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  1. Country Presentation Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill Akhtar, Khalida [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, PS, QA/QC, 44400 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Pakistan is the home to three Nuclear Power Plants: - Karachi Nuclear Power Plant KANUPP: KANUPP Karachi Nuclear Power Plant is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. KANUPP is a single unit Candu PHWR with a total gross capacity of 137 MW. The 137-MWe (Candu PHWR) Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) was commissioned earlier in 1972, supplied and built by Canada. It has completed its design life of 30 years and is undergoing indigenous refurbishment to enhance safety and extend its life for another 10-15 years. - Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CHASHNUPP 1: CHASNUPP-1 Chashma Nuclear Power Plant I is located at Kundian, Punjab, Pakistan. It forms part of the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex. The CHASNUPP-1 is a single unit. It was made operational in year 2000. The 325-MWe PWR, supplied and constructed by China. It has so far undergone four refueling outages. Its average capacity and availability factor for year 2004-05 were 93 % and 96.4 % respectively. - Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CHASHNUPP 2: The site is situated next to Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1. The CHASNUPP-2 will be a single-unit plant. The corresponding gross electric output of the turbine generator is 325 MWe. It is under construction, commercial operation expected {approx} 2011. Pakistan Current Nuclear Power Program: - All Nuclear Power Plants and fuel Cycle facilities operated by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). - Pakistan nuclear safety issues regulated by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). All Nuclear Power Plants are under IAEA Safeguards. Pakistan is member of Candu Operators Group (COG), and of World Association of Nuclear (Plant) Operators (WANO). The government of Pakistan has chalked out a comprehensive plan to expand power generation to meet the demands of the country's rapidly growing economy. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has been given the task of increasing nuclear power generation in accordance with the country's energy security plan. Technical

  2. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  3. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  4. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  5. Area Handbook Series. Pakistan: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    and shrimp were a significant portion of the catch. sea bss, tuna, bonito. shad. and shark were the important fish caught. Some modernization of the...34tha w citable wues to thi day. Wh@eer sabiiy wa mantied by the IFpNel power in &ia a de is so m.ds ,o f , t, ciil to&wrvuM . MMOe r. So6sha athoriy was...34the Military Elite in Pakistan. A Socio-listoral Anal- -sis - (Unpublished mantis -Opt. April 1973) Iuissai. As{ Elite Politics in an Ideolo al Star The

  6. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Mahmood, Qaisar; Nasreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2009-08-30

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Pakistan is about to exhaust its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water deficit country. Water pollution is a serious menace in Pakistan, as almost 70% of its surface waters as well as its groundwater reserves have contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. In some areas of Pakistan, a number of shallow aquifers and tube wells are contaminated with arsenic at levels which are above the recommended USEPA arsenic level of 10 ppb (10 microg L(-1)). Adverse health effects including human mortality from drinking water are well documented and can be attributed to arsenic contamination. The present paper reviews appropriate and low cost methods for the elimination of arsenic from drinking waters. It is recommended that a combination of low cost chemical treatment like ion exchange, filtration and adsorption along with bioremediation may be useful option for arsenic removal from drinking water.

  7. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan

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    Babar Masroor E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS. In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation.

  8. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  9. Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  10. Where Pakistan Stands Among Top Rice Exporting Countries, an Analysis of Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Abdullah; Jia Li; Sidra Ghazanfar; Jaleel Ahmed; Imran Khan; Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq

    2015-01-01

    Under the umbrella of WTO, the reduction in trade barriers has forced the policy makers to focus on the export competitiveness. Rice is an important source for foreign exchange earnings for the economy of Pakistan, keeping in mind of this fact, the competitiveness of Pakistan's rice with other major exporters was examined by applying revealed competitive advantage. The domestic consumption trends of rice among the major rice exporting countries were also analyzed in the current study. The results revealed that as compare to other major exporters of rice in the world, Pakistan had high competitive and comparative advantage in the production of rice. The comparison of the movements in comparative advantage indices for Pakistan with the major world rice competitors/exporters showed that Pakistan possessed relatively high comparative and competitive advantages in rice production. The declining domestic per capita consumption of rice and increasing trends in competitiveness for Pakistan clearly revealed the expected potential of higher growth which meant that rice exports from Pakistan could continue to play an important role for the earnings of foreign exchange. In order to exploit the potential benefits of rice exports, we need to strengthen the competitiveness in rice sector of Pakistan.

  11. Establishing a successful pre-hospital emergency service in a developing country: experience from Rescue 1122 service in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Hunniya; Naseer, Rizwan; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-06-01

    As in many other developing countries, emergency medical services, especially pre-hospital emergency care, has long been neglected in Pakistan. Consequently, patients are brought to the emergency departments by relatives or bystanders in private cars, taxis or any other readily available mode of transportation. Ambulances, where they exist, have barely a stretcher and arrangements for oxygen supply. Modern emergency services are considered too costly for many countries. A model of pre-hospital emergency services, called Rescue 1122 and established in Punjab province of Pakistan, is presented. The system is supported by government funding and provides a quality service. The article describes the process of establishment of the service, the organisational structure, the scope of services and the role it is currently playing in the healthcare of the region it serves.

  12. Psychologists experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayub Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological therapies especially Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT are used widely in the West to help patients with psychiatric problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has an established evidence base for the treatment of different emotional disorders. In spite of these developments in the developed world, patients in most developing countries hardly benefit from non pharmacological interventions. Although a significant number of psychologists are trained in Pakistan each year, psychological interventions play only a minor role in treatment plans in Pakistan. We conducted interviews with psychologists in Pakistan, to explore their experiences and their views on "providing CBT in Pakistan". These interviews were conducted as part of a project whose focus was to try to develop culturally-sensitive CBT in Pakistan. Methods In depth semi structured interviews were conducted with 5 psychologists working in psychiatry departments in Lahore, Pakistan. Results All the psychologists reported that psychotherapies, including CBT, need adjustments for use in Pakistan, although they were not able to elicit on these in details. Four major themes were discovered, hurdles in therapy, therapy related issues, involvement of the family and modification in therapy. The biggest hurdles in therapy were described to be service and resource issues. Conclusions For CBT to be acceptable, accessible and effective in Non Western cultures numerous adjustments need to be made, taking into consideration; factors related to service structure and delivery, patient's knowledge and beliefs about health and the therapy itself. Interviews with the psychologists in these countries can give us insights which can guide development of therapy and manuals to support its delivery.

  13. Pakistan and China: An Excellent Model for Relations Between Neighboring Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutfullah Mangi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Pakistan-China relations are linked in four areas:political relations;military cooperation:trade and economic relations; and people-to-people contact and cultural relations.The focus of the Sino-Pakistan bilateral relationship has been on political and security relations.Both countries have a lot in common on regional and global issues.Both maintain that post-9/11 international relations are characterized by multi-polarity.Their numerous common bilateral and international interests have provided a solid foundation for friendly and cooperative relations.There is virtually no conflict of interest in the political,economic and security relations.

  14. PKI Implementation Issues: A Comparative Study of Pakistan with some Asian Countries

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    Nasir Mahmood Malik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes Public Key Infrastructure (PKI, its need and requirements and introduction of some renowned PKI products. However, the major thrust of this work is that how PKI can enhance security of various systems. The paper is intended to serve as a guide on how to adequately prepare for some of the challenges that may be encountered especially in developing countries like Pakistan. The detail of PKI implementation issues is also included in the paper along with future challenges regarding implementation of PKI. Furthermore, paper includes technical issues hindering the implementation of PKI through comparison of PKI issues in Pakistan and some of Asian countries mainly Taiwan, Japan and Singapore. The paper also highlights the PKI issues and learnt lessons regarding PKI implementation and can act as a comprehensive guide for successful future PKI deployments.

  15. Assessing emergency medical care in low income countries: A pilot study from Pakistan

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    Akhtar Tasleem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency medical care in the government health care system at district level in a low income countryPakistan. Methods We did a quantitative pilot study of a convenience sample of 22 rural and 20 urban health facilities in 2 districts – Faisalabad and Peshawar – in Pakistan. The study consisted of three separate cross-sectional assessments of selected community leaders, health care providers, and health care facilities. Three data collection instruments were created with input from existing models for facility assessment such as those used by the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Hospitals and the National Center for Health Statistics in USA and the Medical Research Council in Pakistan. Results The majority of respondents 43/44(98%, in community survey were not satisfied with the emergency care provided. Most participants 36/44(82% mentioned that they will not call an ambulance in health related emergency because it does not function properly in the government system. The expenses on emergency care for the last experience were reported to be less than 5,000 Pakistani Rupees (equivalent to US$ 83 for 19/29(66% respondents. Most health care providers 43/44(98% were of the opinion that their facilities were inadequately equipped to treat emergencies. The majority of facilities 31/42(74% had no budget allocated for emergency care. A review of medications and equipment available showed that many critical supplies needed in an emergency were not found in these facilities. Conclusion Assessment of emergency care should be part of health systems analysis in Pakistan. Multiple deficiencies in emergency care at the district level in Pakistan were noted in our study. Priority should be given to make emergency care responsive to

  16. NGOs and government partnership for health systems strengthening: A qualitative study presenting viewpoints of government, NGOs and donors in Pakistan

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    Rizvi Narjis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems are expected to serve the population needs in an effective, efficient and equitable manner. Therefore, the importance of strengthening of public, private and community health systems has been emphasized time and again. In most of the developing countries, certain weaknesses and gaps in the government health systems have been hampering the achievement of improved health outcomes. Public sector in Pakistan has been deficient in the capacity to deliver equitable and quality health services and thus has been grossly underutilized. Methods A qualitative study comprising in-depth interviews was conducted capturing the perceptions of the government functionaries, NGO representatives and donor community about the role and position of NGOs in health systems strengthening in Pakistan's context. Analysis of the data was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Results Since many years, international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs have endeavored to fill the gaps in health service delivery, research and advocacy. NGOs have relatively performed better and achieved the results because of the flexible planning and the ability to design population based projects on health education, health promotion, social marketing, community development and advocacy. This paper captures the need and the opportunity of public private partnership in Pakistan and presents a framework for a meaningful engagement of the government and the private and nonprofit NGOs. Conclusion Involving the NGOs for health system strengthening may eventually contribute to create a healthcare system reflecting an increased efficiency, more equity and good governance in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals. Nevertheless, few questions need to be answered and pre-requisites have to be fulfilled before moving on.

  17. Firearm Injuries Presenting to a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

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    Junaid A Razzak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a public health problem in low and middle income countries. Our study attempted to define the circumstances, risk groups, extent and severity of firearm-related injuries in patients coming to the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH Karachi, Paki¬stan. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in the department of Emergency Medicine (EM at AKUH Karachi, Pakistan. Past medical records of all patients who were injured by firearms and were presented to the AKUH Emergency Department (ED from June 2002 till May 2007 were reviewed. Data were recorded on the basic demographics of injured, length of hospital stay, body parts injured and the outcome (alive vs. dead. Results: Total of 286 patients with firearm injuries were identified. Majority of them were males (92%; n=264. More than half of the patients (63% were in the age group of 21-40 years. Upon arrival to the hospital 85% (n=243 of patients had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≥ 13. The mean injury severity score (ISS was found to be 6 (SD ±4. The length of hospital stay of patients ranged from 0 to 54 days with a mean of 7 days. Lower limb were the most affected body parts (30%, n=86 followed by abdomen pelvis (27%, n=77. Seven percent (n=21 of the patient who were brought to the hospital were labeled as “deceased on arrival”. Most of the injuries were caused during the act of robbery (40%, n=103 in the city. Conclusions: Robbery was the most common cause of firearm inju¬ries. Lower limb, abdomen and pelvis were the most affected body regions. Educational efforts, and individual, community and societal approaches are needed to alleviate firearm-related injuries.

  18. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective

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    Khan Hussain I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48% were males and 408 (52% females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85 years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63 years. Out of these, 358 (45.6% respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction score while 426 (54.4% had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7% were male and 265 (65.0% were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3% were male and 143 (35.0% were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females.

  19. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amad N; Khalid, Salema; Khan, Hussain I; Jabeen, Mehnaz

    2011-05-24

    Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in

  20. Severity of burn and its related factors: A study from the developing country Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Omair; Nisar, Nighat; Ehmer-Al-Ibran; Shafique, Kashif; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2016-06-01

    Burns are leading cause of fatal injuries and major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The major obstacle in controlling severity is factors related to burn. This study determines frequency of burns and the factors related to it in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 384 hospitalized adult patients with burns were consecutively interviewed during August 2013 to February 2014. Information was collected on socio-demographic profile, intent of burn, severity of burn, health hazards, physical and psychological characteristics. TBSA burn of >15% was considered as higher severity of burn. Higher severity of burns was found in 76.3% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that higher severity of burns were significantly associated with age less than 25 years (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.9), never had been to school (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.9) and intentional burn (OR 20.6, 95% CI 5.0-84.9). Majority of patients had higher severity of burn. The intent of injury was intentional, age less than 25 years and no schooling were found significantly associated with higher severity of burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating performance of a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) in a low-income country: a case study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ahmed, Aizaz

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends identifying a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) within the government to coordinate preventive interventions. As LRSAs in developing countries have rarely been evaluated, this case study describes the performance of the LRSA of Pakistan with respect to the World Bank criteria. The designated LRSA, the National Road Safety Secretariat, was put into operation in 2006 and worked for about two years with World Bank funding. The agency had a stand-alone structure headed by an experienced road safety specialist during the first year only and faced difficulty in recruiting other required experts. The LRSA drafted the first National Road Safety Plan, including strategic review of road safety and existing legislation, articulated multisectorial collaboration nationally and provincially, and collected traffic injury data in some districts. Its progress was halted by its dissolution because of funding problems. Currently, two agencies specialising in traffic enforcement and transport research respectively are fulfilling LRSA functions on an ad-hoc basis. Results suggest that sustainability and consistency of LRSAs in developing countries like Pakistan may only be ensured if they are legally protected, inter-ministerial, have permanent funding and are provided with the required expertise through international cooperation, so they can perform their required functions effectively.

  2. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  3. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  4. Challenges in Higher Education: Special reference to Pakistan and South Asian Developing Countries

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    Syed Zubair Haider

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher education has great importance in the development of a country. But unfortunately, its importance is yet to be realized in South Asian developing countries. For over a decade, countries have been working to uplift their educational standard by providing quality higher education to their citizens but there are many obstacles and hurdles that are emerging. These challenges (quantity, equity, quality, etc are very common in nature but require proper procedure to address in the best manner.

  5. Clinical pharmacy practice in developing countries: Focus on India and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula; Barun Ranjan Sarkar; Isha Patel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy practice is undergoing unprecedented changes as standard profession of pharmacy practice by means of pharmaceutical care. Although, the clinical pharmacy is well recognized in developed countries, but the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice is still at nascent stage in developing countries. Hence, this article is focused on the variations in implementation of clinical pharmacy education and practice in developing countries, specially focusing on highly populous coun...

  6. Educational Quality and Labour Market Performance in Developing Countries: Some Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ather H. Akbari; Naeem Muhammed

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have shown that investment in the quality of education has a higher payoff than investment in quantity alone.1 However, in many developing countries, investment in improving educational quality is still accorded a lower priority than investment in educational quantity. Countries which commit more resources towards education are generally observed to expand their enrolment ratios while paying little attention on improving such schooling inputs as student-teacher ratio that cont...

  7. Integrating ethics, health policy and health systems in low- and middle-income countries: case studies from Malaysia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Merritt, Maria; Ali, Joseph; Tran, Nhan T; Subramaniam, Kulanthayan; Akhtar, Tasleem

    2008-08-01

    Scientific progress is a significant basis for change in public-health policy and practice, but the field also invests in value-laden concepts and responds daily to sociopolitical, cultural and evaluative concerns. The concepts that drive much of public-health practice are shaped by the collective and individual mores that define social systems. This paper seeks to describe the ethics processes in play when public-health mechanisms are established in low- and middle-income countries, by focusing on two cases where ethics played a crucial role in producing positive institutional change in public-health policy. First, we introduce an overview of the relationship between ethics and public health; second, we provide a conceptual framework for the ethical analysis of health system events, noting how this approach might enhance the power of existing frameworks; and third, we demonstrate the interplay of these frameworks through the analysis of a programme to enhance road safety in Malaysia and an initiative to establish a national ethics committee in Pakistan. We conclude that, while ethics are gradually being integrated into public-health policy decisions in many developing health systems, ethical analysis is often implicit and undervalued. This paper highlights the need to analyse public-health decision-making from an ethical perspective.

  8. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  9. Why are older peoples' health needs forgotten post-natural disaster relief in developing countries? A healthcare provider survey of 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang

    2009-01-01

    Although older people may be recognized as a vulnerable group post-natural disasters, their particular needs are rarely met by the providers of emergency services. Studies about older people's health needs post disasters in the South East Asia Tsunami, Kashmir, Pakistan, China, and United States has revealed the lack of concern for older people's health needs. Recent study of older people's health needs post the Kashmir Pakistan earthquake (2005) found older peoples' health needs were masked within the general population. This survey study examines the providers' perceptions of older people's vulnerabilities post-2005 Pakistan earthquake. It aims to understand the awareness of geriatric issues and issues related to current service provision/planning for older people's health needs post disasters. Specifically, service delivery patterns will be compared among different relief agencies. Cross-sectional, structured stakeholder interviews were conducted within a 2 weeks period in February 2006, 4 months post-earthquake in Pakistan-administrated Kashmir. Health/medical relief agencies of three different types of organizational nature: international nongovernmental organization (INGO), national organization, and local/community group were solicited to participate in the study. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Important issues identified include the need to sensitize relief and health workers about older people's health needs post disaster the development of relevant clinical guidelines for chronic disease management postdisaster in developing countries and the advocacy of building in geriatric related components in natural disaster medical relief programs. To effectively address the vulnerability of older people, it is important for governments, relief agencies, and local partners to include and address these issues during their relief operations and policy planning.

  10. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  11. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P soil of the mining-contaminated sites as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of toxic heavy metals, present in the bed rocks and waste of the mines. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in majority of medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk.

  12. Etiology and severity of various forms of ocular war injuries in patients presenting at an Army Hospital in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Naqvi, Syed Abid; Malik, Sidra; Zulfiqaruddin, Syed; Anwar, Syeda Birjees; Nayyar, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the etiology and severity of various forms of ocular war injuries in patients presenting at an Army Hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar over four years period from June 2012 through March 2016, Two hundred ten consecutive soldiers who presented with ocular war injuries were included for analysis after taking written informed consent. A predesigned proforma was used to record patient’s demographic details along with the cause, side, type and severity of injury, ocular trauma score was also recorded at presentation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.34±5.35 years. All of them were males. Left side was more frequently involved (n=126, 60.0%) and the most frequent underlying cause was IED blast injury (n=114, 54.3%). Closed globe injuries were more frequent and were recorded in 120 (57.1%) patients. Upon assigning Ocular Trauma Score, Grade-V (28.6%) injuries were the most frequent followed by Grade-I (25.7%), Grade III (25.7%), Grade II (11.4%) and Grade IV (8.6%). When stratified for the type of injury, OTS Grade I injuries were highest (60.0%) among patients with open globe injuries, hence poorer prognosis, while OTS Grade V injuries were highest (50.0%) among patients with closed globe injuries (p=0.000). Conclusion: IED blast injuries are most frequently encountered ocular war injuries often involving soldiers in the age group 20-30 years. These open globe injuries had worst clinical presentation to begin with and poorer prognosis than closed globe injuries. PMID:28083061

  13. Groundwater Governance in a Water-Starved Country: Public Policy, Farmers' Perceptions, and Drivers of Tubewell Adoption in Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Syed Mohammad; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan faces the challenge of developing sustainable groundwater policies with the main focus on groundwater management rather than groundwater development and with appropriate governance arrangement to ensure benefits continue into the future. This article investigates groundwater policy, farmers' perceptions, and drivers of tubewell (groundwater bore) adoption and proposes possible pathways for improved groundwater management for Balochistan, Pakistan. Historical groundwater policies were mainly aimed at increasing agricultural production and reducing poverty, without consideration of adverse impact on groundwater availability. These groundwater policies and governance arrangements have resulted in a massive decline in groundwater tables. Tubewell owners' rankings of the drivers of groundwater decline suggest that rapid and widespread installation of tubewells, together with uncontrolled extraction due to lack of property rights, electricity subsidy policies, and ineffective governance, are key causes of groundwater decline in Balochistan. An empirical "tubewell adoption" model confirmed that the electricity subsidy significantly influenced tubewell adoption decisions. The article proposes a more rational electricity subsidy policy for sustaining groundwater levels in the short-run. However, in the long run a more comprehensive sustainable groundwater management policy, with strong institutional support and involvement of all stakeholders, is needed.

  14. The importance of origin and destination country skills for labour market attachment of immigrants from Pakistan, Iran and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Jacob; Nielsen, Chantal; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    country language proficiency and education level from the country of origin with administrative records on employment and education acquired in the destination country. The results neither show evidence of direct transferability nor of indirect employment gains from foreign skills when complemented...... by domestic language proficiency. Yet, foreign educated do acquire more education in the destination country, that raises their employment....

  15. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  16. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  17. The importance of origin and destination country skills for labour market attachment of immigrants from Pakistan, Iran and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Jacob; Nielsen, Chantal; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how qualifications acquired prior to migration affect employment of adult immigrants in the destination country. It explores the direct effect as well as indirect effects arising through destination country investments. The study combines survey information on destination coun...... by domestic language proficiency. Yet, foreign educated do acquire more education in the destination country, that raises their employment....

  18. TQM in Construction and Manufacturing Companies of Pakistan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of construction quality and continuous improvement is vital in the development of construction industry of developing countries. Construction quality and continuous improvement is linked with the adoption of quality management systems in construction companies. This paper highlights the importance of TQM (Total Quality Management and presents the benefits of TQM gained by construction organizations in worldwide construction sector. It examines and contrasts the level of acceptance and execution of TQM in construction and manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The paper also identifies the barriers in adoption of TQM and advantages of implementing TQM in construction sector of Pakistan. In the end, the paper presents some suggestions and steps for the implementation of TQM in construction companies of Pakistan. The findings and recommendations of the study are not only beneficial for the construction sector of Pakistan but also these will be helpful to other developing countries having similar scenarios.

  19. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  20. Road traffic accidents; An observational and analytical study exploring the hidden truths in Pakistan and South East-Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabish Hussain1, Li Yu Shu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite national traffic legislation and known safety benefits of traffic laws, awareness remains low in Pakistan. Study aim was to determine level of knowledge about traffic legislation and attitudes towards their observation in capital city Islamabad to provide baseline data for formulation of an intervention aimed at strengthening road safety law enforcement. Survey-Analysis with Random Observational study was conducted by using standard survey questionnaire focusing Roadsafety awareness levels and use of helmets/seatbelts on MainRoads and StreetRoads.Drivers/passengers/pedestrian were randomly selected to participate in face-to-face interview to ascertain attitudes. Overall, Deficient Road-Safety Awareness was at top(27%followed by wrong use/no use of seatbelts/helmets(21% and legislative aspects were at last(17%including under-age driving,vehicles without fitness and licensure problems exploring the bitter hidden truths. Actions areas for preventing Road Traffic Accidents(RTAs include interventions to improve road-safety education, identification /implementation of safety measures for traffic black-spots, enforcement of seatbelt/helmet laws and the development of highway ordinances. PRECAUTION IS BETTER THAN CURE as Road Traffic Accidents are 100% preventable.

  1. The Limits of Water Pricing in a Developing Country Metropolis: Empirical Lessons from an Industrial City of Pakistan

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    Shabbir Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to question the effectiveness of water pricing as a means of consumer behavioural change in urban centres of the Global South by analysing the domestic usage for water in a major industrial city of Pakistan. Using survey data of 1100 households from Faisalabad city, we estimate the price and income elasticities of water demand. Instrumental variable methods are applied to overcome the endogeneity issues of water pricing. The findings reflect that price and income elasticities vary across different groups. Price elasticities range from −0.43 to −0.71, and income elasticities vary between 0.01 and 0.12. These findings suggest that pricing policies may have limited scope to drive households’ water consumption patterns. However, these empirics may suggest that policy makers should design an appropriate tariff structure to increase revenues that can be invested to further improve the existing water infrastructure. The study findings also suggest that non-pricing instruments, such as water saving campaigns, may be helpful in driving an efficient use of water in rapidly growing cities in the developing world.

  2. Pakistan seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-02-01

    Public participation in the national family planning programme and the promotion of population education were the main topics discussed at the national conference of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan held at Cokilla in December. The Conference was opened by the Governor of East Pakistan, Vice-Admiral S.M. Ahsan. The Minister of Health, Dr. A.M. Malik, presided at the first session when delegates and visitors were welcomed by Begum Manzoor Quadir, President of the Pakistan Association. Experience in India, Cylon and Nepal, as well as in Pakistan was examined in relation to public participation in national programmes. At the session concerned with the promotion of a population education programme special attention was paid to a new element in the education programme, the proposals for teaching the elements of responsible parenthood and population dynamics to school children and young people. Mrs. Sarwat Rahman and Mrs. Fatema Iftekhar, members of the Pakistan Association who recently attended a prototype course in family life education at IPPF headquarters in London, addressed the conference on certain approaches to the education of young people that they consider particulary suitable for Pakistan. Dr. Malcolm Potts, Medical Secretary of the IPPF, also took part in the session on population education. He subsequently addressed meetings of doctors in three towns in East Pakistan as well as visiting urban and rural projects of the Pakistan Association and saw vasectomy clinics at work.

  3. Professor Tariq Solaija, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator, discussing a section of CMS with Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan, in charge of Pakistan's contribution to the Muon detector (Resistive Plate Chambers). Photo 02: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) presents neutron absorber panels for the CMS detector to (right-to-left) Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan and Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN. Photo 03: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan; Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN and Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) looking up to the CMS detector. Photo 04: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan listen to a presentation of the CMS d...

  4. Using causal loop diagrams for the initialization of stakeholder engagement in soil salinity management in agricultural watersheds in developing countries: a case study in the Rechna Doab watershed, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Halbe, Johannes; Prasher, Shiv

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last twenty years, participatory modeling has increasingly been advocated as an integral component of integrated, adaptive, and collaborative water resources management. However, issues of high cost, time, and expertise are significant hurdles to the widespread adoption of participatory modeling in many developing countries. In this study, a step-wise method to initialize the involvement of key stakeholders in the development of qualitative system dynamics models (i.e. causal loop diagrams) is presented. The proposed approach is designed to overcome the challenges of low expertise, time and financial resources that have hampered previous participatory modeling efforts in developing countries. The methodological framework was applied in a case study of soil salinity management in the Rechna Doab region of Pakistan, with a focus on the application of qualitative modeling through stakeholder-built causal loop diagrams to address soil salinity problems in the basin. Individual causal loop diagrams were developed by key stakeholder groups, following which an overall group causal loop diagram of the entire system was built based on the individual causal loop diagrams to form a holistic qualitative model of the whole system. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach, based on using causal loop diagrams in initiating stakeholder involvement in the participatory model building process. In addition, the results point to social-economic aspects of soil salinity that have not been considered by other modeling studies to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leading Leadership style to motivate cultural-oriented female employees in the I.T sector of developing country: I.T Sectors responses from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Adnan ul; Faizan, Riffat; Zehra, Nasreen; Baloch, Akhtar; Nadda, Vipin; Riaz, Fayyaz

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study explores different Leadership styles' dimensions influencing culturaloriented female employees' motivation in rapidly improving Pakistan's I.T sector. Hypothetico-Inductive-Deductive model was adapted to construct theoretical framework by opting mixed method under realism philosophy. Sample size is 357 female employees working in software houses of Pakistan's 10 cities selected by combining convenience sampling and stratified sampling techniques. Survey que...

  6. Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Zaigham, Nayyer [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Alam Nayyar, Zeeshan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Hisamuddin, Noushaba [422 Wycliffe, Irvine, CA 92602 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports of hydrocarbon products to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional and as well non-conventional. Many of them have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Geothermal energy is one of them. Pakistan can be benefited by harnessing the geothermal option of energy generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. Most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world are within the seismic belts associated with zones of crustal weakness like the seismo-tectonic belt that passes through Pakistan having inherited a long geological history of geotectonic events. The present study of the geotectonic framework suggests that Pakistan should not be lacking in commercially exploitable sources of geothermal energy. This view is further strengthened by (a) the fairly extensive development of alteration zones and fumeroles in many regions of Pakistan, (b) the presence of a fairly large number of hot springs in different parts of the country, and (c) the indications of Quaternary volcanism associated with the Chagai arc extending into Iran and Afghanistan border areas. These manifestations of geothermal energy are found within three geotectonic or geothermal environments, i.e., (1) geo-pressurized systems related to basin subsidence, (2) seismo-tectonic or suture-related systems, and (3) systems related to Neogene-Quaternary volcanism. A few localities, scattered sporadically all over the country, have been studied to evaluate only some of the basic characteristic parameters of the geothermal prospects. The present review study the geothermal activities of varying intensity and

  7. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  8. A situational analysis of HIV and AIDS in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Muhammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus transmission has been reduced by protected sex and screening of blood products and other body fluids in the developed countries. It has been reported that Pakistan is at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection but presently the prevalence rate is considerably low. The number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan has been continuously increasing since 1987. By 2010 the total number of registered cases has reached to 6000 and this figure is on the rise with the passage of time. Some serious strategies must be implemented to control this deadly disease.

  9. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean:Present situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016) of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  10. An Investigation into the Global Financial Crisis Factors and a Snap Shot of Their Impact on Different Segments of Economy in a Developing Country: A Case of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ashraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses to identify the factors which have affected the financial sector globally and to visualize the snapshot of their impact on the Pakistan. The recent financial crisis hit the Pakistan and the world negatively in following ways including remittance and migration, international trade, foreign direct investment, exchange rate, Interest rate, and foreign Aid but The economy of Pakistan deeply depends on relationship with the USA and internal factors including domestic policy and good governance. This Study helps to highlight the threats to the country’s economy and opportunities on which we can capitalize. Some solutions and recommendations are incorporated how to cope with such challenges.

  11. CREATION OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhu, Shakila Noor

    2017-01-01

    Creation of a country is not an ordinary situation. But creation of Pakistan is an exception in the world history. This is one of the most debated topics in the subcontinent's socioeconomic, literature, art and political realm. Scores of researchers have investigated this extraordinary historical development in a diversity of perspectives and paradigms. Variety of exogenous and endogenous factors and a range of variables that acted, reacted and interacted among each other are evaluated. ...

  12. Federalism in Pakistan, Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Musarrat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to elaborate the political issues and challenges faces by the federation of Pakistan during and after the Gen. Pervez Musharraf government. In this paper effort is made to discuss those issues on the biases of which politics of federalism started in the country. Pinching problems that caused disintegration to Pakistan are also discussed. Those issues are also discussed in details which are a constant threat to the “new federation of Pakistan”. Authors also focus on the 2008 elections and its consequences on Pakistan politics. All the results of this research are proved via review of the previous literature. Researchers have proved that as Pakistan has a diversified culture so federalism is best suited for its political structure. Researchers have also discussed few suggestive solutions for better bureaucracy.

  13. Federalism in Pakistan: Of Promises and Perils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Zubair

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of Pakistan, which is also broadly illustrative of the issues concerning federalism and subnational empowerment in developing countries characterized by unconsolidated political systems and enhanced constitutionalism. In the course of the analysis, this paper examines the dynamics and determinants of federalist/subnational politics in Pakistan, the formal constitutional and ordinance frameworks stipulated in support of federalism and subnational governance. The analysis shall be focused on the Local Governments Ordinance of 2001 and the 18th Constitutional Amendment, as these have been the most substantive attempts at subnational constitutionalism that were instituted under opposing political systems, and the extent to which they have enabled greater prospects for a stable federation while also examining the challenges that the radical departure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment put forth.

  14. Changing Trade Relation of India & Pakistan: An Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Vivek Kumar Srivastava; Dr. Bhavtosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Kautilya was the first one to write extensively on political economy. He theorized that to maintain a strong kingdom, the king must develop healthy relations with the neighbouring states through trade. When we talk about India, we can never ignore the Pakistan. India and Pakistan are the countries whose relations not only affect the economic relations of both the countries but also have some influence in the world politics. Pakistan is a neighbouring country of India. But the relationship of ...

  15. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality.

  16. National Disaster Management Authority in Pakistan: Role of Pakistan Army in Disaster Management

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Ali; Sirajul Haq KANDHRO

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan army as a institution has been playing various role in the development of the country. The history shows that army has played a very significant role in coping up the emergencies facing the nation. Government often turn to military, when there is a natural or man induced disaster in Pakistan. The Armed forces obviously need to be involved in humanitarian emergencies and disaster management operations. The Pakistan army plays a vital role in the disaster management in history of Pakis...

  17. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  18. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  19. Present and Future : International Cooperation of Engineering Higher Education for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Manabu; Ueda, Daisuke

    Nowadays, human resource development through international cooperation is high demand in the field of engineering higher education in developing countries. This is firstly due to the important asset for sustainable development of countries and secondly due to the rapid progress of science and technology in the world. Two JICA projects are explained as a case study. The paper summarizes present situation and future issues under JICA activities in engineering higher education.

  20. PROSPECTS OF ISLAMIC BANKING: REFLECTIONS FROM PAKISTAN

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    Muhammad Akram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the growth and development phases as well as prospects of Islamic banking in Pakistan. The role of Islamic banking is explained with special regards to corporate social responsibility (CSR as now days this concept is growing vastly. Awareness in public also has been growing and people are moving towards Islamic banking system. As we live in a Muslim country so it is very essential to have some basic knowledge about the Islamic banking. In this paper growth and performance of Islamic banking is discussed and compared among the financial years from 2003 to 2010 in terms of growth parameters like assets, deposits, sources and uses of funds. The performance indicators are also discussed to evaluate the growth and performance of Islamic banking system. In the last eight years, Islamic banking paved with the rapid market share of banking services. Moreover the efforts made by the central bank in Pakistan (SBP are also remarkable in growth of Islamic banking. By seeing the present growth of Islamic banking, it is anticipated that in near future, Islamic banking with get major share in banking industry in Pakistan.

  1. Energy Crisis In Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Present, and Future,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, no. 6 (2008): 107. 20 Kashmir (AJ&K). Existing installed projects... Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 13, no. 6 (2009): 1659. 25 • Encourage the transfer of technology and develop an indigenous manufacturing...Harijan. “Hydropower Use in Pakistan: Past, Present, and Future.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, no. 6 (2008): 307–20. Musadiq

  2. Maps of geoelectric sections of Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Korea, and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Bashkuev

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of geoelectric mapping of some Asian countries with high seismic activity are presented. The methodology of the geoelectric mapping is considered, and the corresponding maps of geoelectric sections of Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Korea, and Japan are constructed on a scale of 1:5 000 000.

  3. Past, present, and future of stroke in middle-income countries: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sheila Cristina Ouriques; Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; Alves, Cloer Vescia; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez; Filho, Jamary Oliveira; Tosta, Elza Dias; Cabral, Norberto Luiz

    2013-10-01

    Stroke is one of the major public health challenges in middle-income countries. Brazil is the world's sixth largest economy but was clearly behind the milestones in the fight against stroke, which is the leading cause of death and disability in the country. Nevertheless, many initiatives are now reshaping stroke prevention, care, and rehabilitation in the country. The present article discusses the evolution of stroke care in Brazil over the last decade. We describe the main characteristics of stroke care before 2008; a pilot study in a Southern Brazilian city between 2008 and 2010, the Brazilian Stroke Project initiative; and the 2012 National Stroke Policy Act. The National Stroke Project was followed by a major increased on the number of stroke center in the country. The key elements of the 2012 National Stroke Policy Act included: definition of the requirements and levels of stroke centers; improved reimbursement for stroke care; promotion of stroke telemedicine; definition of the Line of Stroke Care (to integrate available resources and other health programs); increased funding for stroke rehabilitation; funding for training of healthcare professionals and initiatives to increase awareness about stroke within the population. The evolution of stroke care in Brazil over the last decade is a pathway that exemplifies the challenges that middle-income countries have to face in order to improve stroke prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. The reported Brazilian experience can be extrapolated to understand the past, present, and future of stroke care in middle-income countries. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  4. Determinants of Maternal Mortality in Pakistan

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    Shahida Abbasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality refers to the death of a woman who dies during pregnancy or within six weeks after delivery. A number of factors contribute to the high maternal mortality ratio around the globe, particularly, in underdeveloped countries. Pakistan has the highest mortality ratio (260 per 100,000 live births in the region and is one of the developing countries which have committed to decrease maternal mortality by 2015, according to the millennium developing goals (MDG 5. However, there are number of factors which made Pakistan unable to achieve the MDG 5 by 2015. In Pakistan there are many factors such as biological, socio-economic, cultural and poor quality of Reproductive Health Services (RHS, which contribute to the alarming figure of Maternal Mortality.. This paper aimed to do an in-depth analysis of the determinants of maternal mortality in Pakistan.

