brazilian potentiality of the insertion of biofuel into CDM projects, this report approaches many aspects related to CDM, as well the terms for being accepted as so. Through bibliographic review were listed the possibilities and the restraints for including biofuel in carbon market resulted, principally, by the obligation of its use; what goes against the principle of voluntary, for seen in the Protocol. I concluded analyzing the advantages of biofuel comparatively to environmental issues, emphasizing the necessity of making viable its entrance into carbon credits market. (author)

  4. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada.

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-04

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  5. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM in Western Canada

    Denise Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators, and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists, working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  6. DISCOVERY OF A SUPERCLUSTER AT z ∼ 0.91 AND TESTING THE ΛCDM COSMOLOGICAL MODEL

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Seong-Kook; Hyun, Minhee; Kim, Dohyeong; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Kim, Yongjung; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair C. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Jeon, Yiseul; Jun, Hyunsung David; Karouzos, Marios; Kim, Duho [Astronomy Program, FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Park, Won-Kee, E-mail: kjw0704@gmail.com, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    The ΛCDM cosmological model successfully reproduces many aspects of the galaxy and structure formation of the universe. However, the growth of large-scale structures (LSSs) in the early universe is not well tested yet with observational data. Here, we have utilized wide and deep optical–near-infrared data in order to search for distant galaxy clusters and superclusters (0.8 < z < 1.2). From the spectroscopic observation with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the Magellan telescope, three massive clusters at z ∼ 0.91 are confirmed in the SSA22 field. Interestingly, all of them have similar redshifts within Δ z ∼ 0.01 with velocity dispersions ranging from 470 to 1300 km s{sup −1}. Moreover, as the maximum separation is ∼15 Mpc, they compose a supercluster at z ∼ 0.91, meaning that this is one of the most massive superclusters at this redshift to date. The galaxy density map implies that the confirmed clusters are embedded in a larger structure stretching over ∼100 Mpc. ΛCDM models predict about one supercluster like this in our surveyed volume, consistent with our finding so far. However, there are more supercluster candidates in this field, suggesting that additional studies are required to determine if the ΛCDM cosmological model can successfully reproduce the LSSs at high redshift.

  7. Towards Accurate Modelling of Galaxy Clustering on Small Scales: Testing the Standard ΛCDM + Halo Model

    Sinha, Manodeep; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Piscionere, Jennifer A.; Wibking, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Interpreting the small-scale clustering of galaxies with halo models can elucidate the connection between galaxies and dark matter halos. Unfortunately, the modelling is typically not sufficiently accurate for ruling out models statistically. It is thus difficult to use the information encoded in small scales to test cosmological models or probe subtle features of the galaxy-halo connection. In this paper, we attempt to push halo modelling into the "accurate" regime with a fully numerical mock-based methodology and careful treatment of statistical and systematic errors. With our forward-modelling approach, we can incorporate clustering statistics beyond the traditional two-point statistics. We use this modelling methodology to test the standard ΛCDM + halo model against the clustering of SDSS DR7 galaxies. Specifically, we use the projected correlation function, group multiplicity function and galaxy number density as constraints. We find that while the model fits each statistic separately, it struggles to fit them simultaneously. Adding group statistics leads to a more stringent test of the model and significantly tighter constraints on model parameters. We explore the impact of varying the adopted halo definition and cosmological model and find that changing the cosmology makes a significant difference. The most successful model we tried (Planck cosmology with Mvir halos) matches the clustering of low luminosity galaxies, but exhibits a 2.3σ tension with the clustering of luminous galaxies, thus providing evidence that the "standard" halo model needs to be extended. This work opens the door to adding interesting freedom to the halo model and including additional clustering statistics as constraints.

  8. GALAXY MERGERS AND DARK MATTER HALO MERGERS IN ΛCDM: MASS, REDSHIFT, AND MASS-RATIO DEPENDENCE

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a high-resolution ΛCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter (DM) halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies-such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction-likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We investigate both rate at which subhalos first enter the virial radius of a larger halo (the 'infall rate'), and the rate at which subhalos become destroyed, losing 90% of the mass they had at infall (the d estruction rate ) . For both merger rate definitions, we provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for DM halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous (destruction) merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass-ratio events into typical L ∼> f L * galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt ≅ 0.03(1 + f) Gyr -1 (1 + z) 2.1 . Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of >0.4 L * high-redshift galaxies (∼3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t 0.3) in the previous 700 Myr and conclude that mergers almost certainly play an important role in delivering baryons and influencing the kinematic properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs).

  9. THE COSMOLOGICAL BULK FLOW: CONSISTENCY WITH ΛCDM AND z ∼ 0 CONSTRAINTS ON σ8 AND γ

    Nusser, Adi; Davis, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We derive estimates for the cosmological bulk flow from the SFI++ Tully-Fisher (TF) catalog. For a sphere of radius 40 h -1 Mpc centered on the Milky Way, we derive a bulk flow of 333 ± 38 km s -1 toward Galactic (l, b) = (276 deg., 14 deg.) within a 3 0 1σ error. Within a radius of 100h -1 Mpc we get 257 ± 44 km s -1 toward (l, b) = (279 deg., 10 deg.) within a 6 deg. error. These directions are at 40 deg. to the Supergalactic plane, close to the apex of the motion of the Local Group of galaxies after the Virgocentric infall correction. Our findings are consistent with the ΛCDM model with the latest Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) best-fit cosmological parameters, but the bulk flow allows independent constraints. For the WMAP-inferred Hubble parameter h = 0.71 and baryonic mean density parameter Ω b = 0.0449, the constraint from the bulk flow on the matter density, Ω m , the normalization of the density fluctuations, σ 8 , and the growth index, γ, can be expressed as σ 8 Ω γ-0.55 m (Ω m /0.266) 0.28 = 0.86 ± 0.11 (for Ω m ∼ 0.266). Fixing σ 8 = 0.8 and Ω m = 0.266 as favored by WMAP, we get γ = 0.495 ± 0.096. The constraint derived here rules out popular Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models at more than the 99% confidence level. Our results are based on the All Space Constrained Estimate (ACSE) model which reconstructs the bulk flow from an all space three-dimensional peculiar velocity field constrained to match the TF measurements. At large distances, ASCE generates a robust bulk flow from the SFI++ survey that is insensitive to the assumed prior. For comparison, a standard straightforward maximum likelihood estimate leads to very similar results.

  10. Forest Products Industry Permitting Information

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. 5 CFR 734.202 - Permitted activities.

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Permitted Activities § 734.202 Permitted activities. Employees may take an active part in political activities, including political management and political campaigns, to the extent not expressly prohibited by law and this part. ...

  12. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  13. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Proposed Permit

    Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  14. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  15. Air permitting of IGCC plants

    Chitikela, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    The IGCC process is, currently, the preferred choice over conventional thermal power production in regard to cleanup of fuel and significantly reduced contaminant emissions. The air permitting requirements include the review of: feed preparation and PM emissions; feed gasification and contaminant emissions; elemental sulfur recovery and SO{sub 2} emissions; options for carbon-dioxide recovery; syngas characteristics for combustion; CT design and combustion mechanisms; air contaminant emissions of CT; controlled CT emissions of nitrogen-oxides and carbon-monoxide gases using the SCR and oxidation catalysts, respectively; and, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, the IGCC processes are being rigorously reviewed for the system integration and reliability, and significant reduction of air contaminant emissions (including the greenhouse gases). This paper included a review of IGCC air contaminant emission rates, and various applicable regulatory requirements, such as NSR (New Source Review), NSPS (New Source Performance Standards), and MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). The IGCC facility's NOX, CO, SO{sub 2}, PM, VOCs, and HAPs emission rates would be significantly low. Thus, effective, construction and installation, and operation air permits would be necessary for IGCC facilities.

  16. 7 CFR 319.75-3 - Permits.

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Port Operations, Permit Unit... article may be imported only after issuance of a written permit by Plant Protection and Quarantine. (b) An application for a written permit should be submitted to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

  17. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    2012-04-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...

  18. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 70.5(d) of this part. (B) Prompt reporting of deviations from permit requirements, including those... corrective actions or preventive measures taken. The permitting authority shall define “prompt” in relation... and air pollution control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit...

  19. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year

  20. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.500 - Can Federal agencies disapprove permit applications or cancel issued permits?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can Federal agencies disapprove permit applications or cancel issued permits? 102-74.500 Section 102-74.500 Public Contracts and... cancel issued permits? Yes, Federal agencies may disapprove any permit application or cancel an issued...

  2. Promotion of energy conservation in developing countries through the combination of ESCO and CDM: A case study of introducing distributed energy resources into Chinese urban areas

    Ren Hongbo; Zhou Weisheng; Gao Weijun; Wu Qiong

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an energy service company (ESCO) project in developing countries may result not only in reduced energy cost but also in considerable environmental benefits, including the reduction of CO 2 emissions, which can be assessed in an economic manner under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In this way, the economic and environmental benefits of energy conservation activities can be enjoyed by both the investor and the end-user, which can reduce the investment risk and realize a rational profit allocation. This study presents a numerical analysis of the introduction of distributed energy resources (DER) into a Chinese urban area. An optimization model is developed to determine the energy system combination under the constraints on the electrical and thermal balances and equipment availability. According to the simulation results, the introduction of DER systems possesses considerable potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, especially when considering that the economic profit of the CO 2 credit will increase the incentive to adopt DER systems to an even greater extent. Furthermore, by sharing the energy cost savings with the investors under an ESCO framework, the investment risk can be further reduced, and the conditions required for the project to qualify for CDM can be relaxed. Highlights: ► An investor focused analytical model is developed to aid the investment of a DER system. ► The combination of ESCO and CDM enhances the incentive to introduce energy conservation measures. ► Electricity buy-back is effective in boosting the DER system adoption under the proposed framework. ► The increased energy cost savings allocated to the investor promotes the DER system adoption. ► The rational allocation of CER credits is of vital importance to the success of the project.

  3. f(R,T,R{sub μν}T{sup μν}) gravity phenomenology and ΛCDM universe

    Odintsov, Sergei D., E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es [Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciències de l' Espai ICE (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-Parell-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    We propose general f(R,T,R{sub μν}T{sup μν}) theory as generalization of covariant Hořava-like gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. FRLW cosmological dynamics for several versions of such theory is considered. The reconstruction of the above action is explicitly done, including the numerical reconstruction for the occurrence of ΛCDM universe. De Sitter universe solutions in the presence of non-constant fluid are also presented. The problem of matter instability in f(R,T,R{sub μν}T{sup μν}) gravity is discussed.