  5. A Study Of Polio Disease In Pakistan Using Gis Approach

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    Usman Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pakistan is one of the countries in the world who is affected with polio virus. The main objective of this present study was applying spatial statistics to examine the spatiotemporal patterns and areas of hotspot detection for describing the pattern of polio disease in Pakistan. In this study statistical data smoothing process was used to decrease noise in polio records which is registered at a district level from 2011 to 2014. Morans I Spatial analysis method was applied to measure spatial association in polio disease distribution in study area and examined how districts were spread or clustered. Getis-Ord Gi d statistics was utilized for the identification of cold spot and hotspot within study area and IDW technique applied for Interpolation. This predicts the trend of polio disease distribution around the study area. The incidence rate of polio disease through mapping depicted uneven distribution of poliovirus in affected districts of Pakistan. Spatial statistics are used to perform Morans I test and it measured considerable positive spatial autocorrelation of polio disease incidences for previous four successive years. The results depicted spatially clustered and spatial pattern of polio disease in study area. The research concluded that the polio cases were increased in northwestern side of KPK province and southern part of the Sindh province of Pakistan over the past two years 20132014.

  6. Past and present biophysical redundancy of countries as a buffer to changes in food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource-constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of ‘spare land’, available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as ‘Low Income Economies (LIEs)’ since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  7. Past and Present Biophysical Redundancy of Countries as a Buffer to Changes in Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell' Angelo, Jampel; D' Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  8. On Overinvoicing of Exports in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Mahmood; Mohammad Azhar

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the policy incentives were designed to promote exports from Pakistan, the incentive system instead led to illicit export practices, i.e., export overinvoicing due to the weaknesses of implementation. Such practices resulted in a significant financial loss to the country and undermined the effectiveness of the export-promoting policy. This paper has determined the presence of overinvoicing of exports in Pakistan and the geographic and product-wise patterns in export overinvoicing. The ...

  9. Globalization and Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan Kakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has positives as well as negative impacts on any society,which differ from country to country. The negative effects can be countered by adopting the policiesthat contribute in economic development. This study attempts to review the nature of relationshipbetween economic growth and globalization in Pakistan for the period 1980-2009 by employing thetime series data. Co-integration and error correction technique are use to determine the long run effectof globalization on economic growth. The results indicate that globalization can be a useful tool foreconomic growth for a developing country like Pakistan.

  10. The Determinants of Foreign Investment in Pakistan: A gravity model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Waqar Azeem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last two decades Pakistan was one of the most attractive countries that received Foreign Direct Investment (FDI among developing economies, and especially in first half of the last decade the growth was so rapid and sustainable in different industries as well as in agriculture.  In Pakistani economy the role of Foreign Direct Investment is very important. Policies are clear about the foreign investment even then adjustments are made according to the time, objective, needs and economic circumstances in the country.  Methods: The present study aims to investigate the determinants of foreign investment in Pakistan by using Gravity model. By using panel data of FDI which is used as dependent variable and Gross domestic product, Gross domestic product per capita, Gross domestic product growth rate, Inflation rate, Trade, Total government expenditure, Population growth and Distance used as independent variable from 1999 to 2009 for empirical consequences, the study encompasses the examination of Foreign Direct Investment inflows from different countries and their geographical distance from Pakistan. Results:  Two type of test is used (1 fixed and (2 random effect to check the relationship among foreign direct investment and independent variables. In our both models distance shows a negative impact on the decision to make an investment by investing partner while GDP and GDP growth have a positive and significant impact. Gravity in this regards does not effect that much for foreign direct investment attraction because results are negatively significant in this case that shows higher distance is a hurdle for the inflow of foreign investment but rest of the variables are significantly positive and related to the inflow of foreign investment except population growth which is negatively correlated.   Conclusion: This research concludes that there is a strong evidence of existence of gravity between Pakistan and its investing

  11. Monitoring the distribution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan by using OMI/MLS satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Asma; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Zeb, Naila

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan is a semi-arid, agricultural country located in Indian Sub-continent, Asia. Due to exponential population growth, poor control and regulatory measures and practices in industries, it is facing a major problem of air pollution. The concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols are showing an increasing trend in general. One of these greenhouse gases is tropospheric ozone, one of the criteria pollutant, which has a radiative forcing (RF) of about 0.4 ± 0.2 Wm-2, contributing about 14% of the present total RF. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan during 2004 to 2014 was studied by using combined OMI/MLS product, which was derived by tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method. Results showed an overall increase of 3.2 ± 2.2 DU in tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan since October 2004. The mean spatial distribution showed high concentrations of ozone in the Punjab and southern Sindh where there is high population densities along with rapid urbanization and enhanced anthropogenic activities. The seasonal variations were observed in the provinces of the country and TO3 VCDs were found to be high during summer while minimum during winter. The statistical analysis by using seasonal Mann Kendal test also showed strong positive trends over the four provinces as well as in major cities of Pakistan. These variations were driven by various factors such as seasonality in UV-B fluxes, seasonality in ozone precursor gases such as NOx and VOCs and agricultural fire activities in Pakistan. A strong correlation of 97% was found between fire events and tropospheric ozone concentration over the country. The results also depicted the influence of UV-B radiations on the tropospheric ozone concentration over different regions of Pakistan especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

  12. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in Pakistan: 300 cases Eastern experience

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    Ur-Rahman Shafiq

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by the surgeons all over the world as well in Pakistan. The spectrum of etiology of perforation peritonitis in tropical countries continues to differ from its western counter part. This study was conducted at Dow University of health sciences and Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS & CHK Pakistan, designed to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis in the East and to improve its outcome. Methods A prospective study includes three hundred consecutive patients of perforation peritonitis studied in terms of clinical presentations, Causes, site of perforation, surgical treatment, post operative complications and mortality, at (DUHS&CHK Pakistan, from 1st September 2005 – 1st March 2008, over a period of two and half years. All patients were resuscitated underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy. On laparotomy cause of perforation peritonitis was found and controlled. Results The most common cause of perforation peritonitis noticed in our series was acid peptic disease 45%, perforated duodenal ulcer (43.6% and gastric ulcer 1.3%. followed by small bowel tuberculosis (21% and typhoid (17%. large bowel perforation due to tuberculosis 5%, malignancy 2.6% and volvulus 0.3%. Perforation due to acute appendicitis (5%. Highest number of perforations has seen in the duodenum 43.6%, ileum37.6%, and colon 8%, appendix 5%, jejunum 3.3%, and stomach 2.3%. Overall mortality was (10.6%. Conclusion The spectrum of perforation peritonitis in Pakistan continuously differs from western country. Highest number of perforations noticed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract as compared to the western countries where the perforations seen mostly in the distal part. Most common cause of perforation peritonitis is perforated duodenal ulcer, followed by small bowel tuberculosis and typhoid perforation. Majority of the large bowel perforations are also tubercular

  13. SOCIAL LEGAL TRANSFORMATION OF PAKISTAN

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    Sohaib Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan came into being in 1947. It struggled a lot during its initial days. It did not come to consensus to make a constitution until 1956 but later on military regime intervened. It is a drawback of Pakistan that laws and the constitution are not made indeed for its people rather they are made for the selfish elite who come into the power time to time without the support of the people. An unelected person cannot make a law for the betterment of the people he always do things for his own interest. Purpose - To point out weaknesses and hindrances in the social legal transformation of Pakistan and to recommend changes and best possible ways to build a highly social legal transformed society. Design/methodology/approach - The treatise is made taking into account the qualitative approach by looking into the historical prospect of social legal issues of Pakistan and to come to a conclusion to draw a better picture if followed the suggested steps. Findings - The paper includes the review of the history and weaknesses in legal transformation and comprehensive suggested steps to be followed to overcome the weaknesses and deficiencies. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to the social and legal aspects of the transformation in Pakistan and does not go into the deep details of politics and culture. Practical implications - Suggested steps can be followed by the legislature to make amendments in laws and to make more suitable laws which is a necessity for the better social transformation of Pakistan. Originality/Value - The research is a good piece and has an importance in its field and may help a lot in the development of the country and the region specially and the world at large generally. Keywords: Islamic rulers of the sub-continent; British India and its laws; Constitution of Pakistan 1956,1962 and 1973. Research type: The said research is a critical analysis on the development and transformation of Pakistan with respect to law

  14. The political economy of trade relations between India-Pakistan

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    Kishore C. Dash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholarly studies in and outside South Asia suggest the linkage between trade, economic development and peace between India and Pakistan. Despite many tangible political and economic gains of expanded India-Pakistan trade, the level of trade between India and Pakistan has remained anemic over the past six decades. Why hasn’t trade grown between India and Pakistan? What are the prospects of trade expansion between these two countries? Drawing on the growing political economy literature, we have identified four facilitating conditions to explain the growth of trade flows between a given pair of countries: distance, trade complementarity, rivalry, and government strength. In this article, we examine the dynamics and implications of these four conditions for trade relations between India and Pakistan. Following this analysis, we identify several key issues - trade liberalization, market access, energy cooperation, and regional stability - that can provide impetus needed to drive these two countries toward greater trade expansion.

  15. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  16. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  17. Polio in Pakistan: Social constraints and travel implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community.

  18. Violence against women in Pakistan: a framework for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Parveen Azam; Gavino, Maria Irma Bustamante

    2008-04-01

    Understanding violence against women is as complex as its process. As a perusal of literature shows that most of the explanations were contextually and culturally based, this review attempts to analyze the issue of violence against women using theories applicable within the Pakistani context. Literature examining the issue of violence against women and its various theories was reviewed. A framework using the determinants of violence against women as proposed, include intrinsic and extrinsic factors within the people, the socio-economic-political and cultural system of Pakistan and the influences of surrounding countries. The Pakistani scenario has been described and the theoretical bases were presented. Each determinant has been discussed with supporting literature. Further studies are needed to strengthen the framework; however, it provided a modest view of violence against women in Pakistan. The framework would help the policy and decision makers to understand the dynamics of violence against women and may move them to action to bring about improvements in women's' lives.

  19. Why banks and financial institutions in Pakistan are turning towards Internet banking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Nazir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking has become widespread in most developed countries, while the Financial Services Sectors in most developing countries are lagging behind with this technology. Despite the benefits afforded by such online activity, Pakistani financial institutions, in particular, have not yet experienced the full potential of this form of electronic commerce, due in part to the weakness and instability of the country's financial system. This is coupled with the fact that the citizens have lost confidence in the Pakistan Financial Services Sector in 1990s. The objectives of this research are two-fold. The first aim is to investigate the feasibility of adopting Internet Banking within the Pakistan Financial Services Sector. The second objective is to demonstrate how Internet Banking may serve as a dual solution in restoring the viability of the Pakistan financial institutions and restoring investor confidence. From the literature review and surveys undertaken, the research examines the various benefits, which Internet Banking offers as well as its drawbacks. A comparative study reveals few reasons why financial institutions in most developing countries might not be able to embark on Internet Banking; whilst their counterparts in most developed countries are able to capitalize fully on such e-commerce venture. The paper employs survey data to measure the extent to which financial institutions in Pakistan use e-commerce and to investigate the opportunities for further growth (that is, the likelihood of Internet Banking within the overall Financial Sector. The research highlights a number of obstacles that must be overcome if the Pakistan financial institutions decide to actively use the Internet to provide banking services. Possible solutions that may be inaugurated to overcome the respective barriers are proposed. Finally, a summary and conclusion with recommendations are presented.

  20. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  1. Genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 1997–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan; serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with FMDV type O usually being the most common. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the FMDV capsid protein VP1 from...

  2. Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Three different serotypes of the virus, namely O, A and Asia-1, are responsible for the outbreaks of this disease in these countries. In the present study, the nucleotide-coding sequences for the VP1 capsid protein (69 samples) ...

  3. Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis of Citrus Tristeza Virus p20 gene in Pakistan: insights into the spread and epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a widespread disease and the most destruction causing agent of citrus. Pakistan is ranked amongst the top ten citrus producing countries around the globe and it contributes about 2% to its foreign exchange earnings. Based on this assumption it is very important to monitor and determine the evolutionary forces and the phylogeography of Pakistani CTV population. Methods: A total of 49 sequences of p20 gene from Pakistan were phylogenetically compared with CTV sequences worldwide. These sequences were analyzed for their genetic diversity and evolution using a Bayesian Probability approach and predicted secondary structure. Results: Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian probability inference and predicted secondary structures diversity of CTV indicated that Pakistani isolates were not diverse from global isolates. Lineage analysis showed that CTV was introduced in Pakistan in three individual events from various parts of the world. After that CTV dispersed in Pakistan via vector transmission or by use of infected propagating material by local farmers. Conclusions: Our study confirmed multiple introductions of CTV in Pakistan and also confirmed the dissemination of CTV within Pakistan. This study also shows that the mutations are present in the predicted secondary structure of the p20 protein, however, it is not known if it affects the pathogenicity of the virus.

  4. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  5. STUDYING CONSUMERS' ECOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROMANIA, MALAYSIA AND PAKISTAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamilah Ahmad; Imran Ali; Georgiana Florentina Grigore; Alin Stancu

    2012-01-01

    .... Based on a comparative approach of consumers in Romania, Malaysia and Pakistan, this paper analysis the dimensions of ecological consciousness, and highlights similarities and differences between the countries...

  6. Consensus of the Present and Prospects on Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment in East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kamiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. New diagnostic or therapeutic methods in endoscopy have been used. Current clinical application of these procedures is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the present situation on endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asian countries. Method. A representative member from the International Gastrointestinal Consensus Symposium Committee provided a questionnaire to physicians in China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Results. In total, 514 physicians including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and general practitioners enrolled. The most frequently occurring disorder as the origin of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastric ulcer. Capsule endoscopy is selected as the first choice for the diagnosis of small intestine bleeding. The second choice was double-balloon endoscopy or angiography. For patients with gastric adenoma, the number of physicians who choose endoscopic mucosal resection is larger than those selecting endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ESD is chosen first in Japan and Korea. Conclusion. New instruments or techniques on endoscopy have not come into wide use yet, and there is diversity in the situation on it in Asian countries. We should unify the endoscopic diagnostic criteria or treated strategy in patients with GI disease.

  7. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-07-30

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases.

  8. A Fresh Start For Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    After a yearlong political standoff,the country elects a new prime minister Pakistan has been in turmoil since 2007.With deadly incidents strik- ing the country from time to time,"bombing,""assassination"and"state of emergency"have become the defining themes of its political life.The per- sistent chaos,in the final analysis,is attrib- utable to Pakistan’s elections. Various opposition forces attempted to take this opportunity to create trouble and force President Pervez Musharraf to step

  9. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, I. (Nuclear Inst. for Food and Agriculture, Peshawar (Pakistan))

    1990-01-01

    Large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly. (author).

  10. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  11. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Ghafoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.

  12. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Shazia; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.

  13. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Shazia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan. PMID:27517055

  14. Breast Cancer in South East Asia : Comparison of Presentation and Outcome Between a Middle Income and a High Income Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N. W.; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2012-01-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle incom

  15. Breast Cancer in South East Asia : Comparison of Presentation and Outcome Between a Middle Income and a High Income Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N. W.; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2012-01-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle incom

  16. Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Nukhba; Shahzad, Hira; Baqir, Syed; Shaukat, Shahab; Ahmad, Haris; Robinson, Courtland; Hyder, Adnan A; Razzak, Junaid

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED.

  17. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, S.N.A., E-mail: snatahir@cyber.net.p [Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Department, Govt. of the Punjab, Poonch House, 38-Multan Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, M. [Chief Conservator of Forests, Northern Zone, Rawalpindi, Punjab Forest Department (Pakistan); Alaamer, A.S. [Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-15

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO{sub 2}-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y{sup -1}. - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

  18. EFA in Pakistan: Struggle for Upgrading Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is an instrument of stability within and among countries and thus may prove an indispensable means of effective participation in the societies and (the economies of today’s world. Eradication of illiteracy from the world is an important agenda of UNESCO, and one of the six goals of Dakar Framework of Action on Education for All. Illiteracy is also a major problem in Pakistan. The picture of illiteracy in Pakistan is grim, and although successive governments have announced various programmes to promote literacy the situation is still poor because of various political, social, economic and cultural obstacles. To sum up, it can be said that literacy is a skill necessary to acquire or transmit (information to others. It is a means not an end in itself. Keeping in view the gravity of the situation of literacy and basic education in the country, Pakistan has completed/implemented a number of actions/activities for broad-based consultations with principal actors of EFA. Furthermore, the Government of Pakistan has accomplished the preparation of provincial and national plans of action and resource mobilization for EFA planning. This paper therefore examines the efforts to decrease illiteracy in Pakistan, a signatory of the worldwide EFA movement.

  19. eBusiness in Pakistan: Opportunities and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of eBusiness in developing countries have emphasized the influence of obstacles related to PCs-penetration, cultural and economical infrastructure, and regulatory environment as major determinants of eBusiness success. IT has revolutionized the way organizations conduct business round the globe. Now business is conducted online (eBusiness instead of conventional means. In Pakistan, eBusiness is facing both technical and non-technical issues from management perspectives. A huge body of research is going on to unfold the key issues of eBusiness. This paper focuses on the key components of each of the above ment ioned issues e.g. cultural issues i.e. language, shopping habits, and use of credit etc. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions’ analysis and t-test. It has been found that all independent variables: economic, political, business, cultural and marketing is mutually correlated and has significant impact on shaping and reshaping of eBusiness in Pakistan. Moreover, management implications along with possible solutions to the barriers of eBusiness in Pakistan are presented.

  20. Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayatullah Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are important for promotion of renewable energy in a country. The present study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic clean energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The survey data were collected from 100 randomly selected households in District Swat in northwest Pakistan. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test was applied wherever needed. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on CD (Clean Development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations work together to initiate cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nation?s post-2015 development agenda.

  1. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Zahur, Aamir Bin; Afzal, Muhammad; Ali, Qurban; Gonzales Rojas, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to obtain baseline information about the presence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Pakistan by quantifying the sero-prevalence of this infection in all provinces/regions in the country. There are ongoing activities towards the progressive control and

  2. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  3. China Relief to Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2010-01-01

    @@ In Pakistan the rains and floods that started around July 22 have raged through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,Balochistan,Punjab,Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.The rain and floods are now headed towards the Southern Province of Sindh.The provincial governments are bracing for huge flood waters."These are the most massive and heaviest floods in Pakistan territory since 1929,"said the ambassador of Pakistan Masood Khan at a press conference on August 6 in Beijing.

  4. Volatility Transmission of Overnight Rate along the Yield Curve in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Asif

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented the empirical results of the volatility transmission of overnight rate along the yield curve in case of Pakistan. The results indicate that the volatility transmission of overnight repo rate is higher at the shorter end of the yield curve while lower at the longer end. These results are in line with both theoretical and empirical underpinning of the interest rates volatility transmission process found in other countries. Moreover, the results also suggest that the pass-th...

  5. Education in Pakistan: Problems and their Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Rashid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was meant to explore and report the problems being confronted by the education in Pakistan and suggest for the resolution of these problems. Definitely the study would be excavating the changes brought about since the independence and their consequent repercussions. There is no doubt in accepting the fact that education brings about a change in the social, political and cultural scenario of the country; though the change remains slow but it does have an impact on the society at large. It does bring about improvements in the organizational problem-solving through the use of design, structural paraphernalia, globalized need and quality based systems. Alongside it, the processes to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of recurrent system is also addressed in a most befitting manner. This article is an endeavor to look into the recurrent status of education in Pakistan. The study is a blend of qualitative and quantitative investigation more relied upon the secondary data sources. The conversation has a tilt towards configuration, admittance, excellence, future forecast and problems of education in Pakistan. It is a point to ponder that the quality has to match the quantity, and if the turnover of education is not enlightened as aspired, skilled to the level of excellence as needed, trained to benefit the individuals, groups, communities and society at large, and motivated with the least zeal to be ethically committed, such societies fail to meet their development objectives. It is the need of the time that the education should be a tool to attract the brightest youth to step forward and take part in the active development of the country. There are certain projects in vogue and new may be designed to educate others about the benefits of educational system. It may help in enhancing the educational standards, join an organization that creates educational opportunities, and improve education taking into consideration the modern and

  6. The Present State and Future Trends of Blended Learning in Workplace Learning Settings across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Bonk, Curtis; Teng, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This article reports survey findings related to the current status and future trends of blended learning in workplace learning settings from diverse cultures. This particular survey was conducted of 674 training and human resource development professionals from five different countries, mostly from the Asia-Pacific region (i.e., China, South…

  7. Pakistan-beyond your expectation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason Liu

    2004-01-01

    <正> Few Westerners know much about Pakistan beyond media reports of Islamic fundamentalism, communal violence and martial law, but it contains some of Asia’s most mind-blowing landscapes, extraordinary trekking opportunities, a multitude of cultures and a long tradition of hospitality.The China’s neighbouring country is the site of some of the earliest human settlements, home to an ancient civilisation rivalling those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, and the crucible of two of the world’s major religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. You’ll surely get more than what you expected there. .

  8. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  9. Pakistan Guest Visit HRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Companied by CMEC Beijing representative, Dr. Eng. S.M.Bhutta,a technical advisor of Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) in Pakistan, paid a visit to HRC during June 3-5, 2005. Both sides exchanged ideas on micro & small hydropower development, and intended to further strengthen the cooperation in micro & small hydropower fields as to push forward the rural electrification program in Pakistan.

  10. Adoption of precision agriculture technologies in India and in some developing countries: Scope, present status and strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Mondal; Manisha Basu

    2009-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic changes in some developing countries, including India, are creating new scopes for application of precision agriculture (PA). The implications of dramatic shifts for economic development, urbanization and energy consumption in some devel-oping countries are immense. High-tech nature of traditional PA technologies developed in advanced countries created a real challenge for engineers to search suitable PA technologies for developing countries. It is expected that application of balanced soft and hard PA technologies based on the need of specific socio-economic condition of a country will make PA suitable for developing countries also. 'Soft' PA depends mainly on visual observation of crop and soil and management decision based on experience and intuition, rather than on statistical and scientific analysis. 'Hard' PA utilizes all modern technologies such as GPS, RS, and VRT. Three components, namely, 'single PA technology', 'PA technology package' (for the user to select one or combination) and 'integrated PA technology', have been identified as a part of adoption strategies of PA in the developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to find out the scope, the present status and the strategies for adoption of PA in India and in some developing countries. Application of PA in cash crop, plan-tation crop, etc. has been discussed. Application of some medium and low-tech PA tools such as chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart. in small farms has been included. This exhaustive review of the present status of PA in India and in some developing countries is expected to help to find out the adoption trend and direction of future research. Detailed strategy for the adoption of PA in India has also been proposed.

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Minhas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI inflows in Pakistan and to identify the key determinants of FDI for the period of 2000-2013. The country experienced a continuous surge in FDI inflows from 2000-2008. On the contrary, the phase of 2009-2013 has been characterized by a persistent decline in FDI in Pakistan. This slump is mainly attributed to political and economic instability as wells as poor law and order situation in the country. Keeping these periods with differing results in perspective, multiple regression analysis is employed to empirically analyze the key determinants that are expected to explain variation in FDI in Pakistan. The selected variables were found significant determinants of FDI in Pakistan. Gross Domestic Product (GDP, degree of trade openness and regime of dictatorship have a significant positive effect on FDI. While, terrorism attacks foreign debt, exchange rate, political instability, and domestic capital formation are negatively significant determinants of FDI inflows in Pakistan. Considering the dynamic changes in the broad macro factors in economy, this study provides a fresh perspective on the factors that determine FDI in Pakistan. Moreover, the study findings provide important insights to policy makers to design policy measures that enhance FDI inflows in Pakistan.

  12. Use of University’s Library Websites in Pakistan: An Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Mairaj, Dr. Muhammad Ijaz

    2013-01-01

    Vol. 14 (2013) PJLIS PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 3 Use o f University’s Library Websites i n Pakistan: An Evaluation Dr. Muhammad I jaz M airaj Librar i a n , University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: This study presents findings from a user - based evaluation of the use of Pakistani university’s library websites. A questionnaire [pr...

  13. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  14. NETWORK CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF FUNCTIONS THEY PERFORM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF SMEs IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES---exploratory research on Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerat Fatima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to classify the networks according to functions they performed, especially scrutinize their structures. The research concentrates on the influence of these functional networks on the internationalization process of small and medium sized companies (SME in developing countries. What are the different types of support being provided by network partners? What is the structure of the existing network? The research part is inductive, qualitative and based on case study. The study’s findings illustrate the subtleties of how various network partners interact with entrepreneurs to penetrate, integrate and extend their international markets. Networks can help entrepreneurs expose themselves to new opportunities, obtain knowledge, learn from experiences, and benefit from the synergistic effect of pooled resources. Another contribution of this paper is that it identifies structures of the functional networks, till date networks are classified on the basis of extent of support they provide, not on what support they provide, thus advancing the literature.

  15. CPECC Contracts Oil Products Pipeline Construction in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC, and Pak-Arab Pipeline Company (PARCO) of Pakistan have recently reached an agreement to confirm the US$317-million contract for construction a pipeline for oil products in Pakistan by CPECC. The project is called the white oil pipeline project (WOPP)running from Karachi to Mahmood Kot, the distribution center of oil products in the northwest part of the country.

  16. Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

  17. Breast cancer in South East Asia: comparison of presentation and outcome between a middle income and a high income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N W; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2012-12-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle income country (Malaysia) in South East Asia. Within the Singapore Malaysia Breast Cancer Registry we identified all consecutive patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2007 at the National University Hospital in Singapore (high income country, n=2,141) and the University of Malaya Medical Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (middle income country, n=3,320). We compared demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival between patients from both countries. In Malaysia, patients were less often diagnosed with in situ breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.1-0.3), more likely to be diagnosed with late stage (III and IV) disease (ORadj for stage III 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0; ORadj for stage IV 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4) as compared to patients from Singapore. Univariate analysis showed that Malaysian patients were at a 72% increased risk of death as compared to Singaporeans. After adjusting for other prognostic factors, the risk decreased by only 5% (ORadj 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.92). Differences in way of presentation (except stage and tumor size) and treatment of breast cancer patients from the two countries are small. The overall survival of breast cancer patients from Malaysia is much lower than that of Singaporean patients.

  18. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water

  19. [Present-day sports activities among the blind and persons with poor vision in different countries of the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmachev, R A

    2003-01-01

    The approach of a country to persons with limited physical abilities is an important component of country's social-and-cultural policy. Blindness is a most severe variety of health disorders leading to social defect and social insufficiency. The role of adaptive physical culture is important within the system of the social-and-medical rehabilitation of the blind because the sedentary life mode has a negative effect on organisms of the disabled due to vision. Sports is not only a method for correcting the general somatic condition, but it is also an important social-and-physiological factor that enables the blind to comprehend their abilities as an example for others. As for our country, the information about the modern sports activities among the disabled due to vision is absolutely insufficient for the public at large. An analysis of results of examination (conducted by using the computer data base of the International Blind Sportsmen Association--IBSA) of 2386 blind and impaired vision sportsmen is presented in the paper. Data about sport disciplines and types of ophthalmic pathologies encountered among the high-class blind and impaired vision athletes from different world countries are described. The above data can be helpful in elaborating the rehabilitation programs for persons with severe disorders of the organ of vision to be used in rehabilitation centers, sport federations and clubs of the disabled as well as in other institutions dealing with rehabilitation of the disabled due to vision in our country.

  20. Environmental friendly solar energy in Pakistan's scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Mohammad Azam [Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan); Latif, Noman [Water Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Like many other developing countries of the world, Pakistan is also energy deficient country. Since last few decades, its electricity generation has become dependent to a large extent on the petroleum fuels. The inevitable depletion of petroleum resources will have far reaching consequences on large scale development for future, unless renewable energy alternation can be found. (author)

  1. Export Potentials of Pakistan: Evidence from the Gravity Model of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the gravity model of trade is used to analyze the export environment of Pakistan. As clear from trade data, Pakistan’s share in world exports is marginal and imports dominate the trade balance. The inability of diversification both in terms of products and markets is regarded as the main cause behind this trade deficit. This research highlights the main influencing factors affecting the export environment of Pakistan. The results of the gravity equation are used to calculate the export potentials of Pakistan with its partner countries. The results suggest Pakistan still has plenty of export potential with most of the partner countries and as such Pakistan can possibly reduce or control the trade deficit by targeting these countries.

  2. The potential of the flora from different regions of Pakistan in phytoremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Amna; Mufti, Rabia; Mubariz, Nadia; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Bano, Asghari; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Tan, Zhiyuan; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2014-01-01

    Soil and water quality is greatly affected by environmental pollution due to the increasing trend of urbanization and industrialization. In many developing countries, including Pakistan, the situation is more alarming as no preventive measures are still taken to tackle the problem. Although in developed countries, many techniques are used to remediate the environment including phytoremediation. It is the most eco-friendly technique in which plants are used to remove pollutants from the environment. Pakistan has also a great diversity of plants which could be used for the remediation of environmental pollutants. To our knowledge, few studies from Pakistan were reported about the use of flora for phytoremediation. According to recent literature, 50 plant species from Pakistan are studied for remediation purposes. In this review, the potential of different plant species for phytoremediation from Pakistan has been discussed along with their comparison to other countries to relate future perspectives.

  3. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries

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    Jorge López-Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM. The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM, with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  4. Militancy in Pakistan: Rebottling the Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    North America, Europe , Asia, Africa, and the Middle East - including the United States.”6 This paper argues that Pakistan can overcome this problem...gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to education has kept literacy rates as low as 54.9 percent.54 Lack of public education facilities in the FATA...full cooperation to the victim country. Visa and immigrations rules must be reviewed to curtail the traveling of suspected militants. Convince the

  5. Factors Contributing to the Waste Generation in Building Projects of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan.

  6. Characterization of ethno-medicinal plant resources of karamar valley Swabi, Pakistan

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    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-04-01

    Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants are still widely used for the treatment of different ailments in the area of Swabi, therefore survey of medicinal flora should be carried out to explore and bring up-to-date the catalogue of existing natural plant resources of the area especially in agricultural country like Pakistan. Small scale government processing units of agroforestry should be implemented to reduce the overuse and motivate the cultivation of valuable medicinal plants. Majority of the people use various formulations of medicinal plants for different ailments treatment. The phytochemicals greatly varied in medicinal plants and cause a marvelous effect on human illnesses. The objective of the present study was to document the information of folk medicines, its identification, collection of samples, study of its chemical constituents and uses by the local people of District Swabi, Pakistan.

  7. Fatalism and its implications for risky road use and receptiveness to safety messages: a qualitative investigation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J

    2012-12-01

    Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.

  8. Presentation a New Model to Measure National Power of the Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza; Hadi Zarghani, Seyed; Ahmadipor, Zahra; Roknoddin Eftekhari, Abdelreza

    In this research, based on the assessment of previous models for the evaluation of national power, a new model is presented to measure national power; it is much better than previous models. Paying attention to all the aspects of national power (economical, social, cultural, political, military, astro-space, territorial, scientific and technological and transnational), paying attention to the usage of 87 factors, stressing the usage of new and strategically compatible variables to the current time are some of the benefits of this model. Also using the Delphi method and referring to the opinions of experts about determining the role and importance of variables affecting national power, the option of drawing out the global power structure are some the other advantages that this model has compared to previous ones.

  9. HIV/AIDS stigma at the workplace: exploratory findings from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sajid

    2011-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are stigmatised socially. They are devalued and considered like outcasts by having lesser opportunities for education, treatment and housing, and in an organisational context they get reduced opportunities of selection, promotion and income. The phenomena have been extensively researched in developed countries but limited literature addresses the situation in underdeveloped countries like Pakistan, which is also facing spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. There are a number of groups who are carrying the disease but the problems being faced by PLHA employed in different organisations have rarely been analysed. Stigma at the workplace can generate a number of negative outcomes. The present study considers two such outcomes among stigmatised PLHA. These outcomes are organisational cynicism and breach of psychological contract. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 174 PLHA, having a work experience after identification of the epidemic, working in different organisations across Pakistan. These PLHA were identified and recruited through a scattered record available with some government/non-government organisations operating in Pakistan to control HIV/AIDS. Findings of the study extend the knowledge about HIV/AIDS stigma indicating that PLHA are subjected to stigma, which is significantly associated with a breach of psychological contract and organisational cynicism. There is a need at governmental and organisational level as well to increase awareness about the disease and formulate policies to reduce stigma against PLHA working in different organisations.

  10. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  11. Ulcerative colitis in a multiracial Asian country: Racial differences and clinical presentation among Malaysian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Mei Tan; Khean-Lee Goh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Malaysian patients and to establish the spectrum of the disease seen in Malaysian patients.METHODS: Data were obtained retrospectively from a review of the medical records of in- and out-patients with a diagnosis of UC at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between 1985 and 1998.RESULTS: There were 45 confirmed cases of UC, of which 3 were foreigners, who were excluded from analysis.Thirty new cases of UC were diagnosed during the study period. Their mean age at presentation was 33.0±10.0 years.The highest prevalence of UC was 17.9/100 000 hospital admissions in the Indians, followed by 11.2/100 000 hospital admissions in the Chinese. The lowest prevalence was 3.7/100 000 hospital admissions in the Malays. The prevalence of UC was significantly higher in the Indians and the Chinese when compared with the Malays with an OR of 4.89 (CI = 2.02-12.24; χ2 = 15.45, P<0.001) and 3.06 (CI = 1.24-7.78; χ2 = 6.30; P= 0.012) respectively. The extent of colonic disease was similar in the Malay and Indian patients. In contrast, distal or left-sided colitis predominated in the Chinese with an OR of 8.17 (95%CI = 1.31-64.87;χ2 = 5.53, P = 0.02). Extraintestinal manifestations were uncommon (11.9%).CONCLUSION: UC is an uncommon disease in Malaysia,but racial differences exist. The Indians had the highest prevalence of UC with the Chinese demonstrating the least extensive disease.

  12. Social health insurance: can we ever make a case for Pakistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrejo, Farina Gul; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2008-05-01

    Social Health Insurance has been used as an approach to increase efficiency of healthcare system and consumer satisfaction in provision of healthcare services. Many developed countries have successfully planned and implemented insurance models which provide almost universal coverage and addresses issues of equity. The phenomenon is established however, developing countries especially Eastern Mediterranean region is still struggling to present one successful model of social health insurance which can be compared with European or Scandinavian countries. Pakistan likewise faces huge challenges in public sector healthcare provision and considerable proportion of population prefers to go to private sector. Quality of care, access and rising costs make healthcare, somehow, a luxury. Rising national economy, political will to carry out health sector reforms and the creation of district health system after devolution presents an opportunity to launch at least some pilot initiatives of social health insurance. This will give us some food for thought to further up scale and replicate the model all over the country.

  13. The present status of international training and education in nuclear field held in Japan for Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report summarizes the training and educational courses for Asian countries carried out in Japan by the related institutions. The 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on 27 and 28 of November 2000, based on FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) organized by the Nuclear Energy Commission, and then the following day ''The Present Status of the International Training and Education in Japan for Asian Countries'' was reported for Asian participants on 29, November. This report is the Japanese edition of the handout distributed at the meeting. I believe it can be helpful for the related institutions in Japan to support the human resources development in the nuclear field efficiently and effectively in future. (author)

  14. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  15. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  16. Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Nukhba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Results The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72% injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%. Fall (59%, dog bites (11% and burns (9% were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78% were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%. There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Conclusion Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan.

  17. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  18. Enhancing and Sustaining Teacher Professionalism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Meher; Elliott, Bob

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for fostering teacher professionalism in Government primary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The framework identifies various stages for enhancing and sustaining teacher professionalism. These stages have been derived from in-depth multiple case studies of four Government primary schools in Karachi where…

  19. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  20. LNG Import Contract in the perspective of Associated Technical and Managerial Challenges for the Distribution Companies of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawish Bakht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy Managers and Government Office Holders in Pakistan are nowadays pondering over multiple options for the resolution of ongoing Energy crises in the country. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas import has been finalized for being the quickest remedy among all the available options. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas contract is at the verge to be implemented in Pakistan. However there are several factors that need to be addressed while implementing the project. In this paper, identification of the challenges affecting the optimized distribution of gas is presented. The sustainability of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Project depends upon the successful running of the project without facing any financial crises arising from the gas distribution losses. The motive of this paper is the identification of the factors that are risk for the sustainability and successful running of LNG Import in Pakistan on long term basis. In association it is required to identify technical and managerial challenges for the gas distribution companies in distribution of LNG. Moreover recommendations are proposed for modification in existing infrastructure and governing policies related to gas distribution companies for logical success and long term sustainability of LNG import in Pakistan.