  4. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document is updated on a quarterly basis

  5. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis

  6. 40 CFR 71.6 - Permit content.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 71.5(d). (B) Prompt reporting of deviations from permit requirements, including those attributable to... prompt or otherwise specifies a time frame for reporting deviations, that definition or time frame shall... and air pollution control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit...

  7. 40 CFR 71.25 - Permit content.

    2010-07-01

    ... such reports; and (ii) Prompt reporting of any deviations from permit requirements, including those... “prompt” in the permit for each situation and will do so in relation to the degree and type of deviation... reasonable times any facilities, equipment (including monitoring and air pollution control equipment...

  8. Review and revision of overload permit classification.

    2013-02-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) allows trucks that exceed their legal loads to cross : bridges if they apply and are approved for a permit. More than 30,000 permits have been processed each : year since 2002, providing a vital servic...

  9. 7 CFR 330.208 - Courtesy permits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Courtesy permits. 330.208 Section 330.208 Agriculture... PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.208 Courtesy permits. The Deputy Administrator may issue... subject to regulation under the Plant Protection Actor any other act, as a courtesy to facilitate movement...

  10. 32 CFR 552.90 - Permit office.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Permit office. 552.90 Section 552.90 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.90 Permit office... non-training acess to the range complex. The office is open 0700-1900 hours, seven days a week, for...

  11. 50 CFR 21.31 - Rehabilitation permits.

    2010-10-01

    ..., foster parenting, research projects, or other permitted activities with persons permitted or otherwise... Response Coordinator or other designated Service representative and obtain permission from the On-Scene Coordinator. All activities within the location of the spill are subject to the authority of the On-Scene...

  12. 77 FR 10183 - Reissuance of Nationwide Permits

    2012-02-21

    ... Civil Works Program (Engineer Circular 1165- 2-211). The current Engineer Circular applies to Corps..., Corps of Engineers Reissuance of Nationwide Permits; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 34..., Corps of Engineers RIN 0710-AA71 Reissuance of Nationwide Permits AGENCY: Army Corps of Engineers, DoD...

  13. 40 CFR 233.21 - General permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... ensure compliance with existing permit conditions an any reporting monitoring, or prenotification... apply for an individual permit. This discretionary authority will be based on concerns for the aquatic environment including compliance with paragraph (b) of this section and the 404(b)(1) Guidelines (40 CFR part...

  14. 75 FR 2560 - Issuance of Permits

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-IA-2010-N006] [96300-1671-0000-P5] Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits..., 2009 PH.D, Department of 16, 2009. Cardiology Children's Hospital. Dated: January 8, 2010. Brenda Tapia...

  15. 50 CFR 21.41 - Depredation permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.41... control purposes. No permit is required merely to scare or herd depredating migratory birds other than... other means of concealment, decoys, duck calls, or other devices to lure or entice birds within gun...

  16. EPA Region 2 Discharge Pipes for Facilites with NPDES Permits from the Permit Compliance GIS Layer

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Permit and Compliance System (PCS) contains data on the National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit-holding facilities. This includes...

  17. Annual Hanford Site environmental permitting status report

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The information contained and/or referenced in this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report (Status Report) addresses the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) of 1971 and Condition II.W. of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion (DW Portion). Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies the Permittees are responsible for all other applicable federal, state, and local permits for the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of permit condition, 'best efforts' means submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies. This Status Report includes information on all existing and anticipated environmental permitting. Environmental permitting required by RCRA, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, and non-RCRA permitting (solid waste handling, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987, Washington State waste discharge, and onsite sewage system) is addressed. Information on RCRA and non-RCRA is current as of July 31, 1998. For the purposes of RCRA and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976 [as administered through the Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Active Code (WAC) 173-303], the Hanford Facility is considered a single facility. As such, the Hanford Facility has been issued one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/State Identification Number (WA7890008967). This EPA/State identification number encompasses over 60 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) units. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has been delegated authority by the EPA to administer the RCRA, including mixed waste authority. The RCRA permitting approach for

  18. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    2012-04-13

    ... with rotating wind turbines. Permit Duration and Transferability In February 2011, we published draft... permit applicants, because of the known risk to eagles from collisions with wind turbines and electric... change does not affect the tenure of any other migratory bird or eagle permit type. DATES: Electronic...

  19. Public policy and regulatory strategies in the global climate change context: opportunities and limitations of programmatic CDM; Politicas publicas e estrategias regulatorias no contexto das mudancas climaticas globais: oportunidades e limitacoes do MDL programatico

    Romeiro, Viviane; Simoes, Andre Felipe; Januzzi, Gilberto M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    Carbon Market and its implications to reduce green house effect has been broadly discussed in the context of global climate change. This paper intends to analyze the new regulation of global climate change since Programmatic CDM was created, describing the proceeds to its implementation and discussing limitations and opportunities analyzes of this mechanism as a tool to obtain alternative energy source. It is discussed the challenges and opportunities about CDM programs in the international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based, as well as its contribution to attain benefits to global climate system and quality of social life. (author)

  20. Permit to Work System in Nuclear Malaysia

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Azwafarina Zarmira Aznan; Md Derus Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Permit-To-Work System is an essential part of the job risk assessment process. An effective Permit-To-Work System would help to prevent accident that usually involves maintenance and construction activities. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Radiation Safety and Health Division (BKS) has been given the responsibility to implement the system in order to fulfill the requirement of providing a safe and healthy workplace and environment for its employees as pledged in the Occupational Safety, Health and Environmental Policy. This paper presents the roles and functions of Permit-To-Work System, together with the process flow and challenges ahead. (author)

  1. CDM incidence in the economical feasibility of cogeneration in Argentine; Incidencia del MDL en la factibilidad economica de sistemas de cogeneracion industrial en Argentina

    Sosa, Maria Isabel; Fushimi, Alberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria. Area Departamental Mecanica], e-mail: misosa@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar, e-mail: afushimi@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the contribution to the financial and economic feasibility of cogeneration systems with gas turbine and exhaust gas heat recovery boiler is discussed in function of the financial credit for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions (GH Gs) by using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It has to be kept in mind the restrictions of these systems to be capital intensive projects subject to the effects of the economy of scale. Other factors to take into account are the constancy of the heat demand, the rates of sale of electricity and steam surpluses, the regulatory laws, the ignorance of the cogeneration technologies on the part of the investor, among others. The profitability of the investment for implementation of a cogeneration system can be elevated in large facilities with gas turbines and heat recovery boiler (T G + HRSG). Results discussed in previous papers are pointed out and new conclusions are enunciated. (author)

  2. 78 FR 36822 - Special Permit Applications

    2013-06-19

    ... lithium battery that exceeds the net quantity weight restriction when transported by motor vehicle and... Dassault Falcon Jet Corp. Little Ferry, NJ May 13, 2013. To modify the special permit to add an additional...

  3. 32 CFR 935.11 - Permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be issued under other authority that is inconsistent with this part. The Commander may issue.... (b) To the extent it is not inconsistent with this part, any permit or registration issued pursuant...

  4. Storm Water General Permit 2 for Construction

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #2 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Construction Activities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

  5. 50 CFR 660.707 - Permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... or downloaded from the Southwest Region home page (http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/permits.htm) to apply for... the vessel is fishing for, taking, retaining, possessing, or landing HMS shoreward of the outer...

  6. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    2012-01-27

    ... the logistical and cost concerns regarding the ability of the railroad industry to comply with the... incorporating the applicable GRL Special Permits into the HMR (and FRA's subsequent approval notice) those...

  7. Web Air Permits (WAP R7)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for Web Air Permits in Region 7 (WAP R7), a Lotus Notes application that once tracked comment...

  8. 2013 EPA Vessels General Permit (VGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information for any vessel that submitted a Notice of Intent (NOI), Notice of Termination (NOT), or annual report under EPA's 2013 Vessel General Permit (VGP)....

  9. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Gear Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual vessel gear characterization of permit holders shrimp vessel. Data includes net type, TED type, BRD type, etc.

  10. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  11. WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Renewal Application

    Most, W.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous waste permits issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) have a maximum term of 10-years from the permit's effective date. The permit condition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) governing renewal applications, directs the Permittees to submit a permit application 180 days prior to expiration of the Permit. On October 27, 1999, the Secretary of the NMED issued to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the owner and operator of WIPP, and to Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), the Management and Operating Contractor and the cooperator of WIPP, a HWFP to manage, store, and dispose hazardous waste at WIPP. The DOE and WTS are collectively known as the Permittees. The HWFP is effective for a fixed term not to exceed ten years from the effective date of the Permit. The Permittees may renew the HWFP by submitting a new permit application at least 180 calendar days before the expiration date, of the HWFP. The Permittees are not proposing any substantial changes in the Renewal Application. First, the Permittees are seeking the authority to dispose of Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled TRU mixed waste in Panel 8. Panels 4 through 7 have been approved in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit as it currently exists. No other change to the facility or to the manner in which hazardous waste is characterized, managed, stored, or disposed is being requested. Second, the Permittees also seek to include the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan, as Attachment Q in the HWFP. This Plan has existed as a separate document since May 2000. The NMED has requested that the Plan be submitted as part of the Renewal Application. The Permittees have been operating to the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan since the Plan was submitted. Third, some information submitted in the original WIPP RCRA Part B Application has been updated, such as demographic information. The Permittees will submit this information in the

  12. Treatment analysis of incentive politics for renewable energy projects in the clean development mechanism (CDM): the Brazilian case; Analise do tratamento das politicas de incentivos a projetos de energias renovaveis no mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL): o caso brasileiro

    Medeiros, Anamelia; Hauser, Philipp, Emails: anameliam@yahoo.com.br, philipphauser@web.de

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the politics for mitigation recently adopted by the Brazil, and discuss his treatment under the rules of CDM, viewing to contribute for a transparent solution which to allow the conciliation global and national politics for the clean expansion of the energy sector in Brazil.

  13. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous waste... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits...

  14. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of this...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  16. 9 CFR 78.2 - Handling of certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals.

    2010-01-01

    ... âSâ brand permits for interstate movement of animals. 78.2 Section 78.2 Animals and Animal Products... certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals. (a) Any certificate, permit, or “S” brand permit required by this part for the interstate movement of animals shall be delivered...

  17. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2012-12-04

    ... following permit requests. Applicant Permit No. TE-78622A Applicant: William J. Mautz, Hilo, Hawaii The...-179036 Applicant: Cullen A. Wilkerson, Richmond, California The applicant requests a permit renewal to...

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-09-27

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements.

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements

  20. IFQ Halibut/Sablefish and CDQ Halibut Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Under the IFQ Halibut/Sablefish Permit Program and CDQ Halibut Permit Program permits are issued for harvesting and receiving/processing halibut, and non-trawl...

  1. Banking and back-loading emission permits

    Chaton, Corinne; Creti, Anna; Peluchon, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on the so-called back-loading policy adopted by the European Commission to increase the carbon market price. This environmental measure consists of removing a share of the allowances allocated for a given period in order to reallocate some or all of them later on. To analyze the impact of the permits back-loading, we determine the CO 2 price equilibrium with and without the policy measure, considering not only the market for permits but also the output market of regulated sectors. We propose a two-period model, where the market for permits is perfectly competitive, and the output market can be either competitive or oligopolistic. First, we define the condition under which banking from one period to another is optimal. This condition, that is the absence of arbitrage opportunities (AOA), depends not only from the period initial allocation but also on production market fundamentals. When this condition is satisfied, the market for emission is shown intertemporally efficient. Second, we point out that the back-loading measure may create inefficiencies or leave unaffected the permits price, if it alters the AOA. -- Highlights: •Relationship between the market for permits and the output market of regulated sectors. •Analysis of CO 2 prices and banking. •Impact of a recent environmental policy measure (backloading) on CO 2 prices

  2. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    1991-01-01

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains ''umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit

  3. 75 FR 19987 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2010-04-16

    ... applied for scientific research permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the...) within Arizona. Permit TE-178778 Applicant: Marks Lab of Aquatic Ecology, Flagstaff, Arizona. Applicant...

  4. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... the population stock and the marine ecosystem. In determining whether to issue a public display permit... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER...

  5. Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook

    NWCC Siting Work Group

    2002-08-01

    This handbook has been written for individuals and groups involved in evaluating wind projects: decision-makers and agency staff at all levels of government, wind developers, interested parties and the public. Its purpose is to help stakeholders make permitting wind facility decisions in a manner which assures necessary environmental protection and responds to public needs.

  6. 27 CFR 19.157 - Operating permits.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.157... file an application for registration under § 19.151 shall make application for and obtain an operating permit before commencing any of the following operations: (1) Distilling for industrial use. (2...

  7. 75 FR 54649 - Endangered Wildlife; Permits

    2010-09-08

    ...-02997A Applicant: University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii. The applicant requests a permit to take (capture...-listed Drosophila species on the island of Kauai in the State of Hawaii for the purpose of enhancing its... in the State of Hawaii: Astelia waialealae (painiu), Canavalia napaliensis (awikiwiki), Chamaesyce...

  8. 15 CFR 5.4 - Permits.

    2010-01-01

    ... standards relating to appearance, safety, sanitation, maintenance, and efficiency of operation. Due regard... the Government and prospective patrons of the stand. (f) The permit shall describe the location of the stand proper and the location of any vending machines which are operated in conjunction with it. ...

  9. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address of...

  10. 19 CFR 12.107 - Importations permitted.

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.107 Importations permitted. Pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural for which... sculpture or mural, in a form acceptable to the Secretary, certifying that such exportation was not in...

  11. 78 FR 43268 - Special Permit Applications

    2013-07-19

    ... an amount qualifying as hazardous material. (modes 1, 2, 3, 4) 15860-N......... Apple Inc. 49 CFR To... strength stiffness. 13581-M......... Bengal Products 49 CFR To modify the Inc. Baton 173.306(a)(3). special............ Carleton 49 CFR 173.302a To modify the Technologies special permit to Inc. (Former change a drawing Grantee...

  12. 50 CFR 648.4 - Vessel permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying passengers for hire. (8) Atlantic bluefish vessels. (i) Commercial. Any vessel of the United... lands Atlantic bluefish in or from the EEZ in excess of the recreational possession limit specified at § 648.164 must have been issued and carry on board a valid commercial bluefish vessel permit. (ii) Party...

  13. 40 CFR 70.5 - Permit applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... establish. Where an existing part 70 permit would prohibit such construction or change in operation, the... information only if it is related to the proposed change. Information required under paragraph (c) of this... part shall state that, based on information and belief formed after reasonable inquiry, the statements...

  14. THE GRAVITATIONAL SHEAR-INTRINSIC ELLIPTICITY CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES IN OBSERVATION AND IN THE ΛCDM MODEL

    Okumura, Teppei; Jing, Y. P.

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI) correlation function of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) can be modeled with the distribution function of a misalignment angle advocated recently by Okumura et al. For this purpose, we have accurately measured the GI correlation for the LRGs in the Data Release 6 (DR6) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which confirms the results of Hirata et al. who used the DR4 data. By comparing the GI correlation functions in the simulation and in the observation, we find that the GI correlation can be modeled in the current ΛCDM model if the misalignment follows a Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and a typical misalignment angle σ θ = 34.9 +1.9 -2.1 degrees. We also find a correlation between the axis ratios and intrinsic alignments of LRGs. This effect should be taken into account in theoretical modeling of the GI and intrinsic ellipticity-ellipticity correlations for weak lensing surveys.

  15. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.88 Multispecies open access permit restrictions. (a) Handgear permit. A vessel issued a valid open access NE multispecies Handgear permit is...

  16. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  17. 40 CFR 144.51 - Conditions applicable to all permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Permit Conditions § 144.51 Conditions applicable... permit. Any permit noncompliance constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds... denial of a permit renewal application; except that the permittee need not comply with the provisions of...

  18. 50 CFR 21.21 - Import and export permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Import and export permits. 21.21 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.21 Import and export... must have a permit to import or export migratory birds, their parts, nests, or eggs. You must meet the...

  19. 32 X 2.5 Gb/s Optical Code Division Multiplexing (O-CDM) For Agile Optical Networking (Phase II) Final Report CRADA No. TC02051.0

    Bennett, C. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mendez, A. J. [Mendez R & D Associates, El Segundo, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Mendez R & D Associates (MRDA) to develop and demonstrate a reconfigurable and cost effective design for optical code division multiplexing (O-CDM) with high spectral efficiency and throughput, as applied to the field of distributed computing, including multiple accessing (sharing of communication resources) and bidirectional data distribution in fiber-to-the-premise (FTTx) networks.

  20. Did CDM particles of mass 2.47 x 10(-3) eV interact with precursor biopolymers and nucleic acids to initiate and boost lifeforms on Earth?

    Rosen, Gerald

    2011-06-01

    Recent observations and theoretical studies have shown that non-baryonic Cold Dark Matter (CDM), which constitutes about 84% of all matter in the Universe, may feature a complex-scalar-field that carries particles of mass ≅ 2.47 x 10(-3)eV with the associated Compton range m(-1) ≅8.02 x 10(-3) cm, a distance on the scale of extended bionucleic acids and living cells. Such a complex-scalar-field can enter a weak-isospin Lorentz-invariant interaction that generates the flow of right-handed electrons and induces a chirality-imbued quantum chemistry on the m (-1) scale. A phenomenological Volterra-type equation is proposed for the CDM-impacted time development of N, the number of base pairs in the most advanced organism at Earth-age t. The solution to this equation suggests that the boosts in N at t ≅ 1.1 Gyr (advent of the first living prokaryotic cells), at t ≅ 2.9 Gyr (advent of eukaryotic single-celled organisms) and finally at t ≅ 4.0 Gyr (the Cambrian explosion) may be associated with three multi-Myr-duration cosmic showers of the complex-scalar-field CDM particles. If so, the signature of the particles may be detectible in Cambrian rocks.

  1. Should advertising by aesthetic surgeons be permitted?

    Neeraj Nagpal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic, aesthetic and cutaneous surgical procedures require qualified specialists trained in the various procedures and competent to handle complications. However, it also requires huge investments in terms of infrastructure, trained staff and equipment. To be viable advertising is essential to any establishment which provides cosmetic and aesthetic procedures. Business men with deep pockets establish beauty chains which also provide these services and advertise heavily to sway public opinion in their favour. However, these saloons and spas lack basic medical facilities in terms of staff or equipment to handle any complication or medical emergency. To have a level playing field ethical advertising should be permitted to qualified aesthetic surgeons as is permitted in the US and UK by their respective organisations.

  2. Market Power in Laboratory Emission Permit Markets

    Godby, R.

    2002-01-01

    Many proposals suggesting the use of markets to control pollution assume markets will be competitive. When markets do not exhibit competitive characteristics, however, should they still be expected to result in efficiency improvement relative to traditional approaches? This paper employs experimental economic methods to examine the effect of market structure on the use of marketable emissions permits. Results indicate that in a market with one dominant firm and a number of fringe firms, strategic manipulation occurs repeatedly in the laboratory as predicted by market power models, undermining the allocative and dynamic efficiency benefits such markets offer. When firms compete in a downstream product market dominated by the same single firm, market efficiency can actually be reduced with the implementation of permit markets. Final market efficiencies reflect initial endowments and are influenced by competitive conditions elsewhere in the economy, indicating that policy-makers should carefully consider whether markets are appropriate in such circumstances

  3. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    1991-12-01

    This report is part of a dangerous waste permit application for the storage of wastes from the Purex process at Hanford. Appendices are presented on the following: construction drawings; HSW-5638, specifications for disposal facility for failed equipment, Project CA-1513-A; HWS-8262, specification for Purex equipment disposal, Project CGC 964; storage tunnel checklist; classification of residual tank heels in Purex storage tunnels; emergency plan for Purex facility; training course descriptions; and the Purex storage tunnels engineering study

  4. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  5. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ''regulated'' pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ''criteria'' pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ''Hazardous'' Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995

  6. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  7. The impact of ΛCDM substructure and baryon-dark matter transition on the image positions of quad galaxy lenses

    Gomer, Matthew R.; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2018-04-01

    The positions of multiple images in galaxy lenses are related to the galaxy mass distribution. Smooth elliptical mass profiles were previously shown to be inadequate in reproducing the quad population. In this paper, we explore the deviations from such smooth elliptical mass distributions. Unlike most other work, we use a model-free approach based on the relative polar image angles of quads, and their position in 3D space with respect to the fundamental surface of quads (FSQ). The FSQ is defined by quads produced by elliptical lenses. We have generated thousands of quads from synthetic populations of lenses with substructure consistent with Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations, and found that such perturbations are not sufficient to match the observed distribution of quads relative to the FSQ. The result is unchanged even when subhalo masses are increased by a factor of 10, and the most optimistic lensing selection bias is applied. We then produce quads from galaxies created using two components, representing baryons and dark matter. The transition from the mass being dominated by baryons in inner radii to being dominated by dark matter in outer radii can carry with it asymmetries, which would affect relative image angles. We run preliminary experiments using lenses with two elliptical mass components with non-identical axial ratios and position angles, perturbations from ellipticity in the form of non-zero Fourier coefficients a4 and a6, and artificially offset ellipse centres as a proxy for asymmetry at image radii. We show that combination of these effects is a promising way of accounting for quad population properties. We conclude that the quad population provides a unique and sensitive tool for constraining detailed mass distribution in the centres of galaxies.