  1. Regulated compensated donation in Pakistan and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Adibul Hasan S; Naqvi, Anwar S A; Zafar, Naqi M; Ahmed, Ejaz

    2009-04-01

    Paid living unrelated kidney donor transplantation has flourished in Pakistan and Iran. This review discusses the dynamics and consequences of organ trade in Pakistan and of a regulated paid donor model in Iran on transplant activities in these countries. In 2007, over 2500 renal transplants were performed in Pakistan, where more than 70% were from socioeconomic disadvantaged kidney vendors. More than half of recipients were foreigners who paid US$20,000-30,000. Recipients of vendor kidneys had poor outcome and high infectious complications. Regulated paid donor kidney transplant in Iran number around 1500 per year and constitute 70% of the total transplants. Graft survival rates are similar to those for living related donors. The donors are paid US$1200 and additional monies are negotiated between the recipient-donor pair. This model claims to have abolished waiting lists, although many poor patients wait for deceased donors. In both countries, recipients are relatively rich and vendors are the poor of the society who sell kidneys for quick money or to repay debts. Paid donation, regulated or commercial, leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor and benefits the rich. This situation has forestalled deceased donor program and hence other solid-organ transplants. The way forward is to promote deceased donors by making transplant available to all who need it.

  2. WTO REFORMS AND RICE MARKET IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bachal Jamali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the WTO reforms and Rice market in Pakistan. Data were collected from the Primary as well secondary sources of the Rice producing countries, and data were analysis by using SPSS-18 version, A structural questionnaire was developed for reliability and validity of the data. It was revealed that from the last five years there is no visible impact on export laid growth but from last three years price shocks was observed in Pakistan, due to increases in the world rice market by 200 percent in various Asian countries. Consumers are facing the price shock problem in Pakistan and world Rice market the statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the prices specification. The gross margin specification yielded additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities. The analysis indicates that there are lags which are due primarily to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities

  3. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  4. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  5. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  6. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents’ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure. PMID:26392798

  7. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34% of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents′ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.

  8. Clinicopathological Profile of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi Infections Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin in a Tropical Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Basheer, Aneesh; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Ramdas, Anita; Varghese, Renu G’Boy; Padhi, Somanath; Shrimanth, Bhairappa; Chidambaram, Saranya; Anandhalakshmi, S.; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteric fever, a common infection in the tropics and endemic to India, often manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, presentation as fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not uncommon in tropical countries. Methods We aim to describe the clinical, laboratory and pathological features of patients hospitalized with fever of unknown origin and diagnosed as enteric fever. All culture proven cases of enteric fever were analyzed retrospectively over a period of three years from January 2011 to December 2013. Results Seven of 88 (8%) cases with enteric fever presented as FUO. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom besides fever. Relative bradycardia and splenomegaly were uncommon. Thrombocytopenia was the most common haematological abnormality while leucopenia was rare. Transaminase elevation was almost universal. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were isolated from six cases and one case respectively. Yield of organisms from blood culture was superior to that of bone marrow aspirate. Multiple granulomas were identified in 4 out of 6 (67%) of the bone marrows studied, including that due to S. Paratyphi A and histiocytic hemophagocytosis was noted in two cases. Conclusion FUO is a relatively common manifestation of enteric fever in the tropics. Clinical and laboratory features may be atypical in such cases, including absence of relative bradycardia, leucopenia, and presence of thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia. In addition, in endemic countries, enteric fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis, next to tuberculosis, in the evaluation of bone marrow granulomas in cases with FUO and culture correlation should be mandatory. PMID:25745548

  9. Role of the state in population planning: Singapore and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, R

    1984-01-01

    State intervention in population and family planning has been gradually increasing on the assumption that unregulated population growth poses serious national problems requiring public action. Among 152 developing nations in areas surveyed with respect to population and family planning policies in 1980, 52 supported family planning primarily from a demographic rationale and 65 from a health or human rights rationale, while only 35 provide no support. There appear to be 4 major underlying sociophilosophical perspectives on the role of the state in population planning: 1) the deontic/utilitarian whose prime concern is with the rights and obligations of present generations to future generations; this view provides a very vague basis for a general policy of population planning, 2) the environmentalist, which with varying degrees of pessimism in different formulations argue the need to limit population and economic growth because of the limited nature of the world's resources; this view ignores a considerable body of evidence that more than just overpopulation is involved in environmental problems, 3) the family planning perspective, advocated and supported by various international organizations and conferences, holds that decisions about birth control should be made by prospective parents. The assumption is that making birth control methods and education readily accessible to everyone will eventually result in birth rates which are desirable for the society as a whole. In practice, it is difficult to establish whether such voluntaristic measures are enough to control population, 4) the developmental distributionist position sees low birth rates as resulting from modernization, including such factors as more equitable distribution of income and increased educational and social services. Pakistan's family planning program has undergone 3 major bureaucratic reorganizations and shifts in strategy consequent on changes in national leadership since services were 1st offered

  10. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  11. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is

  12. Afghan refugees in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, M.

    2003-01-01

    Against the background of the changing situation in Afghanistan, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) requested NIDI in the beginning of 2002 to conduct a rapid survey among Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. It's purpose was to assess the demographic and socio-economic

  13. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is inclusiv

  14. Otter Conservation In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Ahmad Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This note describes the conservation status and threats of the two otter species described in Pakistan; Smooth coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica and the Eurasian or common otter (Lutra lutra. It also briefly describes the actors involved as well as the efforts made for its conservation.

  15. China and Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s 90-ton emergency humanitarian aid package arrived in Pakistan,which has recently been battered by severe floods,on August 4.The package,valued at 10 million yuan($1.5million),included 30 tons of water purifiers and medicine

  16. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Memorandum from Air Commodore Khalid Banuri, 2011. 84 Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role of Nuclear Weapons...Richard P. Cronin , K. Alan Kronstadt, and Sharon Squassoni. Also see CRS Report RL33498, Pakistan-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt. 168 For a

  17. Molecular characterization of serotype Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic Group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia;

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. Diverse strains of FMDV, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. Characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate...... appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks.The present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia-1 viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during the period 1998–2009. Phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type Asia-1 revealed that three different genetic Groups of serotype Asia-1...

  18. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World.

  19. 'Disease, disaster and despair'? The presentation of health in low- and middle-income countries on Australian television.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Imison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In high-income nations mainstream television news remains an important source of information about both general health issues and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. However, research on news coverage of health in LMICs is scarce. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present paper examines the general features of Australian television coverage of LMIC health issues, testing the hypotheses that this coverage conforms to the general patterns of foreign news reporting in high-income countries and, in particular, that LMIC health coverage will largely reflect Australian interests. We analysed relevant items from May 2005 - December 2009 from the largest health-related television dataset of its kind, classifying each story on the basis of the region(s it covered, principal content relating to health in LMICs and the presence of an Australian reference point. LMICs that are culturally proximate and politically significant to Australia had higher levels of reportage than more distant and unengaged nations. Items concerning communicable diseases, injury and aspects of child health generally consonant with 'disease, disaster and despair' news frames predominated, with relatively little emphasis given to chronic diseases which are increasingly prevalent in many LMICs. Forty-two percent of LMIC stories had explicit Australian content, such as imported medical expertise or health risk to Australians in LMICs. SIGNIFICANCE: Media consumers' perceptions of disease burdens in LMICs and of these nations' capacity to identify and manage their own health priorities may be distorted by the major news emphasis on exotic disease, disaster and despair stories. Such perceptions may inhibit the development of appropriate policy emphases in high-income countries. In this context, non-government organisations concerned with international development may find it more difficult to strike a balance between crises and enduring issues in their health programming and

  20. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot: regional variations in presentation and management of patients with AMI in 47 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John; Bueno, Hector; Clemmensen, Peter; Cottin, Yves; Fox, Keith AA; Gorenek, Bulent; Hamm, Christian; Huber, Kurt; Lettino, Maddalena; Lindahl, Bertil; Müller, Christian; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susanna; Quinn, Tom; Schiele, Francois; Simoons, Maarten; Tatu-Chitoiu, Gabriel; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member countries in a contemporary ‘real-world’ setting, using a methodology designed to improve the representativeness of the survey. Methods: Member countries of the ESC were invited to participate in a 1-week survey of all patients admitted for documented AMI in December 2009. Data on baseline characteristics, type of AMI, management, and complications were recorded using a dedicated electronic form. In addition, we used data collected during the same time period in national registries in Sweden, England, and Wales. Data were centralized at the European Heart House. Results: Overall, 4236 patients (mean age 66±13 years; 31% women) were included in the study in 47 countries. Sixty per cent of patients had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, with 50% having primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 21% fibrinolysis. Aspirin and thienopyridines were used in >90%. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins were the most commonly used anticoagulants. Statins, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were used in >80% of the patients. In-hospital mortality was 6.2%. Regional differences were observed, both in terms of population characteristics, management, and outcomes. Conclusions: In-hospital mortality of patients admitted for AMI in Europe is low. Although regional variations exist in their presentation and management, differences are limited and have only moderate impact on early outcomes. PMID:24338295

  1. Impact of Microfinance on the Performance of an Agriculture Industry in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2010-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the impact of microfinance on industry performance. The findings explain that there is no as such impact of microfinance on agriculture industry performance in a country like Pakistan. Research problem is to find out whether Microfinance has positive impact on agriculture industry growth or not, what role is played by microfinance in under developing countries like Pakistan, are people aware of it. Five years secondary Data comprised on years 2003-2008 ...

  2. Effects of Exchange Rate Instability on Imports and Exports of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kafayat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The instability in exchange rate (appreciation and depreciation in home currency is an important factor indetermination of trade balance of a country. Fluctuating exchange rates impacts the decision making of investors and traders, it shatters their confidence which ultimately leads to the slowness of trade process. In this research paper the effect of exchange rate instability is measured on imports and exports of Pakistan. For this purpose Regression analysis is used and it is calculated that if instability is created due to depreciation in home currency (Pak rupee then it has positive impact on Pakistan‘s exports, while it has absolutely no effect on imports of Pakistan. Since Pak rupee has very limited appreciation during last 20 years so appreciation effect of home currency can not be calculated on Imports and exports of Pakistan. In theoretical prospective the devaluation of home currency should decrease the volume of imports, because it will cost more for Pakistan to import goods from other countries. But our empirical findings show that, this is not the case between exchange rate and imports of Pakistan. The imports of Pakistan grew even in large figure as the home currency depreciated against other currencies. So this shows that depreciation of home currency do not effect the imports in of Pakistan. Our findings through regression analysis show that by decrease in value of home currency imports of Pakistan increase. So depreciation in home currency has no effect on imports volume.

  3. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  4. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources.

  5. Viral hepatitis in Pakistan:challenges and priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Ashraf; Aftab; Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C are big health issues worldwide as more than 400 million people arc suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C which result in more than 1.4 million deaths each year.According to a study done by Pakistan Medical Research Council in 2007-08,7.6%Pakistani population suffered with hepatitis B and C.with around 4.8%with hepatitis C only.Government of Pakistan has taken different initiatives like vaccination,patient safety,blood screening,education and awareness about disease but still there is high prevalence of hepatitis in Pakistan.According to some studies injecting drug users have the highest prevalence of hepatilis B and C in the country.The follow-up studies and documentation of hepatitis patients was not very good which need to be improved.There is no recent large scale study on risk factors and prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan so it should be done on an urgent basis.If government set up regional laboratories for prevalence study and also a central institute for hepatitis research and treatment,the disease could be prevented in better and proper way.The treatment of hepatitis is very costly and a developing country like Pakistan cannot afford such high costs.Therefore more focus should be on preventive measures.

  6. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.

  7. Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Human Resources in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Present Status and Projections for 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: niloyranjan.datta@ksa.ch [Centre for Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Aarau - Kantonsspital Baden, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultancy Practice, Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Aarau - Kantonsspital Baden, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland, and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials: Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details of teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency–Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results: Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions: Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis.

  8. Towards greater integration? Legal and policy directions of Chinese investments in Pakistan on the advent of the silk road economic belt

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouri, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan has an enduring friendship with China, and the two countries have longstanding economic ties. There is an existing strong investment flow between the two countries, but the new Chinese Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) initiative and its offshoot China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) will substantially increase the flow of Chinese investments in Pakistan. In the auspices of the SREB, China will finance its companies to build a comprehensive regional transportation network in order to ...

  9. Impact of Fiscal Autonomy on Poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahir Faridi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an underdeveloped state with strong central government. At present there are three levels of government functioning in Pakistan i.e. the federal, provincial and the local. Due to the competence and distributional aspects, the resource allocation method always remained under discussion. Therefore, the present study focused on the role of fiscal autonomy in reducing poverty in Pakistan. Both expenditure and revenue indicators of fiscal policy are considered in this study. For the purpose of analysis, time series annual data from FY1972 to FY2010 is used. Ordinary least square technique is applied to estimate the effect of fiscal autonomy on poverty. The study concludes that the central government should transfer fiscal powers to lower tiers of government in order to reduce poverty in Pakistan.

  10. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  11. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products. PMID:28747818

  12. Factors Influencing Sustainable Production of Cotton in Pakistan: A Case Study From Bahawalpur District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain Nadeem

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is one of the most important cotton producing and consuming country in the World. But there is instability in cotton production in Pakistan. The present study purpose is to explore the important factors affecting cotton production in Pakistan. A sample of 50 small farmers, 30 medium and 20 large farmers was randomly selected from different villages of Punjab province. Some production function was employed to assess the effects of education, land fertilization, weather, land preparation, seed, irrigation, etc on the productivity of cotton. The results revealed that the coefficients for cultivation (0.115 and seed (0.105 were found statistically significant at 1 percent level. The Cost-Benefit Ratio for the large farmers was found higher (1.35 than that of small (1.28 and medium (1.33 farmers. So, there is a huge need to educate the farmers on priority basis to adopt the recommended practices and to ensure the availability of these inputs. The extension staff can play a highly positive role in this regard. At the end, a detailed discussion is proposed to show the efficiency of the proposed model.

  13. Assessment of Wind Home System's Potential in Coastal Areas of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mujeebudin; Harijan, Khanji; Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam

    2007-10-01

    About 50 and 90 percent of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene and LPG. The population density in rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces is about 100-150 and 10-50 persons per km2 respectively. Extension of existing centralized grid system to rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads is economically and technically unfeasible. In this situation, decentralized renewable electricity especially wind power appears to be one of the viable option. This paper presents the assessment of potential of wind home systems (WHS) for rural electrification in coastal areas of Pakistan using the wind speed data recorded by Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD) and power curve of a reference wind turbine. Pakistan has 1050 km long coastline, of which, 250 km is falling in Sindh and 800 km in Balochistan. A 150 Wp wind turbine could generate about 345 kWh and 250 kWh of electricity per year in coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan respectively, which would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a rural household. The average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan is about 2245 and 1800 FLH respectively. The total installed capacity and technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as 63.75 MW and 135 GWh/year respectively.

  14. Damage Patterns, Monitoring, and Management of Procontarinia mangiferae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiz M; Mahmood, Riaz; Razaq, Muhammad; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-09-11

    Since 2005, mango has been damaged by a group of new pests, the gall midges, in all mango-growing areas of Pakistan. Little is known about these pests in Pakistan. In this report, we present information on the occurrence, damage patterns, methods for monitoring, and management of Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt), a mango gall midge found in the country. At the study site (Rahim Yar Khan, a district of the province Punjab, Pakistan), the pest was active from January/February to April as eggs, larvae, and adults on mango inflorescence buds, branches (axillaries), and immature fruits. Females of P. mangiferae oviposited in inflorescence tissues, and larvae, after feeding on plant tissues, dropped to the soil under the mango trees for pupation from February to April. Mango trees in commercial orchards were more heavily damaged by P. mangiferae than were isolated trees in farmer fields (66.7%). The adults of P. mangiferae were captured on sticky traps of all tested colors, and were in flight from January to May. Captures per trap were highest on yellow traps, followed by green, blue, and clear traps. Control of mango gall midge was effectively provided by the synthetic insecticide bifenthrin (Talstar 10 EC) and also by application of neem seed kernel extract on the tree canopy if integrated with raking the soil under the mango tree canopy.

  15. Severe Anemia with Hemoperitoneum as a First Presentation for Multinodular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rare Event in Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein Swe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma is a life-threatening and rare condition in western countries with an incidence of less than 3% because of early detection of cirrhosis and neoplasm. Here, we describe a case of a 66-year-old male patient with altered mental status with hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography scan of abdomen revealed hemoperitoneum and mass in liver. Patient underwent resection of liver tumor and biopsy revealed multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma. A high degree of suspicion is required where severe anemia and hemoperitoneum can be a first presentation for hepatocellular carcinoma especially in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Early diagnosis is crucial since mortality rates remain high for untreated cases.

  16. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and the Russia Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pakistan flood and the Russia heat wave/Vvild fires of the summer of2010 were two of the most extreme, and catastrophic events in the histories of the two countries occurring at about the same time. To a casual observer, the timing may just be a random coincidence of nature, because the two events were separated by long distances, and represented opposite forces of nature, i.e., flood vs. drought, and water vs. fire. In this paper, using NASA satellite and NOAA reanalysis data, we presented observation evidences that that the two events were indeed physically connected.

  17. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SALMONELLA TYPHI AND PARATYPHI INFECTIONS PRESENTING AS FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN IN A TROPICAL COUNTRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric fever, a common infection in the tropics and endemic to India, often manifests as an acute febrile illness. However, presentation as fever of unknown origin (FUO is not uncommon in tropical countries. Methods: We aim to describe the clinical, laboratory and pathological features of cases hospitalized with fever of unknown origin and diagnosed as enteric fever. All culture proven cases of enteric fever were analyzed retrospectively over a period of three years from January 2011 to December 2013. Results: Seven of 88(8% cases with enteric fever presented as FUO. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom besides fever. Relative bradycardia and splenomegaly were uncommon. Thrombocytopenia was the most common haematological abnormality, while leucopenia was rare. Transaminase elevation was almost universal. S.Typhi and S.Paratyphi were isolated from six cases and one case respectively.  Yield of organisms from blood culture was superior to that of bone marrow aspirate. Multiple granulomas were identified in 4 out of 6 (67% of the bone marrows studied, including that due to S. Paratyphi and histiocytic hemophagocytosis was noted in two cases. Conclusion: FUO is a relatively common manifestation of enteric fever in the tropics. Clinical and laboratory features may be atypical in such cases, including absence of relative bradycardia, leucopenia and presence of thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia.  Moreover, in endemic countries, enteric fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis, next to tuberculosis, in the evaluation of bone marrow granulomas in cases with FUO and culture correlation should be mandatory.

  18. Feasible Wind Power Potential from Costal Line of Sindh Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Hussain Baloch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy is the serious issue, directly or indirectly, in the whole practice of advancement, development and existence of all the existing creatures. It plays a very important part in socioeconomic growth and social prosperity of any country, at least 1/3rd of the country has no access of energy like electricity. Globally Pakistan is an electricity lacking country, however deficient in oil and gas. Pakistan is rich in sources like water, coal, wind and solar energy. Electricity is the basic needs of all human’s comfort and in addition to overcome power crises in common, Pakistan desires in the way to utilize its natural power assets similar to hydel power plant, sunlight and wind potential for the generation of electricity. Pakistan has surely considerable latent for exploiting wind energy. Additionally about 1000 km lengthy shoreline in southern and northern hilly areas offers an outstanding reserve of wind potential. The efforts need for utilization of wind energy in the country. This study includes only twenty selected regions of southern regions of Sindh province for power generation from a natural source of wind energy.

  19. Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism: Sharing Experiences in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Syed, Mahroona Hussain; Vestenskov, David

    challenges require a development of policies and strategies. Though the roles of Denmark and Pakistan respectively are different in nature, a lot of commonalities in conceptual thoughts and actions were found between the two countries at all levels. The book at hand gathers a number of lessons identified...

  20. Internal Security Threats to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    affiliations with militant groups are discussed at length. Pakistan came into existence as a moderate and modern nation state under the vision of Jinnah ...considered it as an affront and an unfair imposition. Their provincial sentiment, which was organized under the banner of religion in the pre- Partition ...Pakistani. Yet, in the first decades after partition , East Pakistan had a favorable trade balance while West Pakistan ran a deficit. Before 1965 East

  1. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  2. The Effect of Personality Traits on Sales Performance: An Empirical Investigation to Test the Five-Factor Model (FFM in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The present study investigates the relationship between the five-factor model (FFM of personality traits and sales performance in Pakistan. Background: Personality is a well-researched area in which numerous studies have examined the correlation between personality traits and job performance. In this study, a positive effect between the various dimensions of the five-factor model (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and open to experience and sales performance in Pakistan is investigated. Methodology: Pearson’s correlation values as well as analysis methodologies were employed to gather descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and use the analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Cronbach’s alpha value helped determine the internal consistency of the group items. Questionnaires were distributed among 600 salespersons in various cities of Pakistan from April 2015 to January 2016. Subsequently, 510 questionnaires were acquired for the sample. Contribution: The current study contributes to the literature on personality traits and sales performance by applying empirical evidence from sales managers in three industries of Pakistan: pharmaceutical, insurance, and electronics. Findings: The results affirmed a positive effect of the five-factor model on sales performance among various industries in Pakistan. The effect of each sub-factor from the five-factor model was examined autonomously. There is a favorable benefit to sales managers in considering FFM when making hiring decisions. Impact on Society: FFM offers important insights into personality traits that work well within Pakistani sales industry structure. Future Research: A broader rendering of the effects of FFM on sales organizations in other geographical locations around Pakistan should be considered. Additionally, an extended study should be conducted to investigate the effects of FFM on female sales employees involving

  3. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  4. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots.

  5. Pakistan: Frontline State Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    leader Mohammed Ali Jinnah embarked on a new strategy against Indian Congress domination stating that Islam was in danger and the congress was...A. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY ............................. 4 II. A COLD W AR W ITHIN ...................................... 9 A. LEGACY OF PARTITION ...in the region, one absolute of Indo-Pak relations remains after the end of the cold war. Since the partition of India in 1947, Pakistan has been

  6. Central Makran Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A spectacular view of the Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 65.5E) looking north with the Arabian Sea and the city of Karachi in the foreground. In the center, the Indian sub-continent moving slowly north into the Asian continent has caused the folded sedimentary Makran Range to bend from east-west to north-south as well as the uplift forming The Great Himalaya Range and the high Tibetan Plateau to the north.

  7. Next big threat for Pakistan Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Om; Hamid, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    In our country, world hepatitis day (28th May 2013) was observed as a liver cancer day to draw global attention on the global health menace caused by Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This is the right time to write a review article to apprise the nation of this growing burden of HCC caused most commonly by viruses in our country. Pakistan is also recognized as one of the countries of the world where hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic. Recent large national surveys suggest an overall HCV prevalence of 4.8% and that of HBV as 2.5%. There are however communities where the sero-prevalence of HCV can be as high as 23%. No wonder that chronic liver disease is the fifth most common reason for morbidity and mortality in the country and Pakistan has been perhaps accurately called a "cirrhotic state". Hence majority of such patients are at risk of developing HCC.

  8. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.

    1997-02-01

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  9. Evolution of Doctoral Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Successes of Doctoral Students of Education in a Public Sector University of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the findings from a larger study undertaken to explore the experience of graduate students in education in Pakistan. Analysis of a smaller slice of data collected from students who were enrolled in the PhD and MPhil programmes of the Department of Education in a large public sector university in Northern Pakistan was…

  10. Leprosy in Pakistan: LEPRA elective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, S

    1998-06-01

    As part of the curriculum, medical students at the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas's Hospitals (UMDS), London, are encouraged to spend an elective period of 8 weeks in their final year anywhere in the world, studying any field of medicine they are interested in. Having lived in Tanzania for 10 years, I have had contact with people suffering from leprosy and my interest in leprosy continued after I moved to Europe to continue my education. I therefore decided to use my elective to gain hands-on experience with the disease so that I could understand and appreciate the impact of leprosy in developing countries such as Pakistan.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad IMRAN; Hamayun KHAN; Syed Shah HASSAN; Rasool KHAN

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan,and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO's requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards.

  13. Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the perceptive of consumers doing online shopping and impulse purchasing. This study examined the behavior of thirty consumers who were asked to fill the questionnaire based on some close ended questions. The focus of this investigation was to discuss the strengths and Weaknesses of online shopping and impulse purchasing in developing country like Pakistan. Today consumers choose and buy things while sitting at home through internet and buy things impulsively. Do consumer in Pakistan are using Internet for shopping online? Do they make more impulse purchase on the Internet? Does online shopping save time? Do online shopping is more attractive or consumer feels lack of trust? Impacts of advertising are also discussed. We covered the virtual shopping weakness and strengths in our VSIPSWP (Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan Models.

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO’s requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  15. Language Policy and Medium of Instruction Issue in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AMMAR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of language in Pakistan is not just related to linguistics. It has far more implications for cultural, economic, political, and social issues. The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. It then relates to the formation and implementation of a (certain steps sound language policy to root out the conflicts and ethnic clashes from time to time in the country, and to survive the language shock of majority of students in Pakistan, who are taught English as compulsory subject up to 14 years of education. The current situation of the country also correlates to the puzzling phenomenon of cultural aversive attitudes towards English language by the masses.  The current teaching methods and curriculum employed in the institutions of Pakistan, for decades, have only been successful in maintaining the gap between the privileged English related people and the hardcore anti-English sentiments. In this battle for linguistic-identity crisis and supremacy, a lot of national talent has been wasted. This paper briefly re-explores the situation of languages in the country on the first step, then it moves on to focus on the national policy, its flaws, and it possible ways out by bringing in examples from Chinese and Indian Language Policies.

  16. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Freire Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This dossier focuses on one of the essential debate topics today about the territorial dimension of the new development strategies concerned with the worsening of the global socioecological crisis, that is: the challenges related to the activation and integration in networks of localized agri-food systems. For its composition, some contributions presented and debated during the VI International Conference on Localized Agri-food System - The LAFS facing the opportunities and challenges of the new global context have been gathered. The event took place in the city of Florianópolis, from May 21th to 25th of 2013. The event was promoted by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC and by the Center for the International Cooperation on Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD. Besides UFSC and CIRAD, EPAGRI, State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC, as well as research institutes and universities from other states (UFMG, IEA/SP, UFS, UFRGS and Mexican and Argentinian partners from the RED SIAL Latino Americana also participated in the organization of lectures, discussion tables and workshops.

  17. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-01-01

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  18. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre, United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction, research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse

  19. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-10-27

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  20. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present to our esteemed readers the second edition of our journal for 2008. We have chosen the theme “The life and work of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Moltmann” as its special emphasis. It is our way to pay homage to J. Moltmann in the year the Universidade Metodista de São Paulo awards him an honorary Doctor Honoris Causa degree. Sincethe seventies, Moltmann and Latin America have been in dialog. In his emblematic work “A Theology of Liberation”, Gustavo Gutiérrez, the Catholic, discussed with Moltmann, the Reformed, the relationship between eschatology and history (GUTIÉRREZ, Gustavo.Teologia da Libertação. 5ª edição. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1985, p. 27, 137-139. A dialog held in the premises of IMS, which nowadays is called UMESP, has produced the little book “Passion for life” (MOLTMANN, Jürgen. Paixão pela vida. São Paulo, SP: ASTE - Associaçãode Seminários Teológicos Evangélicos, 1978.In the following years, the wide theological work of J. Moltmann went all the way from debates to congresses and has conquered the classrooms. Most probably, J. Moltmann is nowadays the most widely read European author in Brazilian theological seminaries. Thisrecognition can only be held in unison and the wide response to our request for articles confirms the huge repercussion that Moltmann’s work has been having up to today in Brazil. The ecumenical theologian J. Moltmann is ecumenically read. We believe that thisway we may be better equipped to answer to anyone who asks us for the reason there is hope in us. We have organized the articles on J. Moltmann’s theology according to the original publication date of the books dealt with in each essay. We also communicate that some articles which were originally requested for this edition of the journal will be published in the journal Estudos de Regilião in May 2009.As it is usual with the journal Caminhando, we have, besides this thematic emphasis, yet other contributions in the areas of

  1. Present status, actions taken and future considerations due to the findings of E. multilocularis in two Scandinavian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Helene; Enemark, Heidi; Davidson, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    When Echinococcus (E.) multilocularis was first detected in mainland Scandinavia in Denmark in 2000, surveillance was initiated/intensified in Sweden, mainland Norway and Finland. After 10 years of surveillance these countries all fulfilled the requirements of freedom from E. multilocularis...... as defined by the EU, i.e. a prevalence in final hosts countries. Finland and mainland Norway are currently considered free from E. multilocularis, whereas...

  2. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Journal Caminhando debuts with a new editorial format: eachmagazine will have a Dossier.In 2010 Christianity celebrated the centenary of Edinburgh. TheWorld Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 is regarded by manyas missiological watershed in the missionary and ecumenical movement.So the Faculty of Theology of the Methodist Church (FATEO decidedto organize a Wesleyan Week discussing the issue of mission. For anevent of this magnitude FATEO invited the Rev. Dr. Wesley Ariarajah,Methodist pastor and teacher of Sri Lanka with extensive experience inpastoral ministry in local churches and professor of History of Religionsand the New Testament at the Theological College of Lanka, maintainedby the Protestant Churches in Sri Lanka. In 1981 he was invited to jointhe World Council of Churches, where he presided for over ten years theCouncil of Interreligious Dialogue. From 1992 he served as Deputy GeneralSecretary of the WCC.The following texts are not the speeches of the Rev. Dr. WesleyAriarajah, for they will be published separately. Nevertheless, the journaldialogs with the celebrations of the centenary of Edinburgh, parting formthe intriguing theme: "Mission in the 21st century in Brazil". After all, howis it that mission takes place among us in personal, church, and communityactivities?Within the Dossier, as common to the journal, the textos are organizedas follows: Bible, Theology / History and Pastoral Care. Other items thatdo not fit within the Dossier, but, do articulate mission, can be found inthe section Declarations and Documents and Book Reviews.The authors of the Dossier have important considerations in buildinga contemporary missiological concept considering Brazilian reality.Anderson de Oliveira, in the Bible-Section, presents a significantexegeses of Matthew 26.6-13. What does it mean when Jesus is quotedwith the words: "For the poor always ye have with you, but me ye havenot always." Is this declaration challenging the gospels

  4. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  5. Sustainable or Adaptive Water Resources Management in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan under Uncertainties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dars, G. H.; Moradkhani, H.

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan has one of the largest contiguous irrigation systems in the world called as Indus River Irrigation System (IRIS). In 1951, soon after its independence, Pakistan was water abundant country but due to poor management practices the country has now become water scarce. This study will provide a detailed analysis of the water management issues and emerging challenges of the Indus River Basin in Pakistan. The research shows the importance of hydrometeorologic forecast under aleatory and epistemic uncertainties and that the Pakistan needs to focus on adaptive management to climate and land use changes and developing reservoirs to enhance water storage capacity keeping in view environmental degradation, and also adopting modern techniques of monitoring the flow of water to have equitable and justifiable shares from individual watercourse to all provinces so as interprovincial and transboundary water conflicts may not happen in the future. Subsequently, a paradigm shift is needed in water resources development and management for sustainable economic growth.

  6. Strategic Program for Biodiversity and Water Resource Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Population pressure, climate change and resulting extreme weather scenarios, armed con?ict and economic pressure have put the situation of Pakistan's biodiversity at risk. Melting glaciers, deforestation, erosion, landslides and depletion of agricultural areas are aggravating the regulation of water ?ow in Pakistan. In Pakistan agro-biodiversity is central to human survival and play vital role in the economy of the country. It contributes 21% to the GDP, employs 45% of the labor force and contributes 71% of the export earnings. Agro- biodiversity in Pakistan is greatly affected by short term climate variability and could be harmed signi?cantly by long-term climate change. As the duration of crop growth cycle is related to temperature, an increase in temperature will speed up crop growth and shorten the duration between sowing and harvesting. This shortening could have an adverse effect on productivity of crops. The present assessment also revealed that hydrological cycle is also likely to be in?uenced by global warming. Since the agricultural crops are heavily dependent on the water, and water resources are inextricably linked with climate; therefore, the projected climate change has serious implications for water resources of the country. The freshwater resources, in Pakistan, are based on snow- and glacier-melt and monsoon rains, both being highly sensitive to climate change. The country speci?c current information strongly suggests that: decrease in glacier volume and snow cover leading to alterations in the seasonal ?ow pattern of Indus River System; increased annual ?ows for a few decades followed by decline in ?ows in subsequent years; increase in the formation and burst of glacial lakes; higher frequency and intensity of extreme climate events coupled with irregular monsoon rains causing frequent ?oods and droughts; and greater demand of water due to higher evapotranspiration rates at elevated temperatures. These trends will have large impact on the spatial

  7. Counterinsurgency in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As one assessment noted, “[n]ot a single shop [in Spinkai] . . . is now intact. Even petrol stations and local factories have been razed to the...Director of Opera- tions, Nurith Berstein. She can be reached by email at Nurith_Ber stein@rand.org; by phone at 703-413-1100, extension 5469; or by...Pakistan supported numerous covert cells within Indian-administered Kashmir, sometimes using operatives based in the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi. In

  8. Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    not part of this proposed Muslim state. 18 with a Muslim majority.50 Also in the 1930s, Mohammed Ali Jinnah , a Bombay lawyer and future father of...of the dichotomy of India.51 Jinnah was able to use this theory as a rallying point for Indian Muslims to demand an independent Muslim state as part...large part to the diversity of India’s Muslim community.52 Pakistan was partitioned from India in 1947, at the end of British Colonial rule, as

  9. One size does not fit all: local determinants of measles vaccination in four districts of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah; Ansari, Umaira

    2009-01-01

    Background Rates of childhood vaccination in Pakistan remain low.There is continuing debate about the role of consumer and service factors in determining levels of vaccination in developing countries. Methods In a stratified random cluster sample of census enumeration areas across four districts in Pakistan, household interviews about vaccination of children and potentially related factors with 10,423 mothers of 14,542 children preceded discussion of findings in separate male and female focus...

  10. A brief review on dengue molecular virology, diagnosis, treatment and prevalence in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    IDREES, Sobia; Ashfaq, Usman A

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a serious health problem infecting 2.5 billion people worldwide. Dengue is now endemic in more than 100 countries, including Pakistan. Each year hundreds of people get infected with dengue in Pakistan. Currently, there is no vaccine available for the prevention of Dengue virus infection due to four viral serotypes. Dengue infection can cause death of patients in its most severity, meanwhile many antiviral compounds are being tested against dengue virus infection to e...

  11. Women's autonomy, education and contraception use in Pakistan: a national study.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saleem; Bobak, M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the autonomy of women is one of the mechanisms of how education influences contraceptive use in developing countries. We tested this hypothesis in a national sample of women in Pakistan. METHODS: We used the 2000 Pakistan Reproductive Health and Family Planning Survey, which interviewed a national sample of ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 6579). Women's decision autonomy was estimated from 9 questions on who makes decisions at home; movement auto...

  12. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtiaq Hassan; Abdul Razzaq Ghumman; Hashim Nisar Hashmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end o...

  13. Pakistan Intra-industry Trade: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT between Pakistan and trade patterns in the period 1980-2006, using a static and dynamic panel data approach. In the recent years, the government of Pakistan had realized factors to liberalize the international trade. The literature of international economics demonstrates that this condition (trade liberalization induces the IIT. The case study for Pakistan has been negligence in the economic literature. This study uses country-specific characteristics as explanatory variables. This study utilizes country-specific characteristics as explanatory variables. The empirical evidence indicates that IIT is a negative function of the difference in GDP per capita between Pakistan and her trading partners. Furthermore, econometric results point out that trading is influenced by the similar demand. We have also introduced an economic dimension; this proxy confirms the positive effects of IIT. Our findings reveal the importance of scales economies and the variety of differentiated products. The study supports to accept the hypothesis that trading increases if the transportation costs decrease.