  8. Permit processes for nuclear power. International lessons

    Gaahlin, Emil; Nilsson, Isabelle; Pettersson, Maria; Soederholm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of this report is to analyze and compare the legal permitting and planning process for (first and foremost) new nuclear power stations in a number of selected countries. In this way the report provides relevant knowledge that could form the basis for discussing the efficiency of various national licensing processes (include the Swedish one). The study builds heavily on the analysis of legal documents and regulations, and addresses both the formal requirements for licensing and territorial planning procedures as well as the issues of public participation and access to justice in the respective countries. In addition to this legal approach, however, we also adopt an investor's perspective on the legislation, i.e., an analysis of the legal rules can influence investment decisions in practice. Furthermore, the study relies largely on a synthesis of previous studies as well as interviews with researchers, electricity companies and government officials in Sweden and abroad. The countries that are compared include Sweden, Finland, France, Canada, Switzerland, Great Britain, USA and South Korea. These include those that currently invest in new nuclear power as well as those who have recently reformed their plant permitting processes. The analysis highlights important differences among the various countries, including issues such as the political influence on the licensing process, the allocation of political power between the national and local levels, means of interacting with regular citizens, and the overall transparency and predictability of the legislation. Some selected practical experiences of the current legislation are also presented. The report first provides a short background to the role and the status of nuclear power in the global energy system, and we then present a rather comprehensive comparison of the permitting processes in the above countries. Each country section comprises a short background, a presentation of the existing

  9. Waste-to-energy permitting sourcebook

    Longwell, D.; Wegrecki, A.; Williams, D.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental issues, regulatory processes and approvals important in obtaining a permit to construct and/or operate a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility are identified and discussed. Environmental issues include: (1) air emission levels, their control and potential impacts, (2) ash leachability, treatment, and disposal, (3) potential health risks from emissions, and (4) other issues such as need/benefit and public perception of WTE. Laws, regulations and approvals that can affect project development are identified and listed, and potential regulatory trends are discussed. A general permit acquisition plan is also presented. An analysis of environmental and regulatory data obtained from the literature, regulatory agencies, and specific projects is presented. California and Massachusetts, both with regulations generally more stringent than federal regulations and considered environmentally conservative, were selected for detailed state regulatory review. Two project case histories (Commerce Refuse-to-Energy (RTE) Project in California and SEMASS WTE Project in Massachusetts) were selected to illustrate: (1) how regulations are actually applied to a project, (2) project-specific permit and operating conditions, and (3) project-specific environmental issues. Modern WTE plots employ state-of-the-art air emission control technologies and strategies to reduce air emission is to levels below regulatory requirements and to reduce estimated health risks to within EPA's acceptable risk range. WTE ash leachate can exhibit hazardous waste characteristics, primarily lead and cadmium. However, modern landfills utilize liners and leachate collection systems to prevent infiltration of leachate into the groundwater supply. Modern WTE plants employ dry systems and have zero process wastewater discharge

  10. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  11. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  12. PSD Permit for the Marblehead Lime Company

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Honda Permits to Install 1 Year Aggregation

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. 75 FR 27814 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2010-05-18

    ... permit to export one female captive bred giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) born at the zoo in 2005 and... education. The permit numbers and animals are: 070854, Bimbo Jr.; 079868, Vickie; 079870, Jenny; 079871...

  15. A Framework for Building Efficient Environmental Permitting Processes

    Nicola Ulibarri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as a tool for protecting air and water quality, and for mitigating impacts to protected species and ecosystems, the environmental permitting process is widely recognized to be inefficient and marked by delays. This article draws on a literature review and interviews with permitting practitioners to identify factors that contribute to delayed permit decisions. The sociopolitical context, projects that are complex or use novel technology, a fragmented and bureaucratic regulatory regime, serial permit applications and reviews, and applicant and permitting agency knowledge and resources each contribute to permitting inefficiency when they foster uncertainty, increase transaction costs, and allow divergent interests to multiply, yet remain unresolved. We then use the interviews to consider the potential of a collaborative dialogue between permitting agencies and applicants to mitigate these challenges, and argue that collaboration is well positioned to lessen permitting inefficiency.

  16. 34 CFR 395.35 - Terms of permit.

    2010-07-01

    ..., periodicals, publications, confections, tobacco products, foods, beverages, chances for any lottery authorized... PROPERTY Federal Property Management § 395.35 Terms of permit. Every permit shall describe the location of...

  17. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2013-05-09

    ... purpose of enhancing the species' survival. Permit No. TE-99477A Applicant: Benjamin S. Wallace, Fairfield...-99473A Applicant: Joseph D. Henry, San Diego, California The applicant requests a permit to take (capture...

  18. 76 FR 75897 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2011-12-05

    ...: EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Lewisville, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for... atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE-37047A Applicant: Sea World Parks and Entertainment, San Antonio, Texas...

  19. 76 FR 35235 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2011-06-16

    ... chub (Gila intermedia), Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis), humpback chub (Gila... intermedia) within Arizona. Permit TE-43777A Applicant: Sea Life US, LLC, Grapevine, Texas. Applicant...), and Gila chub (Gila intermedia) within Arizona. Permit TE-118414 Applicant: Cherokee Nation, Tahlequah...

  20. Storm water permitting for oil and gas facilities

    de Blanc, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    After several false starts, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published new federal storm water regulations in the November 16, 1990 Federal Register. These regulations identify facilities which must apply for a storm water permit and detail permit application requirements. The regulations appear at 40 CFR 122 Subpart B and became effective December 17, 1990. An outline of these regulations and their applicability to oil and gas facilities is presented. They are: facilities which require a storm water permit; types of storm water permits; permit application deadlines; permit application forms; facilities with existing storm water permits; storm water permit application data requirements; storm water sampling and analysis requirements; and EPA contacts for additional information

  1. Remediation General Permit (RGP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Remediation Activity Discharges – the Remediation General Permit in MA (MAG910000) and NH (NHG910000).

  2. CDM Project Opportunities in Thailand

    2009-01-01

    Interview on Channel 2 UBC Thailand Fysisk medie: .dat mpeg video file Tidspunkt for udsendelse: 2003/06/28......Interview on Channel 2 UBC Thailand Fysisk medie: .dat mpeg video file Tidspunkt for udsendelse: 2003/06/28...

  3. The Use of Transferable Permits in Transport Policy

    Raux, Charles

    2004-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2004.01.001; International audience; This paper considers potential use of domestic transferable, or tradable, permit systems for the purposes of travel management, especially reducing environmental nuisances. The main arguments for and against the use of permits are analyzed. Secondly two case studies of existing permit systems are examined. The main conclusions are that tradable permits can address greenhouse gas and regional atmospheric pollutant emissions, ...

  4. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  5. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  6. Are LMFBR permits unconstitutional. [German Feferal Republic

    Wagner, H; Ziegler, E

    1977-12-01

    The August 18, 1977 decision by the Muenster Higher Administrative Court to have the Federal Constitutional Court investigate the constitutionality of permits granted for fast breeder power plants has aroused much attention, both in the FRG and in other countries. This is the first time that the German Atomic Energy Act is being questioned with respect to the separation of powers between legislative and executive authorities and also with respect to the principle of a constitutional state. As a result of their analysis of the first information available about the court decision the authors have some doubts as to whether the views held by the court about the consequences of the development of fast breeder reactors and of the permit granted for the SNR 300 demonstration nuclear power station are essentially correct. In view of the wording of and the official comments on the incriminated Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act and the large number of subsequent leading decisions by the Federal Diet about fast breeder reactors also the concern about the constitutionality of that reactor line appears to be unfounded.

  7. The run permit protection system for GTA

    Atkins, W.H.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Run Permit system has been designed for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The system implements mode-dependent software interlocks to ensure proper operation of the accelerator, enabling the ion source extractor and RF systems when proper conditions are met. The system is implemented using the GTA control system; thus all information available to the control system is also available for use in interlock logic. The logic is defined in terms of control system channels, which reflect accelerator parameters such as actuator positions, power supply values, temperatures, etc. A mode switch in the control room selects the accelerator operating mode, for example i njector only . The Run Permit software selects interlock logic as appropriate operating mode. This implementation easily accommodates logic changes as requirements evolve. To ensure reliable operation of a software-based system, a special circuit with a watch-dog timer is employed to produce the system's output signals. The software must periodically address the circuit, or the output signals are forced to a disabled state. For additional protection, there are self-test provisions for detecting and reacting to failures of the control system. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  8. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constitutents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 Appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  9. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  10. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The...

  11. 75 FR 20622 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-04-20

    .... Permit No. TE-02997A Applicant: University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii. The applicant requests a permit to... scientific research including genetic, morphological and behavioral research on the island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii for the purpose of enhancing its survival. The applicant also requests a permit to take...

  12. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.56 Geological and geophysical permits. Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  13. 25 CFR 212.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 212.56 Section 212.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.56 Geological and geophysical permits. (a) Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  14. 40 CFR 270.65 - Research, development, and demonstration permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research, development, and... Special Forms of Permits § 270.65 Research, development, and demonstration permits. (a) The Administrator may issue a research, development, and demonstration permit for any hazardous waste treatment facility...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2184 - Operating permits for minor sources.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating permits for minor sources. 52... permits for minor sources. Emission limitations and related provisions established in South Dakota minor... right to deem permit conditions not federally enforceable. Such a determination will be made according...

  16. 77 FR 34061 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    2012-06-08

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  17. 78 FR 27255 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    2013-05-09

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  18. 78 FR 56922 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    2013-09-16

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  19. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    2011-07-08

    ... Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon... photography on 12 cetacean species had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested permit has...

  20. 78 FR 24305 - Actions on Special Permit Applications

    2013-04-24

    ... special permit Lincoln, NE. to authorize an alternative fire protection system. 11624-M Clean Harbors 49... Special Permit Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on Special Permit Applications. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures...

  1. 40 CFR 96.323 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.323 Section 96.323 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... the permitting authority, as necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit...

  2. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  3. 50 CFR 20.64 - Foreign export permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign export permits. 20.64 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.64 Foreign export permits. No... such birds are accompanied by export permits, tags, or other documentation required by applicable...

  4. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...

  5. 75 FR 47583 - Application to Rescind Presidential Permit; Joint Application for Presidential Permit; British...

    2010-08-06

    ... Presidential Permit No. PP-22, as amended, to BC Hydro. The application requested that the Department of Energy... the transmission of electric energy between the United States and a foreign country is prohibited in... law pursuant to British Columbia's Clean Energy Act. Since restructuring of the electric power...

  6. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit. 108.12 Section 108.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... General Provisions § 108.12 Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a...

  7. FY 1998 annual report on the project of basic survey for improving energy consumption efficiency in developing countries and programs of international conferences including IPCC. Report on CDM workshop; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo / IPCC nado kokusai kaigi jigyo (CDM workshop hokokusho) 1998 nendo jigyo hokokusho

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    It is decided in the COP4 that the concrete schemes for the (Kyoto Mechanism) should be boiled down towards the end of 2000. Of the many outstanding issues concerned, those related to the clean development mechanism (CDM) involve a number of problems awaiting solution. In particular, setting the baselines for amounts of the greenhouse effect gas emissions in projects not existing, which are essential for identifying reduced amounts of emissions (or credits), poses serious difficulty because of wide arbitrariness involved in the methodology. Therefore, (standardization) of the procedures is demanded for the accurate identification. In actuality, however, no methodology has been established as to what methods will be possibly applicable to widely diversified types of projects. This workshop, therefore, has focused the discussions on the (baseline problems), expecting to serve as a trigger for the future directions by presenting international researches and promoting the discussions thereon to deepen recognition of these problems, where the AIJ experiences have served as one of the bases. (NEDO)

  8. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey and study on the 'measures for promoting discharge right transaction/joint implementation (JI) / clean development mechanism (CDM) project'; 1999 nendo 'haishutsuken torihiki / JI / CDM project suishin hosaku' ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The third conference (COP3) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December 1997 in Kyoto has adopted the Kyoto mechanisms (the 'discharge right transaction', the 'joint implementation (JI)' among advanced countries, and the 'clean development mechanism (CDM)' applied to developing countries). The Kyoto mechanisms are intended to provide flexibility to the methods to achieve the greenhouse effect gas reduction targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto mechanisms are considered to be implemented even during the year 2000, whose details are scheduled to be decided at COP6. Since the advanced countries have established the targets for reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission, governments and research institutes are taking various approaches. In addition, since the targets for reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission have been established, discussions are indispensable on methodology to establish the quantity of discharge and absorption of greenhouse effect gases (the so-called base line) when no project exists, as required to calculate the discharge reduction quantity as a result of implementing the project. The present survey has held study meetings attended by learned people, and compiled the results of the discussions. (NEDO)

  9. Regulatory Review of Early Site Permit Applications

    Scott, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and is reviewing three applications for early site permits (ESPs). The ESP process allows early resolution of site-related issues affecting possible construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant. The nuclear industry views a successful and predictable ESP process as an important step in assessing whether to seek authorization to construct and operate a new generation of nuclear power reactors in the United States. Because consideration of ESP applications is a first-of-a-kind activity, a number of issues have emerged prior to and during the reviews of the first three applications. Issues have included the need for design information at the ESP stage, accident analyses, quality assurance, and seismic analyses. The NRC has been working to resolve identified issues to support a Commission decision on whether to issue an ESP approximately 33-37 months after receipt of each ESP application. (authors)

  10. Requirements for permitting a mixed waste incinerator

    Trichon, M.; Feldman, J.; Serne, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The consideration, design, selection and operation of any incinerator depends primarily on characteristic quality (ultimate and proximate analyses) and quantity to the waste to be incinerated. In the case of burning any combination of mixed hazardous, biomedical and radioactive low level waste, specific federal and generic state environmental regulatory requirements are outlined. Combustion chamber temperature and waste residence time requirements will provide the rest of the envelope for consideration. Performance requirements must be balanced between the effects of time and temperature on destruction of the organic waste and the vaporization and possible emission of the inorganic waste components (e.g., toxic metals, radioactive inorganics) as operating conditions and emission levels will be set in state and federal regulatory permits. To this end the complete characterization of the subject waste stream must be determined if an accurate assessment of incineration effectiveness and impact are to be performed

  11. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  12. The dual process of adolescent immigration and relocation: from country to country and from childhood to adolescence--its reflection in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Sharabany, Ruth; Israeli, Etziona

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents psychological issues and processes in adolescent patients who have also migrated or relocated from one country to another. Theoretical perspectives related to attachment processes illumine both migration and adolescence as changes for which secure bases are most needed, lost, and sometimes rediscovered. The psychodynamic processes underlying the difficulties encountered by such adolescents, and their meaning, are presented. Relationships with parents, which normally go through separation-individuation and renegotiation of the oedipal crisis, both of which are central to adolescence, are disrupted by migration. Migration poses new challenges and choices while identity formation is evolving during adolescence. These include adopting a new identity, embracing and letting go of the old, and accepting and integrating the new. The dual relationship with identity finds expression, for example, in language. Fluctuations in understanding and not understanding the new and the old language represent the ambivalence toward the new and the old. The developmental roller-coaster of adolescence, which involves more intense use of defense mechanisms, is heightened during immigration. Processes of idealization (of parents, therapist, old country, new culture) rapidly fade with the devaluation of the same targets. Mechanisms of splitting between good and bad, as well as massive repression of issues that are too hard to deal with at this crossroad, are profuse. Hopeful fantasies of rebirth are concurrent with despair, depression, and, in some cases, suicidal thoughts and attempts. Excerpts from a case in psychodynamic psychotherapy are presented, focusing on the evolving new balances: integrating the old and the new by maintaining attachments to the one while forming attachments to the other; relinquishing and mourning the lost paradise of childhood, as well as the old country, friends, culture, smells, and tastes; accepting disappointments when the shining new terrain of the new country is not the fantasized promised land; negotiating processes of splitting that have been employed in the false hope of quieting the internal turmoil of the transitions (the good vs. the bad country, parents, therapist, and developmental tasks); finding new ways of coping with the deep despair of losing all the above, and the urge to give it all up; and, finally, forming an integrated identity, built on both the old and the new. The processes are elucidated by examples from the psychotherapy of an adolescent Ethiopian-born immigrant to Israel.

  13. Coping with EPA's new petroleum industry storm water permits

    Veal, S.C.; Whitescarver, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has just released for public comment its so-called multi-sector industry specific storm water permit. This permit -- developed in response to the 730 group storm water permit applications submitted in 1992 to EPA -- proposes the establishment of specific runoff sampling and facility design requirements for at least two petroleum industry sectors. This proposed permit establishes specific conditions for the oil and gas extraction section (SIC group 13) and for lubricant manufacturers (SIC 2992). Permit conditions are also established for allied industrial sectors such as the chemical, transportation and asphalt materials industries. By most standards, the proposed permit is much tougher than EPA's baseline general permit for storm water discharges which was released in September of 1992. For example, under the proposal, most industries are required to perform periodic storm water sampling. EPA has also established storm water effluent and performance standards for several industrial categories. This paper will discuss the petroleum industry specific conditions of the new permit. The paper will also discuss the results of the industry-wide storm water sampling efforts undertaken by more than 300 oil patch facilities across the country. In particular, sampling results will be discussed in the context to the permit conditions proposed by EPA. The paper will also discuss strategies for dealing with the new permits

  14. Watershed-based point sources permitting strategy and dynamic permit-trading analysis.

    Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2007-09-01

    Permit-trading policy in a total maximum daily load (TMDL) program may provide an additional avenue to produce environmental benefit, which closely approximates what would be achieved through a command and control approach, with relatively lower costs. One of the important considerations that might affect the effective trading mechanism is to determine the dynamic transaction prices and trading ratios in response to seasonal changes of assimilative capacity in the river. Advanced studies associated with multi-temporal spatially varied trading ratios among point sources to manage water pollution hold considerable potential for industries and policy makers alike. This paper aims to present an integrated simulation and optimization analysis for generating spatially varied trading ratios and evaluating seasonal transaction prices accordingly. It is designed to configure a permit-trading structure basin-wide and provide decision makers with a wealth of cost-effective, technology-oriented, risk-informed, and community-based management strategies. The case study, seamlessly integrating a QUAL2E simulation model with an optimal waste load allocation (WLA) scheme in a designated TMDL study area, helps understand the complexity of varying environmental resources values over space and time. The pollutants of concern in this region, which are eligible for trading, mainly include both biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). The problem solution, as a consequence, suggests an array of waste load reduction targets in a well-defined WLA scheme and exhibits a dynamic permit-trading framework among different sub-watersheds in the study area. Research findings gained in this paper may extend to any transferable dynamic-discharge permit (TDDP) program worldwide.

  15. Conference report : PERM-IT '97

    Smyth, V.; Yeabsley, A.