  14. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  15. Peste des Petits Ruminants virus: an emerging threat to goat farming in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, M; Munir, M

    2014-08-01

    Pakistan at present is having more than 60 million head of goats, which consist of about 37 well-recognized breeds found in different regions of the country. Although the goat farming on commercial level is escalating in Pakistan, there are threats, which result this initiative into a loss. Among these threats, Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreaks are causing huge economic damages. In this study, three outbreaks of PPR were confirmed at three different commercial farms in various regions of Punjab province and their economic impact on small ruminants farming was calculated. The disease started after 1-2 months of the establishment of these farms as the animals were purchased from different livestock markets. Disease started with sudden onset of respiratory and enteric clinical signs and spreads quickly. Disease caused mortality and morbidity of 10-15% and 20-40%, respectively, within a time period of 01-03 weeks. At these three farms, 116 of 365 animals exhibited the clinical disease, with an overall morbidity rate of 31.78%. A total of 43 animals died with mortality rate of 11.78% (43/365) causing a direct financial loss of $4300 (Pakistan Rupees 430,000/-), while the indirect cost due to treatment, loss of animal body condition, reduction in market value, increase veterinary services and labour was $7911 (Pak Rs. 791,100/-). Taken together, the results demonstrate that there is an urgent need to assess the economic impact of the disease throughout the country and to give proper emphasis for controlling PPR in sensitive regions where it is discouraging the investment in goat farming. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Intended Curriculum and Its Presentation in 10th Grade Chemistry Textbooks from Seven Arabic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddoor, Rouba; Al-Amoush, Siham; Eilks, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the nature of intended secondary chemistry curricula, as they are represented by chemistry textbooks, from seven Arabic countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The curricula are evaluated through analysis of the officially approved 10th grade chemistry textbooks used nationwide in all…

  18. Oral health care of the mentally retarded and other persons with disabilities in the Nordic countries: present situation and plans for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio, M L

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, the general goal of policies for persons with disabilities is their integration into society. At the same time, the social and economic situation has worsened, and, as a consequence the structures of the welfare state seem gradually to break down. This paper describes the present situation and plans for the future of oral health care for the mentally retarded and others with disabilities in the changing society in the Nordic countries.

  19. Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan.

  20. Molecular characterization of Ephedra species found in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, S; Shah, M M; Ahmad, H; Swati, Z A; Shah, S H; Pervez, A; Farooq, U

    2007-12-11

    Ephedra, also known as "ma huang", is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value. The genus is represented by 42 species around the world, 9 of which were provisionally reported from Pakistan. Species of the genus have a controversial taxonomy due to their overlapping morphological features. Conventional tools alone are not sufficient for characterizing the species. The objective of present study was to assess the genetic variability present in different biotypes of Ephedra growing in Pakistan using molecular markers. A total of six genotypes collected from diverse geographic zones of Pakistan were used. The DNA of all genotypes was amplified using nine randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to study genetic variability at the molecular level. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix based on the data of 9 RAPD primers was used to construct a dendrogram which was then used to group the genotypes in clusters. Based on the dendrogram and dissimilarity coefficient matrix, the RAPD markers used here revealed a moderate to high level of genetic polymorphism (6 to 49%) among the genotypes. It was found that the collection of genotype accessions from Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan was most distantly related to the other five collections. More molecular markers including functional genes and ribosomal spacer regions are suggested to find a better estimate of the genetic diversity present in Ephedra growing in Pakistan. The information provided here is useful for identifying valuable Ephedra variants which will be used for medicinal purposes and earning foreign currency.

  1. A review of Human Biomonitoring studies of trace elements in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib

    2016-11-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the concentration levels of substances or their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. HBM of dose and biochemical effect monitoring is an effective way of measuring human exposure to chemical substances. Many countries have conducted HBM studies to develop a data base for many chemicals including trace metals of health concern for their risk assessment and risk management. However, in Pakistan, HBM program on large scale for general population does not exist at present or in the past has been reported. Various individual HBM studies have been reported on the assessment of trace elements (usually heavy metals) from Pakistan; most of them are epidemiological cross sectional surveys. In this current review we tried to develop a data base of HBM studies of trace elements namely arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in biological fluids (blood, urine) and tissues (hair, nails) in general population of Pakistan. Studies from all available sources have been explored, discussed and presented in the form of tables and figures. The results of these studies were critically compared with large scale HBM programs of other countries, (US & European communities etc). It was observed from the present study that the most of the toxic metals in biological fluids/tissues in general population of Pakistan, have higher background values comparatively. For example the mean values of toxic metals like As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in blood of general population were found as 2.08 μg/L, 4.24 μg/L, 60.5 μg/L, 1.95 μg/L, 198 μg/L respectively. Similarly, the urine mean values of 67.6 μg/L, 3.2 μg/L, 16.4 μg/L, 6.2 μg/L and 86.5 μg/L were observed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  3. Present state and future prospects of the fermentation industry in the developing countries of Africa: the Nigerian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, N.

    1985-02-01

    Although the developing countries of Africa consume products of the fermentation industry, these are usually imported, mainly from Europe. Where the fermentation industry exists at all it is limited to the beer industry. Even this is planned from Europe, whence the major raw materials are also imported. Shortage of hard currency is however forcing a rethinking of the situation. The ultimate end of this is the indigenisation of the fermentation industry. This involves economic considerations, raw materials to be used, the desirable properties of the micro-organisms to be used, personnel, know-how, and the improvement of the process by research. An indigenous fermentation industry in the developing countries of Africa may not only lead to the local production of well-known fermentation products but may also lead to the industrialization of the manufacture of fermentation products currently produced by small-scale traditional methods. 6 references.

  4. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality ...

  5. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    2008. 3 See http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr_03272008.html. 4 Talat Masood, “Managing Pakistan-U.S. Relations” (op-ed), Hindu ( Chennai ), June 25...Taleban Bring New Fear to Peshawar,” BBC News, November 13, 2008. Paramilitary commanders reported having secured most areas surrounding the city ...Pakistan.”40 34 “Pakistan’s Deal With the Devil,” Salon, July 8, 2008; “In City of

  6. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions.

  7. Pakistan embarks on new campaign to reduce fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    There was both international and domestic significance in a plea for population stabilization issued by Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in his address at the recent Earth Summit conference in Rio de Janeiro. Speaking as both a national leader and chairman of the Group of 77, a coalition of developing countries, Sharif said that to eradicate the abject poverty under which more than a billion people in the world live today "developing countries must assume their full responsibility in limiting population growth to manageable levels." Those words may seem odd coming from the leader of a country that has been indifferent about population problems for the past 2 decades. Until Prime Minister Sharif made a public commitment to a population program last July, the last leader of Pakistan to take such action was the late President Ayub Khan in 1969. With an annual 3.1% growth rate, Pakistan's population of 122 million is projected to double in only 23 years. The average Pakistani woman has 6.1 children in her reproductive lifetime. Reduction of population growth was an issue in the October 1990 election campaign. After his Islamic Democratic Alliance won, the government named Syeda Abida Hussain, a prominent and popular politician, to the cabinet post of Minister of Family Welfare. Hussain, who is now Pakistan's Ambassador to the US, recalls that many experts felt that starting a population program would be "an impossible undertaking, "that" attitudes were not conducive to family planning and government would never support it." In a speech on World Population Day in Rio, organized by the Population Institute, she said she soon found that "the problems were managerial, not attitudinal." She maintained that the relatively low acceptance of contraception among the people of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India is not because of religion or ideology "but because they are too poor to have access to birth control." Shortly after Hussain was names Minister of Family Welfare, she

  8. Universities and the Knowledge-Based Economy: Perceptions from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shah; Taylor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the role of universities in the creation of a knowledge-based economy (KBE) in a developing country, Pakistan. Some developing countries have moved quickly to develop a KBE, but progress in Pakistan is much slower. Higher education plays a crucial role as part of the triple helix model for innovation. Based on the perceptions…

  9. Universities and the Knowledge-Based Economy: Perceptions from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shah; Taylor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the role of universities in the creation of a knowledge-based economy (KBE) in a developing country, Pakistan. Some developing countries have moved quickly to develop a KBE, but progress in Pakistan is much slower. Higher education plays a crucial role as part of the triple helix model for innovation. Based on the perceptions…

  10. Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; ur Rehman, Kahil; Ali, Asghar; Khan, Itbar; Khan, Fazal Akber

    2014-01-01

    Education lays the foundation for political, social and economic development of any country. A viable education system enables the nation to achieve its national goals. Pakistan as a developing country has faced critical problems of education since its inception and therefore, the system of education has failed to deliver according to the…

  11. Predicting Bankruptcy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RASHID

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the financial ratios that are most significant in bankruptcy prediction for the non-financial sector of Pakistan based on a sample of companies which became bankrupt over the time period 1996-2006. Twenty four financial ratios covering four important financial attributes, namely profitability, liquidity, leverage, and turnover ratios, were examined for a five-year period prior bankruptcy. The discriminant analysis produced a parsimonious model of three variables viz. sales to total assets, EBIT to current liabilities, and cash flow ratio. Our estimates provide evidence that the firms having Z-value below zero fall into the “bankrupt” whereas the firms with Z-value above zero fall into the “non-bankrupt” category. The model achieved 76.9% prediction accuracy when it is applied to forecast bankruptcies on the underlying sample.

  12. Dengue fever in Pakistan: Challenges, priorities and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no huge scale study on threat aspects and incidence of dengue fever in Pakistan, as a result it must be carried out on a priority source. It is the responsibility of the government to establish local community based laboratories and excellence research center for dengue cure, awareness and prevalence. The ailment could be cured in proper and better way. The treatment of dengue is extremely difficult due to lack of available vaccines. A developing country like Pakistan cannot handle the problems due to lake of awareness, behavior of people, terrorisms and other socioeconomic factors of the country as well as government interest to cope the other problems as compared to this one. Therefore, more measures should be carried out to prevent the disease.

  13. Tectonics of the Himalayan thrust belt in northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, R. S.; Lawrence, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Himalayan ranges of southern Asia represent a dilemma in modern plate tectonic theory. Alvarez (1982) has tried to resolve some of the problems, but inconsistencies remain. The present investigation considers some of the problems which are now encountered in light of present knowledge. The investigation is concerned mainly with the evolution of the Himalaya south of the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, taking into account the neotectonic setting of northern Pakistan. Attention is given to subdivisions of the central Indian Himalaya, the transition from central Himalaya to northern Pakistan, subdivisions of the Himalaya of northern Pakistan, and aspects of neotectonics. Problems for future work are also discussed.

  14. CERN and Pakistan consolidate their partnership

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the President of Pakistan's visit to CERN, the Laboratory and Pakistan decided to strengthen their collaboration. The President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the Chairman of PAEC, Parvez Butt, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, exchange congratulations following the signing of the letter of intent to strengthen partnership between CERN and Pakistan.The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, during his speech in the Council Chamber. The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, visited CERN on 27 January this year, accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN. Welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, the President visited the CMS experiment to which Pakistan is making a substantial contribution. The presidential pa...

  15. Reviving the United States' Commitment to Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Steve Young

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As President Obama is in the midst of deciding whether additional U.S.combat forces are needed in Afghanistan in addition to the 21,000 troops recently committed, he must realize that additional armed forces are only a stopgap measure in Afghanistan's downward spiral into an 'undergoverned' failed state. Similarly, as Pakistan's fragile and fractured civilian government continues to appease the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP, an umbrella organization of Pakistani Pashtun tribesmen with Taliban cultural values led by Baitullah Mehsud and others, it comes closer to the concept of a "misgoverned" failed state, possessing a small arsenal of nuclear arms. The problem for the U.S. administration is that neither of these countries can be allowed to fall further into disrepair. At the same time each requires a different and unique approach to the threat of "Talibanization" that faces each country—the control of territory within each country by Islamic radicals seeking to impose their ultraconservative interpretation of shar'ia law onto the general populace. Generally acknowledged is the belief that what has tentatively worked in Iraq, that is, the additional U.S. troops and employment of former Sunni insurgents to help fight foreign fighters associated with al-Qaida, will not work in either Afghanistan or Pakistan. While a regional approach to the conflict in these two countries is warranted, Afghanistan and Pakistan are on two different economic, social, and political playing fields. Hence, there cannot be a one-size-fits-all solution for the two countries, especially one that draws on the Iraq playbook. In addition to its internal political problems, Pakistan also faces the issue of al-Qaida and Taliban training camps positioned in its literal back yard, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA or Tribal Areas. Resolution of the War on Terror cannot come to fruition without addressing the problems that exist in the Tribal Areas. This largely

  16. Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

    2012-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan.

  17. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  18. eBusiness in Pakistan: Opportunities and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi; Bahadar Shah

    2007-01-01

    Several studies of eBusiness in developing countries have emphasized the influence of obstacles related to PCs-penetration, cultural and economical infrastructure, and regulatory environment as major determinants of eBusiness success. IT has revolutionized the way organizations conduct business round the globe. Now business is conducted online (eBusiness) instead of conventional means. In Pakistan, eBusiness is facing both technical and non-technical issues from m...

  19. Unconventional Warfare and Counterinsurgency in Pakistan: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    for the Mujahideen were being sold in the open market , leading to rising violence across the country. There were also allegations of ISI officers...convoys inflicted heavy casualties. There was also a wave of suicide bombings in major cities – especially Lahore, Peshawar , and Karachi – many of...Pakistan,” Asia Times, January 30, 2008. 75 Lalwani, 2009. 76 “Jailed TNSM chief admitted to Peshawar hospital,” Daily Times, November 17, 2007

  20. Investigation of impact of environmental changes on precipitation pattern of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, A R; Hassan, I; Khan, Q U Z; Kamal, M A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, variability in precipitation pattern of Pakistan due to environmental and climatic changes has been studied. Maps have been generated to depict global precipitation variation. Precipitation data of 25 stations of Pakistan have been used. These data were taken from Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results of two global climate models, namely Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research's third generation general circulation model and National Center for Atmospheric Research's first generation precipitation circulation model for A2 scenario have been applied to investigate the changes. It is observed that precipitation pattern will change significantly in the future. The occurrence of precipitation in all seasons for Pakistan is expected to increase with almost uniform distribution across a season. Average annual precipitation of the country will undergo an increase in the range of +57 to +71 % as compared to average of the base period.

  1. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are Common Malaria Species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbes have a diverse nature, it makes human laugh and cry. Some microbes are fruitful for humans while others are harmful. Infectious diseases are a key problem in the modern world. In the last few decades, million of peoples have died from different diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc. Among these diseases, malaria is one of the major health problems for developing countries including Pakistan. This study was undertaken to provide baseline information about the prevalence of malaria, species distribution and to contribute to the data regarding epidemiology in Pakistan. For a collection of literature, the electronic search engine was used, using different key words i.e. prevalence, species distribution, epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan, etc. The time frame of the obtained articles was from 2000 to 2014. The two species of malaria Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are common in Pakistan. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 666-672

  2. Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, S M A; Moin, O; Khan, J A

    2011-07-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited. To measure mean concentrations of PM(2.5) (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan. Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device. The overall mean PM(2.5) value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m(3) (95%CI 484-1205). The mean PM(2.5) value was 101 μg/m(3) (95%CI 69-135 μg/m(3)) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m(3) (95%CI 241-1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m(3) (95%CI 925-2565) for shisha smoking venues. The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.

  3. Gulf States and the Conflict between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Shahab Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultural and economic ties between the Indian subcontinent and the Gulf region have existed for several centuries now. Strengthened further, both India and Pakistan continue to have important economic and strategic ties with the countries of the Gulf. While the Gulf region offers substantial economic advantages to both, they also have the potential to make positive interventions in the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan. The following chapter analyses the role and position of the Gulf Arab States - in particular the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, and their potential in acting as a buffer for the Indo-Pak conflict. It will evaluate the official positions of the Gulf region towards various aspects of the Indo-Pak conflict. The Gulfcountries have often voiced their positions at regional and internationalforums. An additional aspect of this relationship is that the Gulf States are also members of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC, a pan- Islamic body which has often addressed issues of contention between India and Pakistan, particularly with respect to Kashmir. Through an academic understanding of the issues and incorporating viewpoints of experts in the area, the chapter seeks to provide fresh insights into an aspect which has the possibility of becoming a crucial incentive for peace between India and Pakistan.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  5. Pakistan’s Impact on Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    never loses CI • Baloch five insurgencies: 1948, 1958-59, 1962-63, 1973-77, and 2002+ (Talibanizing) • Suppressed 75 million Bengalis in 1970-71 with...1962-1963 sporadic infiltration • Pakistan: Lesson Learned : Local security • 1963-1973 Royal Peace with Pakistan • Afghanistan supports Pakistan

  6. Acceptors of Population Programme in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    SABIHA HASAN SyED

    1981-01-01

    Data from Pakistan's population planning programme, the Nationa11mpact Survey (1968) and the Pakistan Fertility Survey (1975) are ana1ysed to estimate the number of 'births averted' in Pakistan by various contraceptives. Limitations of the population planning programme statistics for determining the impact of the programme on fertility rates are pointed out.

  7. EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH DISTANCE EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir BUKHSH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment during the years 2001 to 2004 of the formal system for primary, middle and high level was considered and enrollment during the year 198-1999 and 2004 for Secondary School Certificate to Ph.D level of non-formal system was considered. Data was analyzed in term of percentage and average. It was found that enrollment of female is less than male in formal system while enrollment of female is higher than male in non-formal system of education in Pakistan.

  8. Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaseen Khan Afghan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL.

  9. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. A presentation of development challenges and research issues in developing countries and donor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Harald

    1997-12-31

    This document discusses some development challenges and research needs related to environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. After a general introduction to basic principles of EIA, the document deals with some general conditions for EIA in developing countries and in donor agencies. Through a presentation of experiences with EIA from selected donor agencies (with emphasis on NORAD) the report ends up with focusing on some research issues that may come up with recommendations for improving EIA practices in developing countries and donor agencies. 37 refs., 6 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from outbreaks in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, M; Zohari, S; Saeed, A; Khan, Q M; Abubakar, M; LeBlanc, N; Berg, M

    2012-02-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322 bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Automated Versus Manual Blood Pressure Measurement: A Randomized Crossover Trial in the Emergency Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan: Are Third World Countries Ready for the Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Kanaan; Shahnawaz, Saba; Rasool, Mariam; Chaudhry, Huwad; Ahuja, Gul; Shahnawaz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension has proven to be a strong liability with 13.5% of all mortality worldwide being attributed to elevated blood pressures in 2001. An accurate blood pressure measurement lies at the crux of an appropriate diagnosis. Despite the mercury sphygmomanometer being the gold standard, the ongoing deliberation as to whether mercury sphygmomanometers should be replaced with the automated oscillometric devices stems from the risk mercury poses to the environment. AIM: This study was performed to check the validity of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurements as compared to the manual blood pressure measurements in Karachi, Pakistan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood pressure was recorded in 200 individuals aged 15 and above using both, an automated oscillometric blood pressure device (Dinamap Procare 100) and a manual mercury sphygmomanometer concomitantly. Two nurses were assigned to each patient and the device, arm for taking the reading and nurses were randomly determined. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Mean and standard deviation of the systolic and diastolic measurements from each modality were compared to each other and P values of 0.05 or less were considered to be significant. Validation criteria of British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) were used. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were included. The mean of the difference of systolic was 8.54 ± 9.38 while the mean of the difference of diastolic was 4.21 ± 7.88. Patients were further divided into three groups of different systolic blood pressure 120 to = 150 and > 150, their means were 6.27 ± 8.39 (p-value 0.175), 8.91 ± 8.96 (p-value 0.004) and 10.98 ± 10.49 (p-value 0.001) respectively. In our study 89 patients were previously diagnosed with hypertension; their difference of mean systolic was 9.43 ± 9.89 (p-value 0.000) and difference of mean diastolic was 4.26 ± 7.35 (p-value 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Systolic

  12. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  13. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat SK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khurram Azmat,1 Waqas Hameed,1 Anja Lendvay,2 Babar Tasneem Shaikh,3 Ghulam Mustafa,1 Muhammad Ahmed Siddiqui,1 Sajid Brohi,1 Asif Karim,1 Muhammad Ishaque,1 Wajahat Hussain,1 Mohsina Bilgrami,1 Paul J Feldblum2 1Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Department, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Pakistan; 2FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA; 3Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan Introduction: The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18–44 years at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab. Materials and methods: A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Discussion: Over the next 5-year period (2013–2018, 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end

  14. An assessment of Pakistan's urban policies 1947-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, M A

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing and assessing the evolution and outcomes of Pakistan's urban policies during 1947-97. One-third of Pakistan's population live in urban areas, and the level of urbanization increased from 18% in 1951 to 32% in 1991. The rapid rate of urbanization has produced two megacities, Karachi with a population of 8-10 million and Lahore with a population of about 5 million, and 6 other cities with populations of 1 million or more. Pakistan is one of the pioneering countries in implementing physical planning and planned housing; this is reflected in its urban policies as constituted by the Five-Year Plan and national development budgets. The programs through which the policies were implemented are divided into three phases. Phase 1 (1947-70) involved the resettlement of refugees and laying of the institutional framework; core housing schemes (consisting of 1- to 2-room quarters) were the key element of the urban strategy in this period. Phase 2 (1971-78) policies were guided by the promise of mass housing, particularly for the working and lower classes. At this time, too, a set of squatter settlements known as Katchi Abadis emerged, and international organizations started funding Pakistan's urban development programs. Phase 3 (1980-95) saw the steady "privatization" of the housing and land markets and improved housing conditions, while urban policy continued to concentrate on public works, plots and construction. Despite the improvements, urban crises persist, and policies are shifting towards more complex issues of quality and the provision of new collective goods. In general, the achievements of Pakistan's urban policies have outweighed its failures, as both the rich and the poor have benefitted from them.

  15. Factors Manipulate ERP Implementation: An Experiential Study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil Anjum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning is a foremost improvement in the arena of organizational management and information system. ERP has the ability to integrate and assimilate the information in an efficient way. ERP is an utmost extensive business management system that presents real-time competences and flawless presentation of information for organizations and businesses. Nevertheless, not all the ERP implementation projects are successful. Implementation of ERP affects the overall processes of organizations. The organizations implementing ERP systems may face various challenges. The objective of this study is to identify the critical success factors of ERP implementation in Pakistani organizations using ERP systems. The study was conducted by developing a survey questionnaire. The questionnaires distributed among the ERP users of Pakistani organizations. For further analysis total 422 responded were. The study founds a significant association of technological, strategic, project management, people, top management support and communication factor with ERP implementation. The results of the study are beneficial to the ERP vendors and professionals to formulate particular strategies to overwhelm the misfit between ERP systems and organizations implementing ERP systems in developing countries like Pakistan. Additionally, the managers and organizations might increase their understanding regarding the complications essential in the ERP installation to evade hurdles and escalate the chances of ERP success.

  16. Fine-needle aspiration cytology: its origin, development, and present status with special reference to a developing country, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dilip K

    2003-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed on a large scale at Memorial Hospital, New York, during the 1930s, but during the ensuing years, it did not gain much encouragement in United States. The technique had a resurgence in Scandinavia during the 1950s and 1960s, where it flourished before spreading to other parts of the world. It had also a revival in the United States, which contributed enormously to this tool in each and every aspect. The status of FNA during 1966-2002 was assessed through review of MEDLINE search data on FNA and its correlation with World Bank website data on classification of countries. A total of 849 journals published 5,609 articles on FNA over a period of 37 years. Both the number of publishing journals and the number of published articles on FNA were low during the 1960s (3.5 +/- 0.58 and 4.0 +/- 0.82, respectively) and 1970s (20.3 +/- 14.72 and 25.0 +/- 20.54, respectively), but their number increased sharply from the 1980s onward (78.2 +/- 25.65 and 147.2 +/- 66.89, respectively, during the 1980s, 126.2 +/- 11.94 and 301.4 +/- 35.99, respectively, during the 1990s, and 113.3 +/- 36.46 and 287.3 +/- 85.93, respectively, during the 2000s). The difference between the decades of 1960s-2000s, with respect to the number of publishing journals and published articles, was highly significant (P published 2,448 (43.6%) of the total articles on FNA. During 1987-2002, 46 (29.7%) of the 155 developing nations published articles on FNA, whereas 28 (52.8%) of the developed (high-income economies) countries did so, the difference being highly significant (P = 0.0044). The total number of publications from high-income economies was 3,124 (195.3 per year), as opposed to 772 (48.3 per year) from the developing world. The number of articles published from the developing nations (16.8 +/- 52.21) was significantly lower as compared with that from the high-income economies (111.6 +/- 242.03) (P = 0.005). Except for infectious diseases, the high

  17. Presentations to the Emergency Department Following Cannabis use--a Multi-Centre Case Series from Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Galicia, Miguel; Yates, Christopher M; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Sedefov, Roumen; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe, and is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity. We present the findings of the first 6 months of data collection from the Euro-DEN project on presentations related to cannabis use to further understand the acute toxicity related to the use of cannabis. Data was extracted on clinical features, treatment and outcome from the Euro-DEN minimum dataset for all cases of acute recreational drug toxicity reported 1st October 2013 to 31st March 2014 for all cannabis-related presentations. Of 2198 presentations reported by 14 of the 16 Euro-DEN centres, 356 (16.2 %) involved cannabis either alone or together with other drugs/alcohol. There were 36 that involved lone use of cannabis (1.6 % of all presentations). Of the 35 non-fatal lone cannabis presentations, the most commonly reported features were neuro-behavioural (agitation/aggression 8 (22.9 %), psychosis 7 (20.0 %), anxiety 7 (20.0 %)) and vomiting 6 (17.1 %). Most patients (25, 71.4 %) received no treatment and 30 (85.7 %) were discharged/self-discharged from the ED. There was one fatality amongst these lone-cannabis cases: an 18-year-old male collapsed with an asystolic cardiac arrest whilst smoking cannabis and suffered hypoxic brain injury related to prolonged cardiac arrest. THC was detected in a urine sample taken at ED arrival; no other drugs were detected. Lone acute cannabis toxicity was typically associated with neuro-behavioural symptoms and vomiting. Although uncommon, severe toxicity including cardiovascular toxicity and death may be under-recognised, and it is important that Emergency Physicians are aware of this.

  18. Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagirani, Aisha

    With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in

  19. The frequency of burns among the victims of sex trafficking in some lower-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    Sex trafficking of women and girls is amongst the most prevalent and profitable types of human trafficking. Evidence suggests that sex trafficking is especially high in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh where diverse types of burning are also prevalent especially among young females. The aim of the present short communication is to emphasize that among many health issues affecting trafficked women in such countries, burns may also be prevalent among these victims.

  20. Statistical analysis of measured global insolation data for Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, I.A. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics); Twidell, J.W. (Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Energy Studies Unit)

    1994-01-01

    The global insolation data for up to 15 years from six locations in Pakistan are analysed. In addition to simple arithmetic analysis, tables and figures of cumulative frequency distribution and number of consecutive days above certain threshold insolation values are constructed. Results are presented for monthly and annual periods for practical application when planning solar installation. (author)

  1. "Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care.

  2. Remote Sensing and GIS Based wheat Crop Acreage and Yield Estimation of District Hyderabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Ali Siyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest reliable and timely yield forecast and area estimates of cropped area is vital to planners and policy makers for making important and timely decisions with respect to food security in a country. The present study was conducted to estimate the wheat cropped area and crop yield in Hyderabad District, Pakistan from the Landsat 8 satellite imagery for Rabi 2013-14 and ground trothing. The required imagery of district Hyderabad was acquired from GLOVIS and was classified with maximum likelihood algorithm using ArcGIS 10.1. The classified image revealed that in district Hyderabad wheat covered 10,210 hectares (9.74% of total area during Rabi season 2013-14 against 15,000 hectares (14.3% of total area reported by Crop reporting Services (CRS, Sindh which is 30% less than that of reported by CRS. A positive linear relation between the wheat crop yield and the peak NDVI with coefficient of determination R2 = 0.91 was observed. Crop area and yield forecast through remote sensing is easy, cost effective, quick and reliable hence this technology needs to be introduced and propagated in the concerned government departments of Pakistan

  3. Cardiovascular disease prevention in low resource settings: lessons from the Heartfile experience in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines activities of the Heartfile Program in Pakistan (http://heartfile.org). The program focuses on cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion, and includes several initiatives that encompass building policy, reorienting health services, and developing community interventions that utilize the print and electronic media and outreach at the grass-root level to incorporate social marketing approaches. Initiated by the nonprofit private sector, the program now links with major public sector primary healthcare programs, and is currently spearheading formulation of the National Action Plan on Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Control in Pakistan. In addition, the program is being refined, validated, and packaged as a replicable model for other developing countries and in low resource settings, utilizing appropriate principles of franchising with inbuilt components sensitive to cultural and social adaptations. A review of the planning process, implementation strategy, and fund-raising experience is presented. Strategies unique to low resource settings, such as the development of cost- and time-efficient strategic alliances and partnerships, have also been highlighted. In addition, specific caveats are identified as being helpful to private sector development of chronic disease prevention programs in resource-constrained settings, and a road map to a sustainable public-private sector partnership is provided.

  4. To Analyze the News Contents of Electronic and Print Media in Pakistan, Whether Media is Terrorizing or Informing the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad Paracha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the possible causes of spreading terror instead of information by the national media of the country among the society. The researchers use the observation method of different national media news contents and presentation in the era of insurgency on national level. The proliferation of mass media in Pakistan has been increased due to the war on terror, instability in political scenario and social disorder in the country, on the other side it has also created panic among the community due to the unverified and subjective news in an exaggerated and sensational form by the national and international media. It is a fact that the unverified, exaggerated and subjective news are creating horror and insurgency in the society. The present study aims to examine the role of the media ethics, news values and social responsibility of the national and international media.

  5. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Zafar Janjua; Bushra Mahmood; Bhatti, Junaid A; M Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background Similar to other developing countries, Pakistan is going through a rapid nutrition transition where shift from underweight to overweight and obesity is occurring. In this paper, we report on the relationship of household socioeconomic position (SEP), community SEP and urbanicity with under- and over-weight categories of BMI among Pakistani women. Methods We analyzed data on 4,767 women ages 15-49 years enrolled in a nationally representative Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS...

  6. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duza, M B

    1987-01-01

    "The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed.

  7. Analysis of teacher training education program: A comparative study of Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farah Khan; Muhammad Haseeb

    2017-01-01

    .... Achievement of Education for All (EFA) is also one of the Millennium Development Goal; therefore, the present article aims to explore the teacher training education in the context of Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan...

  8. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan...

  9. Micro-Finance And Sustainable Development: Evidence From Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ajmal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to look into the microfinance sector of Pakistan, its effectiveness and outreach and will further explore if microfinance has been effective enough to ensure sustainable development in the country. The purpose of the study is to examine the extent and efficiency of the microfinance sector, identify the lags in the system and propose feasible recommendations. The study examines microfinance at micro, meso and macro levels. The study highlights the performance of microfinance sector, outreach and efficiency of micro-savers, micro-insurance and assets and liabilities of the sector. Financial infrastructure and challenges to the sector are also indicated. The microfinance market lacks competition and only a few institutes can be tagged as operationally sustainable and have achieved the economies of scale. The study concluded that microfinance in Pakistan is perceived more like a social service rather a financial service. This calls for new techniques and more sustainable models to enable microfinance sector to prevail.

  10. Trade Growth and Poverty: A Case of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally argued that open trade is crucial for economic growth and development. The economic literature also argues that growth is an important option for reducing poverty in developing countries. The paper analyzed the causality between the trade, growth and poverty for Pakistan using annual time series data from 1973-2009. Granger causality results based on Error-Correction Models have shown that in the case of Pakistan there exists two way relationship between trade and growth in the long-run but for the short-run growth enhance the trade. For the growth and poverty, there exists long-run relation from growth to poverty while for the short-run there exists no relationship. It may be concluded that international trade can play an important role towards growth and ultimately alleviation of poverty. From the policy perspective government should focus on trade.

  11. Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakila, Ashraf; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Salim, Azra; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan; these are NWFP, Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. In Balochistan the areas from where the patients came are Uthal, Quetta and Ormara. The highest number of patients came from Quetta and least from Ormara. The patients included in this study were from the Mangopir and Chakewara, areas of Karachi. The infection is endemic in this country and the recent epidemics in the Dadu District and Nawabshah indicate its importance in the locality. The sand fly vector is found in all four provinces of Pakistan that are listed here. It is quite obvious that presence of leishmaniasis indicates the presence of sand flies and cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common.

  12. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this

  13. Pattern of unintentional burns: A hospital based study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Omair; Ibran, Ehmer-Al; Nisar, Nighat; Shafique, Kashif

    2016-09-01

    Burns are major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Better understanding of the nature and extent of injury remains the major and only available way to halt the occurrence of the event. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of by self and by other unintentional burn, their comparison and the possible mode of acquisition by obtaining the history of exposure to known risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted in Burns Centre of Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan and 324 hospitalized adult patients with unintentional burns were consecutively interviewed during August 2013 to February 2014. Information was collected on socio-demographic profile. The source of burn, affected body part and place of injury acquisition in terms of home, outside or work were also noted. Logistic regression model was conducted using SPSS software. Out of 324 patients, 295 (91%) had unintentional burn by self and 29 (9%) had unintentional burn by others. Male gender were 2.37 times and no schooling were 1.75 times more likely to have self-inflicted unintentional burn. Lower limb and head and neck were less likely to involve in unintentional burn by self. The burden of unintentional burn by self was considerably higher. Male gender and no schooling were found more at risk to have unintentional burn by self. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. The Determinants of Inflation in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazima Ellahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is not just a rise in general price level, but a much more complex phenomenon. It is well admitted fact that mild inflation is natural and a greasing factor to the wheel of economy and commerce and on the other hand, high inflation causes negative impact on economy. In order to formulate policies regarding its control and keeping it at a moderate level, it is necessary to explore its major determinants. Present study is an attempt to discuss the determinants of inflation in Pakistan utilizing a data set over 1975 to 2015. The empirical analysis is carried out with application of Auto Regressive Distributed Lag methodology. The estimation methods find the short run and long run impact of each variable on inflation and also found the speed of adjustment. Analysis used money supply, national expenditure, imports of goods and services and GDP growth as exogenous variables while taking inflation as an endogenous variable. Major preliminary findings suggested that money supply and national expenditure have significant effect on inflation, where national expenditure has a positive impact on inflation but money supply implies negative impact on inflation. Moreover, GDP growth has negative impact on inflation and imports of goods and services have positive impact on inflation. The findings for short run effect showed that none of the variable proves to be a significant determinant of inflation in short run. In sum, study suggested a few policy recommendations for keeping the inflation at level required for country to grow.

  15. The legal status of Afghan refugees in Pakistan, a story of eight agreements and two suppressed premises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over 25 per cent of present day refugees enjoy asylum in Pakistan, most of them having been there for more than a quarter of a century. Pakistan is not, however, a party to either the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. The lega

  16. Pattern of benzodiazepine use in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Imran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines (BDZ are the largest-selling drug group in the world. The potential of dependence with BDZ has been known for almost three decades now. In countries like Pakistan where laws against unlicensed sale of BDZ are not implemented vigorously the risk of misuse of and dependence on these drugs is even higher. Previous studies have shown that BDZ prevalence among patients/visitors to general outpatient clinics in Pakistan may be as high as 30%. However, no research has been carried out on the prevalence of BDZ use in psychiatric patients in Pakistan. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey over 3 months in psychiatry outpatient clinics of two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi and Lahore. Besides basic socio-demographic data the participants were asked if they were taking a BDZ at present and if yes, the frequency, route and dosage of the drug, who had initiated the drug and why it had been prescribed. We used chi-square test and t-test to find out which socio-demographic or clinical factors were associated with an increased risk of BDZ use. We used Logistic Regression to find out which variable(s best predicted the increased likelihood of BDZ use. Results Out of a total of 419 participants 187 (45% of the participants had been currently using at least one BDZ. Seventy-three percent of the users had been using the drug for 4 weeks or longer and 87% were taking it every day. In 90% of cases the BDZ had been initiated by a doctor, who was a psychiatrist in 70% of the cases. Female gender, increasing age, living in Lahore, and having seen a psychiatrist before, were associated with an increased likelihood of using BDZ. Conclusion The study shows how high BDZ use is in psychiatric outpatients in Pakistan. Most of the users were taking it for a duration and with a frequency which puts them at risk of becoming dependent on BDZ. In most of the cases it had been initiated by a doctor. Both patients and doctors need to

  17. Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

  18. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  19. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis: e0139628

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hannah Tappis; Anis Kazi; Waqas Hameed; Zaib Dahar; Anayat Ali; Sohail Agha

    2015-01-01

      Introduction Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan's national and international development goals...

  20. Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karac...

  1. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  2. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  4. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences: A bibliometric assessment 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Zameer Hussain; Umedani, Loung V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the growth of scientific research, authors' productivity, affiliation with the institute and geographic locations published in the Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences during the period of 2001 - 2010. This numerical analysis was conducted during mid-August 2016 to mid-October, 2016. The data for the study was downloaded from websites of e-journal of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS) and Pak Medi-Net Com. A total number of 1199 articled were covered by PJMS in 10 volumes and 40 issues with contribution of 3798 (3%) authors during 2001 - 2010. The average number of papers per issue is 30%. A gender wise contribution of males was higher 3050 (80%) than the females 748 (20%). A majority of articles were multi-authored 1052 (87%) as opposed to single author contribution 147 (13%). All 1199 articles were covered under four major disciplines i.e Basic medical sciences, medicine & allied, surgery & allied and radiological sciences and 39 sub-specialties according to medical subject headings (MeSH). It observed that 467 (39%) articles were published in Pakistan and 732 (61%) articles produced by other 32 countries. The Karachi city of Pakistan has produced 199 (16%) articles as highest as its national level and followed by Tehran (Iran) 77 (6%) as followed internationally. This study reveals that the participation of 32 countries in the PJMS publications proves it to be an internationally circulated journal to support research with the constant approach of publishing articles to each volume in basic medical sciences, biomedical, clinical and public health sciences. Abbreviations: DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals IMEMR: Index Medicus Eastern Mediterranean Region HEC: Higher Education Commission (Pakistan) PJMS: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences MeSH: Medical Subject Headings PMDC: Pakistan Medical & Dental Council SCIE: Science Citation Index Expanded.

  5. Social stratification, development and health in Pakistan: an empirical exploration of relationships in population-based national health examination survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Wilbur C; Pappas, Gregory; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2003-11-01

    There is a growing literature on an overall direct relationship between health and social position in developed countries. The relationship, however, is less well documented in developing countries where social hierarchies are changing more rapidly, demographic and health transitions are less advanced, and this topic has received less attention from researchers than in some developed countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the relationship between social stratification and social development and population health using data on over 6000 adults from the National Health Survey of Pakistan, a nationally representative health examination survey of people in that country. We analyze four indicators of poor nutrition in adults from this data set. The findings reveal complex relationships among social development, social stratification and the consequences for the health of the people of Pakistan. Underweight is related to economic status, anemia to education and social development, and both severe dental caries and a monotonous diet are related to both development and economic status which interact with each other. These results suggest that continued conceptual refinement and the development of standardized measures of stratification and development would contribute to building cross-nationally comparable data sets addressing issues of the relationship among health and economic development and health transitions.

  6. Factors Effecting Unemployment: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment for India, China and Pakistan for the period 1980 to 2009. The investigation was conducted through co integration, granger causality and regression analysis. The variables selected for the study are unemployment, inflation, gross domestic product, exchange rate and the increasing rate of population. The results of regression analysis showed significant impact of all the variables for all three countries. GDP of Pakistan showed positive relation with the unemployment rate and the reason of that is the poverty level and underutilization of foreign investment. The result of granger causality showed that bidirectional causality does not exist between any of the variable for all three countries. Co integration result explored that long term relationship do exist among the variables for all the models. It is recommended that distribution of income needs to be improved for Pakistan in order to have positive impact of growth on the employment rate.

  7. Determining the Demographic impacts on the Organizational Commitment of Academicians in the HEIs of DCs like Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakht Yar Naseem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary age where the globalization is taking place in every sphere of life, theacademic institutions occupy their place at the helm. The dynamism in the academicinstitutions in general and the universities in specific is directly proportional to thecompetence of their employees. The success of the universities depends upon solidfunctioning, faithfulness and the involved academicians regarding high level of teachingand research. Provision of workforce to the different sectors countrywide is possible onlythrough the universities with high level of educational standards and OrganizationalCommitment on the part of the staff members especially the academicians. Unlike thedeveloped countries, this role becomes more emphasizing in the developing countries likePakistan. The sole objective of this ‘Review Article’ is to investigate the impact ofdemographics (gender, qualification, designation, age, and marital status onOrganizational Commitment (Emotional, Cost-benefited and Obligatory of employees,working in the public sector universities. Up to some extent, it is a complicated task tocome across and deal with the people who are physically, linguistically, culturally,educationally and ethnically diverse. In the light of current research we construct a‘Theoretical Framework’ on the topic which will subsequently be used as a ‘ResearchModel’ for the upcoming ‘experimental-study’, using the study of workforce from theuniversities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is acknowledged from the present studythat the demographics have the significant impact on the organizational commitment

  8. The effects of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor on India-Pakistan relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) constitutes one of the largest foreign investments China has made in the framework of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative. The expenditures planned for the coming years in the amount of approximately $46 billion will further intensify relations between China and Pakistan. At the same time, Pakistan will assume a more prominent role in China's foreign policy. But CPEC also affects relations between India and Pakistan. The transport corridor between P...

  9. Socio-demographic and reproductive health profile of women who experienced signs of obstetric fistula: Results from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadaf; Zaheer, Sidra

    2017-08-18

    to examine the socio-demographic profile of women experiencing signs of obstetric fistula and factors contributing to the development of this condition in Pakistan. secondary data analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07, which for the first time measured signs of obstetric fistula, using a questionnaire at a population level. For the present study, questions directly related to obstetric fistula signs were used to construct a dependent variable. Data were analysed by descriptive and logistic regression analysis, to examine factors associated with development of fistula. among women of reproductive age (n = 9134, aged 15-49 years), some 277 (3.0%, 30 per 1000 women who ever gave birth) experienced obstetric fistula signs, whereas 103 (1.1% of all women) were still experiencing the condition at the time of survey. In a logistic regression model, women from the Punjab region (OR = 5.67, 95%CI = 2.10-15.31), women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.06-3.42) and reported having complications during pregnancy were more likely to develop obstetric fistula (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.19-3.16). Obstetric fistula is one of the neglected public and reproductive health concerns in Pakistan. To eliminate this preventable tragedy, there is a need for better emergency obstetric care facilities and the availability of a fistula repair service throughout the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rehman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI and different farmers of Shinkiari and evaluate the farmer‟s perceptions production processing and marketing of tea. Results revealed that NTRI processing unit was working at below its full capacity and 226.59 Rs/Kg extra costs bearing due to below capacity. Tea is a high value crop of gross margin of 21340 Rs/ Acre and annually earned gross margin from other Crops wheat and maize was 6675Rs/Acre and Tea Cultivation Advantage was 14665 Rs/Acre but farmers was not interested to cultivate due to its high initial investment. Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Net Present Value (NPV were calculated for investment appraisal of the tea. Hence, there is need to promote tea cultivation on grass land area which will increase their income and livelihood and create more employment opportunities for local people.

  11. Risk factors for secondary infertility among women in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofar Sami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary infertility in developing countries is mostly attributable to blockage of the fallopian tubes due to adhesions caused by reproductive tract infections. There is a dearth of information on the prevalence and causes of secondary infertility from Pakistan. This paper presents results on factors associated with secondary infertility among married women in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were women aged 15-35 years with history of at least one previous conception and currently seeking treatment for secondary infertility. Controls were women residing in the neighborhood of cases with at least one live birth and not taking treatment for secondary infertility. The age of controls was matched by ±5 years to that of cases. Data was collected from June to August 2003. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI for factors associated with secondary infertility. RESULTS: The final multivariate logistic regression model revealed that after adjusting for age, cases were more likely to be the housewives (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.5-4.4, had used inappropriate material to absorb blood during menstruation (AOR = 9.0, 95% CI: 5.0-16.4, and at their last delivery, had a birth attendant who did not wash hands with soap and water (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-5.7. Moreover, women with secondary infertility were more likely to report current or past history of having STI symptoms (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.4-5.6 and use of intra-vaginal indigenous medicines during their last post-partum period (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.6-5.7. CONCLUSION: We recommend health education and awareness messages for safe practices during menstruation, delivery, and the postpartum period for women in general. Additionally, sanitary napkins should be made available at an affordable cost, and safe delivery kits should contain

  12. The Rural-to-Urban Transformation in Pakistan: No Reprieve from Poverty and Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2013-01-01

    More than the increasing pressure on agrarian resources, land flight in Pakistan is caused by the starkly inequitable distribution of land. The land-poor and landless classes in the country, particularly in Sindh and Punjab, are dependent as sharecroppers or farm labourers on landlords. In order to

  13. A Critical Analysis of School Enrollment and Literacy Rates of Girls and Women in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Amna

    2009-01-01

    Since Pakistan's inception in 1947, the government has made continuous efforts to provide free, universal, basic education to its citizens. This is evidenced by educational plans, policies, and five-year education sector reforms, including partnerships with international agencies and developed countries. However, these efforts have not yielded any…

  14. Language Management: A Snapshot of Governmentality within the Private Schools in Quetta, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Syed Abdul; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is a multilingual and multiethnic country; however, this diversity stands unrecognized in the formal language-in-education policies. Estimates suggest that about 90% of children who speak over 60 indigenous languages do not have access to education in their mother tongues. Linguists estimate that exclusive teaching of Urdu and English…

  15. The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

  16. The Urban and Rural Fellowship School Experiments in Pakistan: Design, Evaluation, and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazem, Peter F.

    The province of Balochistan has the worst educational attainment in Pakistan, which has low educational attainment compared to countries with similar income levels. In light of several factors constraining the Balochistan government's ability to expand school supply in poor areas, private schools were thought to offer potential benefits for…

  17. The Rural-to-Urban Transformation in Pakistan: No Reprieve from Poverty and Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2013-01-01

    More than the increasing pressure on agrarian resources, land flight in Pakistan is caused by the starkly inequitable distribution of land. The land-poor and landless classes in the country, particularly in Sindh and Punjab, are dependent as sharecroppers or farm labourers on landlords. In order to

  18. Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and Sri-Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine the information and communication technology sector in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka because they are among top five countries in ICT in the South Asian region. The research is helpful for decision makers to channel ICT related resources where they are required the most. ICT oriented data have been collected by International Telecommunication Union but no comparison exists between the countries included in the research. Therefore, the sources of data are ITU who has identified twenty three parameters individually; they have been rearranged under three subjects: ICT infrastructure, usage and economic impact on the economies of the countries concerned. It is found that the infrastructure of Sri-Lanka is better than Pakistan while both countries are using their resources equally. However, the economic impacts are less visible in Pakistan than its counterpart. Overall the ICT score of Sri Lanka is better than Pakistan. It suggests that policy makers in both nations have to rethink to deploy their resources to take maximum benefit as par to the international standards.

  19. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  20. The China-India-Pakistan Water Crisis: Prospects for Interstate Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    the agricultural use. It is estimated that “a thousand tons of water produces one ton of wheat , which has a market value of $200, whereas the same...countries, specifically Pakistan, have identified thresholds that recognize its intolerance toward any effort to impact the unimpeded access to natural

  1. Delivering Better Health Services to Pakistan's Poor

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is not on track to achieve most Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to health, nutrition and population. Given its current rate of progress, in 2015 Pakistan's infant mortality rate (IMR) will be 65 deaths per 1,000 live births and the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) will be 78, considerably above the MDG4 targets of 33 and 43 deaths per 1000 births respectively. Pakistan...

  2. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the predictions of this model are tested using recent data from Pakistan.The investigation concludes that despite religious and cultural differences, the phenomenon of dowry in Pakistan appears to occur ...

  3. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Aamer A; Venkatesan, Meera; Nadeem, Muhammad F; Satti, Humayoon S; Yaqoob, Adnan; Strauss, Kathy; Khatoon, Lubna; Malik, Salman A; Plowe, Christopher V

    2013-08-28

    Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high.

  4. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them.

  5. Quality of ceftriaxone in Pakistan: reality and resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Ali

    2009-04-01

    The quality of pharmaceuticals is a global concern, counterfeit/ poor quality/ substandard medicines can cause harms in various ways: In a number of developing countries including Pakistan there is reportedly a high incidence of the availability of substandard drugs. The majority of these reports do not contain quantitative data to support these claims, nor do they describe the methodology employed for the quality assessment. Quality of drugs available in Pakistan are being questioned and topic of discussion in local news paper, TV channels in general public including journalist and physicians due to disparity of price among same generics, lack of knowledge for such science and unknown reasons. Since, quality of drugs can neither be assessed by naked eye or by every one therefore, randomly selected, 96 samples of different strength of injection ceftriaxone sodium and its generic, a widely used third generation cephalosporin in Pakistan since 1982 and 1994 till date respectively included in the said study to know the reality. 15.62% of ceftriaxone injection was found to be out of specification, however, not a single sample was found fake (spurious) out of 96 tested samples. Nevertheless, quality is a wide ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the excellence of a product hence price and other related issues are also analyzed in the study.

  6. Privatisation in reproductive health services in Pakistan: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2010-11-01

    Privatisation in Pakistan's health sector was part of the Structural Adjustment Programme that started in 1998 following the country's acute foreign exchange crisis. This paper examines three examples of privatisation which have taken place in service delivery, management and capacity-building functions in the health sector: 1) large-scale contracting out of publicly-funded health services to private, not-for-profit organisations; 2) social marketing/franchising networks providing reproductive health services; and 3) a public-private partnership involving a consortium of private players and the government of Pakistan. It assesses the extent to which these initiatives have contributed to promoting equitable access to good quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. The paper concludes that these forms of privatisation in Pakistan's health sector have at best made available a limited range of fragmented reproductive health services, often of sub-optimal quality, to a fraction of the population, with poor returns in terms of health and survival, especially for women. This analysis has exposed a deep-rooted malaise within the health system as an important contributor to this situation. Sustained investment in health system strengthening is called for, where resources from both public and private sectors are channelled towards achieving health equity, under the stewardship of the state and with active participation by and accountability to members of civil society.

  7. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL MARKETING. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY TO FIND THE PERCEPTION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF DIGITAL MARKETING AMONGST THE MARKETING PROFESSIONALS IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Fawad Khan; Kamran Siddiqui

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory research is to present the perceptions towards Digital Marketing in Pakistan. This issue has rarely been addressed by the academicians and researchers in Pakistan and elsewhere. This study used digital marketing parameters to measure the awareness and effectiveness of digital marketing among marketing professionals in Pakistan. 200 marketing professionals participated in this academic exercise. Data was analyzed in many ways, a) through descriptive statistics b...

  9. Chromatographic analysis of Hb S for the diagnosis of various sickle cell disorders in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Nazish Khalid; Moiz, Bushra; Nusrat, Maliha; Hashmi, Mashhooda Rasool

    2008-08-01

    Sickle cell disease remains a relatively obscure theme in research on haemoglobinopathies in Pakistan. Limited data is available regarding its prevalence in the country. The objective of our study was not only to estimate the frequency of different sickle cell diseases but also to provide quantitative estimation of haemoglobin S and other haemoglobin variants using an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. For this purpose, we retrospectively evaluated the results of HPLC performed on all patients with suspected haemoglobinopathies during the years 2005 and 2006. Information derived from various sources was used to identify a particular genotype by analysing each sample containing Hb S with respect to haemoglobin, red cell indices and levels of various associated haemoglobin variants. Analysis of 15,699 samples identified 302 patients with Hb S (1.92%). The genotypes identified included Sbeta(0) (46.7%), SS (19.2%), SA (11.6%), Sbeta(+) (8.6%) and SD (2.3%). Thirty-five cases could not be categorised and were labelled 'unclassified'. Majority of the patients (62.3%) were below the age of 18 years. Balochistan, which is the largest province based on the area, yielded the highest number of patients (n = 140). In the Sbeta(0) group, the mean haemoglobin and Hb S were lower in children compared to adults (p value of 0.001 and 0.016, respectively). We conclude that sickle cell disorders are prevalent in Pakistan to a significant extent, being concentrated in certain areas of the country. We present the first report of various haemoglobin S genotypes from our population. It is hoped that it will act as a database to characterise the same for our population.

  10. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  11. TRNSYS simulation of a solar cooling system for the hot climate of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Muhammad Asim; Kanan, Safwan; Dewsbury, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Cooling is a basic need for buildings in hot and sunny climates. In most countries the major source of cooling is electrical powerbased. During summer in hot climates there is an increase in electricity consumption due to cooling load. Pakistan is facing anelectricity shortage crisis, which becomes worse in summer due to the high demand for cooling. The annual average insolationfor Pakistan is 5-6 kWh/m2/day, reaching 6-8 kWh/m2/day in summer with sunshine of 10-13 hours a day, which gives su...

  12. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-11-20

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged <36 months, nine (32%) of whom had never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-six (68%) of the 38 reported cases occurred in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan.

  13. TEACHER EDUCATION FOR DISTANCE LEARNING BASED SPECIAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila NABEEL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Special education is a mode of education in which specially designed instruction material and environment is required to meet the diverse requirements of children with special needs. In Pakistan, Open University (AIOU exclusively initiated a program for teacher preparation for Special Children through distance learning. This was a unique program of its kind with no precedence of defined services for Special Teachers’ Preparation. Dept of Special Education AIOU - through Distance learning system, offers study/training at graduate, masters and Ph. D. levels. Teachers are prepared in 6 specialized areas of Visual Impairment, Physical Disabilities, Hearing Impairment, Intellectual Disability, Learning Disability and Inclusive Education. The Open University has a well established regional network, outreach system providing educational counseling and guiding services to its students. University has 32 regional campuses with 86 part-time regional coordinating officers throughout the country for providing assistance to the Regional campuses. Over 900 study centers are established during the semester and are managed through the university’s regional campuses. Each student is assigned to a tutor who is a subject specialist. To maintain consistency of on and off campus observations, University faculty conducts reliability observations with adjunct Supervisors. Their professional growth impacts the quality of the teaching cadre. It was for the first time in the history of teacher training institutes of Pakistan that a teacher training program at Masters Level in the area of Special Education was offered through distance education. This paper gives the experiences, methodology and successes as outcome of the Distance- learning Special-Educator Program in Pakistan. Also highlighted is the Special Teacher Preparation Model through Distance Education System. Increased program completion rates support the fact that Open University faculty have become better

  14. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Party,” BBC News, January 9, 2008. 34 Reporters Without Borders , “Five Key Problems for Media Coverage of February’s Legislative Elections,” January 9...thousands of party activists and sympathizers.33 Paris-based Reporters Without Borders warned in January 2008 that press censorship and intimidation...after they shot footage of the Jacobabad airbase that was used by U.S. forces. Paris-based Reporters Without Borders placed Pakistan 152nd out of 169

  15. Traumatic spinal cord injuries at a tertiary care rehabilitation institute in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, M Farooq Azam; Hanif, Saquib; Farooq, Fareeha; Ahmad, Nadeem; Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir

    2008-02-01

    To identify the epidemiological pattern of traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) presenting at a rehabilitation institute of a developing country. Eighty three patients of traumatic SCI admitted at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine in 2006 fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Detailed clinical evaluation and radiological assessment was done along with identification of mechanism of injury, mode of evacuation and presence of associated injuries. Data analysis was done in January 2007 and results were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 13. There were 68 (81.9%) males and 15 (18.1%) females. Mean age was 28.3 +/- 12.4 years. Majority of the patients were in their second decade 43 (51.8%) years. Ambulance evacuation was carried out in only 18 (22.2%) patients and none received any spinal trauma first aid and log roll at the injury site. Most of the patients were paraplegics 49 (71.1%), 48 (57.8%) had complete injury and 43 (51.8%) spinal fixation. Fracture dislocation was the predominant vertebral column injury in 25 patients. Associated injuries and problems were present in 49.4% patients. Epidemiology of SCI in a developing country has unique epidemiological features and problems, which is different from a developed country. This was to be considered while formulating a plan for SCI management and rehabilitation. There is a dire need to establish a SCI registry in Pakistan, in order to improve the spinal trauma evacuation protocols and develop spinal rehabilitation centers.

  16. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  17. EXPERIENCES AND TENSIONS OF TUTURING AT ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY (AIOU PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Bux JUMANI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a country with thick population of 160 million. Its geographical area is 796,096-sq. Km. Its 69% of population lives in rural areas and rest in urban. Since the education of rural people is a difficult task for the government therefore, there emerged a need of open and distance in Pakistan. Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU is the first Open University in Asia. It was established in 1974 and now has earned the status of Mega University. AIOU is a Distance Education institution, which provides multi disciplinary education from basic to doctoral level programs. The university employs non-formal method of correspondence, radio and television broadcasts, special textbooks and reading materials prepared on self-learning basis, part-time teachers (tutors engaged nearest to the student's residences. The university has more than 36 regional campuses and centers in various parts of the country to coordinate and facilitate decentralized system of education of the university. The regional directors keep a roster of qualified teachers and experts in each field of study in their area and enlist them as the university’s part-time tutors.The number of registered tutors with AIOU is more than 30,000. Each group of students is entrusted to a tutor for guidance. Assignments written by the students are evaluated by the tutors and returned to them, with comments. The regional campuses also arrange practical training, teaching practice, workshops and seminars and facilitate holding of examinations in their own areas. This study presents data from a study of experiences of distance education tutors at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU, Pakistan, in the use of face-to-face tuition to support their students undertaking teacher training programmes at a distance. It explores the tensions for ‘face-to-face’ teachers involved in ‘distance teaching’ courses, and discusses these in terms of the tutors’ perceptions of the ways in which face

  18. Exchange Rate Instability and Sectoral Exports: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exports of a country is one of the main factors indicating economic health of a country and fluctuating exchange rates and relative price can significantly affect the level of exports and it is an alarming situation for a country when its exports are affected by exchange rate volatility. Impact of exchange rate volatility and relative price on trade has been a heated debate in the field of finance and most of work has been done on aggregate and bilateral trade. Few researches are found on product basis especially in the scenario of Pakistan. This research will provide an overview of the exports of 13 different products from Pakistan. Secondary data is used to analyze the impact of exchange rate instability on the exports of different products from Pakistan to all over the world. Significance of the study depends on the right choice of estimation method. We use auto regressive distributive lags (ARDL method to check the relationship of two main variables. Glass, meat and paper & board products show that relative price affects negatively to exports so Government should make policies to strengthen the exports of these three products. Government can provide subsidies on these products in order to boost up the exports and make these products competitive in international market. Under the shadow of our results we conclude that exchange rate volatility has significant negative relationship with the exports of food processing machinery, grapes, meat and petroleum products so government needs to be focused on it when exchange rate are highly instable. Iron & steel bars show short run negative impact of exchange rate however this impact is adjusted in the long run.

  19. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  20. Gender differences in presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes for patients with AMI in a lower-middle income country: evidence from Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Butala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies in high-income countries have investigated gender differences in the care and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. However, little evidence exists on gender differences among patients with AMI in lower-middle-income countries, where the proportion deaths stemming from cardiovascular disease is projected to increase dramatically. This study examines gender differences in patients in the lower-middle-income country of Egypt to determine if female patients with AMI have a different presentation, management, or outcome compared with men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using registry data collected over 18 months from 5 Egyptian hospitals, we considered 1204 patients (253 females, 951 males with a confirmed diagnosis of AMI. We examined gender differences in initial presentation, clinical management, and in-hospital outcomes using t-tests and χ(2 tests. Additionally, we explored gender differences in in-hospital death using multivariate logistic regression to adjust for age and other differences in initial presentation. We found that women were older than men, had higher BMI, and were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Women were less likely to receive aspirin upon admission (p<0.01 or aspirin or statins at discharge (p = 0.001 and p<0.05, respectively, although the magnitude of these differences was small. While unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for women (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.54 to 2.87, this difference did not persist in the fully adjusted model (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.55 to 2.55. CONCLUSIONS: We found that female patients had a different profile than men at the time of presentation. Clinical management of men and women with AMI was similar, though there are small but significant differences in some areas. These gender differences did not translate into differences in in-hospital outcome, but

  1. Christopher Candland, Labor, Democratization and Development in India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Baixas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This book, by Christopher Candland, sets out to provide a documented analytical and empirical study of the linkages between organized labor, development, and democratization in India and Pakistan from the colonial period till date. It attempts to explain why sustained economic growth has not led to a significant diminution of poverty in either of these countries. The overall argument is that only rights-based organized labor unions can allow “the transformation of wealth into well-being”. Uni...

  2. Labor Force Participation and Gender Inequalities: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Najeebullah Khan; Adnan Hussein; Qamar Afaq; Zahid Awan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analyzed gender inequalities in labour force participation of the two Asian Countries namely Pakistan and Malaysia. Gender inequalities in labour market are analyzed and updated using recent time series data of 2005 to 2009. The data are drawn from different sources including various Integrated Household Surveys, Labour Force Surveys, Economic Surveys and Labour Force Survey Reports of the two countries. The results indicate significant gender differences in the labour force ...

  3. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  4. LINK OF SATISFACTION COMMITMENT AND PERFORMANCE ON FACULTY MEMBERS’ PERFORMANCE AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan SHOEBY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of faculty members in producing scholars and economy building can’t be rule out in any country. The faculty member’s satisfaction, commitment and performance are the points to investigate in higher education sector of Pakistan, especially in private sector universities. This study is conducted in Pakistan to investigate the relationship of satisfaction with commitment and performance, and commitment association with performance. The tools were adopted from the studies of Rice & Schneider (1994 and Smeenk et al. (2008. The top five, private sector universities of Karachi, as per HEC criteria, were taken as target sample to conduct the survey. This research affirmed that satisfaction is positively correlated with commitment and performance, and commitment also correlated with performance of faculty members of private sector universities in Pakistan.

  5. Tick-borne diseases of bovines in Pakistan: major scope for future research and improved control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Abbas, Tariq; Sandhu, Zia-ud-Din; Saddiqi, Hafiz A; Qamar, Muhammad F; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-05-22

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affect the productivity of bovines in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, leading to a significant adverse impact on the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities. Globally, four main TBDs, namely anaplasmosis, babesiosis, theileriosis, and cowdriosis (heartwater) affect bovines, and the former three are of major economic importance in bovines in Pakistan. Given that the livestock sector has become an integral part of Pakistan's economy and a large number of dairy cattle are being imported into the country, in order to meet an increasing demand of milk and milk products, it is timely to review current status of bovine TBDs in Pakistan and to identify gaps in the knowledge of TBDs and their control. Although there has been a recent increase in the number of studies of TBDs in this country, information on their prevalence, distribution, tick vectors, and control is limited. This article provides a brief background on key bovine TBDs and ticks and reviews the current status of bovine TBDs in Pakistan to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding of these diseases, propose areas for future research and draw attention to the need for improved tools for the diagnosis and control of TBDs in this country.

  6. Labor Force Participation and Gender Inequalities: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed gender inequalities in labour force participation of the two Asian Countries namely Pakistan and Malaysia. Gender inequalities in labour market are analyzed and updated using recent time series data of 2005 to 2009. The data are drawn from different sources including various Integrated Household Surveys, Labour Force Surveys, Economic Surveys and Labour Force Survey Reports of the two countries. The results indicate significant gender differences in the labour force participation rate and status of employment of the two countries. Labour force participation rate of female is 20% and the male is 71% in Pakistan whereas in Malaysia the participation rate of female is 46% and the male is 80%. Furthermore women of age group 25 to 29 and women of age group 35 to 39 years are the most productive age intervals in Malaysia and Pakistan, respectively. The general increase in the participation of youth in Malaysia are due to rapid expansion of educational facilities, equal access of female to every level of education, delayed marriages and reduced fertility rate while increased participation of the interval group of 35 to 39 is due to the induction of married women in the labour market in Pakistan.

  7. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  8. Security and the Environment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    persons (IDPs), are among the most food insecure in Pakistan.31 25 FAO , “Nutrition and Consumer...Pakistan........................................ 13 Demographics and Food Insecurity ...water Decline in human health Food insecurity Increased migration Increased social tension Potential threats to security and stability, such as Risk

  9. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  10. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  11. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  12. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  13. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  14. Comparative analysis of three prehospital emergency medical services organizations in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, V; Gururaj, G; Razzak, J A; Naseer, R; Hyder, A A

    2016-08-01

    Strengthened emergency medical services (EMS) are urgently required in South Asia to reduce needless death and disability. Several EMS models have been introduced in India and Pakistan, and research on these models can facilitate improvements to EMS in the region. Our objective was to conduct a cross-case comparative analysis of three EMS organizations in India and Pakistan - GVK EMRI, Aman Foundation and Rescue 1122 - in order to draw out similarities and differences in their models. Case study methodology was used to systematically explore the organizational models of GVK EMRI (Karnataka, India), Aman Foundation (Karachi, Pakistan), and Rescue 1122 (Punjab, Pakistan). Qualitative methods - interviews, document review and non-participant observation - were utilized, and using a process of constant comparison, data were analysed across cases according to the WHO health system 'building blocks'. Emergent themes under each health system 'building block' of service delivery, health workforce, medical products and technology, health information systems, leadership and governance, and financing were described. Cross-cutting issues not applicable to any single building block were further identified. This cross-case comparison, the first of its kind in low- and middle-income countries, highlights key innovations and lessons, and areas of further research across EMS organizations in India, Pakistan and other resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  16. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  17. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Syed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8 months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%; of which a majority (70.2% returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  18. Current scenario of the wind energy in Pakistan challenges and future perspectives: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar H. Baloch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity plays an important role in the socioeconomic growth and social prosperity of any country. It is to be considered as the basic need for human development. Nowadays, low production of electricity is a serious problem in Pakistan, which directly restricts the development of the state. One-third of Pakistan’s population does not have any electricity in the rural areas and about 10–12 hours load shedding in urban areas and is quite common. Although, the state of Pakistan always shows a deficit in the conventional resources, but no progress was also being made in the renewable resources such as the wind and solar energy. Therefore, it is better to utilize these natural assets in order to fulfill the electricity supply the country. In this manuscript, our main objective is to study and outlooks the country energy profile situation vis-à-vis wind energy potential characteristics of the most important wind corridor in the southern part of the country. Pakistan has around 1100 kilometers (km coastal line for the wind energy potential, but in this manuscript, we have chosen one of the most suitable wind corridors of the southern part of the country. We also tried to prove theoretically that this wind zone is more favorable for country consumer demand. Moreover, future perspective and the major challenges during windmill implementation is also being discussed herein.

  19. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2010-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Among those countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan represent a common epidemiologic reservoir. This report updates previous reports (1,4) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2010--September 2011, as of October 31, 2011, and planned activities during 2011--2012 to address challenges to polio eradication. In Afghanistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011 predominantly occurred in the conflict-affected South Region and the adjacent Farah Province of the West Region. During 2010, 25 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 38 in 2009; 42 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 19 for the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011occurred both in conflict-affected, inaccessible areas along the common border with Afghanistan and in accessible areas; 144 WPV cases were confirmed in 2010, compared with 89 in 2009, and 120 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 93 during the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, the president launched a National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication in January 2011, emphasizing the key role and responsibility of political and health-care leaders at the district and subdistrict (union council) levels. Enhanced commitment, management, and oversight by provincial and district authorities will be needed to achieve further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan. Continued efforts also will be needed to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within insecure areas of both countries.

  20. Consanguinity and its sociodemographic differentials in Bhimber District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nazish; Malik, Sajid

    2014-06-01

    Kashmiri population in the northeast of Pakistan has strong historical, cultural and linguistic affinities with the neighbouring populations of upper Punjab and Potohar region of Pakistan. However, the study of consanguineous unions, which are customarily practised in many populations of Pakistan, revealed marked differences between the Kashmiris and other populations of northern Pakistan with respect to the distribution of marriage types and inbreeding coefficient (F). The current descriptive epidemiological study carried out in Bhimber district of Mirpur division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, demonstrated that consanguineous marriages were 62% of the total marriages (F=0.0348). First-cousin unions were the predominant type of marriages and constituted 50.13% of total marital unions. The estimates of inbreeding coefficient were higher in the literate subjects, and consanguinity was witnessed to be rising with increasing literacy level. Additionally, consanguinity was observed to be associated with ethnicity, family structure, language, and marriage arrangements. Based upon these data, a distinct sociobiological structure, with increased stratification and higher genomic homozygosity, is expected for this Kashmiri population. In this communication, we present detailed distribution of the types of marital unions and the incidences of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient (F) across various sociodemographic strata of Bhimber/Mirpuri population. The results of this study would have implication not only for other endogamous populations of Pakistan but also for the sizeable Kashmiri community immigrated to Europe.

  1. Unusual sex differences in tuberculosis notifications across Pakistan and the role of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Khan, M S; Hasan, R; Godfrey-Faussett, P

    2013-09-01

    In developing countries, only one-third of new tuberculosis cases notified are from women. It is not clear whether tuberculosis incidence is lower in women than men, or whether notification figures reflect under-detection of tuberculosis in women. Pakistan, however, presents an unusual pattern of sex differences in tuberculosis notifications. While 2 of the 4 provinces (Sindh and Punjab) report more notifications from men (female to male ratios 0.81 and 0.89 respectively in 2009), the other 2 provinces (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) consistently report higher numbers of smear-positive tuberculosis notifications from women than men (1.37 and 1.40). No other country is known to have such a large variation in the sex ratios of notifications across regions. Large variations in female to male smear-positive notification ratios in different settings across a single country may indicate that environmental factors, rather than endogenous biological factors, are important in influencing the observed sex differences in tuberculosis notifications.

  2. Topographical, Geological and Geophysical Measurements in the Diamer Basha Dam Area (Gilgit-Balistan, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretti, Giorgio; Calligaris, Chiara; de Min, Gino; Tariq, Shahina; Kahn, Hawas; Zubair, Faqhia

    2010-05-01

    Agriculture and electricity are the backbone of Pakistan's economy. Pakistan today is one of the World's fastest growing countries with a population estimated to be around 170 million at the beginning of 2009. Due to the inability to regulate large rivers by means of sizeable storages, the country is already facing frequent power deficits in electricity and serious shortages in cereals production. If the present trend continues, Pakistan could become one of the food deficit countries in the near future. Therefore, there is a dire need to build new reservoirs for improving agriculture and increasing electric energy production. Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have already lost about 6.2×109 m3 due to sedimentation. It is estimated [1] that by year 2012, this loss would increase to 7.4×109 m3. The Government of Pakistan has taken a very bold initiative by making the decision to construct the Diamer Basha Dam. The present demand of electricity in the country is over 17,000 MW, and is estimated to reach 22,000 MW by the year 2010 [1]. The contribution of 4500 MW from the Diamer Basha Dam will alleviate the present situation when it becomes operative. The Diamer Basha Dam with its 272-metres in height, will be the highest roller compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dam in the world. It will be situated on the Indus River, about 315 km upstream from the Tarbela Dam site, 180 km below the Gilgit-Baltistan capital Gilgit and about 40 Km downstream from Chilas. The reservoir created behind the dam will extend for about 105 Km up to the Raikot Bridge on the Karakoram Highway. The project was started in September 2005 (with the preliminary geological investigations) and the deadline for its completion is 2016. The total cost of the project has been estimated at 12.6 billion. Such an important project needs a constant monitoring of the geological and geophysical parameters of the area before, during and after the construction. Later the monitoring will be extended along

  3. Is my country safer than others ? : a comparison of road safety data between different countries. Paper presented to the PIARC XIXth World Road Congress, Marrakesh, Morocco, 22-28 September 1991.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Countries compare their road safety as they do their economies, namely to see if they are better than others. The OECD has recently started an "International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD)" as a permanent measuring instrument. It contains, per country, annual figures, since the mid-seven

  4. Spatial analysis and identification of high risk plague regions in Pakistan based on associated rodent species distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Madiha; Aleem, Maha; Javed, Sundus; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akbar Shah; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestitis, is an infectious bacterial disease that has a high fatality rate if untreated. Rodents are plague reservoirs and play an important role in disease spread. Plague cases have been reported extensively since the second pandemic from the 14th century in countries sharing borders with Pakistan, such as China and India, as well as nearby countries including Russia and central Asia. Despite being centrally located in a plague-infested geographical zone, there has been no plague incidence reported from Pakistan. This study aims to pinpoint some of the potentially important aspects of the disease, which have to be considered when assessing potential risk associated with a plague outbreak in Pakistan. In this context, the occurrence and distribution of plague-associated rodent reservoirs in different regions of Pakistan in relation to those found in the neighboring countries were mapped. In addition, the climatic factors that may also influence disease spread by affecting the growth of the bacteria are also discussed. The combined epidemiological and ecological surveillance studies suggest a prevalence of several potential rodent carriers in certain districts with the possibility of a plague outbreak in Pakistan.