    1997-01-01

    The PERM-IT conference (Physics Engineering Radiation Medicine with a special emphasis on Information Technology) which was held in Adelaide with an attendance of about 250, was the joint annual meeting of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society, the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, the College of Biomedical Engineers of the Institution of Engineers Australia and the Society for Medical and Biological Engineering. The program was organised with three parallel sessions running most of the time, with plenary sessions for items of particular interest featuring keynote speakers from around the world. Attendance at this conference allowed the opportunity to meet with colleagues in other regulatory agencies, and Australia has a number of these. But what should be done about radioactive waste? A universal groan is raised by radiation protection regulatory authority staff at this question. Plans are afoot to develop a whole of Australia radioactive waste repository with both burial and above ground facilities. An announcement on the suitability of various sites in order of preference is expected, but in the meantime, facilities are fragemented. Discussions were held with staff from the radiation standards section of the Australian Radiation Laboratory who face similar problems to NRL including reducing funding, the move to cost recovery, and working towards quality managment accreditation. Plans for a further intercomparison between the Australian and NZ primary standards are being made. (author)

  16. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report

  17. GALAXIES IN ΛCDM WITH HALO ABUNDANCE MATCHING: LUMINOSITY-VELOCITY RELATION, BARYONIC MASS-VELOCITY RELATION, VELOCITY FUNCTION, AND CLUSTERING

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been regarded as difficult if not impossible for a cosmological model to account simultaneously for the galaxy luminosity, mass, and velocity distributions. We revisit this issue using a modern compilation of observational data along with the best available large-scale cosmological simulation of dark matter (DM). We find that the standard cosmological model, used in conjunction with halo abundance matching (HAM) and simple dynamical corrections, fits—at least on average—all basic statistics of galaxies with circular velocities V circ > 80 km s –1 calculated at a radius of ∼10 kpc. Our primary observational constraint is the luminosity-velocity (LV) relation—which generalizes the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations in allowing all types of galaxies to be included, and provides a fundamental benchmark to be reproduced by any theory of galaxy formation. We have compiled data for a variety of galaxies ranging from dwarf irregulars to giant ellipticals. The data present a clear monotonic LV relation from ∼50 km s –1 to ∼500 km s –1 , with a bend below ∼80 km s –1 and a systematic offset between late- and early-type galaxies. For comparison to theory, we employ our new ΛCDM 'Bolshoi' simulation of DM, which has unprecedented mass and force resolution over a large cosmological volume, while using an up-to-date set of cosmological parameters. We use HAM to assign rank-ordered galaxy luminosities to the DM halos, a procedure that automatically fits the empirical luminosity function and provides a predicted LV relation that can be checked against observations. The adiabatic contraction of DM halos in response to the infall of the baryons is included as an optional model ingredient. The resulting predictions for the LV relation are in excellent agreement with the available data on both early-type and late-type galaxies for the luminosity range from M r = –14 to M r = –22. We also compare our predictions for the 'cold' baryon mass (i

  18. Moral concerns on tradable pollution permits in international environmental agreements

    Eyckmans, Johan [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel - HUB, Stormstraat 2, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studien Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kverndokk, Snorre [Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate how moral concerns about permit trading affect an endogenous pollution permit trading equilibrium, where governments choose non-cooperatively the amount of permits they allocate to domestic industries. Politicians may feel reluctant to allow permit trading and/or may prefer that abatement is undertaken domestically because of moral concerns. This will have an effect on the initial permit allocations, and, therefore, on global emissions. The impact on global emissions depends on the precise formulation of the moral concerns, but under reasonable assumptions, we show that global emissions may increase. Thus, doing what is perceived as good does not always yield the desired outcome. However, this can be offset by restrictions on permit trading when governments have moral concerns about this trade. (author)

  19. Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy

    Varming, S.; Eriksen, P.B.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the project "Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy". The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operationbetween Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager...... for a tradable CO_2 permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable SO_2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. Topresent an overview of price estimates of CO_2 and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading...... to the different outcomes. Furthermore, the special role of backstop technologies in relation to permit prices isanalysed. To analyse the connection between CO_2 permit prices and technology choice in the energy sector in the medium and longer term (i.e., 2010 and 2020) with a special emphasis on combined heat...

  20. Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty and transaction costs

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of marketable permits for pollution control has become evident in recent years. Concern regarding their performance still remains because empirical evidence has shown transaction costs and uncertainty to be significant in past and existing marketable permits programs. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical models that include transaction costs and uncertainty (in trade approval) to show their effects on market performance (i.e., equilibrium price of permits and trading volume) and aggregate control costs. We also show that in the presence of transaction costs and uncertainty the initial allocation of permits may not be neutral in terms of efficiency. Furthermore, using a numerical model for a hypothetical NO x trading program in which participants have discrete control technology choices, we find that aggregate control costs and the equilibrium price of permits are sensitive to the initial allocation of permits, even for constant marginal transaction costs and certainty

  1. Moral concerns on tradable pollution permits in international environmental agreements

    Eyckmans, Johan; Kverndokk, Snorre

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how moral concerns about permit trading affect an endogenous pollution permit trading equilibrium, where governments choose non-cooperatively the amount of permits they allocate to domestic industries. Politicians may feel reluctant to allow permit trading and/or may prefer that abatement is undertaken domestically because of moral concerns. This will have an effect on the initial permit allocations, and, therefore, on global emissions. The impact on global emissions depends on the precise formulation of the moral concerns, but under reasonable assumptions, we show that global emissions may increase. Thus, doing what is perceived as good does not always yield the desired outcome. However, this can be offset by restrictions on permit trading when governments have moral concerns about this trade. (author)

  2. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  3. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  4. Proposed Issuance of NPDES Permit for NTUA Kayenta WWTF

    Public Notice of proposed Issuance of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (NPDES No. NN0020281) for Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (“NTUA”) Kayenta Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  5. Tradeable emission permits in Dutch environmental policy. A utopia?

    Schuurman, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the lack of experience with permits in the Netherlands, and in view of the similarities between various other tradeable permit systems, the functioning of Dutch systems of tradeable fish, milk and manure quotas is discussed. Evaluation of these systems is based on criteria of effectiveness, target-group efficiency and government efficiency. These systems of tradeable permits appear to constitute a successful addition to the Dutch policy of direct regulation. Considering this, and the favorable American experience with the Emissions Trading Program, tradeable emission permits deserve a chance to be implemented in Dutch environmental policy. The question remains, however, whether the Dutch government is ready for such a step. 28 refs

  6. 75 FR 66123 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2010-10-27

    ... enhancing their survival. Permit No. TE-24582A Applicant: Russell C. Croel, Folsom, California. The..., Contra Costa, Fresno, Glenn, Kings, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Solano, Stanislaus...

  7. 78 FR 9067 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    2013-02-07

    ... County, Alabama. Permit Application Number: TE-91366A Applicant: Dr. Paul Stewart, Troy, Alabama...: TE-91373A Applicant: Jonathan Miller, Troy, Alabama. Applicant requests authorization to take...

  8. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  9. Guide to Permitting Hydrogen Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities

    Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of this guide is to assist project developers, permitting officials, code enforcement officials, and other parties involved in developing permit applications and approving the implementation of hydrogen motor fuel dispensing facilities. The guide facilitates the identification of the elements to be addressed in the permitting of a project as it progresses through the approval process; the specific requirements associated with those elements; and the applicable (or potentially applicable) codes and standards by which to determine whether the specific requirements have been met. The guide attempts to identify all applicable codes and standards relevant to the permitting requirements.

  10. Hazardous waste incinerator permitting in Texas from inception to operation

    Simms, M.D.; McDonnell, R.G. III

    1991-01-01

    The regulatory permitting process for hazardous waste incinerators i a long and arduous proposition requiring a well-developed overall strategy. In Texas, RCRA permits for the operation of hazardous waste incinerator facilities are issued through the federally delegated Texas Water Commission (TWC). While the TWC has primacy in the issuance of RCRA permits for hazardous waste incinerators, the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) provides a significant portion of the Part B application review and provides much of the permit language. In addition to dealing with regulatory agencies, RCRA permitting provides by significant public involvement. Often the lack of public support becomes a major roadblock for an incinerator project. In order to establish an effective strategy which addresses the concerns of regulatory agencies and the public, it is important to have an understanding of the steps involved in obtaining a permit. A permit applicant seeking to construct a new hazardous waste incinerator can expect to go through a preapplication meeting with government regulators, a site selection process, file an application, respond to calls for additional technical information from both the TACB and the TWC, defend the application in a hearing, have a recommendation from a TWC hearing examiner and, finally, receive a determination from the TWC's Commissioners. Presuming a favorable response from the Commission, the permittee will be granted a trial burn permit and may proceed with the construction, certification and execution of a trial burn at the facility. Subsequent to publication of the trial burn results and approval by the TWC, the permittee will possess an operational hazardous waste incinerator permit. The paper describes the major steps required to receive an operational permit for a hazardous waste incinerator in the State of Texas. Important issues involved in each step will be discussed including insights gained from recent incinerator permitting efforts

  11. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  12. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  13. Quantifying the CO{sub 2} permit price sensitivity

    Gruell, Georg; Kiesel, Ruediger [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. of Energy Trading and Financial Services

    2012-06-15

    Equilibrium models have been widely used in the literature with the aim of showing theoretical properties of emissions trading schemes. This paper applies equilibrium models to empirically study permit prices and to quantify the permit price sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrate that emission trading schemes both with and without banking are inherently prone to price jumps. (orig.)

  14. 36 CFR 228.54 - Single entry sales or permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single entry sales or permits... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.54 Single entry sales or permits. The... plan which describes operating procedures and reclamation measures, unless the requirement is waived by...

  15. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches

  16. 46 CFR 78.40-10 - No smoking permitted.

    2010-10-01

    ... § 78.40-10 No smoking permitted. (a) The master shall have appropriate “No Smoking” signs posted and shall take all necessary precautions to prevent smoking or carrying of lighted or smoldering cigars... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No smoking permitted. 78.40-10 Section 78.40-10 Shipping...

  17. 77 FR 74507 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    2012-12-14

    ... not operate to the disadvantage of the endangered species, and (3) the granted permit would be.... Zoological Park. 2012. 82880A Big Game Studio 77 FR 54604; September 5, October 17, 2012. 2012. 83520A Donald...; fax (703) 358-2280. Brenda Tapia, Program Analyst/Data Administrator, Branch of Permits, Division of...

  18. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other...). Background In response to public interest in the use of trained raptors to haze (scare) depredating and other...

  19. Wilderness Management... A Computerized System for Summarizing Permit Information

    Gary H. Elsner

    1972-01-01

    Permits were first needed for visits to wilderness areas in California during summer 1971. A computerized system for analyzing these permits and summarizing information from them has been developed. It produces four types of summary tables: point-of-origin of visitors; daily variation in total number of persons present; variations in group size; and variations in...