  5. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Sheepskin Effects of Investment in Schooling: Do They Signal Family Background? Case of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Shabbir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable recent research both for the developing as well as the developed countries has provided evidence for the existence of the sheepskin effect to the economic returns in schooling investment. However, there has not been much empirical work investigating the mechanism that may lie behind the observed sheepskin effects. The few notable exceptions that have started addressing this important yet neglected question of interpreting what do sheepskin effects signal include Flores-Lagunes and Light (2007 for the U. S., Riddell (2008 for Canada and Shabbir and Ashraf (2011 as well as Shabbir (2011 in the case of Pakistan. The present study was undertaken to examine the robustness of sheepskin effects in the face of measured family background in the case of Pakistan. The unique feature of this study is that it utilizes the only nationally representative data set available which allows for a test of sheepskin effects; in fact, Shabbir (1991 was the first of its kind study which used this data set to test (and establish the existence of sheepskin effects in the case of Pakistan. The present study is an attempt to build on that research finding in order to explore the question of what do sheepskin effects signal? In particular, do they signal measured family background?The important empirical finding of this study is that there is strong evidence of significant sheepskin or diploma effects for all four important certification levels i.e. Matric, Intermediate, Bachelor of Arts (B.A. and Master of Arts (M.A. Further, and more importantly in terms of the research question posed by this paper, these diploma effects are robust when measured family background effects are controlled for using such measures as father's education, father's income and mother's income. Thus the observed sheepskin effects may be signaling other aspects of ability or other relevant influences besides measured family background (including latent or unmeasured family influences

  7. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  8. Diagnostic Testing for Hemorrhagic Fevers in Pakistan: 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zahra; Atkinson, Barry; Jamil, Bushra; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Hewson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are endemic to Pakistan. Patients presenting with symptoms of fever, bleeding, and rash cannot be distinguished without appropriate testing. We report data on 354 samples tested for CCHFV at The Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan between 2007 and 2013. All samples were tested for the presence of CCHFV RNA. Some samples were also tested for DENV RNA, NS-1 antigen, and/or reactive immunoglobulin M antibodies. Of 354 clinical specimens screened for CCHFV, 52 specimens were positive, with 24 cases in 2013 alone. Most cases were from Sindh and Baluchistan, which border other CCHFV-endemic regions: Iran and Afghanistan. Among CCHFV-negative samples, 168 samples were tested for DENV, and 36% of these samples were found to be DENV-positive. Rapid differentiation of CCHFV and DENV can prevent nosocomial transmission and result in time and cost savings for patients and healthcare workers. PMID:25311694

  9. Epidemiological analysis of human fascioliasis in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asma W; Tanveer, Akhtar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    A coprological study was performed to assess human fascioliasis in 7200 subjects inhabiting rural communities of localities close to the capital city of Lahore in the northeastern part of the very highly populated Punjab province, Pakistan, a country where human infection had never been reported before 2005. The analysis of 1200 subjects including 50 subjects/month throughout a two-year study in each of six localities surveyed provided an overall prevalence of 1.18%, with a range between 0.67% and 1.75% according to localities. Infection rates did not differ according to gender, excepting a higher rate in females (1.13% vs 0.77%) in one locality. Prevalences according to age groups proved to be higher in 11-20 years with 1.57%, followed by 1.18% in 0-10 years and 0.47% in 21-30 years, while no infection above 30 years. Seasonal prevalences proved to be significantly different when comparing summer and autumn with winter and spring. Monthly prevalences showed two peaks, the highest in August (4.67%) and another in January (2.17%). Correlation studies of monthly prevalences with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and pan evaporation showed significant results only with humidity. Despite prevalences being low, the very high number of inhabitants and population densities of the areas surveyed suggest a wide public health problem potentially infecting up to 150,000 rural people, children included, only in the respective districts. Additionally, the situation becomes of more concern when considering the present climate change trend affecting the Punjab, which indicates a progressively increasing fascioliasis transmission risk in that animal endemic area in the near future.

  10. Species Diversity and Distributional Pattern of Cockroaches in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Memona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho­gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various human dwelling local­ities of urban area of district Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Cockroaches were collected randomly by hand, food baited and sticky traps throughout the year. Four species of cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana (P. amercana, Blattella germanica (B. germanica, Blatta orientalis (B. orientalis, and Blatta lateralis (B. lateralis were collected and identified from the study site.Results: B. germanica was the most dominant indoor species with highest diversity indices in study areas. Overall cockroach species diversity was highest in July–September, 2013 with highest Simpson index of diversity and Shan­non index as well. P. americana was found second broadly distributed in the study area followed by B. orientalis and B. lateralis were intermediately distributed in residential areas and narrowly distributed in hospitals. Residential ar­eas and hospitals were highly infested with B. germanica followed by P. americana. Population index of B. ger­manica for hospitals was double than residential areas. B. lateralis was observed as displacing B. orientalis in out­door habitat through competing with its habitat and food sources.Conclusion: The infestation rate of different species depends on availability of food sources, sanitary conditions and climatic conditions. Cockroach infestation can be controlled with knowledge about their biology and behavior, at­tention to sanitation and effective use of commercial insecticides.

  11. Mercury contamination in deposited dust and its bioaccumulation patterns throughout Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Qamar, Sehrish; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Sohail, Muhammad; Mulla, Sikandar I; Fasola, Mauro; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of environment is a major threat to human health in developing countries like Pakistan. Human populations, particularly children, are continuously exposed to Hg contamination via dust particles due to the arid and semi-arid climate. However, a country wide Hg contamination data for dust particles is lacking for Pakistan and hence, human populations potentially at risk is largely unknown. We provide the first baseline data for total mercury (THg) contamination into dust particles and its bioaccumulation trends, using scalp human hair samples as biomarker, at 22 sites across five altitudinal zones of Pakistan. The human health risk of THg exposure via dust particles as well as the proportion of human population that are potentially at risk from Hg contamination were calculated. Our results indicated higher concentration of THg in dust particles and its bioaccumulation in the lower Indus-plain agricultural and industrial areas than the other areas of Pakistan. The highest THg contamination of dust particles (3000ppb) and its bioaccumulation (2480ppb) were observed for the Lahore district, while the highest proportion (>40%) of human population was identified to be potentially at risk from Hg contamination from these areas. In general, children were at higher risk of Hg exposure via dust particles than adults. Regression analysis identified the anthropogenic activities, such as industrial and hospital discharges, as the major source of Hg contamination of dust particles. Our results inform environmental management for Hg control and remediation as well as the disease mitigation on potential hotspots.

  12. NPS: A Tested Platform for Political Transformation Against Anger & Apathy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Nawaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Political inaction is a major ‘Barrier’ to the progress of democratic values and systems in a society. It is more critical in the developing countries like Pakistan. A huge body of research on political apathy and anger in Pakistan is reporting over and over on the causes and consequences of this pathetic psychology. All that is true however, rays of hope are always there provided nations continue searching for the opportunities through scientific and rigorous research accompanied with sincerity and sense of responsibility at all the decision making levels of the state. This paper postulates a solution model for the issue in the perspectives of Pakistan by capitalizing on the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the Instant Political Transformation of the developing countries like Egypt & Lybia. The New Public Sphere (NPS is populated with Global Civil Society (GCS where International Citizens are connected together 24/7 from any corner of the Global Village and involved in use of ICT for Social Activism. Pakistan now has millions of Internet and Cell-users who are the part of GCS and waiting for a ‘Trigger’ to switch from the ‘Informal Activism to Formal & Political Activism’ through NPS.

  13. Comparing Standards of Business Ethics in USA, China, Jamaica and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani Tabish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As the business organizations are expanding at a rapid pace, so is the circulation of human resources the world over. Managers and workers are required to work in different socio-economic environments which, at times, may not be similar to those of their home countries. It is imperative therefore for business organizations and individuals to acquire in depth knowledge about the culture and business ethics prevailing in the country of interest. A number of scholars have undertaken research studies to compare the standards of Business Ethics of different countries but such a research on “the Standards of Business Ethics” has been carried out for the first time in Pakistan. Interestingly, either such studies have been carried out in developed countries like Europe, America and Far East or the researchers have been from these countries. The conduct of such a study in Pakistan by a Pakistani would be the first of its nature.Some of the internationally accepted norms have been used as scenarios and respondents have been asked to indicate possibility of their reaction to take action. They have also been asked to give rationale of their decision. An effort has been made in this study, to compare the standards of business ethics of Pakistani business professionals with those of other countries of the world. This would help adjudge differences and similarities of well-established universal norms and ethics prevailing in the world business community. It is expected that this and more such studies would help researchers and business professionals develop good and desirable business practices in Pakistan.Comparing and enhancing awareness about standards of business ethics in Pakistan is the main objective of this research. It is expected that this humble effort would encourage many more researchers to dive deep into the ocean of business ethics.

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pakistan: Prospects and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar T. Shaikh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the marvelous advancements in modern medicine, traditional medicine has always been practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM. Cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care or home remedies in rural areas and consultation with traditional healers. Evidence-based CAM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases. Alternative therapies have been utilized by people in Pakistan who have faith in spiritual healers, clergymen, hakeems, homeopaths or even many quacks. These are the first choice for problems such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles, depression and many other ailments. The traditional medicine sector has become an important source of health care, especially in rural and tribal areas of the country. The main reasons for consulting a CAM healer is the proximity, affordable fee, availability, family pressure and the strong opinion of the community. Pakistan has a very rich tradition in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. It necessitates the integration of the modern and CAM systems in terms of evidence-based information sharing. The health-seeking behavior of the people especially in developing countries calls for bringing all CAM healers into the mainstream by providing them with proper training, facilities and back-up for referral. A positive interaction between the two systems has to be harnessed to work for the common goal of improving health of the people.

  15. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  16. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  17. Pathways to care: duration of untreated psychosis from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider A Naqvi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substantial amount of time is lost before initiation of treatment in Schizophrenia. The delay in treatment is labelled as Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP. Most of these estimates come from western countries, where health systems are relatively better developed. There is dearth of information on pathway to care from developing countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with ICD-10 based diagnosis of Schizophrenia were enrolled by convenient method of sampling. The pathway to care was explored through a semi-structured questionnaire. Onset, course and symptoms of psychosis were assessed using Interview for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset of Schizophrenia (IRAOS. Ethical approval of the project was taken from The Aga Khan University, Ethics Review Committee. Of the enrolled 93 subjects, 55 (59% were males and 38 (41% were females. In our sample, 1.56 mean (median, 2 attempts were made prior to successful help seeking. The duration of untreated psychosis was 14.8 months (St. Deviation; 29.4. DUP was 16.8 months (St. Deviation; 34.9 for males and 11.8 months (St. Deviation; 18.9 for females. In the pathway to care, psychiatrists featured prominently as initial care providers. In the first attempt at help-seeking, 43% patients were initially taken to psychiatrists. After the initial consultation, 45% were prescribed psychotropic medication while 7% were hospitalized. Only 9% subjects were given the diagnosis of schizophrenia initially. When participants were inquired about the reasons for delay, 29% reported financial difficulties as the barrier to care. Positive symptoms of psychosis were present in 57% subjects while negative symptoms were present in 30% subjects. There was a statistically significant difference (Chi-square; 7.928, df: 1, Sig 0.005 between DUP and the positive and negative symptoms category. CONCLUSION: In the absence of well developed primary care health system in Pakistan, majority of patients present to

  18. Delivering Better Health Services to Pakistan's Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Belay, Tekabe; Couffinhal, Agnes; Haq, Inaam; Kazi, Shahnaz; Loevinsohn, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is not on track to achieve most Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to health, nutrition and population. Given its current rate of progress, in 2015 Pakistan's infant mortality rate (IMR) will be 65 deaths per 1,000 live births and the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) will be 78, considerably above the MDG4 targets of 33 and 43 deaths per 1000 births respectively. Pakistan will not achieve the MDG related to nutrition. The review aims to develop a limited set of practical opt...

  19. Present status of business participation in refinery-selling by OPEC countries. OPEC san prime yukoku no karyu bumon shinshutsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    The OPEC countries being arranged in business participation status in the infrastructure, particularly its recent trend, the main countries among them were analyzed in oil policy. As the oil price depends considerably upon the oil situation, the oil producing countries can secure a stabilized income by amplifying the exportation of oil products, small in price change and high in additional value. Having early started an uninterrupted direct participation in the infrastructure of oil consuming countries, Kuwait was securing a comparatively stabilized income therefrom. Among the OPEC countries participating in the infrastructure, Venezuela is at the head in number and refining capacity of refineries owned overseas. Later than Kuwait and Venezuela, Saudi Arabia started a participation in the infrastructure with a venturing foundation jointly with Texaco in 1988. Though proceeding with a participation in the infrastructure almost concurrently with Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi was almost limited to capital investments in the worldwide major oil companies. 6 refs., 22 tabs.

  20. E-health readiness assessment: promoting "hope" in the health-care institutions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Shariq; Scott, Richard; Gilani, Salman

    2008-01-01

    e-Health readiness refers to the preparedness of health-care institutions to implement programmes that involve use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in provision and management of health services. Level of readiness depends on a number of factors that lead to success or failure of e-health programmes, and thus increase or decrease hope of achieving the desired results. This report presents results from in-depth interviews conducted during a larger study and presents views of managers and health-care providers from various institutions in Pakistan about the usefulness of e-health readiness assessment tools. Participants emphasized the need for implementing e-health programmes in the country, while appreciating the need for readiness assessment tools, and the way these tools could avoid failures related to implementation of e-health programmes. Participants also linked e-health readiness with the process of change management, essential for sustainable implementation of e-health programmes in the health-care institutions of developing countries.

  1. Pakistan programme thrives despite unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In Pakistan, strikes and riots in the Korangi district of Karachi during 1995 prevented staff from finding a suitable location for the new Marie Stopes International family planning clinic. Once the clinic opened, field workers received violent threats and had to be escorted to and from work. A mobile clinic was hijacked at gun point. Nevertheless, the Pakistan program has expanded to five clinics with one more to open soon. It has established an extensive community-based distribution (CBD) network. Before the CBD project was implemented, less than 10% of couples within the target group used a modern contraceptive method. An effective information and education strategy along with high quality service provision has increased use of modern contraceptives three-fold in some areas. The program plans to expand into underserved areas of rural Sind Province and Balochistan. 4% of women in Balochistan and 9% in Sind have access to modern contraceptives. In fact, many women resort to illegal and unsafe abortion. The program aims to submit a proposal to UK's Overseas Development Administration for major funding.

  2. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  3. Performance of CMORPH, TMPA, and PERSIANN rainfall datasets over plain, mountainous, and glacial regions of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Yawar; Satgé, Frédéric; Hussain, Muhammad Babar; Martinez-Carvajal, Hernan; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Cárdenas-Soto, Martin; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at the assessment of six satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) in Pakistan. For each assessed products, both real-time (RT) and post adjusted (Adj) versions are considered to highlight their potential benefits in the rainfall estimation at annual, monthly, and daily temporal scales. Three geomorphological climatic zones, i.e., plain, mountainous, and glacial are taken under considerations for the determination of relative potentials of these SREs over Pakistan at global and regional scales. All SREs, in general, have well captured the annual north-south rainfall decreasing patterns and rainfall amounts over the typical arid regions of the country. Regarding the zonal approach, the performance of all SREs has remained good over mountainous region comparative to arid regions. This poor performance in accurate rainfall estimation of all the six SREs over arid regions has made their use questionable in these regions. Over glacier region, all SREs have highly overestimated the rainfall. One possible cause of this overestimation may be due to the low surface temperature and radiation absorption over snow and ice cover, resulting in their misidentification with rainy clouds as daily false alarm ratio has increased from mountainous to glacial regions. Among RT products, CMORPH-RT is the most biased product. The Bias was almost removed on CMORPH-Adj thanks to the gauge adjustment. On a general way, all Adj versions outperformed their respective RT versions at all considered temporal scales and have confirmed the positive effects of gauge adjustment. CMORPH-Adj and TMPA-Adj have shown the best agreement with in situ data in terms of Bias, RMSE, and CC over the entire study area.

  4. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtiaq Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end of 21st century is executed using the model for GHG (Greenhouse Gases scenario with doubled_CO2 and scenario of Modern_Predicted SST (Sea Surface Temperature. The model analysis has been carried out for seasonal and annual changes for an average of last 5 years period from 2096-2100. Maps are generated to depict global temperature variations. The study divides Pakistan into five (05 main areas for twenty six (26 stations. A part-plan of globe focusing Pakistan is generated showing the five divisions for twenty six (26 data stations of Pakistan. This part plan is made compatible with grid-box resolution of EdGCM. Eagle-Point Engineering software has been used to generate isohyets of interval (0.5oC for downscaling GCM (Global Climate Model grid data to data stations. The station values of different seasons and annual changes are then compared with the values of base period data to determine changes in temperature. It is observed that impact of global environmental changes on temperature are higher (i.e. there is an increase in annual temperature for double_CO2 experiment at places near the Arabian Sea than areas located away from this sea. It is also observed that the temperature increase will be more in winter than that in other seasons for Pakistan.

  5. Standardization of pathology laboratories in Pakistan: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Farooq Ahmad; Ahmad, Sadia Atif

    2009-03-01

    A Total Quality Management System with an internationally recognized accreditation process is the only guarantee of a reliable pathology service. However in a developing country like Pakistan nearly 90% of labs are small and without adequate physical and man power infrastructures. A modified plan may have to be tailored for them. A two tier system has been formulated. Accreditation based on ISO 15189 is to be introduced on voluntary basis. The labs which do not qualify for international standardization would be brought into quality net through a registration process. All such labs will be initiated into a simplified quality management system. Participation in proficiency testing program will be mandatory. They will be provided education and training to become eligible for accreditation. It is hoped that this simplified system will provide an impetus for evolving a workable and comprehensive mechanism through which pathology laboratories in the country will be able to offer better and more reliable services.

  6. Identification and future description of warming signatures over Pakistan with special emphasis on evolution of CO2 levels and temperature during the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Khadija; Khokhar, Muhammad Fahim; Chishtie, Farrukh; RazzaqKhan, Waseem; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

    2017-03-01

    Like other developing countries, Pakistan is also facing changes in temperature per decade and other climatic abnormalities like droughts and torrential rains. In order to assess and identify the extent of temperature change over Pakistan, the whole Pakistan was divided into five climatic zones ranging from very cold to hot and dry climates. Similarly, seasons in Pakistan are defined on the basis of monsoon variability as winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon. This study primarily focuses on the comparison of surface temperature observations from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) network with PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies) model simulations. Results indicate that PRECIS underestimates the temperature in Northern Pakistan and during the winter season. However, there exists a fair agreement between PRECIS output and observed datasets in the lower plain and hot areas of the country. An absolute increase of 0.07 °C is observed in the mean temperature over Pakistan during the time period of 1951-2010. Especially, the increase is more significant (0.7 °C) during the last 14 years (1997-2010). Moreover, SCIAMACHY observations were used to explore the evolution of atmospheric CO2 levels in comparison to temperature over Pakistan. CO2 levels have shown an increasing trend during the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  7. Thirty years of Alma Ata pledges: is devolution in Pakistan an opportunity for rekindling primary health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar T; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Pappas, Gregory

    2007-05-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata Conference presented the manifesto to attain global health for the next century by providing basic health care aimed at the urban and rural poor of the developing world. While the goals of Alma Ata were noble, they were untenable. Today, developing countries face serious issues of equity in health care delivery and fairness in health care management with even a greater need to transform the management systems and practice. Primary health care remains a cornerstone of building the capacity of health systems. Devolution in health sector in Pakistan seems like a chance to re-exert Alma Ata agenda. To achieve the millennium development goals by 2015, revitalization and effective implementation of primary health care will be a vital reform.

  8. DNA barcoding of Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) reveals southerly expansion of the dominant whitefly species on cotton in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, M Sajjad; Khan, Arif M; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5') was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3' to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage "Pakistan". The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and "Pakistan" were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region.

  9. Pakistan prime minister pledges science boost

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Pakistan's prime minister announced plans for a 1 billion rupee (23 million US dollars) investment in science and technology. About half is expected to be spent on research and infrasture, the rest on science education (6 paragraphs).

  10. Lagunenud valitsusega Pakistan vaevleb kriisis / Sandra Maasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasalu, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. aug. 2008, lk. 7. Pakistani valitsuse lagunemisest, kui endine peaminister Navaz Sharif oma parteiga koalitsioonist lahkus. Vt. samas: Pakistani ahistavad separatistid ja majanduse allakäik. Kaart: Pakistan

  11. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  12. Lagunenud valitsusega Pakistan vaevleb kriisis / Sandra Maasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasalu, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. aug. 2008, lk. 7. Pakistani valitsuse lagunemisest, kui endine peaminister Navaz Sharif oma parteiga koalitsioonist lahkus. Vt. samas: Pakistani ahistavad separatistid ja majanduse allakäik. Kaart: Pakistan

  13. Reforming mysticism: Sindhi separatist intellectuals in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Verkaaik

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Anthropology, Islam, and Pakistan / Magnus Marsden -- Of children and jinns : an enquiry into an unexpected friendship during uncertain times / Naveeda Khan -- The modern businessman and the Pakistani saint : the interpenetration of worlds / Katherine P. Ewing -- Islamic influences on

  14. Innovations in Large Classes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Zakia

    2001-01-01

    Explains innovations taking place in large English-as-a-foreign-language classrooms in Pakistan. Describes a pilot project that investigated ways of bringing out effective learning in large classes. (Author/VWL)

  15. Trends in Books Publication in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Khawaja; Shah, Syed Attaullah

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Writing and Publishing books in Pakistan is a complex undertaking; and to a large extent devoid of monetary gain. An average 1200 books were published annually during five year period from 2001 to 2005. Most books were published on Islam, Pakistan, Literature, and History. The Social Sciences, Humanities, Science and Technology are more or less been neglected by the Pakistani Authors Strong areas in Authorship: a) Books on Islam were the most favo...

  16. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Chairman Representative Howard Berman also voiced strong support for the President’s plan to boost civilian assistance efforts in Pakistan and...The Laws of War and the Right to Self-Defense,” Washington Post, April 13, 2010. See Harold Hongju Koh’s March 25, 2010, speech at http...Pakistan-specific legislation in the 111th Congress (P.L. 111-73), also known as the “Kerry-Lugar- Berman ” bill, contains numerous reporting requirements

  17. Security Decision-Making in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Arrl , and the institution of the Junior Commissioned Officer; this structure, developed by the British is found nowhere else in the world except India...DCO Baluchis, 1911). This is one of many handbooks published by or about various regiments of the Indian Army; they contain a wealth of information...the armed forces of Pakistan in Richard F. Nyrop, et al. Area Handbook for Pakistan, Washington, -211- Government Printing Office, 1975, which has

  18. Adopting Cloud Computing in the Pakistan Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    trafficking, arms smuggling, and piracy . In addition, the Pakistan Navy is participating in various multinational exercises and hosting exercises of...The Pakistan Navy is still in the process of modernization and is upgrading its equipment to conduct counter- piracy and counterterrorism operations...drives from its data center will be sold on some online store like eBay or Amazon, thus causing consumers to lose control over their data. Data

  19. Political Instability and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Safdar Ullah; Saqib, Omar Farooq

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of political instability on inflation in Pakistan. Applying the Generalized Method of Moments and using data from 1951-2007, we examine this link in two different models. The results of the ‘monetary’ model suggest that the effects of monetary determinants are rather marginal and that they depend upon the political environment of Pakistan. The ‘nonmonetary’ model’s findings explicitly establish a positive association between measures of political instabilit...

  20. Pakistan: Ascending a Path through Regional Turmoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the main trade route between Afghanistan and the Indian sub- continent (the ancient Silk Road). More recently, it has also been a conduit for...Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink, 197. 65 Pande, Explaining Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, 132. 66 Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink, 199. 67 From Persia to...Iran: The Iran Neighborhood, Friend or Foe, http://www.pakalertpress.com/2012/06/14/from- persia -to-iran-the-iran-neighborhood-friend-or- foe

  1. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2015-September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Christopher H; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Jamal; Jorba, Jaume; Sharif, Salmaan; Farag, Noha; Martinez, Maureen; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-11-25

    Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission continues. This report describes the activities, challenges, and progress toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2015-September 2016 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2015, a total of 54 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan, an 82% decrease from 2014. In 2016, 15 WPV1 cases had been reported as of November 1, representing a 61% decrease compared with the 38 cases reported during the same period in 2015 (Figure 1). Among the 15 WPV1 cases reported in 2016, children aged <36 months accounted for 13 cases; four of those children had received only a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Seven of the 15 WPV1 cases occurred in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), five in Sindh, two in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and one in Balochistan (3). During January-September 2016, WPV1 was detected in 9% (36 of 384) of environmental samples collected, compared with 19% (69 of 354) of samples collected during the same period in 2015. Rigorous implementation of the 2015-2016 National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) (4), coordinated by the National Emergency Operations Center (EOC), has resulted in a substantial decrease in overall WPV1 circulation compared with the previous year. However, detection of WPV1 cases in high-risk areas and the detection of WPV1 in environmental samples from geographic areas where no polio cases are identified highlight the need to continue to improve the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs),* immunization campaigns focused on vaccinating children with OPV outside of routine immunization services, and surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Continuation and refinement of successful program strategies, as outlined in the new 2016-2017 NEAP (5), with particular focus on identifying children missed by vaccination, community-based vaccination, and rapid response to virus

  2. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. CONCLUSIONS: As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  3. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, Jawwad H; Khan, Arif M; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  4. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Dromedaries, North and East Africa, United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan, 1983-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Andrea; Saqib, Muhammad; Liljander, Anne M; Bornstein, Set; Zohaib, Ali; Renneker, Stefanie; Steinhagen, Katja; Wernery, Renate; Younan, Mario; Gluecks, Ilona; Hilali, Mosaad; Musa, Bakri E; Jores, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Drexer, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Corman, Victor Max

    2016-07-01

    A new hepatitis E virus (HEV-7) was recently found in dromedaries and 1 human from the United Arab Emirates. We screened 2,438 dromedary samples from Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and 4 African countries. HEV-7 is long established, diversified and geographically widespread. Dromedaries may constitute a neglected source of zoonotic HEV infections.

  5. Assessing the reliability and accuracy of nurse triage ratings when using the South African Triage Scale in the Emergency Department of District Headquarter Hospital of Timergara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dalwai*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The SATS has been shown to be a reliable triage scale for a developing country such as Pakistan. With accuracy being acceptable in the context of Timergara, we would suggest further validation studies looking at simple ways of validating the triage scale bearing in mind the challenges facing a developing country ED.

  6. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  7. Determination of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and flame retardants (PBDEs) in sediments collected in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, N. [National Institute of Oceanography, Karachi (Pakistan); Inam, A.; Mueller, J.F.; Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O.

    2004-09-15

    Pakistan, is a large (about 800 000 km{sup 2}) country located in the western reaches of the Indo- Gangetic plain in the north-west of the Indian subcontinent. The River Indus enters in the north and flows south from the Himalayas in the northern part of Pakistanis to Karachi the key metropolitan area (> 8 Mio inhabitants) located on the Arabian Sea coast. Much of the about 140 Mio inhabitants of Pakistan live in the vast, fertile plain that is formed by the Indus River. The coastline of Pakistan is 1046 km long some part of it being formed by the Indus River delta, the 12th largest delta in the world (i.e. about 30,000 km{sup 2}). Dioxin-like chemicals are predominantly generated as unintended by-products of combustion processes and are usually emitted into the atmosphere however the aquatic environment is an important sink for these chemicals and consumption of seafood is an important exposure pathway for humans. Environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/PCDF and the dioxin-like PCBs is quite expensive and requires specialized laboratory facilities ideally equipped with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) instrumentation. Hence, by far the majority of work on PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB has been carried out in industrialized countries in Europe, North America and Japan. In contrast there is very little - or no information available on the levels of these chemicals in the environment of developing nations and to our knowledge no data are available on the levels of these chemicals in the aquatic environment in Pakistan. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate dioxin-like chemicals in sediments collected along a transect in the Indus River to the Arabian Sea as well as in sediments from the most urbanised and industrialised area south of Karachi to obtain a first in-sight on the levels of dioxin-like chemicals in Pakistan.

  8. Wind energy in Balochistan (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M.; Abidi, S.B.H. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (PK). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    The wind energy potentials in Balochistan, Pakistan are examined using 3-hourly wind data from 16 stations scattered all over the province. The speed duration and frequency curves for each observatory are represented graphically, to read the extreme wind speed and total number of hours for a particular wind speed every year. Annual mean wind speed for a period of 5 years, energy and power are determined for each location; the mean wind speed ranging from 1 to 1.8m/s and 2 to 3.2m/s for different locations are mentioned against each station. The analysis of this data indicates that the wind energy potentials in some locations are very high. These high potential areas are more useful and suitable for the use of wind energy for windmills and electricity for light for scattered populations. (author).

  9. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men.

  10. Re-Emergence of Congo Virus in Pakistan: Call for Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF once again re-emerged in Pakistan. In July 2016, 2 CCHF cases were reported from Lodhran and Bahawalpur districts of Pakistan. Later on the CCHF virus was also reported from other region of the country including Balochistan, Karachi and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Up to 22 August 2016, a total of 20 deaths were reported of which 12 from Balochistan, 5 from Karachi, 2 from Bahawalpur and 1 from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Precautions measurements and awareness is necessary to protect the normal individuals away from this fatal disease. The media, health department and government need to play their active role to stop the spread of CCHF in the country. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(8.000: 742-744

  11. The Case of Coal Water Slurry Fuel for Industrial Use in Pakistan

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    Muhammad Irfan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the case for design and development of Coal Water Slurry (CWS Plant for industrial use in Pakistan. After exclusive comparison between coal quality quantification for CWS it was found that Darra mines at Pakistan provide best coal for CWS. Highly volatile, A and B Bituminous coal and Sub-Bituminous coal is selected for making CWS because of its low Sulfur contents, Ash contents and high heating value through experimentation. The purpose of this research was to present a complete blue print for the production of coal water slurry fuel in Pakistan. The measured viscosity and heat contents of the tested CWS are of the order 490 mPa-sec and 23.8 KJ/kg, respectively.

  12. Physiochemical, Biochemical, Minerals Content Analysis, and Antioxidant Potential of National and International Honeys in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Ahmed; Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq; Anum Khaleeq; Rahila Huma; Muhammad Abdul Qadir; Ayesha Khalid; Amir Ali; Abdul Samad

    2016-01-01

    16 honey samples from Pakistan and two other countries were investigated for their physiochemical, biochemical, minerals, and antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activities of all honey samples were performed by using percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical, AEAC, and FRAP. 5-HMF and mineral contents were determined by HPLC and AAS, respectively. The obtained values of respective parameters, namely, pH, EC, TDS, total acidity, moisture, ash, color intensity, sugars, proline, and protein wer...

  13. U.S. Security Cooperation with India and Pakistan: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    of “peace, friendship and cooperation” of 1971. … India’s subsequent dependence on the Soviets for markets , weaponry and diplomatic leverage...and into new markets , and energy-hungry India wants to be such a market .52 As the United States isolates Iran by pushing countries to cut oil...the right choice. Hence, in 1956, the United States approached Pakistan with a request to lease its northwestern base at Peshawar . Initially

  14. Health care provider knowledge and routine management of pre-eclampsia in Pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, S; Qureshi, RN; Khowaja, AR; Salam, R; Vidler, M; Sawchuck, D.; von Dadelszen, P; Zaidi, S; Bhutta, Z; CLIP Working Group,

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagn...

  15. When is Economic Growth Pro-Poor? Experiences in Malaysia and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Hasan Khan

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on two central issues related to the contrasting experiences of Malaysia and Pakistan regarding poverty reduction. First, it examines the structure of economic growth and its proximate determinants in the two countries, including the initial conditions, institutional changes, and macroeconomic policies. Second, it analyzes the links between economic growth and poverty reduction, particularly focusing on public policy mechanisms to reduce poverty and inequality. Malaysia, un...

  16. Etiology and genetic factors in clefts of lip and/or palate reported at children′s hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yaqoob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of cleft lip (CL and/or cleft palate (CP has been extensively studied in industrialized countries and is suggested to be heterogeneous with increasing evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are operating. To evaluate this assertion in a developing country like Pakistan, a case finding cross-sectional study was completed from 1 st July 2010 to 31 st May 2011 for 100 cases of CL and/or CP referred to the Genetic Clinic of the Children′s Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. A clinical examination followed by necessary diagnostic work-up was completed for each case. The cause of CL and/or CP was clear in 18% of the children ( n = 18. Environmental causes were found in 6 children (four mothers developed hyperthermia during the 2 nd month of gestation, one mother was diabetic, and one mother was a known case of epilepsy and took sodium valproate throughout her pregnancy. Six children were suffering from known genetic malformation syndromes (each with Jarcho-Levin syndrome, Oral-Facial-Digital syndrome type XI, Oral-Duplication syndrome, Kabuki syndrome, Fronto-nasal dysplasia and Nager syndrome. Novel chromosomal aberrations were identified in 2 children. In 82% of the children ( n = 82 the cause of oro-facial clefts remained unknown. Impact of gender and consanguinity on the development of CL and/or CP was also studied. Prevalence of CP was significantly more among female children as compared to that in males ( P < 0.05. Associated anomalies were present in 18% of the cases, anomalies of the craniofacial region being the most common. These findings were compared with regional and international studies.

  17. Current situation and challenges in implementing Malaria control strategies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanchi, N K; Shakoor, S; Thaver, A M; Khan, M S; Janjua, A; Beg, M A

    2016-08-01

    Malaria transmission is unstable in Pakistan with the highest number of cases reported during the monsoon season. Despite its high incidence, malaria is still a poorly resourced, poorly funded and an uncontrolled disease especially in far-flung areas. Pakistan's National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), although operational since its inception in 1947, has suffered due to the unstable political, socioeconomic and financial situation prevalent in the country. In Pakistan, more than 300 000 cases of malaria are reported every year with 68% of the cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. It is estimated that about 70-80% of the population accesses the private sector for treatment. As the private sector does not routinely report data to the government, the actual malaria burden could be 4-5 times higher than reported. P. vivax now accounts for more than 85% of all cases requiring hospital admission compared to 54% in 2000. In this review, we have described the saga of poor control of malaria in Pakistan over several years in context of restructuring of the Malaria Control Program, challenges to improvement, and way forward.

  18. Predictors of diarrheal mortality and patterns of caregiver health seeking behavior in in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Farah Naz; Zaman, Umber; Quadri, Farheen; Khan, Asia; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Azam, Iqbal; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron; Brown, Nick; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2016-12-01

    Pakistan is unfortunately among the five countries that contributed to the most deaths due to diarrhea and pneumonia in 2010. To explore factors associated with diarrheal deaths we assessed care-seeking behavior and other predictors of diarrhea-related mortality in children in selected low-income peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan. A mixed methods study (qualitative and quantitative) using matched case-control design and focus group discussions with parents of children with moderate to severe diarrhea (MSD) was undertaken. Cases were children  predictors of mortality were assessed. Conditional logistic regression was performed, matched adjusted odds ratios (mOR) are reported. Parents of 77 cases and 154 controls were interviewed. Cases were less likely to receive appropriate care compared to controls (mOR = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.91). Refusal for hospital admission (OR = 8.9, 95% CI 2.6-30.8), and delays in reaching the health facility (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.0-12.9) were significant independent predictors of mortality. We found strong beliefs in traditional and spiritual healing in the population; use of both modern and traditional/spiritual treatments concurrently was common. Appropriate care seeking behavior predicts survival in children with diarrhea in Pakistan. There is a complex belief system relating to traditional and standard therapies. Health education for appropriate health care seeking should be implemented in order to achieve a substantial decline in diarrheal disease mortality in Pakistan.

  19. Foreign direct investment and liberalization policies in Pakistan: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI and ultimately to increase the economic growth, the countries have implemented a variety of financial and trade liberalization policies in the last three decades. Pakistan also initiated such type of policies. This study makes an analysis of the impact of liberalization (financial and trade in Pakistan, on the inflow of FDI using the time series data of 1971–2009. The DF-GLS test is used to determine the level of integration, and autoregressive distributed lag model to examine the long-run relationship. The results indicate that liberalization indicators, like financial liberalization index and trade openness along with real interest rate, negatively affect the inflow of FDI in Pakistan. Tax revenue of product also negatively affects the FDI. On the other hand, the gross fixed capital formation, infrastructure, and inflation positively influence the FDI in Pakistan. The market size (proxied by real gross domestic product has shown insignificant effect on FDI.

  20. An Intuitive Analysis of the Impacts of Floods on Achieving MDGS in Pakistan

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    Abdul Hamid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyse the impacts of catastrophic floods of 2010 on achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in Pakistan. Since 2006, Pakistan has been facing many obstacles in its way to achieve the MDGs, stemming from rise in insurgency, electricity crisis, a sudden meltdown of the global economy in 2008, along with a sharp rise in oil and food prices earlier in that year. The floods in 2010, have destroyed lives, houses, croplands and road infrastructure, causing enormous suffering and damages across an area the size of Italy. These damages have put the country to a state from where it may take decades to recoup. It has been estimated that approximately 20 million people in 78 districts in Pakistan have been affected. Moreover, 2,000 people died, cropped areas of 2 million hector and 2 million houses were also damaged. Standing crops, animal farms, livestock the major sources of income for rural families, have been destroyed causing further rise in the incidence of Poverty. Similarly, there is also likelihood that the destruction caused to schools, hospital, other infrastructure will also negatively affects the Pakistan’s performance regarding Health and Education related MDG indicators. Moreover, recent floods 2011 in Sindh will also have heavy toll on the economy and further aggravate the situation in achieving of MDGs in Pakistan. The study found that the impacts of disastrous flood were more severe in those districts which were already lagging behind in achieving MDGs.