  20. 19 CFR 12.99 - Procedures for permitted entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for permitted entry. 12.99 Section 12.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.99 Procedures for permitted entry...

  1. 76 FR 74070 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    2011-11-30

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Dated: November 21, 2011. Lynn M. Lewis...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered...

  2. 78 FR 9415 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    2013-02-08

    ...). Authority: The authority for this notice is the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered...

  3. 78 FR 57410 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    2013-09-18

    ... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered Species Act, as amended (Act). ADDRESSES: Endangered Species Program Manager, Ecological Services, U.S...-FF01E00000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION...

  4. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N149; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of an application to...

  5. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N021; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  6. 75 FR 28278 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-ES-2010-N092; 10120-1113-0000-F5] Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the...

  7. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N112; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  8. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N181; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  9. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N010; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  10. 76 FR 18576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N056; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  11. 76 FR 10063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N026; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  12. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N095; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  13. 75 FR 20621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-ES-2009-N0054]; [30120-1113-0000-F6] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  14. 43 CFR 13.4 - Terms of permit.

    2010-10-01

    ... § 13.4 Terms of permit. Every permit shall describe the location of the vending facilities and shall be... Interior bureau or office for each location. The head of the Interior bureau or office may require... efficiency as may be prescribed by the head of the Interior bureau or office. Such standards shall conform...

  15. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HMS international trade permit. 300.182... FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.182 HMS international trade permit. (a) General. An importer, entering for consumption fish or...

  16. Permits for coal-fired power plants under scrutiny

    Hoekstra, B.

    2011-01-01

    The attorney-general of the European Court of Justice offered advice to the European Judge on the prejudicial questions of the Department of Administrative Law of the Council of State in the framework of appeal cases against environmental permits of three planned power plants in the Netherlands. The advice may have large consequences for these permits. [nl

  17. 77 FR 49483 - Actions on Special Permit Applications

    2012-08-16

    ... modify the special permit Town, South Africa. 178.277(b)(1). to increase the water capacity from 17000... prevent leakage during transportation. (mode 1). 15667-N Volga Dnepr--UNIQUE AIR 49 CFR 172.101 Column To...). NEW SPECIAL PERMIT WITHDRAWN 15494-N Johnson Controls Battery 49 CFR 173.159 To authorize the Group...

  18. 76 FR 6490 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2011-02-04

    ... permit to take (trap, seine, capture, handle, fin clip, release, collect, transport, and captive breed... requests a permit to take (capture, handle, collect, transport, and kill) the Lost River sucker (Deltistes... Service, invite the public to comment on the following applications to conduct certain activities with...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-2 - Permits, Authorities, or Franchises.

    2010-10-01

    ... Franchises. 52.247-2 Section 52.247-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-2 Permits, Authorities, or Franchises. As prescribed in 47.207-1(a), insert the following clause: Permits, Authorities, or Franchises (JAN 1997) (a) The offeror does □, does not □, hold authorization from...

  20. 75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0377] Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... coating on its gas pipeline. DATES: Submit any comments regarding this special permit modification request...

  1. 76 FR 11853 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0027] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... a 24-inch mainline natural gas pipeline, 595 feet in length. The first segment of the special permit...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.146 - Permit-required confined spaces.

    2010-07-01

    ... any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit... could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and... complying with the permit space requirements that apply to all employers, each contractor who is retained to...

  3. 75 FR 52965 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2010-08-30

    ... appointment only, during normal business hours at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 500 Gold Ave., SW., Room... permit for research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys for American burying beetle...., Round Rock, Texas. Applicant requests an amendment to a current permit for research and recovery...

  4. 50 CFR 21.27 - Special purpose permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... certification required by part 13 and makes a sufficient showing of benefit to the migratory bird resource..., salvage, otherwise acquire, transport, or possess migratory birds, their parts, nests, or eggs for any... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.27 Special purpose...

  5. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted dips; substances allowed. 73.10 Section 73.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... flowers of sulphur or sulphur flour to 100 gallons of water; or a specifically permitted proprietary brand...

  6. 77 FR 54604 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2012-09-05

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and... applicant requests a permit to export sport hunted trophies of one male addax (Addax nasomaculatus), one.... Applicant: John Fry, Carson City, NV; PRT-82592A The applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted...

  7. 78 FR 76171 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2013-12-16

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and...: Geoffrey Ridder; Utopia, TX; PRT-00030B The applicant requests a permit to export the sport-hunted trophy... period. Multiple Applicants The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted...

  8. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  9. 40 CFR 123.25 - Requirements for permitting.

    2010-07-01

    ... MS4, may I share the responsibility to implement the minimum control measures with other entities... held prior to issuing any permit while reducing the amount of advance notice of such a hearing. State... individual, including the Director, who has or shares authority to approve all or portions of permits either...

  10. 29 CFR 2.12 - Audiovisual coverage permitted.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage permitted. 2.12 Section 2.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.12 Audiovisual coverage permitted. The following are the types of hearings where the Department...

  11. 76 FR 63322 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2011-10-12

    ... from Helianthus paradoxus (Pecos sunflower) from plants in Texas. Permit TE-829761 Applicant: Bureau of... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available...: Texas A & M University, Galveston, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for husbandry and holding of...

  12. 75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2010-11-03

    ... collect leaf tissue and seeds from the following endangered plants: South Texas ambrosia (Ambrosia... transportation, at the Miller Park Zoo. Permit TE-24625A Applicant: Wendy Leonard, San Antonio, Texas. Applicant...-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) and black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE...

  13. 78 FR 14110 - Emergency Issuance of Endangered Species Permit

    2013-03-04

    ... issued an endangered species permit to address emergency veterinary care for an injured green sea turtle...] Emergency Issuance of Endangered Species Permit AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered and threatened species under section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  14. 21 CFR 1312.13 - Issuance of import permit.

    2010-04-01

    ... drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V if he finds: (1) That the substance is crude opium, poppy straw... shall render it void and of no effect. Permits are not transferable. Each copy of the permit shall have... the Act (21 U.S.C. 952(a)(1) or (a)(2)(A)), the importation of approved narcotic raw material (opium...

  15. 23 CFR 650.807 - Bridges requiring a USCG permit.

    2010-04-01

    ... engineering, social, economic and environmental benefit and impacts. (e) The HA shall consider hydraulic... permit. (a) The USCG has the responsibility (1) to determine whether a USCG permit is required for the... the USCG to be involved throughout the environmental review process in accordance with 23 CFR part 771...

  16. 78 FR 12776 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2013-02-25

    ... and recovery purposes to conduct pollination on 36 individual adult Arizona hedgehog cactus.... Permit TE-43777A Applicant: Sea Life US, LLC, Grapevine, Texas. Applicant requests an amendment to a... Aquarium, Grapevine, Texas. Permit TE-92366A Applicant: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., Dallas, Texas...

  17. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2010-09-01

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  18. 78 FR 57650 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2013-09-19

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  19. 77 FR 12611 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2012-03-01

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  20. 75 FR 69699 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2010-11-15

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  1. 75 FR 79387 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2010-12-20

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  2. 76 FR 14424 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2011-03-16

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  3. 77 FR 5045 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2012-02-01

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity...

  4. 78 FR 16703 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2013-03-18

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  5. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2011-11-10

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  6. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2013-09-10

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  7. 76 FR 20004 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2011-04-11

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  8. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    2010-04-21

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  9. 33 CFR 325.1 - Applications for permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... process. Whenever the district engineer becomes aware of planning for work which may require a DA permit... in the basic timing sequence used by the Corps of Engineers in processing applications for DA permits.... Upon receipt of such request, the district engineer will assure the conduct of an orderly process which...

  10. 40 CFR 76.9 - Permit application and compliance plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit application and compliance plans. 76.9 Section 76.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.9 Permit application and...

  11. 40 CFR 97.223 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 97.223 Section 97.223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal of the CAIR SO2...

  12. 40 CFR 96.223 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.223 Section 96.223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal...

  13. 40 CFR 96.123 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.123 Section 96.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal...

  14. 40 CFR 97.123 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 97.123 Section 97.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal of the CAIR NOX...

  15. 40 CFR 97.323 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 97.323 Section 97.323 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... authority, as necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision...

  16. 27 CFR 555.45 - Original license or permit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original license or permit. 555.45 Section 555.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... Original license or permit. (a) Licenses issued prior to May 24, 2003. Any person who intends to engage in...

  17. 25 CFR 166.223 - Can I use a permit as collateral for a loan?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I use a permit as collateral for a loan? 166.223... PERMITS Permit Requirements Permit (leasehold) Mortgage § 166.223 Can I use a permit as collateral for a loan? We may approve a permit containing a provision that authorizes the permittee to encumber the...

  18. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    1993-03-01

    This permit application has been prepared to obtain a research, development, and demonstration permit to perform pilot-scale treatability testing on the 242-A Evaporator process condensate waste water effluent stream. It provides the management framework, and controls all the testing conducted in the waste water pilot plant using dangerous waste. It also provides a waste acceptance envelope (upper limits for selected constituents) and details the safety and environmental protection requirements for waste water pilot plant testing. This permit application describes the overall approach to testing and the various components or requirements that are common to all tests. This permit application has been prepared at a sufficient level of detail to establish permit conditions for all waste water pilot plant tests to be conducted

  19. Air quality permits in Texas and New Mexico

    Fusselman, D.K.; Hofmann, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Permitting gas processing equipment ranges from fairly simple procedures under the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) Standard Exemption List and the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division (NMEID) Registration Regulations to an extremely complicated procedure requiring a federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and/or non-attainment review. The following topics relating to obtaining air permits for gas plants will be addressed in this paper: Type of permit/exemption necessary for construction, Specific permit/exemption requirements, New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Subparts KKK, LLL, GG, K, Ka and Kb, Potential effects of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments (FCAA). This paper only addresses specific permitting concerns and requirements that apply to the natural gas production industry. The same requirements apply to other industries, with possible additional requirements of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), NSPS other than Subparts KKK, LLL, GG, K, Ka and Kb, and non-attainment review for pollutants other than ozone

  20. Permissible state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation

    Friel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation have been ruled inconsistent with federal law invalidated by the courts. As the date for repository operation, and its associated transportation, draws near, more states can be expected to adopt permit/fee systems. Examination of the U.S. Department of Transportation's advisory rulings and federal court cases on previous permit/fee systems gives general guidance on the type of permit/fee systems most likely to withstand challenges. Such a system would: have a simplified permit application with minimal information requirements; address a federally-defined class of hazardous or radioactive materials; allow access to all shipments conducted in compliance with federal law; charge a fee reasonably related to the costs imposed on the state by the transportation; and minimize the potential for re-directing shipments to other jurisdictions

  1. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant pests... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.203 Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in...