  1. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  2. STUDY ON ROLE OF RADIO FOR RURAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Bux JUMANI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio is a mean not only for information and entertainment but also for education. Radio is being used for educational purposes all over the world. In Pakistan it is also a medium of communication. Pakistan broadcasting corporation has started broadcasting educational programs of Allama Iqbal Open University. There is no denying the fact that educational broadcasting in Pakistan is being run successfully. The rural population of the country is getting benefit from the educational programmes of the radio.The main aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of educational radio and its various strategies being applied for rural education. The study was delimited the radio listeners, radio producers/comperes and social workers/opinion leaders. The masters list of listeners was obtained from Radio Station, Hyderabad. The second sample was radio producers/comperes whereas the third sample was social workers/opinion leaders. The tool used in this study was questionnaires. It was found that the majority of the listeners possessed radio sets and was getting benefit from the educational programmes of radio. The programmes were informative and motivating. The strategies of radio for rural education were appreciable because these infused mobility, widened horizon of rural people and focused attention on the goals and problems of rural people. It could be used to enhance literacy (through distance and non-formal education.the producers/comperes were found keenly interested in their job. It was revealed that priority was given to education and rural development programmes of radio. Programmes needed detail and summary at the end. Furthermore language was not easy. Mobile radio station was needed for rural educational programme to cater to the needs of far flung areas. School broadcast (distance and non-formal teaching was the need of the day. Social workers/opinion leaders opined that there was need of developing self reliance. Radio provides guidance

  3. Moving Pakistan into the Global Community via Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad

    2007-04-01

    The knowledge economies are the key enablers for the creation of jobs, fast economic development, wealth generation and prosperity to masses. Developing countries have started feeling the need to rapidly develop their knowledge base through investments in Information Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure and human resource development as a means for facilitating competitiveness. To meet this challenge, emerging technologies offer excellent opportunities for collaborative efforts across the globe among academia, research institutions and industry to ensure that local economy could reap the benefits of economic prosperity. Government of Pakistan at its highest level recognizes that information and knowledge are the driving forces for the economic growth today and we all witness a new era in communications that would not only revolutionize this sector but undoubtedly lays the foundation for connectivity for our future generations. An efficient, low-cost, broadband and high-speed communication system, employing state-of-the-art technologies across the whole spectrum, is a key pillar of the knowledge society. This paper highlights the major initiatives taken by Pakistan in revolutionizing the Internet access to its people. Case study in establishing international collaborations of Pakistani academia with internationally renowned research centers bring about a practical solution in bridging knowledge divide across developing nations and the key role it can play in human resource development by providing access to dispersed laboratory facilities at minimal cost.

  4. ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYMENT IN JACOBABADSINDH-PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D r . Mu h a m m a d A a m i r H a s h m i

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the entrepreneurship development and employment in Jacobabad. Data were collected from 2000 respondents from Jacobabad and their vicinity. A structural questionnaire was developed for the reliability and validity of the data. It was revealed that Jacobabad is facing unemployment problems like other states of Pakistan. The number of population increases every year but the state government cannot provide jobs to all the citizens. Unemployment gives different negative impact to the state economy in particular and the country economy in general. However, government had taken up various measures to reduce unemployment problems but it increases rather than minimising it. It was further revealed that only 3.13 percent out of total population who got employment in the state private and public sectors. This shows that the total number of employments in the state is very less. The result may be due to various factors but it is clearly concluded that the getting employment in Jacobabad- Sindh-Pakistan is a problematic issue that hinder the growth of state economy.

  5. Role of Buffaloe in Contributing Milk and Meat in Pakistan

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    S.H. Raza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan being an agricultural country supports a national herd of 28.4 million buffaloe which constitutes 8-10% of the global buffaloe population. Buffaloe contributes 72% of the national milk supply. Buffaloe is intricately interwoven with the social fabric of the rural families. In these areas it is mainly raised for milk production. Pakistan is the largest buffaloe meat producer followed by India, China, Thailand and Vietnam. The share of buffaloe’s meat at national level is over 55%. Slaughtering of male young calves for meat is common which has high degree of preference among the consumers. Fattening is rarely practiced, as there is poor price structure for beef. Female calves are usually raised for future herds. Little effort has been done so far to feed them on scientific lines. Mortality is high in calves during pre-weaning age. Seasonal variation in mortality is common. Poor nutrition, health and management have been demonstrated to be the main contributory factors affecting the calves’ survival.

  6. Routine immunization services in Pakistan: seeing beyond the numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S; Omer, S B

    2016-06-15

    Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in Pakistan, and the country remains one of the last reservoirs of polio, posing a threat of viral spread within the region and globally. This structured review describes challenges in the achievement of vaccination targets and identifies arenas for policy and programmatic interventions and future research. Burdened with limited demand and inefficient vaccination services, the recently devolved Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces multiple hurdles in increasing immunization volumes, improving the quality of services and ensuring timely vaccination. The EPI requires multi-pronged, multi-level, coordinated interventions to improve programme functioning and to enhance vaccination uptake at community level. Additionally, a lack of rigorous scientific enquiry on vaccination services limits the introduction of well-developed, responsive interventions. The paper describes systemic bottlenecks, proposes potential solutions and suggests lines of further enquiry to understand and reduce the languishing immunization rates in Pakistan.

  7. Awareness of Electronic Banking System among Management Students in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan FAREED

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Banking is an essential sector of banking industry. E-banking services are gaining the attention of conventional bank’s customers rapidly. It has brought the revolutionary changes in the Pakistan banking industry in terms of customer and business perspectives. Electronic banking has got popularity in the developed as well as developing countries because it saves people time, reduces costs and people have access to all banking services on the click of a button. More often, the new innovated system allows the customers to touch their accounts at home using a mobile device or electronic terminals. This research paper focuses on growth and awareness of electronic banking among Management Students of the Okara, Pakistan. Questionnaire on 5 point Likert scale was developed to find the views of 200 respondents. Frequency distribution and correlation analysis were employed on data. The results revealed that 74% of the students are well aware about ATM and 82% of management students of our sample populations believe that e-banking is very convenient system of banking. 74% of the Management students feel secure when they have money in credit and debit card while 82% of the students prefer e-banking over traditional banking.

  8. IMPACT OF FREEZING OF FCAS: THE CASE OF PAKISTAN

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    Hafiz Abdur Rashi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign investment and foreign exchange reserves have ample importance for developing countries. So, there is a needed to encourage the foreign and domestic investors whose confidence was suffer by the unexpected decision of freezing of FCAs. The purpose of this study was to identify the areas that were affected after the decision of freezing of FCAs. Moreover, the impact of freezing decision on economy of Pakistan also indicated. More sophisticated impact on banking sector, balance of payment, foreign exchange reserves, foreign debt, and foreign investment. Study found the negative impact of freezing decision of FCAs on foreign banking and positive impact on domestic banking but Pakistan banking sector was disconnected from the international banking; insatiability in balance of payment was increased; the foreign investment and exports was reduced.Resultantly, foreign exchange reserves were reduced and foreign exchange rates was increased. Therefore, it is suggested to increase the confidence of foreign investors in order to increase the foreign investment and foreign exchange reserves. Discussion of conclusions and recommendations were also provided.

  9. Stalling HIV through social marketing: prospects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sara; Shaikh, Babar T

    2005-07-01

    Over the last two decades HIV/AIDS has evolved from a series of interesting case-reports to a growing epidemic that threatens the entire world. It is feared to cause devastation among large pockets of populations and may roll back more than thirty years of public health achievements. This killer disease has been more amenable to behavioral change than by provision of curative services and attempts are being made to educate the public about this threat. Various techniques of promotion have been tried through out the world including television dramas/soaps, mass media and school curricula. Social marketing is an evolving strategy used to influence human behavior and choices. By using the principles of marketing and promoting behavior as a product, social marketers attempt to understand the dynamics of human behaviour and devise messages and products to change, modify, accept or reject unsafe behaviors or practices. Thus, social marketers provide an effective force to combat the spread of HIV and may serve to be invaluable allies in health promotion efforts. In a complex and diversified cultural milieu of Pakistan, social marketing can have a significant impact on health determinants and the conditions that will facilitate the adoption of health-oriented behaviors and practices. This paper gives an account of the elements needed for the success of a health promotion strategy adopted in a developing country and makes a case for social marketing to be adopted as the lead strategy for stalling HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.

  10. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas

  11. Mobile Technology based Polio-Vaccination System (PVS – First Step Towards Polio-Free Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukhba Afzal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Health information technology revolutionized the world with its great expansion and widespread in the domain of health care system. Most of the developed countries adopted advanced technology in their vaccination systems. Vaccination systems of many developing countries still lack the use of technology eventually causing mismanagement and corruption to occur in vaccination campaigns. Issues like mismanagement and corruption not only affect vaccination campaigns but also cause further diffusion of a disease. Pakistan is also one of such countries where vaccination system is prone to these and many other issues and hence it does not help in disease eradication. For example, polio remains alive in Pakistan because Pakistan’s Polio vaccination system is faced with many problems and the biggest one is security of vaccination teams. Corruption, mismanagement, unawareness among public and life-threat to vaccination teams are the main problems of current polio vaccination system of Pakistan. To overcome these flaws and to make an idyllic system with the new advanced technology, we propose technology oriented secure polio vaccination system. The proposed system is more secure and removes flaws in the current system. We model our proposed system using Colored Petri Nets (CPNs which is a state-of-the-art tool for formal modeling.

  12. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica -like cysts compared to E. histolytica antigens detected by ELISA in the stools of 600 patients from three socioeconomic communities in the Metropolitan City of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Maqbool, Azhar; Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Lateef, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Ahmed, Atif Nisar; Ziaullah, M; Lindsay, David S

    2015-04-01

    Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica , has a worldwide distribution and is of public health significance in many developing countries. It has a fecal-oral transmission cycle and is most prevalent in developing countries in regions where substandard sanitary conditions exist due to poverty. Little is known about the epidemiology of E. histolytica infection and its presence in different socioeconomic communities in developing countries. We undertook the present study in the city of Lahore, Pakistan, and our prediction was that the prevalence of E. histolytica -like cysts and E. histolytica stool antigen would be lower in patients from upper socioeconomic levels than in individuals from middle or lower socioeconomic levels. We investigated the prevalence of E. histolytica in humans from 3 socioeconomic communities in territories of Lahore, Pakistan. Six hundred fecal samples were collected and examined using both microscopy (triple fecal test) to detect cysts of E. histolytica -like amoeba and ELISA (stool antigen ELISA) to demonstrate diagnostic stool antigens of E. histolytica . Samples were from individuals living under conditions deemed to be upper socioeconomic class (n = 287), middle socioeconomic class (n = 172), and lower socioeconomic class (n = 141). The total prevalence of positive samples was 22.5% (135/600) by triple test and 16.8% (101/600) by stool antigen ELISA in the 600 fecal samples. Statistically, significant (P histolytica antigens than were samples from the other 3 age groups, and that prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the summer than in the other 3 seasons. These results highlight the importance of surveillance of this relatively ignored pathogen in this developing metropolitan city in Pakistan.

  13. Paying health workers for performance in Battagram district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeed Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in using pay-for-performance mechanisms in low and middle-income countries in order to improve the performance of health care providers. However, at present there is a dearth of independent evaluations of such approaches which can guide understanding of their potential and risks in differing contexts. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a project managed by an international non-governmental organisation in one district of Pakistan. It aims to contribute to learning about the design and implementation of pay-for-performance systems and their impact on health worker motivation. Methods Quantitative analysis was conducted of health management information system (HMIS data, financial records, and project documents covering the period 2007-2010. Key informant interviews were carried out with stakeholders at all levels. At facility level, in-depth interviews were held, as were focus group discussions with staff and community members. Results The wider project in Battagram had contributed to rebuilding district health services at a cost of less than US$4.5 per capita and achieved growth in outputs. Staff, managers and clients were appreciative of the gains in availability and quality of services. However, the role that the performance-based incentive (PBI component played was less clear--PBI formed a relatively small component of pay, and did not increase in line with outputs. There was little evidence from interviews and data that the conditional element of the PBIs influenced behaviour. They were appreciated as a top-up to pay, but remained low in relative terms, and only slightly and indirectly related to individual performance. Moreover, they were implemented independently of the wider health system and presented a clear challenge for longer term integration and sustainability. Conclusions Challenges for performance-based pay approaches include the balance of rewarding individual

  14. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Khaista Rehman; Asghar Ali; Sajjad Ahmed; Wajid Ali; Aamir Ali; Muhammad Younis Khan

    2015-10-01

    The seismotectonic structure of north Pakistan has been formed by ongoing collision between the Eurasian and Indian plates. North Pakistan and the adjoining areas experienced many large earthquakes in the past, which resulted in considerable damages and loss of life. A magnitude-homogenous earth-quake catalogue for north Pakistan and its surrounding areas for the instrumental period from 1964 to 2007 is used for analysis. We presented seismicity picture of the Hindukush–Pamir–Karakoram (HPK), Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) and Hazara–Kashmir–Himalayas (HKH) using various histograms and time series plots of the dataset. The b-value for each accreted domain is derived separately and investigated through a process of mutual correlation. Our computed temporal variation of b-value in Hazara region shows a significant decrease prior to 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

  15. A structural Ricardian valuation of climate change impacts on agriculture in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Mirza Nomman

    2013-07-01

    This book presents the economic analysis of the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Pakistan. Particular emphasis is laid on the magnitude of implicit adaptations in overall climate impact assessment and the analysis of selected adaptation options. Using a hedonic pricing model and a revealed choice approach, this study identifies the impacts of climate change on agricultural incomes, depicts the spatial patterns and seasonality of the impacts, and models the future adaptation behavior of farmers in the crop sector. A high sensitivity of farming in Pakistan to climate change is confirmed. With a changing climate and income in mind, farmers in Pakistan are more likely to choose rice, vegetables and maize, whereas they move away from wheat, sugarcane, cotton and fruits.

  16. Foreign ownership, sales to multinationals, and firm efficiency: The Case of Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda, Tidiane

    2009-01-01

    Using a one-step stochastic frontier model for five developing countries (Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam), we show that foreign firms benefit from a better investment climate, which significantly explains why they are more efficient than local firms. Unlike former studies, this paper uses the share of each firm’s sales to multinationals located in the country to assess the importance of vertical spillovers, and it controls for the direct impact of the investment climate ...

  17. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  18. Application of Optical Frequency Comb in High-Capacity Long Distance Optical Communication for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Zahid; Jianqiu, Zeng; Ullah, Rahat; Pathan, Zulfiqar Hussain; Latif, Shahid

    2017-08-01

    The current study examines the fiber optic connectivity from Chinese boundary to Rawalpindi and proposes a novel technique for carrying large capacity triple play services across China Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC). With the help of this technique, various wavelength data services can be extended to Pakistan, which can decrease the low bandwidth, poor connectivity and low speed problems of data transfer in Pakistan. This study contributes toward the existing literature in a way that this novel technique of data transmission not only relaxes the laying of fiber optic cable but also reduces the total cost of the project. The proposed technique proposes the deployment of optical frequency comb technique for 820 km CPEC route which could support 4 Tbps data. From the perspective of time energy consumption, the assessment suggests that the laying of fiber optic cable in CPEC is feasible with the existing route at the lowest cost between the two sovereign countries.

  19. Analysis of present condition of our country's higher vocational education%我国高职教育的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珍珍

    2015-01-01

    Higher vocational education as an important part of higher education, the development of social economy in our country plays an enormous role. In this paper, the analysis on the current situation of higher vocational education in our country, on the basis of this puts forward the existing problems, and this is conducive to a correct understanding of higher vocational education the existing advantages and disadvantages, have specific aim to foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses, so as to promote health, scientific and sustainable development of higher vocational education in our country.%高职教育作为高等教育的重要组成部分,在我国社会经济的发展中发挥着巨大的作用。本文对我国高职教育的现状进行了分析,在此基础上提出了其存在的问题,这有利于正确认识高职教育目前存在的优势与不足,有针对性地扬长避短,以促进我国高职教育健康、科学和可持续发展。

  20. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongbao; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia; Zhao, Jinkou; Reddy, Amala; Seguy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE) for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners.

  1. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia; Zhao, Jinkou; Reddy, Amala; Seguy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Problem Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. Context To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. Action In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE) for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. Lessons learnt It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners. PMID:25320676

  2. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbao Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. Context: To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. Action: In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. Lessons learnt: It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well-documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners.

  3. Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souares Aurélia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed

  4. Pakistan's expanded programme on immunization: an overview in the context of polio eradication and strategies for improving coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Ali, Syed Asad; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2013-07-18

    Since its inception in 1978, Pakistan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) has contributed significantly towards child health and survival in Pakistan. However, the WHO-estimated immunization coverage of 88% for 3 doses of Diptheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine in Pakistan is likely an over-estimate. Many goals, such as polio, measles and neonatal tetanus elimination have not been met. Pakistan reported more cases of poliomyelits in 2011 than any other country globally, threatening the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Although the number of polio cases decreased to 58 in 2012 through better organized supplementary immunization campaigns, country-wide measles outbreaks with over 15,000 cases and several hundred deaths in 2012-13 underscore sub-optimal EPI performance in delivering routine immunizations. There are striking inequities in immunization coverage between different parts of the country. Barriers to universal immunization coverage include programmatic dysfunction at lower tiers of the program, socioeconomic inequities in access to services, low population demand, poor security, and social resistance to vaccines among population sub-groups. Recent conflicts and large-scale natural disasters have severely stressed the already constrained resources of the national EPI. Immunization programs remain low priority for provincial and many district governments in the country. The recent decision to devolve the national health ministry to the provinces has had immediate adverse consequences. Mitigation strategies aimed at rapidly improving routine immunization coverage should include improving the infrastructure and management capacity for vaccine delivery at district levels and increasing the demand for vaccines at the population level. Accurate vaccine coverage estimates at district/sub-district level and local accountability of district government officials are critical to improving performance and eradicating polio in Pakistan.

  5. The United States in Pakistan: Toward a More Unified Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan and Afghanistan. (Viking Press, 2012). 14 Stephen D. Krasner , ―Talking Tough to...39 ―America and Pakistan: Sorry Story,‖ The Economist, December 22, 2011. 40 Stephen D. Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan...pomed-notes-cap-8-12-09.pdf 43 Stephen D. Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2012, 90-93. 44 K. Alan Kronstadt

  6. A Review on the Regulatory Strategy of Human Factors Engineering Consideration in Pakistan Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the

  7. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  8. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  9. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Infection in Pakistan: Current Estimate and Major Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Aiman; Ashfaq, Usman Ali

    2017-01-01

    In Pakistan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major healthcare problem, with acute and chronic infections responsible for liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Under the Human Development Index of the United Nations, Pakistan is ranked 134th of 174 countries due to its poor educational and health standards. This study was designed to study HCV and its genotype prevalence in different cities and provinces of Pakistan and describe the major routes of HCV transmission. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Mendeley, and Google Scholar. Ninety different studies were screened for this review, ranging from those published during the years 2000 to 2013. By calculating the mean average of all studies, it was clear that HCV percentage prevalence in the adult population was 11.55%, blood donors 10.10%, pregnant women 4.65%, children 1.6%, patients with different diseases 24.97%, and injecting drug users had the highest prevalence at 51.0%. HCV genotype 3a prevalence was found to be 63.45%, the highest of all genotypes. The percentage prevalence of HCV found for all of the provinces was Punjab: 5.46%, Sindh: 2.55%, Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: 6.07%, Balochistan: 25.77%, and federally administrated tribal areas: 3.37%. This study shows that the overall prevalence of HCV in the provinces of Pakistan is 8.64% and suggests that the major routes of HCV transmission are reuse of syringes and needles and unchecked blood transfusions. Awareness and economic growth are required to help decrease HCV infection and improve health standards in Pakistan.

  10. Concordance between Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10 and Pakistan Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ, in a rural self-motivated population in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalen Ingvild

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. Methods Participants (n = 1040 in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10-item version (HSCL-10 and the Pakistani Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ were used to observe the pattern of anxiety and depression among the participants. Results The internal consistency of HSCL-10 and PADQ were 0.86 and 0.84 respectively. Exploratory factor analysis found evidence for both a one-dimensional (distress and a two-dimensional (anxiety and depression solution for the HSCL-10, but only a one-dimensional (distress solution for the PADQ. The HSCL-10 and PADQ found to be moderately to highly correlated (r = 0.62, p Conclusion HSCL-10 has shown good screening abilities in a rural setting in Pakistan, and moderate to good concordance with an indigenous instrument measuring psychological distress. The HSCL-10 can therefore be used as a screening instrument, both in clinical and epidemiological settings in Pakistan, and for Pakistani immigrants living in Western societies.

  11. Untypeable hepatitis C virus subtypes in Pakistan: A neglected section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Nasim, Zeeshan; Zahir, Fazli; Ali, Shahid; Ali, Abid; Iqbal, Aqib; Munir, Iqbal

    2016-12-01

    Diagnostically untypeable subtypes contribute a considerable percent of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes in Pakistan. In the present study, chronically infected HCV patients with known viremia were subjected to HCV genotyping. Among the total retrieved samples, 92.7% (64/69) were found typeable while 7.24% (5/69) were diagnostically untypeable. In conclusion, the presence of large number of untypeable HCV subtypes emphasizes the need of an updated type-specific genotyping assay and consideration of primers for proportionally rare subtypes to minimize the number of untypeable HCV subtypes.

  12. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  13. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals.

  14. Group B Streptococcus vaccine development: present status and future considerations, with emphasis on perspectives for low and middle income countries [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwako Kobayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS remains the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young infants, with its greatest burden in the first 90 days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP for women at risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing, but not eliminating, the young infant GBS disease burden in many high income countries. However, identification of women at risk and administration of IAP is very difficult in many low and middle income country (LMIC settings, and is not possible for home deliveries. Immunization of pregnant women with a GBS vaccine represents an alternate pathway to protecting newborns from GBS disease, through the transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus in utero. This approach to prevent GBS disease in young infants is currently under development, and is approaching late stage clinical evaluation. This manuscript includes a review of the natural history of the disease, global disease burden estimates, diagnosis and existing control options in different settings, the biological rationale for a vaccine including previous supportive studies, analysis of current candidates in development, possible correlates of protection and current status of immunogenicity assays. Future potential vaccine development pathways to licensure and use in LMICs, trial design and implementation options are discussed, with the objective to provide a basis for reflection, rather than recommendations.

  15. Pakistan Economy DSGE Model with Informality

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop a closed economy DSGE model of Pakistan with informality both in the labor and product markets. We try to remain consistent with the micro-foundations of Pakistan’s economy for the purpose of estimation of the model parameters. However a couple of them have been calibrated to match the long-run features of the Pakistan economy. We introduce exogenous shocks of technology, fiscal spending and nominal interest rate in our model. Despite having to rely on annual data our...

  16. Money Supply, Deficit, and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aslam Chaudhary; Naved Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    Inflation is a burning issue in Pakistan. It is generally felt that for several years Pakistan has had a double-digit inflation. The public sector has used a mix of policies to control inflation, and it is also held responsible for its creation. The consumer price index (CPI) increased over 11 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. Similarly, sensitive price index (SPI) increased over 15 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. The GDP deflator was also double-digit fo...

  17. Investigating Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development: A Comparative Study of Two Universities of Quetta, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Irum; Pathan, Zahid Hussain

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University (SBKWU) and University of Balochistan (UOB), Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The…

  18. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  19. Investigating Foreign Language Learning Anxiety among Students Learning English in a Public Sector University, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopang, Illahi Bux; Bughio, Faraz Ali; Pathan, Habibullah

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated foreign language anxiety among students of Lasbela University, Baluchistan, Pakistan. The study adopted the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz et al., 1986). The respondents were (N = 240) including 26 female and 214 male. The data was run through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)…

  20. The Effects of Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme on Classroom Teaching Practices: Lessons from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Meher; Nagy, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a teacher training approach called the cluster-based mentoring programme (CBMP) for the professional development of government primary school teachers in Pakistan. The study sought to find differences in the teaching practices between districts where the CBMP was used (intervention) and control districts where it…

  1. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission

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    Riazuddin Sheikh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes circulating in Pakistan and various risk factors for their transmission are not known well. The specific objective of this study was to find out the frequency of various HCV genotypes present in well-characterized Pakistani HCV isolates and their possible routes of transmission. Methods A total of 3351 serum samples were tested by type-specific genotyping assay. Out of 3351 HCV RNA positive patients, 2039 were males and 1312 were females. As regard as genotyped samples, 2165 belonged to Punjab region, 823 belonged to N.W.F.P., 239 to Sindh and 124 patients were from Balochistan. Results Out of the total 3351 tested serum samples, type-specific PCR fragments were observed in 3150 (94.00% serum samples. The distribution of genotypes of the typeable samples as determined by this assay, was as follows: 1664 (49.05% genotype 3a; 592 (17.66% genotype 3b; 280 (8.35% genotype 1a; 252 (7.52% genotype 2a; 101 (3.01% genotype 1b; 50 (1.49% with genotype 4; 25 (0.75% with 3c; 27 (0.80% genotype 2b; 6 (0.18% with subtype 5a; 5 (0.15% genotype 1c; 4 (0.12% with subtype 6a; 3 (0.09% genotype 2c; and 161 (4.80% patients were infected with mixed infection. Two hundred and one (5.99% serum samples were found untypeable by the present genotyping system. More than 86% and 72% patients with genotypes 3a and 3b respectively had received multiple injections in past. For genotypes 1a and 1b the route of transmission was major/minor surgery along with unknown reasons. Majority of the cases with type 2a, 2b and indeterminate genotypes were sporadic. Mixed infections were common in thalassaemic patients. Conclusion The most common HCV genotype in Pakistan is type 3a. Regional difference in genotypes was observed only in Balochistan province of Pakistan. More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery that is very common in this

  2. Biological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a novel genetic group of Newcastle disease virus isolated from outbreaks in commercial poultry and from backyard poultry flocks in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Cortey, Martí; Abbas, Muhammad; Qureshi, Zafar Ul Ahsan; Afzal, Farhan; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Ahmed, Safia; Ahmad, Saeed; Baule, Claudia; Ståhl, Karl; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael

    2012-07-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious viral disease of many avian species particularly domestic poultry, and is responsible for devastating outbreaks in the poultry industries around the globe. In spite of its importance and endemicity in Southern Asia, data on the genetic nature of the viruses and epizootiological information of the disease is scarce. In this study, six isolates from an emerging wave of ND outbreaks in the north of Pakistan and two isolates from healthy poultry flocks were biologically and genetically characterized. Based on pathogenicity indices such as intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), mean death time (MDT) and cleavage motifs in the fusion protein, all these isolates were classified as virulent. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and matrix (M) genes indicated the emergence of a novel genetic group within lineage 5, distinct from isolates previously reported in the region. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes and functionally important motifs of the F and HN genes pose a need for re-evaluation of the currently used vaccine and vaccination practices. The characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as virulent (F protein cleavage site, ICPI and MDT) in apparently healthy backyard poultry (BYP) explain that BYP can play crucial role in the epizootiology and spread of the disease. The present investigation provides essential information on the genetic nature of NDV circulating in Pakistan and its implication on disease diagnosis and control. Furthermore, these investigations emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance of ND in developing countries.

  3. Communication Management Guidelines for Software Organizations in Pakistan with clients from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Shah, Muhammad; Hashim, Rathiah; Shah, Adil Ali; Farooq Khattak, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Developing software through Global Software Development (GSD) became very common now days in the software industry. Pakistan is one of the countries where projects are taken and designed from different countries including Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to identify and provide an analysis on several communication barriers that can have a negative impact on the project and to provide management guidelines for medium size software organizations working in Pakistan with clients from Afghanistan and to overcome these communication barriers and challenges organizations face when coordinating with client. Initially we performed a literature review to identify different communication barriers and to check if there are any standardized communications management guidelines for medium size software houses provided in the past. The second stage of the research paper involves guidelines with vendor's perspective that include interviews and focus group discussions with different stakeholders and employees of software houses with clients from Afghanistan. Based on those interviews and discussions we established communication management guidelines in order to overcome the communication problems and barriers working with clients from Afghanistan. As a result of the literature review, we have identified that barriers such as cultural barriers and language barrier were one of the main reasons behind the project failure and suggested that software organizations working in Pakistan should follow certain defined communication guidelines in order to overcome communication barriers that affect the project directly.

  4. Telemedicine implementation and benefits for quality and patient safety in Pakistan

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    Ijaz A. Qureshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine is becoming an important aspect in developing countries to provide better health facilities. Rural areas in developing countries suffer due to lack of health facilities and face difficulties like time to reach health facilities at the faraway places, cost of reaching at a health care facility, and transportation needed to move around for the treatment/consulting purpose. Telemedicine could be used for safe and quality health by specialists at low cost in rural areas in Pakistan. Telemedicine services could be provided through video sharing, image sharing, mobile services or by e-mail. A research study was conducted to analyze the implementation and to explore the benefits of telemedicine in Pakistan. We distributed 150 questionnaires among teaching hospital doctors in city of Lahore, out of which we received 147 completed questionnaires. Three of the questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete information. The questionnaires were given to participants in the scheduled classes and collected at the end of class. Instructors were requested to allow students to complete questionnaires. The results showed 66.32% doctors of teaching hospital agreed to implement telemedicine for rural areas in Pakistan. 78.9% doctors agreed that telemedicine will save travelling time and money for availing expert opinion. However, 30.6% doctors agreed that Telemedicine will be beneficial for urban community – obtained the lowest score. The enhanced link between doctors and telemedicine can contribute to provide better health facilities in rural areas.

  5. Investigation of molecular heterogeneity of β-thalassemia disorder in District Charsadda of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad; Rehman, Shoaib Ur; Yaseen, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thalassemia is blood related disease which arises from the reduced level of hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBC), a protein responsible for carrying oxygen inside the body. Considering its widespread occurrence in developing countries like Pakistan, this study aims to investigate the common molecular anomalies of the beta thalassemia disease in district Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Methods: This work was done at Abdul Wali Khan University (AWKU) Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The work was performed on the blood samples collected from the patients and their families with beta thalassemia major (n = 13 families) belonged to District Charsadda. The collected blood samples were analyzed for presence of six known mutations with the help of polymerase cha in reaction technique i.e. amplification of refractory mutation system. Results: Our Study reports six known mutations (IVS-1-5, FSC 8/9, CD 41/42, IVS-1-1, CD 15 and FSC-5) accounting for about 90% of total beta thalassemia genes in this country. Among the reported mutations, IVS 1-5 was the most prevalent beta thalassemia gene in patients belonging to District Charsadda. Conclusion: The results and findings of the current study may help in accessing the frequency of these common mutations and in initiating pre-natal diagnosis programme in Pakistan. PMID:27182268

  6. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

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    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  7. Access to essential medicines in Pakistan: policy and health systems research concerns.

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    Shehla Zaidi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.

  8. The present, past and future of the study of intellectual disability: challenges in developing countries Pasado, presente y futuro del estudio de la discapacidad intelectual: desafíos en los países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R Parmenter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that socio-cultural factors largely determine what is seen as competent behaviour. Within western high income countries, driven by the values of utilitarian individualism, the construct of intellectual disability has been largely determined to meet the needs of urban, industrialised societies. In contrast, competence in non-industrialised societies may be more reflected in collaborative, interpersonal problem solving skills such as those found among Nigerian students labelled as intellectually disabled. However, people who are judged to be incompetent or "obtrusive" in countries deficient in support services, are often neglected and consigned to a life in poorly managed segregated institutions, as is the case in China, Russia and some countries in Eastern Europe. Non western countries that have a long history of a globalised economy, such as Taiwan and Japan also remain committed to segregated institutional provisions for people with an intellectual disability, despite a notional acceptance of inclusionary policies enunciated by the United Nations’ Declarations and Conventions. In this paper is concluded that it must be recognised that the population of people with an intellectual disability, regardless of how the condition is defined and classified, is quite heterogeneous. Their needs are also varied and not at all dissimilar to those of the general population. As developing countries adopt western style consumer-driven economies, there is an extreme danger that they, too, will follow the same trajectory of exclusion and impose the culture of "otherness" for a group whose contribution to that society will be devalued. Good science is futile unless it benefits all peoples.Existe amplia evidencia de que los factores socioculturales determinan en gran medida la percepción de conducta competitiva. En los países occidentales de altos ingresos, dominados por los valores del individualismo utilitario, las necesidades de

  9. Spatial-Temporal Analyses of Lightning Activities over Pakistan using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Saddam; Imran Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Lightning is a naturally occurring spectacular and powerful phenomenon often accompanied by thunder. Regardless, it's hazardous and responsible for thousands of deaths and property loss all over the globe.In Pakistan, this hazardous phenomenon mostly occurs in monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. To prevent or at least minimize the unforeseen property damages and human casuality, we need to identify the vulnerable locations to lightning in Pakistan, but yet there have not been done any detailed study regarding the lightning hazards yet for Pakistan. In the present study for the years 2001 - 2014 lightning density mapping has been done by means of satellite Remote Sensing techniques. Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) datasets of locations and Time of Occurrence (TOA) are used to identify the lightning prone locations all over Pakistan. Efforts have been made to develop a technique that is helpful in generating the hazard maps of lighting in Pakistan on temporal basis by using spatio-temporal satellite images. These maps show frequency distribution trends of lightning in many regions of Pakistan that enable us to locate high, moderate and low lightning-susceptible areas. Results demonstrate that thunderstorm frequency is comparatively higher over the mountain and sub-mountain regions in the Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa (KPK) provinces. Interestingly lightning data showed a strong correlation between the FlashesYear and the El Niño and La Niña years. It is observed that about 40.1 % of lightning activities occurred during the monsoon followed by pre-monsoon with 39.7 %, which can possibly create synergistic and devastating effects in combination with heavy seasonal rainfall. A severe lightning event with 4559 flashes in just 3.08 seconds is also recorded on 8-Oct-2005 in Pakistan-India border near Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) and Jammu Kashmir. However, it is to be noted that on the same date Pakistan was hit by a major Earthquake

  10. Inclusive design drivers and barriers – a manufacturing perspective from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographics of older people and people with disabilities in developing countries are discussed in the context of inclusive design and the drivers and barriers to inclusive design have been identified. Data were collected from 50 individuals from various industrial sectors in Pakistan. Corporate social responsibility (CSR relates to inclusive aspects of products, but most respondents either did not know about CSR or did not have a CSR post in their organizations, but 64% had awareness of inclusive design terminology. The study concluded that motivation through social responsibility; innovation and differentiation; demographics and consumer trends; brand enhancement; customer satisfaction; new market opportunity; and legislation were the perceived drivers for manufacturers in Pakistan. Most respondents felt that lack of resources and guidance, lack of awareness about inclusive design, difficulty in changing the business culture, lack of government regulations, and the perception that inclusive design is expensive were the most significant barriers.

  11. Factors Affecting Corporate Cash Holding of Non-Financial Firms in Pakistan

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    Atif Kafayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The previous researches explore the question of why firms hold cash. But there are few researches done in developing countries like Pakistan. The need for cash is characterized by its policies of firms regarding capital structure, working capital requirements, cash flow management, dividend payments, and asset management. In this paper, the impact of these factors is normally analyzed under the framework of Tradeoff theory, Pecking Order Theory and Free Cash Flow Theory. This paper focuses on determining the level of corporate cash holdings of non-financial Pakistani firms, and cash holding requirement among different industries. The data is set for period of 2008- 2012 by using the data of 40companies and 6 industries. The findings of the study support the theories. Which show that firm size, net working capital, leverage, Capital Expenditure and Dividend significantly affect the cash holdings of non-financial firms in Pakistan.

  12. Physiochemical, Biochemical, Minerals Content Analysis, and Antioxidant Potential of National and International Honeys in Pakistan

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    Mahmood Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 16 honey samples from Pakistan and two other countries were investigated for their physiochemical, biochemical, minerals, and antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activities of all honey samples were performed by using percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical, AEAC, and FRAP. 5-HMF and mineral contents were determined by HPLC and AAS, respectively. The obtained values of respective parameters, namely, pH, EC, TDS, total acidity, moisture, ash, color intensity, sugars, proline, and protein were in compliance with codex standard and recommendation of council directive by European Union. The total phenolics contents in acacia honey from Germany and jujube honey from Pakistan are similar to monofloral honey from Saudi Arabia and Yemen, respectively. The mineral contents in tested honey samples are comparable with honey from Brazil and Romania. Dark color honeys contained higher phenolic contents than light color ones and attributed to higher oxidation potential and have strong positive correlation with DPPH and FRAP.

  13. An Empirical Study of COTS components Persuasion, Evaluation Selection and Integration in software houses Faisalabad, Pakistan

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    Zahid Javed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Under development countries (UDCs like Faisalabad, Pakistan where information technology benefits are not yet fully utilized due to lack of resources and very old infrastructure. Selecting suitable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS is the most critical phase in COTS-based software development. However, in research, numerous problems are faced during the COTS evaluation, selection and integration. All these major causes are due to the lack of familiarity about COTS products, the unawareness of the available number of methods for COTS evaluation, selection, integration and deployment phase, and the deficiency of supervision for selecting between these best methods for COTS evaluation and selection. In this research work, a closed questionnaire method was adopted to evaluate the users perception about COTS evaluation, selection integration in software houses and IT Professional in Faisalabad, Pakistan. The results of this work will contribute towards a framework development for COTS evaluating and selecting, integration.

  14. Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouser, Shahzad; Abedullah; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-25

    The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development.

  15. Sino-Pakistan Relationship Was Not a Five-Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ China and Pakistan have an especially close friendship, during the past 57 years they have developed their diplOmatic ties, and both have prospered from the smooth development of friendly and neighborly relations, as well as mutually beneficial cooperation. In 2006, the successful exchange of visits between the two presidents has brought bilateral relations into a new phase; in addition, the two sides have strengthened their high-level strategic dialogue. Though the top leaders in Pakistan have recently changed, the countries' friendship will never change; therefore, it was a meaningful gesture that in October 2008, H.E. Mr. Asif Ali Zardari, the newly elected president, chose China for his first official visit abroad, expressing that he would like to bring his "own concept" to China.

  16. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan and its new research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Saleem; Syed Zawar Shah; Asma Haidari; Fatima Idrees

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a deadly and life-threatening viral sickness spreading throughout the world with high mortality rate of 10%–40%. The causative agents are ticks which show diversity in their strains and thus it is difficult to make vaccine, however some strains are conserved which is the positive point in vaccines development. From 2012 to 2015, a total of 161 cases were confirmed for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Pakistan. And from 2012 to July 2014, 45 deaths were reported in the country. It is spreading sporadically in Pakistan. Mapping of endemic areas and cross-border veterinary surveillance should be developed in high risk areas and workshops should be arranged to increase public awareness about the disease. Control measures must be taken to avoid spreading of the disease to new areas.

  17. The Climate Change Dynamics and its Impact on the Wheat Productivity in Pakistan:

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    Naveed Mehmood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The protracted change in climatic conditions because of the natural or anthropogenic activities is termed as climate change. It is mainly caused by human induced emission of greenhouse gases like Carbon dioxide CO2, Methane CH4, Nitrous oxide NO2. These gases trap the sunlight, rising the earth’s temperature and altering the pattern of precipitation, humidity across countries and causing some sever damages to the economies. Yearly data (from 1971 to 2009 published by the Metrological Department of Pakistan and Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan is being used. Vector Autoregressive Modeling is applied to study the impact of the climate change on wheat productivity. The result of the model shows that the rising temperature leads to reduction in output as the variation in the wheat productivity has been brought mainly by the variation in the temperature that is 25 percent in the tenth period as shown by the variance decomposition.

  18. Donor Interventions and SME Networking in Industrial Clusters in Punjab Province, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    This PhD thesis is an outcome of the author’s own reflections and efforts to come to terms with his experience working as the National Project Coordinator of the Industrial Cluster Development Program of an international donor agency in Pakistan, the IDA, for more than 8 years between 2001 and 2009...... from both clusters? In this thesis, it is argued that a very limited number of empirical studies have addressed the subject of private sector development aid in industrial clusters in developing countries. In particular, very few studies aim at studying the sustainability of donor......-financed interventions in industrial clusters in the Global South. Two articles in the thesis are dedicated to extending the very limited existing work on this topic. Both articles – the first on the Lahore garments cluster and the second on the Sialkot football manufacturing cluster in Pakistan – seek to analyze how...

  19. Movements of people, ideas, trade, and technology: Toward a peaceful coexistence of India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S. [Asia Foundation, Islamabad (Pakistan); Das, S. [Univ. of Calcutta (India)

    1998-03-01

    The potential exists for peaceful and constructive bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. Domestic developments in both countries, the changing global economic and political environment, and structural changes in regional trading patterns have created new opportunities for replacing traditional Indian and Pakistani perceptions of hostility and suspicion with mutual understanding and trust. This substitution process can be accelerated by increasing people-to-people contact, the free flow of information, and economic and technological cooperation between the two neighbors. Nonmilitary confidence building measures could create conditions for an incremental reduction on tensions between India and Pakistan. A popular consciousness for enhanced bilateral cooperation is growing. This process could be strengthened by identifying and exploring new areas of mutually beneficial cooperation that could pave the way for peace.

  20. Framework for integration of informal waste management sector with the formal sector in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y

    2013-10-01

    Historically, waste pickers around the globe have utilised urban solid waste as a principal source of livelihood. Formal waste management sectors usually perceive the informal waste collection/recycling networks as backward, unhygienic and generally incompatible with modern waste management systems. It is proposed here that through careful planning and administration, these seemingly troublesome informal networks can be integrated into formal waste management systems in developing countries, providing mutual benefits. A theoretical framework for integration based on a case study in Lahore, Pakistan, is presented. The proposed solution suggests that the municipal authority should draw up and agree on a formal work contract with the group of waste pickers already operating in the area. The proposed system is assessed using the integration radar framework to classify and analyse possible intervention points between the sectors. The integration of the informal waste workers with the formal waste management sector is not a one dimensional or single step process. An ideal solution might aim for a balanced focus on all four categories of intervention, although this may be influenced by local conditions. Not all the positive benefits will be immediately apparent, but it is expected that as the acceptance of such projects increases over time, the informal recycling economy will financially supplement the formal system in many ways.

  1. Studies on the biology, chemotherapy and distribution of warble fly in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Qasim; Irshad, H; Jahangir, M; Razzaq, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents data on the prevalence, biology and control of warble fly infestation (WFI) in cattle and goats in Pakistan. A questionnaire for obtaining information on biology and prevalence was circulated amongst field veterinary staff and livestock farmers in all five provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [KPK] and Gilgit-Baltistan) and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the country. A total of 1,019 questionnaires were received (Punjab = 296, Sindh = 246, KPK = 318, Balochistan = 151, Gilgit-Baltistan = 8). Warble fly infestation was reported from each province and from the federally administered tribal areas, particularly from hilly, semi-hilly and sandy desert areas (the Cholistan desert, which adjoins the Rehim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts, and the Nara area of Sanghar district). Warbles (nodules) started appearing on the backs of the infested animals from September through December and disappeared from October through March. The prevalence of WFI varied from 5% to 75%. It was highest in hilly areas and gradually decreased towards the plains. A map was developed of warble fly-infested areas. Four field trials were conducted to study the efficacy of different drugs indicated for the control of warble fly infestation. A total of 2,094 cattle and 3,876 goats were given five different injectables (avermectins); namely, Ivomec, Endectin, Euvectin, Dectomax and Promectin (ivermectin) during the first three weeks of September. A control group was given normal saline. All the medicines were found to be effective in controlling infestation.

  2. Consultation Based Inductive Study of Vegetables Growing Women Farmers of Punjab, Pakistan

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    Tahir Munir Butt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an agricultural country where 45% population is connected with agriculture. This population consists of males and females doing farming for their survival. Males are kept under consideration always while women potential is underestimated. Women work side by side with their males and remain involved in farming activities especially indoor cultivation of vegetables. In this regard, the present study was conducted in Gujranwala district of Punjab, to assess the situation of women regarding vegetables cultivation along with their need assessment regarding farming. In this regard through multistage random sampling, 500 women farmers doing vegetables farming were selected as respondents. Data were collected through structured interview schedule and were analyzed with the help of SPSS. Results revealed that literacy level of women in study area was lower. Regarding vegetables traditional framing was being adopted while adoption of improved techniques such as tunnel farming was not impressive at all. Inappropriate market existence appeared as the most vulnerable constraint along with the poor services provided by extension field staff, finance shortage and high inputs prices. On the basis of results it is suggested that literacy programme by government especially for women should be started. Female extension staff should also be appointed especially for home based farming activities training provision. Subsidy should be provided on inputs to reduce the cost of production. More important, government should pay attention on establishment of sustainable market separate for organically and chemically produced vegetables.

  3. Fiscal, Monetary Policies and Institutions’ Role (Political, Social and Economic in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq HUSSAIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test the fundamental relationship between fiscal, monetary policies and institutions in Pakistan from 1976 to 2008. These policies are roadmap in the progress of a country. No doubt both these policies are useful tools in the hands of the government to increase the per capita GDP of the country. Such policies depict the performance level of institutions of a country. Better institutions leads to higher level of growth. Institutions perform significant role in the progress of any country. The growth targets can be achieved through institutions. Higher the quality of institutions, higher the performance would be shown by economy. Countries can reach middle-income levels despite some corruption, but further growth requires much better institutions (Easterly, 2001, pp. 234-235, 245-248, Rodrik, 2003, pp. 16-17.Kwiatkowski et al (1992 test is used to test unit root and short run relationship is analyzed through ECM. Auto regressive distributed lags (ARDL shows that there is long run relationship among growth policies and institutions’ role in Pakistan.

  4. Peaceful Economies: Assessing the Role of the Private Sector in Conflict Prevention in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwan A Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan today seems to be embroiled in a number of conflicts that have both domestic as well as international dimensions. Conflicts of course vary, ranging from household disputes to increasing crime resulting from disparities. However, at an aggregated level, conflicts have a societal connotation that reflects deep-rooted divisions within a society. On a macro-level, these conflicts suppress a country’s potential and inhibit future prosperity. Hence, investor confidence has declined in Pakistan as have market opportunities. The poor law and order situation in Karachi over the last few years, for example, has significantly affected the income of daily wage earners, while investors have taken a back seat. Moreover, entrepreneurial activity becomes even more difficult to pursue for those with less capital or access to financing. With the rise in conflicts across the country coupled with a bleak economic situation, communities and businesses have suffered alike. Economic disparities often breed sustained conflicts. In this context, what is needed in Pakistan is an economic environment that engenders strategic peace. The two are complementing factors, and neglecting either can seriously undermine the effectiveness of measures taken for the other. This research study, conducted by Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI in 2013, undertook an analysis of the private sector’s role in achieving sustainable peace in Pakistan. It is important to note that as far as sustainable peace is concerned, the private sector is just one of many actors. In that, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiatives by businesses can certainly play an important role. Their main contribution, however, can be to influence public policy in favor of strategic peace across the country. While approaches such as dispute resolution (formal and informal and CSR are important in terms of conflict mitigation, long-term peace is contingent upon a just and equitable system

  5. Comparative Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Wagner, Thomas; Jamil, Mohsin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during the time period of 2004-2015 are discussed. Data products from the satellite instrument OMI are used. The results show a large NO2 growth over major cities of both countries, particularly the areas with rapid urbanization. Different seasonal cycles were observed over both countries. Especially, seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over Pakistan is largely impacted by the photolysis rate, OH radical and monsoon rains in addition to soil emissions, agriculture fires and other anthropogenic activities. While in the case of Saudi Arabia, the seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 is completely driven by thermal power generation. Furthermore, different regions of Pakistan exhibited different seasonal trends. In the provinces of Punjab (north-east), Khyber Paktunkhwa (north-west) and Sindh (south-east), NO2 columns are maximum in winter and minimum in summer months while a reversed seasonality was observed in the province of Baluchistan (south-west). We compared the observed Spatio-temporal patterns to existing emission inventories and found that for the most populated provinces the NOx emissions are clearly dominated by anthropogenic sources. In these areas also the strongest positive trends were observed. NOx released from soils and produced by lightning both together contribute about 20% for the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its contribution in Baluchistan is much stronger (~50%). NOx emissions from biomass burning are negligible. This finding can also explain the observed summer maximum in Baluchistan since the highest lightning activity occurs during the Monsoon season. Our comparison also indicates that the inventories of anthropogenic NOx emissions over Pakistan seem to underestimate the true emissions by about a factor of two.

  6. Climate change vulnerability, adaptation and risk perceptions at farm level in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Schilling, Janpeter; Scheffran, Jürgen; Zulfiqar, Farhad

    2016-03-15

    Pakistan is among the countries highly exposed and vulnerable to climate change. The country has experienced many severe floods, droughts and storms over the last decades. However, little research has focused on the investigation of vulnerability and adaptation to climate-related risks in Pakistan. Against this backdrop, this article investigates the farm level risk perceptions and different aspects of vulnerability to climate change including sensitivity and adaptive capacity at farm level in Pakistan. We interviewed a total of 450 farming households through structured questionnaires in three districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. This study identified a number of climate-related risks perceived by farm households such as extreme temperature events, insect attacks, animal diseases and crop pests. Limited water availability, high levels of poverty and a weak role of local government in providing proper infrastructure were the factors that make farmers more sensitive to climate-related risks. Uncertainty or reduction in crop and livestock yields; changed cropping calendars and water shortage were the major adverse impacts of climate-related risks reported by farmers in the study districts. Better crop production was reported as the only positive effect. Further, this study identified a number of farm level adaptation methods employed by farm households that include changes in crop variety, crop types, planting dates and input mix, depending upon the nature of the climate-related risks. Lack of resources, limited information, lack of finances and institutional support were some constraints that limit the adaptive capacity of farm households. This study also reveals a positive role of cooperation and negative role of conflict in the adaptation process. The study suggests to address the constraints to adaptation and to improve farm level cooperation through extended outreach and distribution of institutional services, particularly climate-specific farm advisory

  7. Present situation of community-based hypertension management in our country%我国高血压病的社区管理现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2012-01-01

    高血压病是目前我国社区卫生服务重点管理的慢性疾病.社区管理被证明是有效控制高血压的最重要的途径.本文综述我国高血压病的流行状况、特点和危险因素,阐明高血压病社区管理的重要性与必要性;重点总结目前我国高血压病社区管理的主要方法.高血压病社区综合防治主要有三种管理模式,即协议管理、自我管理和家庭管理.高血压病的防治从现代预防医学的角度看就是三级预防,在社区管理中健康教育意义更突出.以社区全科医学团队合作开展的高血压规范化管理已显成效,是高血压社区管理的主要发展方向.本文也指出了我国高血压社区管理存在的问题与改进办法.%Hypertension is a common and frequently-occurring disease in our country and even in the world. It is a focus of the management of chronic diseases in China's community health service station, and community-based management of hypertension has been proven to be the most important and effective way. This paper reviews the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of the hypertension, points out the importance and necessity of community-based management of hypertension, and sums up main methods of the community-based management of hypertension in our country. In hypertension community comprehensive prevention and control, there are three management modes: contractual management, self-management and household management. From the point of view of modem preventive medicine, the prevention and control of hypertension is the three-grade prevention. In the community management of hypertension, health education has more significance than other methods. Standardized management of hypertension carried out by general medical team has already produced results and is the main direction of community management of hypertension. Also, this paper points out the problems existing in the community management of hypertension and puts

  8. Are we doing enough? Evaluation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province: a LQAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Majrooh, Muhammad Ashraf; Ullah, Mohsin Zia Sana; Akram, Javed; Siddiqui, Arif Mahmood; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Waqas, Muhammad; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Shahid, Ubeera; Khurshid, Usman

    2010-02-09

    The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. The aim of the study was to establish valid and reliable estimate for: routine oral polio vaccine (OPV) coverage, logistics management and the quality of monitoring systems in health facilities, NIDs OPV coverage, the quality of NIDs service delivery in static centers and mobile teams, and to ultimately provide scientific evidence for tailoring future interventions. A cross-sectional study using lot quality assessment sampling was conducted in the District Nankana Sahib of Pakistan's Punjab province. Twenty primary health centers and their catchment areas were selected randomly as 'lots'. The study involved the evaluation of 1080 children aged 12-23 months for routine OPV coverage, 20 health centers for logistics management and quality of monitoring systems, 420 households for NIDs OPV coverage, 20 static centers and 20 mobile teams for quality of NIDs service delivery. Study instruments were designed according to WHO guidelines. Five out of twenty lots were rejected for unacceptably low routine immunization coverage. The validity of coverage was questionable to extent that all lots were rejected. Among the 54.1% who were able to present immunization cards, only 74.0% had valid immunization. Routine coverage was significantly associated with card availability and socioeconomic factors. The main reasons for routine immunization failure were absence of a vaccinator and unawareness of need for immunization. Health workers (96.9%) were a major source of information. All of the 20 lots were rejected for poor compliance in logistics management and quality of monitoring systems. Mean compliance score and compliance percentage for logistics management were 5.4 +/- 2.0 (scale 0-9) and 59.4% while those for quality of

  9. Are we doing enough? Evaluation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province: a LQAS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. The aim of the study was to establish valid and reliable estimate for: routine oral polio vaccine (OPV coverage, logistics management and the quality of monitoring systems in health facilities, NIDs OPV coverage, the quality of NIDs service delivery in static centers and mobile teams, and to ultimately provide scientific evidence for tailoring future interventions. Methods A cross-sectional study using lot quality assessment sampling was conducted in the District Nankana Sahib of Pakistan's Punjab province. Twenty primary health centers and their catchment areas were selected randomly as 'lots'. The study involved the evaluation of 1080 children aged 12-23 months for routine OPV coverage, 20 health centers for logistics management and quality of monitoring systems, 420 households for NIDs OPV coverage, 20 static centers and 20 mobile teams for quality of NIDs service delivery. Study instruments were designed according to WHO guidelines. Results Five out of twenty lots were rejected for unacceptably low routine immunization coverage. The validity of coverage was questionable to extent that all lots were rejected. Among the 54.1% who were able to present immunization cards, only 74.0% had valid immunization. Routine coverage was significantly associated with card availability and socioeconomic factors. The main reasons for routine immunization failure were absence of a vaccinator and unawareness of need for immunization. Health workers (96.9% were a major source of information. All of the 20 lots were rejected for poor compliance in logistics management and quality of monitoring systems. Mean compliance score and compliance percentage for logistics management were 5.4 ± 2

  10. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the

  11. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  12. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The

  13. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the pr

  14. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The multin

  15. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agro-Ecosystems and Their Contribution to Environmental Change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mohsin IQBAL; M. Arif GOHEER

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance of different sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and agricultural activities are vulnerable to the effects of global warming due to accelerated emissions of GHGs. Many developments have taken place in the agricultural sector of Pakistan in recent decades in the background of the changing role of the government and the encouragement of the private sector for investment in new ventures. These interventions have considerable GHG emission potential. Unfortunately, no published information is currently available on GHC concentrations in the Indus Basin to assess their magnitude and emission trends. The present study is an attempt to estimate GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions arising from different agro-ecosystems of Indus Basin. The GHGs were estimated mostly using the IPCC Guidelines and data from the published literature. The results showed that CH4 emissions were the highest (4.126 Tg yr-1) followed by N2O (0.265 Tg yr-1) and CO2 (52.6 Tg yr-1). The sources of CH4 are enteric fermentation, rice cultivation and cultivation of other crops. N2O is formed by microbial denitrification of NO3 produced from applied fertilizer-N on cropped soils or by mineralization of native organic matter on fallow soils. CO2 is formed by the burning of plant residue and by soil respiration due to the decomposition of soil organic matter.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from agro-ecosystems and their contribution to environmental change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M. Mohsin; Goheer, M. Arif

    2008-11-01

    There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance of different sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and agricultural activities are vulnerable to the effects of global warming due to accelerated emissions of GHGs. Many developments have taken place in the agricultural sector of Pakistan in recent decades in the background of the changing role of the government and the encouragement of the private sector for investment in new ventures. These interventions have considerable GHG emission potential. Unfortunately, no published information is currently available on GHG concentrations in the Indus Basin to assess their magnitude and emission trends. The present study is an attempt to estimate GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions arising from different agro-ecosystems of Indus Basin. The GHGs were estimated mostly using the IPCC Guidelines and data from the published literature. The results showed that CH4 emissions were the highest (4.126 Tg yr-1) followed by N2O (0.265 Tg yr-1) and CO2 (52.6 Tg yr-1). The sources of CH4 are enteric fermentation, rice cultivation and cultivation of other crops. N2O is formed by microbial denitrification of NO3 produced from applied fertilizer-N on cropped soils or by mineralization of native organic matter on fallow soils. CO2 is formed by the burning of plant residue and by soil respiration due to the decomposition of soil organic matter.

  18. Study on the Counterplan of the Application and Development of XBRL in Our Country at Present%我国目前应用与发展XBRL的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷彦昌

    2011-01-01

    可扩展的商业报告语言CXBRL)掀起了财务报告的新浪潮,XBRL在我国应用也刚刚起步.本文就目前我国应用与发展XBRL提出了相关对策.%The eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) brings about the new wave in finance report, which is also just start to apply in our country. This text puts forward the related counterplans of the application and development of XBRL in our country at the present time.

  19. Present Situation and Countermeasures Study on our Country Hockey Sports Development%我国冰球运动发展现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安洪; 孙玉巍; 李阳; 王丽颖; 王福全; 姜淼淼; 刘春华

    2011-01-01

    Through analysis on the 11th world hockey movement development direction of winter,standing in the analysis of the jiff hockey development height,the jiff hockey development situation of our country,the author discovers that exist in the reserve forces hockey sports game,less poor less chance,insufficient training effect by increasing government departments,the value,the reform of training mechanism,reasonable arrangement of the training,promote the further development of the hockey movement.%采用文献资料对第21届冬奥会世界冰球运动发展方向进行分析,站在世界冰球发展的高度,对我国冰球发展状况进行分析,发现我国冰球运动存在着后备力量少、比赛机会少、训练效果差等不足,通过加大政府等部门的重视,改革训练机制,合理安排训练,推动我国冰球运动的进一步发展。

  20. Emergency department mental health presentations by people born in refugee source countries: an epidemiological logistic regression study in a Medicare Local region in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne C; Cheng, I-Hao; Russell, Grant; Szwarc, Josef; Braitberg, George; Peek, Anne; Meadows, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if people born in refugee source countries are disproportionately represented among those receiving a diagnosis of mental illness within emergency departments (EDs). The setting was the Cities of Greater Dandenong and Casey, the resettlement region for one-twelfth of Australia's refugees. An epidemiological, secondary data analysis compared mental illness diagnoses received in EDs by refugee and non-refugee populations. Data was the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset in the 2008-09 financial year. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression created predictive models for mental illness using five variables: age, sex, refugee background, interpreter use and preferred language. Collinearity, model fit and model stability were examined. Multivariate analysis showed age and sex to be the only significant risk factors for mental illness diagnosis in EDs. 'Refugee status', 'interpreter use' and 'preferred language' were not associatedwith a mental health diagnosis following risk adjustment forthe effects ofage and sex. The disappearance ofthe univariate association after adjustment for age and sex is a salutary lesson for Medicare Locals and other health planners regarding the importance of adjusting analyses of health service data for demographic characteristics.

  1. Causes of Low Agricultural Output and Impact on Socio-economic Status of Farmers: A Case Study of Rural Potohar in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesa Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture being the key sector for economy of Pakistan occupies central place. Since its inception, this sector is subsistent and facing many risks and vulnerability. Over the time due to technological gap in developing countries, they failed to develop rapid expansion and productivity in this sector. The present study is a qualitative analysis conducted to explore the causes of low productivity in agriculture sector, and finding its impacts on the socioeconomic status of farmer. The study conducted a questionnaire survey for the rural farmers residing in Potohar region. A sample of 100 respondents has been chosen, and analysis is carried out by using SPSS software. The study concluded that the higher growth rate for the agriculture sector is very important for a fast overall improvement of the economy, macroeconomic constancy, employment generation, and decrease in rural poverty.

  2. La salud ambienta: presente y futuro. Una perspectiva desde la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco Environmental health: present and future. A view from the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cambra Contín

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El ámbito de la salud ambiental es definido como el correspondiente a las actuaciones en relación con factores de riesgo ambientales, de nivel comunitario, dirigidas a la prevención primaria y en las que las poblaciones humanas estén implicadas de manera determinante. Se apuntan varias cuestiones clave en relación con las necesidades futuras de la salud ambiental. Por una parte, es necesario aclarar las funciones de los servicios de salud ambiental y promover el trabajo en equipo. Por otra, debe asegurarse que las actuaciones sean pertinentes y útiles, para lo que es imprescindible la planificación sanitaria de las mismas y seguir metodologías adecuadas. Se presenta un esquema de la organización de salud ambiental en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco.The field of the Environmental Health is defined as the actions related to environmental risk factors, on a community level, aimed at primary prevention, in which human populations are involved. Some key issues are addressed in connection with the Environmental Health in the future. It is needed further clarification of the functions of the environmental health services, and teamwork promotion. Besides, actions to carry out must be pertinent and useful, for which they have to be based on health planning and the use of suitable methodologies. Finally, a summary of the environmental health organisation in the Basque Country is given.

  3. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  4. Making birthing safe for Pakistan women: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two out of three neonatal deaths occur in just 10 countries and Pakistan stands third among them. Maternal mortality is also high with most deaths occurring during labor, birth, and first few hours after birth. Enhanced access and utilization of skilled delivery and emergency obstetric care is the demonstrated strategy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This trial aims to compare reduction in neonate mortality and utilization of available safe birthing and Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care services among pregnant mothers receiving ‘structured birth planning’, and/or ‘transport facilitation’ compared to routine care. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomized trial, with qualitative and economic studies, will be conducted in Jhang, Chiniot and Khanewal districts of Punjab, Pakistan, from February 2011 to May 2013. At least 29,295 pregnancies will be registered in the three arms, seven clusters per arm; 1 structured birth planning and travel facilitation, 2 structured birth planning, and 3 control arm. Trial will be conducted through the Lady Health Worker program. Main outcomes are difference in neonatal mortality and service utilization; maternal mortality being the secondary outcome. Cluster level analysis will be done according to intention-to-treat. Discussion A nationwide network of about 100,000 lady health workers is already involved in antenatal and postnatal care of pregnant women. They also act as “gatekeepers” for the child birthing services. This gate keeping role mainly includes counseling and referral for skill birth attendance and travel arrangements for emergency obstetric care (if required. The review of current arrangements and practices show that the care delivery process needs enhancement to include adequate information provision as well as informed “decision” making and planned “action” by the pregnant women. The proposed three-year research is to develop, through national

  5. Monetary Policy, Inflation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: Exploring the Co-integration and Causality Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Sharif Chaudhry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long run and short run relationships of monetary policy, inflation and economic growth in Pakistan using co-integration and causality analysis during the period 0f 1972-2010. A large number of empirical studies on the relationshipsof monetary policy and inflation are available and most of these have analyzed the effectiveness of monetary policy in controlling inflation in Pakistan. The present study fills the gap in the literature by analyzing the nexus of monetary policy, inflation andgrowth in Pakistan. The results indicate that credit to private sector, the variable of financial depth, real exchange rate and budget deficit are found elastic and significant variables to influence the real GDP in Pakistan. The pair-wise Granger Causality results suggest that real GDP and real exchange rate are causing to each other bi-directionally. The real GDP also do cause financial depth (M2GD, domestic credit (CREDIT and budget deficit (BDEF uni-directionally. The real exchange rate is also causing thefinancial depth and budget deficit variables. The results are consistent with the empirical literature.

  6. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  7. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  8. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  9. mtDNA sequence diversity of Hazara ethnic group from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Fatima; Peng, Min-Sheng; Adan, Atif; Bi, Rui; Yasmin, Memona; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51.72%), East & Southeast Asian (29.78%) and South Asian (18.50%) haplogroups. Compared with other populations from Pakistan, the Hazara population had a relatively high haplotype diversity (0.9945) and a lower random match probability (0.0085). The dataset has been incorporated into EMPOP database under accession number EMP00680. The data herein comprises the largest, and likely most thoroughly examined, control region mtDNA dataset from Hazaras of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF MEDICALLY IMPORTANT VIPERS OF PAKISTAN INFERRED FROM CYTOCHROME B SEQUENCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Feroze, S.A. Malik and W. C. Kilpatrick

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study principally comprises the phylogenetic comparison of the three medically important vipers (Echis carinatus sochureki, Daboia russelii russelii and Eristicophis macmahoni based on their molecular studies. In Pakistan, No comprehensive phylogenetic studies have so far been undertaken to collect molecular information by deciphering the cytochrome b gene (complete or partial for the three species of interest. Keeping in mind the significance and nuisance of these deadly vipers of Pakistan, a molecular phylogeny was elaborated by successfully translating the cytochrome b gene sequence data for the three taxa of interest. Snakes for the said studies were collected through extensive field surveys conducted in Central Punjab and Chagai Desert of Pakistan from 2004 to 2006. The genetic data obtained werefurther elucidated statistically through maximum parsimony and bootstrap analysis for knowing the probable relationships among the species of interest. A comprehensive resolution of their phylogeny should be brought about for medical reasons as these lethal vipers are significant sources of snakebite accidents in many urban and rural areas of Pakistan

  11. Aflatoxin Contamination of the Milk Supply: A Pakistan Perspective

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    Naveed Aslam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving both quality and quantity of food available is a pressing need especially when one eighth of the world’s population consumes less energy than is required for maintenance and is exposed to contaminated food, both of which lead to greater susceptibility to diseases. The Pakistani population depends heavily on milk for nutritional needs and 10% of household income is spent on milk. This commodity requires continuous monitoring and care from its site of production by smallholder dairy producers through to urban consumers along tradition milk marketing chains. Feed ingredients used as concentrate feed to enhance milk production are often contaminated with mycotoxins, which, after ingestion, are transferred into milk. Aflatoxins can contribute to the causation of liver cancers, immune system disorders, and growth-related issues in children. Moreover, deaths in both humans and animals have also been reported after ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food. Studies have shown contamination of food and feed ingredients with mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins. This review places the dairy industry into context, summarizes how milk and milk products are contaminated with aflatoxins, and discusses the present legislative regulation of milk quality implemented in Pakistan. There is a need to eliminate fungus-susceptible animal feed ingredients, which are the source of mycotoxins so prevalent in the milk marketed to the consumer in Pakistan.

  12. Return Levels of Temperature Extremes in Southern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Maida; Lucarini, Valerio; Blender, Richard; Caterina Bramati, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Southern Pakistan (Sindh) is one of the hottest regions in the world and is highly vulnerable to temperature extremes. In order to improve rural and urban planning, information about the recurrence of temperature extremes is required. In this work, return levels of the daily maximum temperature Tmax are estimated, as well as the daily maximum wet-bulb temperature TWmax extremes. The method used is the Peak Over Threshold (POT) and it represents a novelty among the approaches previously used for similar studies in this region. Two main datasets are analyzed: temperatures observed in nine meteorological stations in southern Pakistan from 1980 to 2013, and the ERA Interim data for the nearest corresponding locations. The analysis provides the 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100-year Return Levels (RLs) of temperature extremes. The 90% quantile is found to be a suitable threshold for all stations. We find that the RLs of the observed Tmax are above 50°C in northern stations, and above 45°C in the southern stations. The RLs of the observed TWmax exceed 35°C in the region, which is considered as a limit of survivability. The RLs estimated from the ERA Interim data are lower by 3°C to 5°C than the RLs assessed for the nine meteorological stations. A simple bias correction applied to ERA Interim data improves the RLs remarkably, yet discrepancies are still present. The results have potential implications for the risk assessment of extreme temperatures in Sindh.

  13. The association of complex liver disorders with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan

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    Qureshi Huma

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping of HBV is generally used for determining the epidemiological relationship between various virus strains and origin of infection mostly in research studies. The utility of genotyping for clinical applications is only beginning to gain importance. Whether HBV genotyping will constitute part of the clinical evaluation of Hepatitis B patients depends largely on the availability of the relevance of the evidence based information. Since Pakistan has a HBV genotype distribution which has been considered less virulent as investigated by earlier studies from south East Asian countries, a study on correlation between HBV genotypes and risk of progression to further complex hepatic infection was much needed Methods A total of 295 patients with HBsAg positive were selected from the Pakistan Medical Research Council's (PMRC out patient clinics. Two hundred and twenty six (77% were males, sixty nine (23% were females (M to F ratio 3.3:1. Results Out of 295 patients, 156 (53.2% had Acute(CAH, 71 (24.2% were HBV Carriers, 54 (18.4% had Chronic liver disease (CLD Hepatitis. 14 (4.7% were Cirrhosis and HCC patients. Genotype D was the most prevalent genotype in all categories of HBV patients, Acute (108, Chronic (39, and Carrier (53. Cirrhosis/HCC (7 were HBV/D positive. Genotype A was the second most prevalent with 28 (13% in acute cases, 12 (22.2% in chronics, 14 (19.7% in carriers and 5 (41.7 in Cirrhosis/HCC patients. Mixed genotype (A/D was found in 20 (12.8% of Acute patients, 3 (5.6% of Chronic and 4 (5.6% of carriers, none in case of severe liver conditions. Conclusion Mixed HBV genotypes A, D and A/D combination were present in all categories of patients except that no A/D combination was detected in severe conditions. Genotype D was the dominant genotype. However, genotype A was found to be more strongly associated with severe liver disease. Mixed genotype (A/D did not significantly appear to influence the clinical outcome.

  14. Health care provider knowledge and routine management of pre-eclampsia in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sana; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Salam, Rehana; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices. We conducted a mixed method study in the districts of Hyderabad and Matiari in Sindh province, Pakistan. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community health care providers, which included Lady Health Workers and their supervisors; traditional birth attendants and facility care providers. In total seven focus groups and 26 interviews were conducted. NVivo 10 was used for analysis and emerging themes and sub-themes were drawn. All participants were providing care for pregnant women for more than a decade except one traditional birth attendant and two doctors. The most common cause of pre-eclampsia mentioned by community health care providers was stress of daily life: the burden of care giving, physical workload, short birth spacing and financial constraints. All health care provider groups except traditional birth attendants correctly identified the signs, symptoms, and complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and were referring such women to tertiary health facilities. Only doctors were aware that magnesium sulphate is recommended for eclampsia management and prevention; however, they expressed fears regarding its use at first and secondary level health facilities. This study found several gaps in knowledge regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in Sindh. Findings suggest that lesser knowledge regarding management of pre

  15. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Kunhar River Basin, Pakistan

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    Rashid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is one of the most highly water-stressed countries in the world and its water resources are greatly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. The present study investigates the possible impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Kunhar River basin, Pakistan, under A2 and B2 scenarios of HadCM3, a global climate model. After successful development of the hydrological modeling system (HEC-HMS for the basin, streamflow was simulated for three future periods (2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2099 and compared with the baseline period (1961–1990 to explore the changes in different flow indicators such as mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, flow duration curves, temporal shift in peaks, and temporal shifts in center-of-volume dates. From the results obtained, an overall increase in mean annual flow was projected in the basin under both A2 and B2 scenarios. However, while summer and autumn showed a noticeable increase in streamflow, spring and winter showed decreased streamflow. High and median flows were predicted to increase, but low flow was projected to decrease in the future under both scenarios. Flow duration curves showed that the probability of occurrence of flow is likely to be more in the future. It was also noted that peaks were predicted to shift from June to July in the future, and the center-of-volume date—the date at which half of the annual flow passes—will be delayed by about 9–17 days in the basin, under both A2 and B2 scenarios. On the whole, the Kunhar basin will face more floods and droughts in the future due to the projected increase in high flow and decrease in low flow and greater temporal and magnitudinal variations in peak flows. These results highlight how important it is to take cognizance of the impact of climate change on water resources in the basin and to formulate suitable policies for the proper utilization and management of these resources.

  16. Resource allocation in Pakistan's health sector: a critical appraisal and a path toward the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ejaz, Irum; Mazhar, Arslan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is trying hard to sustain its progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. However, because of a lack of political commitment to innovative solutions to improve its financing mechanism, the health system is unable to provide even essential and basic services to the people. The country, with more than 70% of the population living on less than two US dollars a day, largely depends on direct taxes for its revenue. Because of inadequate financing, the quality of government services is inexcusably poor; therefore, a majority of people seek healthcare in the private sector. This has led to a horde of issues pertaining to equity, accessibility and fairness. High out-of-pocket expenses on health jeopardize a family's livelihood, pushing it into a vicious circle of poverty. In the wake of recent devolution, this paper presents options for future health financing that enables the provinces to exert their autonomy to safeguard the health of the most vulnerable in the country. Our recommendations follow the vision of the World Health Organization and the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, to achieve universal health coverage and social protection for the poor.

  17. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  18. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-06-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered.

  19. Viable Circumstances for Financial Negotiations in Pakistan Contracting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Pakistan established the Pakistan Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in 2002 on the recommendations of the World Bank and enacted PPRA rules in 2004...the Pakistan Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in 2002 on the recommendations of the World Bank and enacted PPRA rules in 2004 based on the 1994...goods are defined as raw materials, products, equipment and other physical objects of every kind and description, whether in solid, liquid or

  20. Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan. Its Characters and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    For although Pakistan was founded as a Muslim homeland, it was not at all the intention of its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah , that the state should be...origin: "* The founder of Pakistan, Muhammad ’Ali Jinnah , was of Isma’ili background; "* Yahya Khan, former Commander in Chief of the Army, and then...itself. These Muslims could not or would not emigrate to Pakistan during partition in 1947. Their position in Indian society is ambiguous, and they