  2. 78 FR 6817 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    2013-01-31

    ... Wisconsin Public Service Corporation--JP Pulliam Plant. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Act, a... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9774-6] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Wisconsin Public Service Corporation--JP Pulliam Plant AGENCY...

  3. 75 FR 22400 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator...

    2010-04-28

    ... ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9142-6] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator Baltimore, L.P., Baltimore City, MD AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final action. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean...

  4. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    2011-08-26

    ... ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9457-3 ] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for Reliant Portland Generating Station, Upper Mount Bethel Township, Northampton County, PA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of action...

  5. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    2010-12-03

    ... ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9234-9] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper Company, Luke, MD AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final action. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), the...

  6. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 222-S Laboratory Complex

    WILLIAMS, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 222-S Laboratory Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-27). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation is current as of August 2000

  7. The CDM Superfamily Protein MBC Directs Myoblast Fusion through a Mechanism That Requires Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Triphosphate Binding but Is Independent of Direct Interaction with DCrk▿§

    Balagopalan, Lakshmi; Chen, Mei-Hui; Geisbrecht, Erika R.; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    myoblast city (mbc), a member of the CDM superfamily, is essential in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo for fusion of myoblasts into multinucleate fibers. Using germ line clones in which both maternal and zygotic contributions were eliminated and rescue of the zygotic loss-of-function phenotype, we established that mbc is required in the fusion-competent subset of myoblasts. Along with its close orthologs Dock180 and CED-5, MBC has an SH3 domain at its N terminus, conserved internal domains termed DHR1 and DHR2 (or “Docker”), and C-terminal proline-rich domains that associate with the adapter protein DCrk. The importance of these domains has been evaluated by the ability of MBC mutations and deletions to rescue the mbc loss-of-function muscle phenotype. We demonstrate that the SH3 and Docker domains are essential. Moreover, ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations that change amino acids within the MBC Docker domain to residues that are conserved in other CDM family members nevertheless eliminate MBC function in the embryo, which suggests that these sites may mediate interactions specific to Drosophila MBC. A functional requirement for the conserved DHR1 domain, which binds to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, implicates phosphoinositide signaling in myoblast fusion. Finally, the proline-rich C-terminal sites mediate strong interactions with DCrk, as expected. These sites are not required for MBC to rescue the muscle loss-of-function phenotype, however, which suggests that MBC's role in myoblast fusion can be carried out independently of direct DCrk binding. PMID:17030600

  8. Modeling Nearly Spherical Pure-bulge Galaxies with a Stellar Mass-to-light Ratio Gradient under the ΛCDM and MOND Paradigms. I. Methodology, Dynamical Stellar Mass, and Fundamental Mass Plane

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-06-01

    We carry out spherical Jeans modeling of nearly round pure-bulge galaxies selected from the ATLAS3D sample. Our modeling allows for gradients in the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M ⋆/L) through analytic prescriptions parameterized with a “gradient strength” K introduced to accommodate any viable gradient. We use a generalized Osipkov–Merritt model for the velocity dispersion (VD) anisotropy. We produce Monte Carlo sets of models based on the stellar VD profiles under both the ΛCDM and MOND paradigms. Here, we describe the galaxy data, the empirical inputs, and the modeling procedures of obtaining the Monte Carlo sets. We then present the projected dynamical stellar mass, {M}\\star {{e}}, within the effective radius R e, and the fundamental mass plane (FMP) as a function of K. We find the scaling of the K-dependent mass with respect to the ATLAS3D reported mass as: {log}}10[{M}\\star {{e}}(K)/{M}\\star {{e}}{{A}3{{D}}}]=a\\prime +b\\prime K with a‧ = ‑0.019 ± 0.012 and b‧ = ‑0.18 ± 0.02 (ΛCDM), or a‧ = ‑0.023 ± 0.014 and b‧ = ‑0.23 ± 0.03 (MOND), for 0 ≤ K expectation and only the zero-point scales with K. The median value of K for the ATLAS3D galaxies is ={0.53}-0.04+0.05. We perform a similar analysis of the much larger SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample. In this case, only the VD within a single aperture is available, so we impose the additional requirement that the VD slope be similar to that in the ATLAS3D galaxies. Our analysis of the SDSS galaxies suggests a positive correlation of K with stellar mass.

  9. Project W-314 phase I environmental permits and approvals plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the range of environmental actions, including required permits and other agency approvals, for Project W-314 activities in the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. This document outlines alternative approaches to satisfying applicable environmental standards, and describes selected strategies for acquiring permits and other approvals needed for waste feed delivery to proceed. This document also includes estimated costs and schedule to obtain the required permits and approvals based on the selected strategy. It also provides estimated costs for environmental support during design and construction based on the preliminary project schedule provided

  10. Permitting plan for project W-236B, initial pretreatment module

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System pretreatment process mission is to separate high-level and low-level waste fractions. A comprehensive review of environmental regulations has indicated that several environmental reviews, permits, and approvals are required before construction and operation of the facility. This revised document provides a summary of permit application data requirements, alternative strategies for permit completion and approval, as well as the probability of success for each alternative for the Initial Pretreatment Module resulting from recent revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement

  11. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  12. Pricing emission permits in the absence of abatement

    Hintermann, Beat

    2012-01-01

    If emissions are stochastic and firms are unable to control them through abatement, the cap in a permit market may be exceeded, or not be reached. I derive a binary options pricing formula that expresses the permit price as a function of the penalty for noncompliance and the probability of an exceeded cap under the assumption of no abatement. I apply my model to the EU ETS, where the rapid introduction of the market made it difficult for firms to adjust their production technology in time for the first phase. The model fits the data well, implying that the permit price may have been driven by firms hedging against stochastic emissions.

  13. Enforcing Transferable Permit Systems in the Presence of Market Power

    Chavez, C.A.; Stanlund, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    We derive an enforcement strategy for a transferable permit system in the presence of market power that achieves complete compliance in a cost-effective manner. We show that the presence of a firm with market influence makes designing an enforcement strategy more difficult than enforcing a perfectly competitive system. We also re-consider the suggestion that a firm with market influence should be allocated permits so that it chooses to not participate in the permit market. When enforcement and its costs are taken into account, that suggestion does not hold except in a very special case

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements

  15. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  16. 77 FR 49453 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2012-08-16

    ... citations to, and analyses of, the applicable laws and regulations. We will not consider or include in our... period. Applicant: Alexandria Rosati, Cambridge, MA; PRT-72061A The applicant requests a permit to...

  17. 75 FR 34766 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2010-06-18

    ... permit to export one female captive bred giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) born at the zoo in 2007and.... Applicant: United States Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Wildlife...

  18. 50 CFR 25.55 - Refuge admission permits.

    2010-10-01

    ...-specific permits, at Fish and Wildlife Service Regional and Washington, DC Offices, and at other locations....55 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... the holder on the front. ...

  19. Oversize/overweight vehicle unified permitting process (UPP) : phase I.

    2017-08-01

    Multiple jurisdictions within Minnesota process oversize/overweight (OSOW) permits for the movement of freight on state roadways, county roads, and municipal and township streets. Movement of freight has increased in recent years to help support econ...

  20. Oversize/overweight permitting practices review : phase II.

    2013-02-01

    This study explores a more detailed analysis of the permitting process in the Mid-Atlantic Region and : delves into operational practice, and theory and history of the practice among states. The states : practices examined in greater detail include C...

  1. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit (HYDROGP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of MA.

  2. 36 CFR 296.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for management...

  3. 78 FR 75369 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    2013-12-11

    ... into the wild in Oklahoma. Permit TE-833851 Applicant: City of Austin Watershed Protection Department... reddelli) Black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) Bone Cave harvestman (Texella reyesi) Braken Bat Cave...

  4. Storm Water General Permit 1 for Industrial Facilities

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #1 for storm water discharges associated with industrial facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  5. 48 CFR 52.236-7 - Permits and Responsibilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... obtaining any necessary licenses and permits, and for complying with any Federal, State, and municipal laws... negligence. The Contractor shall also be responsible for all materials delivered and work performed until...

  6. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  7. 75 FR 30428 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2010-06-01

    ... (Oreonax flavicauda) from Peru for the purpose of enhancement of the species through scientific research... be conducted under the remainder of the 5-year period of the permit. Applicant: Natural History...

  8. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    Conkling, C.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    1992-01-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards

  10. 77 FR 3493 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2012-01-24

    ..., Moseley, VA; PRT-57466A. The applicant requests a permit to import 6 female captive-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) from De Wildt Cheetah Breeding Centre, De Wildt, South Africa for the purpose of...

  11. 9 CFR 72.13 - Permitted dips and procedures.

    2010-01-01

    ... proprietary brands of permitted dips—as well the use of compressed air, vat management techniques, and other... maintained and that under actual field conditions the dipping of cattle with a solution of definite strength...

  12. 76 FR 27660 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2011-05-12

    ... decisions are: (1) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include... applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus...

  13. 76 FR 20705 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2011-04-13

    ... quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and analyses of, the applicable.... Multiple Applicants The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of...

  14. 78 FR 59052 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2013-09-25

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and.... Multiple Applicants The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of...

  15. 78 FR 45954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2013-07-30

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and... Applicants The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male...

  16. 76 FR 52965 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2011-08-24

    ... quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and analyses of, the applicable... permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) culled from...

  17. 75 FR 63196 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2010-10-14

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and... a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) culled...

  18. 75 FR 76022 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2010-12-07

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and... public display. Multiple Applicants The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport...

  19. 76 FR 39432 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2011-07-06

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and.... Multiple Applicants (New Applications) The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport...

  20. 78 FR 112 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    2013-01-02

    ...) Those supported by quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and... applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus...